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Ambidexterity+&+Creation+of+Shared+value+

In#the#field#of#Dutch#cycling#race#organizations.#
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Author:""

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C.M.C."Brands"BSc"

ANR:"

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950029"

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Submission"date:"

04?06?2015"

Supervisor:""

Dr."A.D."Timmers"

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Second"reader:" "

Dr."Z."Wu"
1"

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Master!Thesis!Strategic!Management!
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Tilburg!University!
Tilburg!School!of!Economics!and!Management!
Department!of!Organization!and!Strategy!
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Ambidexterity+and+Creation+of+Shared+Value+
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In!the!field!of!Dutch!Cycling!Race!Organizations!
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C.M.C.!Brands!BSc!
ANR:!950029!
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Supervisor:!Dr.!A.D.!Timmers!
Submission!date:!04J06J2015!
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13760!words!
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I.+MANAGEMENT+SUMMARY+/+ABSTRACT+
As" sustainable" existence" of" organization" becomes" increasingly" important," a" much" invested"
concept" is" ambidexterity." Ambidexterity" is" the" ability" to" combine" exploitation" and"
exploration." Exploitation" is" needed" to" gain" from" your" current" business," but" exploration" is"
needed" in" order" to" be" ready" for" the" future." According" to" literature" two" types" of"
ambidexterity" exist," structural" and" contextual." The" main" difference" is" that" in" structural"
ambidexterity" separated" units" focus" on" exploration" or" exploitation" and" that" in" case" of"
contextual" ambidexterity" individuals" and" business" units" have" the" responsibility" themselves"
to"balance"between"explorative"and"exploitative"activities."Although"the"two"types"seem"to"
be"contradicting,"researchers"have"suggested"that"they"can"either"be"used"as"complements."
Another" concept" that" contributes" to" sustainable" existence" is" the" creation" of" shared" value"
(CSV)."According"to"this"concept"externalities"will"have"a"big"impact"on"a"company"in"the"long"
run."Therefore"it"is"important"that"an"organization"does"not"create"solely"value"for"itself,"but"
that" the" organization" combines" this" with" creating" value" for" its" community." Although" CSVs"
origin" is" in" the" field" of" CSR," CSV" differs" essentially" from" CSR." CSR" is" normally" a" must" and"
something" that" solely" costs" money," but" does" not" deliver" any" value" for" the" company" itself."
With"the"concept"of"CSV"creating"value"for"the"community"is"integrated"with"competing"and"
maximizing"profit."However,"as"CSV"is"a"relative"new"concept"it"is"not"totally"clear"yet"how"to"
create"actual"shared"value."Therefore"exploration"is"needed"and"therefore"it"is"expected"that"
ambidexterity"will"improve"the"creation"of"shared"value"like"it"also"improves"other"types"of"
firm" performance." This" research" aims" to" investigate" a" possible" relationship" between"
structural"&"contextual"ambidexterity"and"CSV."
This"research"aims"to"contribute"to"the"cycling"race"organization"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic,"
therefore"a"sample"there"is"chosen"for"solely"Dutch"cycling"race"organizations"that"act"at"the"
same"sportive"level."This"are"5"organizations."There"is"chosen"for"this"sample"because"it"will"
generate"the"best"external"validity"for"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic."From"each"organization"it"
is" tried" to" interview" two" people," however" through" several" circumstances" it" was" for" two"
organizations"only"possible"two"interview"one"person.""
The"outcomes"are"as"expected"indicative"as"they"are"based"on"perceptions."Also"as"expected"
a"lack"of"ambidexterity"seems"to"result"in"a"less"creation"of"shared"value."Although"research"
in"the"field"of"ambidexterity"has"highlighted"already"the"difficulties"to"manage"ambidextrous"
organizations,"it"still"is"surprisingly"that"the"best"way"to"create"shared"value"seems"to"have"a"
structural" ambidextrous" organization," rather" than" an" organization" that" is" both" contextual"
and"structural"ambidextrous.""
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II.+PREFACE+
This"thesis"is"the"final"dissertation"of"the"Masters"program"Strategic"Management"at"Tilburg"
University." It" is" strange" that" my" time" as" a" student" almost" will" be" done." After" VWO," BSc"
Bedrijfseconomie"and"now"MSc"Strategic"Management"I"am"excited"to"take"the"next"step"in"
live."Although"I"studied"a"broad"range"of"interesting,"theoretical"topic,"the"best"thing"for"me"
is"to"apply"this"knowledge"in"practice."Looking"to"this"thesis"it"will"not"surprise"anyone"as"I"
say" that" I" would" like" to" earn" my" money" in" the" world" of" cycling." From" now" on" I" will" try"
everything"to"arrange"it.""
Before"I"end"my"study"time,"I"want"to"thank"some"crucial"people."First"of"all"I"would"like"to"
thank" Thijs" Zonneveld" as" he" offered" me" a" chance" to" do" my" thesis" in" the" world" of" cycling."
Next" to" him" I" want" to" thank" all" the" respondents" from" the" Ronde" van" Drenthe," Ronde" van"
Zeeland"Seaports,"Volta"Limburg"Classic,"Ster"ZLM"Toer""GP"Jan"van"Heeswijk"and"Arnhem"
Veenendaal"Classic"for"helping"me"during"this"research."
Then" I" would" like" to" thank" my" supervisor" dr." Alma" Timmers" especially" for" all" her" feedback"
during" this" thesis." Next" to" dr." Alma" Timmers" I" would" like" to" thank" the" thesis" and" program"
coordinators," dr." Aswin" van" Ooijen" and" drs." Jean?Malik" Dumas" for" providing" me" from"
feedback"in"the"very"beginning"of"this"thesis."
"
Lastly"and"most"important"is"to"thank"my"parents"for"their"support"during"my"study"career"
and"providing"me"the"chance"to"follow"the"path"as"I"did."
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Kind"regards,"
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Corn"Brands"
Tilburg,"June"2015"
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4"
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TABLE+OF+CONTENTS+
i.!Management!summary!/!abstract!.......................................................................!3"
ii.!Preface!...............................................................................................................!4"
1.!Introduction!.......................................................................................................!9"
1.1.!Problem!Indication!..................................................................................................!9"
1.2.!Problem!Statement!...............................................................................................!12"
1.3.!Research!Questions!...............................................................................................!13"
1.4.!Structure!...............................................................................................................!13"

