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BAHASA INGGRIS

SEMESTER 1
1. SIMPLE PRESENT
TENSE
-

Untuk membentuk kalimat Kebiasaan/Habit/Rutinitas.

- Dengan ciri-ciri keterangan waktu seperti today, every day, every


week, this week, every month, every year dan this year.
-

Pola dasar dalam kalimat harus memiliki unsur Subject + Verb + Object.

Contoh:
I Play Tennis Bila mau dipertajam lagi akan menjadi I play
tennis in Jakarta with John today

Jenis Kalimat:

Verbal : Yaitu menggunakan


Full Verb

I, we, you, they (Send, see, read, study, play)

He, she, it (Sends, sees, read, studies, plays)

Contoh:
1.

(+) I/THEY/YOU/WE send the letter


(-)

2.

(+) HE/SHE/IT plays golf


(-)

I am, you are, we are, they are

Untuk he, she, is, verb to be tidak perlu ditambah dengan S

Contoh:
(+) I am happy
(-)
2.
3.

IT is not a car

Adjective
:

Mahal

Hospital
Book

HE/SHE is not happy

(+) IT is a car
(-)

Nou

THEY/YOU/WE are not in Bali

(+) HE/SHE is happy


(-)

4.

I am not happy

(+) THEY/YOU/WE are in Bali


(-)

Buku

HE/SHE/IT does not play golf

Nominal : Yaitu menggunakan Verb To Be

1.

n
Rumah sakit

I/THEY/YOU/WE do not send the letter

Expensive
:

Murah

: Cheap

Ver
Pergi

: bGo/goes

went
Bicara
spoke

: Speak/s

Others
Ke

: To

Di

: At

Meja

Dekat

: Near

Table
Mobil

: Car

Jauh

: Far

Makan

: Eat/s ate
Have/has eaten

Menulis

: Write/es

wrote

Dengan

With
Dari

Form

2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE


-

Untuk membentuk kalimat dalam kegiatan di masa lampau atau

sudah berlalu
walaupun baru satu menit lalu, sudah dinamakan waktu lampau.
-

Dengan ciri-ciri keterangan waktu seperti yesterday, last week,

last month, two


months ago, two hours ago, last year
-

Jenis kalimat:

Verbal : Menggunakan Verb ke 2


-

I, you, we, they, she, he, it (send, see, read, study, play kemudian
menjadi sent, saw, read, studied, played).

Contoh :
1.

(+)
(-)

2.

I did not SEND the letter yesterday

(+)
(-)

3.

I SENT the letter yesterday


THEY READ the book last week
THEY did not READ the book last week

(+)

YOU SAW that film last month

(-)

YOU did not see that film last


month

4.

(+)
(-)

5.

WE did not STUDY English last year

(+)
(-)

WE STUDIED English last year


HE/SHE PLAYED golf one year ago
HE/SHE did not PLAY golf one year ago

Nominal : Menggunakan Verb To Be ke 2


-

I am, you are, they are, he is, she is, it is, kemudian menjadi I
was, you were, they were, he was, she was, it was.

Contoh :
1. (+
(-)
)
2. (+
(-)
)
3. (+
(-)
)
4. (+
(-)
)
5. (+
(-)
)

Nou
n

I was happy yesterday


I was not happy yesterday
THEY were in Bali last month
THEY were not in Bali last month
YOU were my friend/s last year
YOU were not my friend/s last year
HE/SHE was a teacher last year
HE/SHE was not a teacher last year
IT was 9 oclock two hours ago
IT was not 9 oclock two hours ago
Adjective

Ver
b

Others

Rumah sakit

Mahal

Hospital

Expensive

Buku

Murah

: Cheap

Book
Bag

: Tas Jauh

Latihan:

1.

Verbal
a.

: Far

Pergi

: Go/goes

went
Bicara

Have/has
- gone
: Speak/s

spoke
Kirim

Have/has
: Send/s sent
Have/has sent

b.
c.
2.

(HE/SHE)

Nominal
a.

b.

c.

3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


-

Untuk membentuk kalimat dalam kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung

atau saat ini.


-

Dengan ciri-ciri keterangan waktu seperti now, right now, at this


moment, at present moment.

Bentuk tenses ini hanya dalam kalimat Verbal yaitu menggunakan To be


+ Verb 1 + ing form (I am sending, You are seeing, We are
reading, They are studying, He/She is playing).

Contoh:
1.

(+) I am sending the letter now


(-)

2.

I am not sending the letter now

(+) THEY are reading the book at this moment


(-)

3.

THEY are not reading the book at this moment

(+) YOU are seeing that film now


(-)

4.

YOU are not seeing that film now

(+) WE are studying English now


(-)

5.

