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100 km

500km

x Sugrcane

0.1x Sugar

Sugar

0.06x Filter cake


0.05x molasses

Industry

0.49x Effluents

0.3x kg bagasse
CO2

Heat Engine

Air

10% Ash

Given X = 99 tones of sugar produce


So sugarcane required = x/0.1 = 990 tones = 990000 kg
Total bagasse = 0.3x = 0.3*990 = 297 tones = 297000 kg
Molasses produced = 0.05*990 = 49.5 tones = 49500 kg
Effluent (waste water) = 0.49*990 = 485.1 tone = 485100 kg
Since 30kg of sugarcane produces = 1kg of ethanol
So, 990 kg of sugarcane produces = (1/30)*990 = 33kg ethanol
Also 12.6kg of combining both molasses and bagasse produces = 1kg of
ethanol
So, (49500+297000) kg of molasses and bagasse produces=(1/12.6)*346500
= 27500kg ethanol

Part 1 solution:
1.1 Electrical Energy = 150*99 kW-h/day
= 15*0.99/24 = 0.61875 MW
Heat Energy Rate = (4518*99)/(24*3600) = 5.178 MJ/sec
1.2 number of trucks required = (990/5) + (99/5) = 198 + 20 = 208 trucks
now 1 truck uses 1litre Diesel for 5km

So, fuel used for transportation = (100/5)*198 + (500/5)*20 = 3960


+2000
= 5960litre
Now total fuel required in kg = 5960*density of diesel = 5960*840/1000
=5006.4 kg
So, energy required for transportation = 5006.4*44 = 220281.6 MJ
1.3 solution:
So, total energy produced by bagasse = mass*CV = 297000*10 = 2970000
MJ
Total electrical energy needed = 150*99 = 14850 kW = 4125 MJ
Total Thermal energy needed = 4518*99 = 447282 MJ
So, total energy needed= 4125 + 447282 = 451407 MJ
Efficiency of heat engine = 30%
Actual Energy needed =4514507/0.3 = 1504690 MJ
Excess energy from bagasse = 2970000 1504690 = 1465310 MJ
So, if we convert this to electrical energy then excess electrical energy =
407030.56 kW-h
1.4 solution:
Total Energy (Electrical + Thermal + Transportation) = ((4125+ 447282)/0.3
+ 220281.6)
= 1724871.6 MJ
% Electrical Energy= 4125/(0.3*1724871.6) =0.79%
% Thermal Energy=447282/(0.3*1724871.6) = 86.43%

% transport Energy= 220281.6/1724871.6 =12.7%


Electrical
Transport
Thermal

Electrical

Thermal

transport

Part 2 solution:
(1)Chemical equation of combustion of diesel
C12H23 +71 O2 > 48 CO2 + 46 H2O

Total mass of diesel used =5006.4 kg


Molar mass of diesel =226gm
Molar mass of CO2 = 44gm
So, 226 gm of diesel gives = 704 gm of CO2
So, 5006.4 kg of diesel gives = (704/226)*5006.4= 15595.15 kg CO2
Chemical Equation of combustion of bagasse
C6H5O6 + 4.25(O2+376N2) ------> 6CO2 +2.5H2O + 9212N2
Molar mass of bagasse = 173gm
Molar mass of CO2 = 44gm
173gm of bagasse gives = 264gm CO2
So,297000

kg give = (264/173)*297000 = 453225.4335 kg of CO2

(2)Energy needed for transportation =220281.6


So, mass of ethanol needed = (energy needed/ calorific value) =
220281.6/28 = 7867.18 kg
Total mass of bagasse needed= 7869.18*12.6 =99126.45
Excess bagasse = (excess energy/ Calorific value) = 1465310/10 = 146531
kg
So, we have sufficient bagasse to produce ethanol.
Now combustion equation of ethanol
C2H5OH + 3 O2 -----> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O
Molar mass of ethanol = 46gm
Molar mass of CO2 = 44gm
46gm of ethanol gives = 88 gm CO2
So, 7867.18 kg ethanol give = (88/46)*7867.18 = 15050.25 kg of CO2

Part 3 Solution:
Since x tones of sugarcane gives 0.49 tones of waste water.
So 1 tone sugarcane give 0.49 tone of waste water.
COD: According to regulations permissible value of COD = 250mg/l
Since COD = 19.1 kg
And water = 490 L
So COD = (91.1 X 1000)/490 = 38.97 mg/l
Hence it meets permissible value of COD.
BOD: According to regulations permissible value of BOD(land) =100 mg/l
BOD (surface water ) = 30mg/l
Since BOD = 6.3 kg
And water = 490 L
So COD = (6.3 X 1000)/490 = 12.857 mg/l
Hence it meets permissible value of BOD for both land and surface water.

Grease and Oil: According to regulations permissible value of Grease and oil
= 10mg/l
Since Grease and Oil = 0.1 kg
And water = 490 L
So COD = (0.1 X 1000)/490 = 0.204mg/l
Hence it meets permissible value of Grease and Oil.
Part 4 solution:
4.1: As we calculated in part 2
CO2 produced by bagasse (used in steam turbine plant) is 453225.4335 kg
And CO2 emission from Diesel = 15595.15

kg

4.2:
So total CO2 emission = 453225.54335 + 15595.15 kg = 468820.6933kg
Total sugar produced = 99 kg
So, Specific CO2 emission = 468820.6933/99 = 4.73556 tone of CO2/tone of
sugar

4.3:
Since waste water = 485100kg
So sugarcane without water = 990000 485100 =504900 kg
Molecular mass of sugarcane = 342 gm/mole
So, number of moles of sugarcane = 504900000/342 = 1476315.8 mole
12 mole of carbon in 1mole of sugarcane
So total mass of carbon stored in material = 12*1476315.8*12 =
212589473.7 gram
= 212.5894737 tone
Carbon in Environment
Amount of CO2 emitted to environment = 212.5894737 + 468.8206933 =
681.4 tone
So amount of carbon = 681.4*(12/44) = 185.83 tone