2.!Theory!about!Ambidexterity!............................................................................!14"
2.1.!Introduction!..........................................................................................................!14"
2.1.1."Ambidexterity"related"to"performance"................................................................."14"
2.1.2."Empirical"evidence"................................................................................................"15"
2.2.!Development!of!ambidexterity!..............................................................................!16"
2.2.1."Exploitation"and"exploration"................................................................................."16"
2.2.2."Tensions"in"organizational"ambidexterity"............................................................."17"
2.2.3."Types"of"ambidexterity".........................................................................................."18"
2.3.!Structural!ambidexterity!.......................................................................................!20"
2.3.1."Mechanism"of"balance"?"How"is"structural"ambidexterity"achieved?"..................."20"
2.3.2."Locus"of"balance"?"Where"are"decisions"made"about"the"split"between"exploration"
and"exploitation?"............................................................................................................"20"
2.3.3."Role"of"top"management"......................................................................................."20"
2.3.4."Nature"of"roles"&"skills"of"employees"...................................................................."21"
2.3.5."Challenges"............................................................................................................."21"
2.3.7."Structural"ambidexterity"in"a"nutshell"..................................................................."21"
2.4.!Contextual!ambidexterity!......................................................................................!21"
2.4.1."Mechanism"of"balance"?"How"is"contextual"ambidexterity"achieved?".................."21"
2.4.1.1."Two"dimensions"of"contextual"ambidexterity"...................................................."22"
2.4.2."Locus"of"balance"?"Where"are"decisions"made"about"the"split"between"exploration"
and"exploitation?"............................................................................................................"23"
2.4.3."Role"of"top"management"......................................................................................."23"
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2.4.4."Nature"of"roles"......................................................................................................"24"
2.4.5."Skills"of"employees"................................................................................................"24"
2.4.6."Challenges"............................................................................................................."24"
2.4.7."Contextual"ambidexterity"in"a"nutshell"................................................................."24"
2.5.!Summary!...............................................................................................................!25"