WE are not studying English now

(+) HE/SHE is playing golf right now


(-)

HE/SHE is not playing golf right now

Nou
n
Rumah sakit
Hospital
Buku
Book

Adjective
:

Mahal
:

Expensive
Murah : Cheap

Ver
Pergi

: bGo/goes

went
Bicara

: Speak/s

spoke

Others

Bag

: Tas Jauh

: Far

Kirim

: Send/s sent
Have/has sent

Latihan:
1.

Verbal Past Tense Mencoba:


a.

(Orang 3 Jamak)

b.

(Orang 3)

c.

(Orang 3 Tunggal)

2.

Nominal Past Tense


a.

I +

(Keterangan

Tempat)
b.

We + (Kata Sifat)

c.

Sjanti + (Profesi)

3.

Verbal Present Continuous Tense Belajar:


a.

(Orang 1)

b.
2)

(Orang

c.

(Orang 3)

4. SIMPLE PERFECT TENSE


-

Untuk

membentuk

kalimat

dilaksanakan/sempurna. Tenses ini

dalam

kegiatan

yang

lebih mengedepankan

sudah

hasil

dari

bentuk kegiatan. Dalam Bahasa Indonesia kita kenal dengan istilah


sudah atau belum.
-

Kalimat ini dengan ciri-ciri keterangan waktu seperti two times, since,

for three days,


before.
-

Jenis kalimat:

Verbal : Menggunakan have/has +


verb ke 3
-

I/YOU/WE/They + have + verb ke 3 (I have already + verb ke 3)

SHE/HE/IT + has + verb ke 3 (HE has not called or + yet)

Contoh:
1.

(+) I have sent the letter two times


(-)

2.

I have not sent the letter yet

(+) THEY have read the book four times


(-)

THEY have not read the book

3.

(+) YOU have already written that report


(-)

4.

YOU have not written that report yet

(+) WE have already seen that film


(-)

5.

WE have not seen that film yet

(+) HE has played golf since


2000 (-)

HE has not played

golf

Nominal : Menggunakan have/has +


to be ke 3
-

I/YOU/WE/THEY + have + to be ke 3 (I have already +to be ke 3)

SHE/HE/IT + has + to be ke 3

HE has not been a teacher or + yet

Contoh:
1.

(+) I have been happy there


(-)

2.

(+) THEY have been in Bali since last month


(-)

3.

WE have not been there

(+) HE has been a student for 6 years


(-)

6.

YOU have not been a teacher yet

(+) WE have been there before


(-)

5.

THEY have not been in Bali

(+) YOU have been a teacher for two years


(-)

4.

I have not been happy yet

HE has not been a student yet

(+) SHE has been mine before


(-)

SHE has not been mine yet

Nou
n
Rumah sakit

Adjective
:

Mahal

Hospital
Buku

Expensive
:

Murah

: Cheap

Book
Bag
Rumah

: Tas Jauh
:

Dekat

: Far
: Near

House
Mobil

: Car

Panas

: Hot

Kursi

Dingin

: Cool

Chair
Meja

Hitam

: Black

Putih

: White

Table
Lantai
Floor

Ver
Pergi

: bGo/goes

went
Bicara

: Speak/s

spoke
Kirim

: Send/s sent
Have/has sent

Curi

: Steal/s

stolen
Beli

: Buy/s

bought
Ajar

: Teach/es

taught
Pakai

: Wear/s

wore
Mulai
begun

: Begin/s

Others
Ke

: To

Dari

From
Di
Dengan

: At
:

With
Untuk

: For

Dan

And
Oleh
Antara :
Between

: By

Latihan:
1.

Verbal Present Tense Membeli:


a.

(Orang 3 jamak)

b.

(Orang 3 tunggal)

2.

Nominal Past Tense a.


(It Kata benda) b.
(I + Profesi)

3.

Verbal + Present Continuous Tense


Minum a.
b.

4.

(Orang 1)

(Orang 3 tunggal)

Verbal + Present Perfect Tense +


Mengajar a.
b.

5.

(Orang 1)

(Orang 3 tunggal)

Nominal Present Perfect Tense


a.

(Orang 1 + Keterangan tempat)

5. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


-

Untuk

menjelaskan

dengan
-

kegiatan

yang

berlangsung

di

masa

lampau

pola kalimatnya Subject + Was/Were + Verb ing Form.

Juga dalam bentuk yang lain menjelaskan kegiatan yang berlangsung di


masa lampau dan diikuti oleh kegiatan yang lain dengan menggunakan
kata penghubung When (When + Subject 1 + Subject Past + Subject
2 + Past Continuous atau Subject 1 + Past Continuous + When +
Subject 2 + Subject Past.