3.1.!Creation!of!Shared!value!...............................................................................!27"
3.1.!Introduction!..........................................................................................................!27"
3.2.!From!CSR!to!Shared!value!......................................................................................!27"
3.2.1"Research"on"CSV"....................................................................................................."28"
3.4.!Characteristics!of!CSV!............................................................................................!29"
3.4.!Summary!...............................................................................................................!30"
3.3!Structural!and!contextual!ambidexterity!and!creation!of!shared!value!...................!31"

4.!Research!Method!.............................................................................................!32"
4.1.!Research!design!.....................................................................................................!32"
4.2.!Analysis!.................................................................................................................!32"
4.2.1."Transcription,"categorization"and"data"display"....................................................."33"
4.3.!Sample!..................................................................................................................!33"
4.4.!Gathering!information!about!the!variables!............................................................!35"
4.4.1."Dependent"variable:"creating"shared"value".........................................................."35"
4.4.2."Independent"variable:"ambidexterity"...................................................................."36"
4.5.!Validity!and!reliability!...........................................................................................!36"
4.5.1."Validity".................................................................................................................."37"
4.5.2."Reliability"..............................................................................................................."38"

5.!Results!.............................................................................................................!39"
5.1.!General!observations!............................................................................................!39"
5.2.!Creation!of!shared!value!within!the!sample!...........................................................!40"
5.2.1."Value"creation"by"the"cycling"race"itself"................................................................"42"
5.2.2."Value"creation"by"side?events"..............................................................................."43"
5.2.3."Overview"of"CSV"in"the"sample"............................................................................."45"
5.3.!Ambidexterity!in!the!sample!.................................................................................!46"
5.3.1."Ambidexterity"at"Ronde"van"Drenthe"..................................................................."47"
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5.3.2."Ambidexterity"at"Ronde"van"Zeeland"Seaports"....................................................."47"
5.3.3."Ambidexterity"at"Volta"Limburg"Classic"................................................................."48"
5.3.4."Ambidexterity"at"Ster"ZLM"Toer""GP"Jan"Van"Heeswijk"......................................."49"
5.3.5."Ambidexterity"at"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic"......................................................"49"
5.3.6."Overview"of"ambidexterity"in"the"sample"............................................................."50"
5.4.!Relationship!..........................................................................................................!50"
5.5.!Conclusion!.............................................................................................................!52"

6.!Conclusion!and!discussion!................................................................................!54"
6.1.!Conclusion!.............................................................................................................!54"
6.2.!Discussion!.............................................................................................................!55"
6.3.!Limitations!&!Further!research!..............................................................................!55"

7.!Managerial!implications!...................................................................................!56"
List!of!Abbreviations!............................................................................................!57"
References!...........................................................................................................!58"
Appendix!I!!Organizational!structures!.................................................................!63"
!............................................................................................................................!65"
!............................................................................................................................!66"
Appendix!II!!Participants!level!............................................................................!67"
Appendix!III!!Participating!Teams!.......................................................................!69"
Appendix!IV!!Value!created!by!cycling!organizations!..........................................!74"
IV.1.!Promotion!for!the!region!.....................................................................................!74"
IV.2.!Entertaining!spectators!........................................................................................!74"
IV.3.!Contributing!to!the!liveability!..............................................................................!74"
IV.4.!Promotion!for!sponsors!........................................................................................!75"
IV.5.!Entertaining!sponsors!and!their!relation!..............................................................!75"
IV.6.!Economic!spinJoff!.................................................................................................!75"
IV.7.!Value!for!the!cycling!sport!....................................................................................!75"