Ada juga dalam bentuk kegiatan di masa lampau dalam waktu yang
bersamaan dengan menggunakan kata penghubung While (While +
Subject 1 + Past Continuous + Subject
2 + Past Continuous atau Subject 1 + Past Continuous + While +
Subject 2 + Past
Continuous.

Jenis kalimat:

Verbal : Menggunakan s + to be 2 + verb 1 ing form.


-

I was + Verb + ing

YOU/WE were + Verb + ing

HE/SHE/IT was + Verb + ing

Nominal : Bisa juga penghubung dua kalimat dengan kata sambung

while atau
when.

WHEN + Subject 1 + Subject Past + Subject 2 + Past Continuous

WHILE + Subject 1 + Past Continuous + Subject 2 + Past Continuous

Contoh:

1.

(+) I was sending the letter


(-)

2.

(+) THEY were reading that book


(-)

3.

THEY were not reading that book

(+) WHEN YOU came home I was studying English


(-)

4.

WHEN YOU came home I was not studying English

(+) I was studying English WHEN YOU came home


(-)

5.

I was not studying English WHEN YOU came home

(+) WHILE HE was playing golf HIS WIFE was reading novel
(-)

I was not sending the letter

WHILE HE was playing golf HIS WIFE was not reading novel

Latihan:
1.

Verbal Present Tense


Mengajar a.

2.

(Johan)

Past Tense Nominal


a.

(My mother + Profesi)

b.

(I + Kata sifat)

3.

Verbal + Present Continuous Tense +


Mencoba a.
b.

4.

(Orang 2)

(Orang 3 Tunggal Perempuan)

Verbal + Present Perfect Tense +


Berfikir a.

(Orang 3 Tunggal Laki-laki)

5.

Verbal + Subject 1 (Johan) Subject 2 (Martha) Past Continuous Tense


+ When + Datang Menonton

6. FUTURE TENSE
-

Untuk

menjelaskan

kegiatan

di

masa

yang

akan

datang

dengan

menggunakan kata bantu Will atau Be Going To Be (am, is, are).


-

Dengan ciri-ciri keterangan waktu seperti Tomorrow, Next Week, Next

Month, Next
Year.
-

Pola dasar tenses ini hampir sama dengan Simple Present Tense. Misalnya I
play tennis today menjadi I will play tennis tomorrow atau I am going
to play tennis tomorrow. Bentuk ini bisa digunakan dalam speaking dan
informal writing.

Jenis kalimat:

Verbal :
-

I/WE/YOU/THEY + will + verb 1 (send, see, study etc.)

HE/SHE/IT + will + verb 1 (send, see, study etc.)

Verb kembali ke bentuk semula.

Contoh:
1.

(+) I WILL send the letter tomorrow


(-)

2.

(+) THEY/WE ARE GOING TO read the book next week


(-)

3.

HE/SHE IS not GOING TO play golf tomorrow

Nominal :
-

I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/SHE/IT + will + be

Contoh:
1.

(+) I WILL BE happy tomorrow


(-)

2.
3.

YOU ARE not GOING TO BE my friend/s

(+) WE WILL BE students next month


(-)

5.

THEY ARE not GOING TO BE in Bali next week

(+) YOU ARE GOING TO BE my friend/s


(-)

4.

I WILL not BE happy tomorrow

(+) THEY ARE GOING TO BE in Bali next week


(-)

WE WILL not BE students next month

(+) HE/SHE IS GOING TO BE a teacher


(-)

YOU WILL not see that film tomorrow

(+) HE/SHE IS GOING TO play golf tomorrow


(-)

THEY/WE ARE not GOING TO read the book next week

(+) YOU WILL see that film tomorrow


(-)

4.

I WILL not send the letter tomorrow

HE/SHE IS not GOING TO BE a teacher

Modal Auxiliaries:
1.

WILL/BE GOING TO (Future Time)


-

John will write a letter tomorrow

John is GOING TO write a letter tomorrow.

2.

CAN/BE ABLE TO (Ability)


-

Ruly CAN speak English very well

Ruly IS BE ABLE TO speak English very well.

3.

MAY/BE PERMITTED TO/HAVE PERMISSION TO (Permission)


-

The students MAY write in the wall

The students HAVE PERMISSION TO write in the wall

4.

MIGHT/IT IS POSSIBLE THAT (Possibility)


-

Budi MIGHT go to Chicago

IT IS POSSIBLE THAT Budi will go to Chicago

5.

SHOULD/OUGHT TO (Obligation)
-

Mary SHOULD write to her parents

Mary OUGHT TO write to her parents

6.

MUST/HAVE/HAS TO (Necessity)
-

Ali MUST take an exam next week

Ali HAS TO take an exam next week

7. VERB AS COMPLEMENTS
-

Beberapa kata kerja diikuti oleh kata kerja yang lain yang

berfungsi sebagai
Complements (pelengkap) seperti umumnya kata benda yang bisa kita temui.
1.

Beberapa kata kerja yang berfungsi sebagai complement yang

menggunakan
infinitive (to + verb).

Expect, agree, desire, intend, prepare, tend, attempt, fail, learn,


pretend, try, claim, forget, need, refuse, want, decide, hope, plan,
strive.

2.

1.

John EXPECTS to BEGIN studying low next semester

2.

Mary LEARNED to SWIM last week

3.

Cynthia has AGREED to ACT as an advisor

4.

Susan DECIDED not to BUY that car

Beberapa kata kerja yang diikuti oleh Gerund (verb + ing form).
Admit, delay, miss, regret, risk, appreciate, deny, postpone, report,
suggest, avoid, enjoy, practice, recent, cant help, finish, quit, resist,
consider, mind, recall, resume.

3.

1.

We ENJOYED SEEING them again

2.

Tommy was CONSIDERING BUYING a new car

3.

Would you MIND not SMOKING here

4.

We REGRETTED not GOING to the party

Beberapa kata kerja diikuti oleh Infinitive (To + Verb) atau Gerund

(Verb + Ing
Form).
Begin, like, cant stand, love, continue, prefer, dread, start, hate.

4.

1.

He STARTED TO STUDYING after dinner

2.

He STARTED STUDYING after dinner

3.

John HATES TO RIDE his bicycle to school

4.

John HATES RIDING his bicycle to school

Verbs + Prepositions diikuti oleh Gerund.


Approve of, give up, rely on, worry about, better off, insist on,
succeed in, count on, keep on, think about, depend on, put off, think
of, object to, look forward to, confess to.

5.

1.

I GIVE UP SMOKING because my doctors advise

2.

Hendry is THINKING OF GOING to France in June

3.

We are not LOOKING FORWARD TO GOING back to school

4.

Fred CONFESSED TO STEALING the jewel

Adjective + Prepositions diikuti oleh Gerund.

Accustomed to, intent on, afraid of, interest in, capable of,
successful in, fond of, tired of.

6.

1.

Mitch is AFARID OF GETTING married now

2.

We are ACCUSTOMED TO SLEEPING late on weekend

3.

Alvaro is INTEND ON FINISHING school next week

4.

We are INTERESTED IN SEEING this film

Nouns + Prepositions diikuti oleh Gerund.


Choice of, Possibility of, excuse for, method for, (method of)

7.

1.

George has no EXCUSE FOR DROPPING out of schools

2.

There is a POSSIBILITY OF ACQUIRING this property

3.

There is no REASON FOR LEAVING this year

4.

Connie has developed a METHOD FOR EVALUATING this problem

Adjective yang diikuti oleh infinitive.


Anxious, eager, pleased, usual, boring, easy, prepared, common,
dangerous,
good, ready, difficult, hard, strange, able (*).
1.

Tom is ANXIOUS TO SEE his family

2.

We are READY TO LEAVE now

3.

It is DIFFICULT TO PASS this test

4.

It is DANGEROUS TO DRIVE in this weather


(*) ABLE sama dengan CAPABLE tapi beda dalam penulisan
grammar. Dimana ABLE diikuti ole INFINITIVE TO, CAPABLE diikuti
oleh OF + VERB + ING

8.

1.

This student are not yet ABLE TO HANDLE this problem

2.

This student is not yet CAPABLE OF HANDLING this problem

Beberapa VERBS bisa diikuti oleh infinitive atau gerund namun artinya

jadi lain.
Beberapa kata kerja dimaksud:
Stop, remember, forget.
1.

John STOP STUDYING (John is not going to study anymore)

2.

John STOP TO STUDY (John stopped doing something in order to

study)
-

Latihan:

Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following

sentences.
1.

The teacher decided (accepting to accept) this paper

2.

They appreciate (to have - having) this information

3.

His father doesnt approve of his (going to go) to Europe

4.

We found in very difficult (reaching to reach) a decision

5.

Donna is interested in (to open opening) a bar

6.

George has no intention of (to leave leaving) the city now

7.

We are eager ( to return returning) to school in the fall

8.

You would be better off (to buy buying) this car

9.

She refused (to accept accepting) the gift

10. Mary regrets (to be being) the one to have to tell him

Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following

sentences.
11. George pretended (to be being) sick yesterday
12. Carlos hope ( to finish finishing) his thesis this year
13. They agreed (to leave leaving) early
14. Helen was anxious ( to tell telling) her family about her promotion
15. We are not ready (to stop stopping) this research this time
16. Hendry shouldnt risk (to drive driving) so fast
17. He demands (to know knowing) what is going on
18. She is looking forward (to return returning) to her country
19. The is no excuse for (to leave leaving) the room in this condition
20. Gerald returned to his home after (to leave leaving) the game.

8. QUESTIONS
-

Masih ingatkah saudara dengan beberapa kalimat berikut?


1.

He plays golf with John

2.

They bought the book last week

3.

She is sending the letter now

4.

They have seen the book four times

5.

He will send the letter tomorrow

Maka akan menjadi:


1.

He plays golf with John

2.

They bought the book last week

=> Does he plays golf?


=> Did they buy the book last

week?
3.

She is sending the letter now

=> Is she sending the letter now?

4.

They have seen the book four times => Have they seen the book four

times?
5.

He will send the letter tomorrow

=> Will he send the letter

tomorrow?
-

Daftar pertanyaan:
1.

Apakah

= Do/does, did, am/is/are, was/were

(jawabannya ya atau
tidak)
2.

Apa

= What (menanyakan object)

3.

Kapan

= When (menanyakan waktu secara umum)

4.

Jam Berapa

= What time (menanyakan khusus tentang jam)

5.

Berapa lama

= How long (menanyakan berapa lama waktu

secara umum)
6.

Berapa jam

= How many hours (menanyakan khusus berapa

jam)
7.

Berapa hari

= How many days (menanyakan khusus berapa

hari)
8.

Mana

= Where is (menanyakan mana secara umum)

9.

Di mana

= Where at (menanyakan lokasi)

10. Ke mana

= Where . to (menanyakan arah)

11. Dari mana

= Where . from (menanyakan sumber dari

mana)
12. Siapa

= Who (menanyakan orang/subject ) => tidak

pakai kata bantu


(Verbal)
13. Dengan Siapa

= With whom (menanyakan dengan siapa/apa)

14. Yang mana

= Which one (menanyakan memilih secara umum)

15. Buku yang mana

= Which book (menanyakan memilih secara

khusus)
16. Bagaimana

= How (menanyakan keadaan)

17. Kenapa

= why (menanyakan alasan)

18. Question + Kata Bantu + Subject


-

Contoh dalam kalimat:


1.

He plays golf with John => Does he play golf with John?
What does he play with John? atau
Who PLAYS golf with John? (untuk subject tidak dipakai kata bantu)
atau
With whom does he play golf? (untuk subject harus pakai kata
bantu, kata kerja kembali ke bentuk semula).

2.

She is a teacher here => Is she a teacher here?


Who is a teacher here? (untuk kelompok nominal, Who subject
pakai kata bantu).

3.

They wrote the book last week => Did they WRITE the book last week?
When did they WRITE last week?

4.

They have seen the book four times => Have they seen the book four

times?
How many times HAVE they seen the book?
5.

Mary was in Medan last week => Was Mary in Medan last week?
Where was Mary last week?

Latihan:
1.

Roland is in Jakarta this week ------------------------------- Apakah

2.

They ate fried rice at the restaurant last week------- Apa

3.

Santos goes to his office every day ----------------------- Kapan

4.

Mr. Clerk meets his wife in hotel at seven ------------ Jam berapa

5.

She studied English for two months -------------------- Berapa lama

6.

They play tennis one hour every week ----------------- Berapa jam

7.

Mr. Gus is in Jakarta three days-------------------------- Berapa hari

8.

This is his book -------------------------------------------------- Mana (umum)

9.

Sjanti works at the hospital ---------------------------------- Di mana

10. She went to Bali yesterday----------------------------------- Ke mana


11. You buy this book from that shop-------------------------- Dari mana
12. Tom sees Mary every week---------------------------------- Siapa (subject)
13. John studied English with his teacher -------------------- Dengan Siapa
14. He likes this one ------------------------------------------------ Yang mana
15. This book is very expensive ---------------------------------- Buku yang mana
16. Tom goes to his campus by car ----------------------------- How
17. Michel did eat because he was sick ----------------------- Why

9. ACTIVE PASSIVE
-

Pada Simple Present Tense (Subject Be (am/is/are) Kata


Kerja ke 3) Contoh:
(Active)

They Write the LETTERS every day

V1

O1

O2

LETTERS are written by them every day


(Passive) S Be
-

V3

O1

O2

Pada Simple Past Tense (Subject Be (was/were) Kata


Kerja ke 3) Contoh : They wrote LETTERS yesterday
(Active)
S

V2

O1

O2

LETTERS were written by them yesterday


(Passive) S Be
-

V3

O1

O2

Pada Infinitive (Subject (Be Going To + Be) Kata


Kerja ke 3) Contoh : They are going to write
LETTERS tomorrow (Active)
S

Will

V2

O1

O2
LETTERS are going to BE written by them tomorrow (Passive)
atau
S

Will

Be

V3

O1

O1
LETTERS will

BE written by them tomorrow

(Passive) S Modal Be
-

V3

O1

O1

Pada Infinitive Modal (Subject Modal (Have/Has To) + Be Kata


Kerja ke 3) Contoh : They have to write LETTERS (Active)
S

Modal

V1

LETTERS have to BE written by them


(Passive) S Modal
-

Be

V3

Pada Continuous Tense (Subject Be/Being Kata Kerja


ke 3) Contoh:

They are writing LETTERS now

(Active)
S

V (Cont)

O1

O2

LETTERS are BEing written by them now


(Passive) S Be

V3

O1

O2
-

Pada Perfect Tense (Subject Have/Has + BEEN Kata Kerja ke 3


Contoh:

They are written LETTERS since


yesterday (Active) S

V3

O1

O2
LETTERS have BEEN written by them since
yesterday (Passive) S Kata Bantu

V3

O1

O2
-

Latihan:
Change the following active sentences into their corresponding passive
sentence.

1.

Someone explains the lessons every day.

2.

We need action now.

3.

The government spends billions of dollars every year.

4.

People lose many things every day.

5.

They completed the building before I left.

6.

The Romans built Rome a long time ago.

7.

They are going to bring the books tomorrow.

8.

She has closed the windows.

9.

We must stop inflation.

10. John will send the letter tomorrow.


11. The doctor is going to perform the operation.
12. They have done the homework.

10.PRONOUNS
-

Pronouns terdiri dari lima


bentuk:

1.

Subject Pronouns
Berfungsi sebagai subjek. Posisinya sebelum verb atau verb to be
(I, We, You,
They, He, She, It).
-

Contoh:
1.

I will see that computer tomorrow

2.

WE have lived here for ten years

3.

SHE and I have studied that book

4.

WE STUDENTS are going to have a party

WE dapat diikuti langsung oleh noun. Seperti pada contoh di


atas siapa yang dimaksud dengan WE sebenarnya.

2.

Complement Pronouns
Berfungsi sebagai pelengkap (complement) atau sesudah preposisi
perobahan
(I-Me, We-Us, You-You, They-Them, He-Him, She-Her, It-It).
-

3.

Contoh:
1.

They called US on the telephone

2.

The teacher gave HIM a bad grave

3.

Policeman was looking for HIM

4.

To US, it seems like a good bargain

Possessive Adjective

Bentuk ini tidak sama dengan Possessive Pronoun. Hal ini lebih
kepada bentuk pengembangan

dari

bentuk.

Bentuk

ini

lebih

kepada pemilikan. Ciri-cirinya diikuti oleh kata benda (I-My, WeOur, You-Your, They-Their, He-His, She-Her, It-Its).
-

4.

Contoh:
1.

John is eating HIS DINNER

2.

MY FOOD is cold

3.

The cat has injured ITS FOOT

4.

She forgot HER HOMEWORK this morning

Possessive Pronouns
Bentuk ini dalam bentuk pronoun sebagai pengganti benda di mana
benda sebelumnya sudah dimengerti atau diketahui (I-Mine, WeOurs, You-Yours, They-Theirs, He-His, She-Hers, It-Its).
-

Contoh:
1.

This is MY BOOK This is MINE

2.

YOUR TEACHER is the same as HIS TEACHER YOURS is

the same as
HIS
3.
5.

OUR BOOKS are heavy OURS are heavy

Reflexive Pronouns
Bentuk pronoun ini mengikuti kata kerja. Hal ini menunjukkan
dimana subjek melakukan
Myself,

We-Ourselves,

dan

menerima

kegiatan

(I-

You- Yourself/Yourselves, They-

Themselves, He-Himself, She-Herself, It-Itself). Note : Self


Selves (for plural).
-

Contoh:
1.

I washed MYSELF

2.

He sent the letters to HIMSELF

3.

She served HERSELF in the cafetaria

4.

They were talking among THEMSELVES

Dapat juga dalam kalimat penekanan (MYSELF believe that the


proposal is good).

Latihan:
Pilihlah kata yang benar dalam kurung.
1.

I go to campus with (HE/HIM) every day

2.

I see (SHE/HER/HERSELF) at the union every Friday

3.

She speaks to (WE/US/OURSELVES) every morning

4.

Isnt (SHE/HER) a nice person

5.

(HE/HIM) is going to go to New York on vacation

6.

(SHE/HER) and John gave the money to the boy

7.

(YOURS/YOUR) record is scratched and (MY/MINE) is too

8.

I hurt (MY/MINE/THE) leg

9.

(WE/US) girls are going camping over the weekend

10. Tom bought (HIMSELF/HERSELF) a new car


11. Mr. Larry cut (HISSELF/HIMSELF) shaving
12. We like (OUR/OURS) new car very much
13. The dog bit (SHE/HER) on the leg
14. Tomas (HE/HIMSELF) went to the meeting yesterday
15. Mary and (I/ME) would rather go to the movies
16. Monday is a holiday for (WE/OUR) teacher

11.Comparison
-

Equal

dengan

Comparison

merupakan

sebuah

tingkat

perbandingan

kata

Adjectives/adverb dengan rumusnya secara umum:

Kadang kala kita menemui SO pengganti AS sebelum kata sifat/Adverb


(Subject + Verb + THE SAME AS + Noun). Lawannya adalah
(Subject + Verb + DIFFERENT FROM + Noun/Pronoun).

Contoh:
1.

He is not as TALL as his father

2.

He is not SO TALL as his father

Catatan:
Dalam bahasa Inggris yang benar, penggunaan kata PRONOUN selalu
diletakkan sesudah AS.
3.

Peter is as TALL as I

4.

You are as OLD as she

5.

My book is as INTERESTING as yours (Adjective)

6.

Their house is as BIG as that one (Adjective)

7.

His job is as DIFFICULT as mine (Adjective)

8.

His car runs as FAST as race car (Adverb)

9.

John sings as WELL as his sister (Adverb)

10. Tom sings very well, but Paul doesnt atau Tom is very good singer,
but Paul
isnt maka Paul doesnt sings as Well as Paul.
-

Contoh lain dalam kalimat:


1.

My pencil and your pencil are the same There is no difference My


pencil is the same as Yours

2.

Johns coat is large and brown Pauls coat is small and grey

Johns coat is
diferent from Pauls
-

Penggunaan kata LIKE ALMOST THE SAME (Johns coat is similar


to Pauls Johns coat is like Pauls).

Perobahan kata ADJECTIVES-NOUN (Heavy-Weight, Wide-Width,

Deep-Depth,
Long-Length, Big-Size, Thick-Thickness, High-Height, HardHardness, Old-Age, Expensive-Price, Fast-Speed, Far-Distance).
Contoh:
1.

My house is HIGH as his (Adjectives)

2.

My house is the same HEIGHT as his (Noun)

3.

This lake is as DEEP as the other one (Adjectives)

4.

This lake is the same DEPTH as the other one (Noun)

5.

This campus is as BIG as your campus (Adjectives)

6.

This campus is the same SIZE as your campus (Noun)

7.

Tom bought FIVE BOOKS and Leo did too (Quantity)

8.

Tom bought as MANY BOOKS as Leo/Tom bought as many as Leo

9.

John had TWO CUPS OF COFFEE, and Larry did too (Quantity)

10. John had as MUCH COFFEE as Larry/John had as much as Larry


-

Unequal Comparison merupakan sebuah tingkat perbandingan, yang


tidak

sama sampai pada tingkat yang PALING BESAR atau tingkat yang

PALING SEDIKIT/KECIL. Ada beberapa catatan yang perlu diperhatikan:


1.

Tambahkan ER pada KATA SIFAT yang menggunakan SATU SUKU


KATA (Sifat): (Thick-Thicker, Soon-Sooner, Quiet-Quieter, Slow-Slower).

2.

Pada SATU SUKU KATA (Sifat) yang diawali dengan HURUF


HIDUP/VOVEL harus digandakan, kecuali X, Y dan Z: (Big-Bigger, RedRedder, Hot-Hotter).

3.

Menggunakan kata MORE pada KATA SIFAT yang menggunakan lebih


dari SATU SUKU KATA: (MORE Beautiful, MORE important, MORE
believable, MORE understand).

4.

Menggunakan kata MORE pada KATA SIFAT yang berakhiran -ED,

-FUL, -ING, -ISH,


-OUS: (MORE useful, MORE boring, MORE interesting, MORE cautious).
5.

Bila kata sifat berakhiran CONSONANT Y, ganti huruf Y menjadi


I, setelah itu ditambahkan dengan ER: (Happy-Happier, Dry-Drier).

6.

ADVERB SUFFIX-LY: (Carefully-More Carefully, Clearly-More Clearly).

7.

Good/Well-Better, Bad/Badly-Worse, Far-Farther/Further).

Rumus Unequal Comparison:

Catatan:
-

Penambahan kata ER maupun MORE maksudnya adalah sama. Jadi tidak


perlu lagi: (MORE Prettier, MORE Faster, MORE Better).

Beberapa ADVERB seperti FASTER, QUICKER, SOONER, LATER selalu

menggunakan
PRONOUN sesudahnya.

Tall
Clear
Fast
Hard
Nice
Busy
Easy
Happy
Lazy
Good
Well
Bad
Badly
Far
Many
Much
Adjective
Careful
Beautiful
Expensive
Interestin
g
Important
Necessary
Adverb
Carefully
Clearly
Easily
Quickly
Rapidly

Taller
Cleare
r
Faster
Harder
Nicer
Busier
Easier
Happie
r
Lazier
Better
Better
Worse
Worse
Farthe
r More
More

The Tallest
The
Clearest
The Fastest
The Hardest
The Nicest
The Busiest
The Easiest
The
Happiest
The Laziest
The Best
The Best
The Worst
The Worst
The
Farthest
The Most

More Careful
More
Beautiful More
Expensive
More
Interesting
More
Important
More
Necessary

The Most Careful


The Most Beautiful
The Most
Expensive The
Most Interesting
The Most
Important The
Most Necessary

More
Carefully
More Clearly

The Most
Carefully The
Most Clearly The
Most Easily

Contoh:
1.

John and Paul are more careful than George

2.

But George is less careful that John & Paul

3.

So George is the least careful (Adjective)

4.

Mary has more books than Alice

5.

But Helen has more book than Mary and Alice

6.

So Helen has the most books (Noun)

7.

Less and Least merupakan lawan dari

8.

More and Most

12.Relative Clauses
-

Untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat. Lima macam bentuk


Relative Clause:

1.

THAT---------------- Untuk THING/PEOPLE (barang/orang)


Harus diingat fungsi Relative Clause untuk menyingkat dua
kalimat yang terpisah. Jadi masing-masing Clause harus memiliki
VERB.
1.

We bought THE STEREO. THE STEREO had been advertised at


a reduce price
We bought THE STEREO THAT had been advertised at a reduce
price

2.

I saw A BOOK. THE BOOK cost one hundred dollars I saw THE

BOOK THAT
cost one hundred dollars
3.

Tom is going to buy THE CAMPUS. We have been thinking of


buying THE CAMPUS Tom is going to buy THE CAMPUS THAT we
have been thinking of buying

Incorrect:
This THE BOOK THAT I bought IT at the bookstore
Correct:
This THE BOOK THAT I bought at the bookstore
2.

WHICH ------------- Untuk THING (barang)


Penggunaan Relative Pronoun WHICH sebagai pengganti
BENDA.
1.

MY CAR uses too much gasoline. MY CAR is very large


MY CAR (MY CAR is very large) uses too much gasoline
Benda
MY CAR WHICH is very large uses too much gasoline

3.

WHO---------------- Untuk PEOPLE (orang)

4.

WHOM ------------- Untuk PEOPLE (orang)


Object

Penggunaan Relative Pronoun WHO sebagai pengganti SUBJECT,


sementara
WHO sebagai COMPLEMENT Object.
1.

THE MEN are angry. THE MEN are in this room


The men (THE MEN are in this room) are angry
Subject
THE MEN WHO are in this room are angry

2.

THE MEN are angry. I dont like THE


MEN THE MEN (I dont like THE MEN)
are angry
Object
THE MEN WHOM I dont like are angry

3.

THE MEN are angry. The women is talking TO THE


MEN THE MEN (the woman is talking TO THE MEN)
are angry
Object Complement
THE MEN TO WHOM the woman is talking are angry

5.

WHOSE------------- Biasanya untuk PEOPLE (orang)


Penggunaan Relative Pronoun WHOSE yang menunjukkan arti
memiliki.
1.

John found A CAT. THE CATS LEG was


broken

John found A CAT (THE CATS LEG) was broken of the company
Possessive
John found A CAT WHOSE leg was broken
2.

JAMES (JAMESS FATHER is President of the company) has


receive a promotion
James WHOSE father is President of the company) has
receive a promotion

Corrections:
a.

Penggunaan Verb pada jenis kalimat Nominal dari Present Perfect

Tense
b.

Contoh kalimat Verbal + dan pada Past Continuous Tense

c.

Tulisan Auxiliries pada Future Tense

d.

Penggunaan kata Campus pada Pronoun (Latihan)

e.

Penggunaan kata Weeken pada Pronoun (Latihan)

f.

Penggunaan kata Hisself pada Pronoun (Latihan)

g.

Penggunaan kata to pada Relative Clauses (Which)

h.

Penggunaan kata adverticed pada Relative Clauses (That)

i.

Penggunaan kata bouhgt pada Relative Clauses (That)