Appendix!V!!CSV!Judgement!...............................................................................!77"
V.1.!General!overview!..................................................................................................!77"
V.2.!Detailed!judgement!..............................................................................................!77"
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Appendix!VI!!Ambidexterity!judgement!..............................................................!81"
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1.+INTRODUCTION+
1.1.+Problem+Indication+
Since" the" economic" crisis" that" started" in" 2008," bankruptcy" increased" (Helleiner,"
2011)." Because" of" that" business" survival" became" an" increasingly" relevant" topic." However,"
sustainable"business"existence"has"been"widely"considered"before"the"crisis"in"strategy"and"
management"studies,"but"also"in"practice."On"one"hand"organizations"try"to"survive,"on"the"
other"hand"the"globe"is"suffering"under"social"and"environmental"problems"(Bocken,"Short,"
Rana," &" Evans," 2014)." Therefore" a" holistic" approach" is" required," one" that" deals" with"
environmental,"social"and"economic"issues."
An"often?suggested"solution"for"business"survival"comes"out"of"the"field"of"corporate"
entrepreneurship"and"is"called"ambidexterity"(O'Reilly"&"Tushman,"2004;"Tushman"&"O'Reilly,"
1996;" Voss" &" Voss," 2012;" Sarkees," Hulland," &" Prescott," 2010;" March," 1991;" Han" &" Celly,"
2008).!The"theory"of"ambidexterity"is"based"on"the"argument"that"an"organization"should"be"
able"to"deal"with"both"evolutionary"as"well"as"revolutionary"changes"and"therefore"should"be"
able" to" exploit" and" explore" (March," 1991)." According" to" OReilly" and" Tushman" (1996)"
ambidexterity"is"the"ability"to"exploit"and"explore"simultaneously.""
Several"interesting"points"of"view"about"the"topic"are"delivered"by"the"investigation"
of" ambidexterity" applied" to" different" types" of" companies" and" different" modes" of"
ambidexterity."Voss"and"Voss"(2012)"investigated"product"and"market"ambidexterity"applied"
to" small" and" medium" enterprises," Han" and" Celly" looked" to" strategic" ambidexterity" in"
international"new"ventures"(Han"&"Celly,"2008)."Lin,"Yang"and"Demirkan"(2007)"looked"into"
the"consequences"of"ambidexterity"for"firms"in"strategic"alliances."The"general"conclusion"of"
all" these" researchers" was" that" ambidexterity" is" good" for" firm" performance" and" sustainable"
existence," only" Voss" and" Voss" (2012)" saw" some" negative" sides" and" concluded" that"
ambidexterity" is" more" difficult" for" smaller," nascent" organizations" and" that" these"
organizations" can" better" focus" on" a" more" simplified" strategy." On" balance" it" can" be" stated"
that"ambidexterity"will"improve"a"firms"result"in"multiple"ways."
Two"types"of"ambidexterity"have"been"identified"(Gibson"&"Birkinshaw,"2004)."One"
of"them"is"structural"ambidexterity."Gibson"and"Birkinsaw"described"structural"ambidexterity"
as" structural" mechanisms" to" deal" with" the" contradicting" requirements" for" alignment" and"
adaptability." Successful" structural" ambidextrous" organizations" are" ambidextrous" in" their"
organizational"architecture,"culture"and"managers"(Tushman"&"O'Reilly,"1996).""
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The" second" type" of" ambidexterity" is" contextual" ambidexterity:" the" behavioral"
capacity" to" simultaneously" demonstrate" alignment" and" adaptability" across" an" entire"
business" unit" (Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004," p." 209)." In" contradiction" with" structural"
ambidexterity," this" second" type" enables" individuals" to" choose" between" exploration" and"
exploitation"in"their"job"(Ghoshal"&"Bartlett,"1994),"rather"than"the"use"of"dual"structures"to"
achieve" ambidexterity." For" contextual" ambidexterity" it" is" stated" that" the" level" of"
ambidexterity"depends"to"a"large"extend"on"the"individual"ambidexterity"of"managers"(Mom"
&"Bosch,"2009).""
Consequently" it" can" be" said" that" the" two" types" of" ambidexterity" that" are" both"
created" to" solve" the" problem" of" combining" exploiting" and" exploring," but" differ" in" their"
approach." However," they" do" not" exclude" each" other," contextual" ambidexterity" can" still" be"
found"within"the"different"parts"of"structural"ambidexterity."Furthermore,"both"require"the"
same" type" of" ambidextrous" management" in" order" to" succeed" (O'Reilly" &" Tushman," 2004;"
Mom"&"Bosch,"2009)."Therefore"both"types"will"be"considered"in"this"research."
Both" structural" ambidexterity" and" contextual" ambidexterity" have" been" proved" to"
improve"firm"performance"(He"&"Wong,"2004)"and"firm"survival"(March,"1991)"because"they"
enable"an"organization"to"deal"with"evolutionary"and"revolutionary"change.""An"often?cited"
sentence"is:"Every"generation"needs"a"new"revolution"(Jefferson,"1987"[1788])."This"seems"
also" to" be" applicable" to" the" current" generation" since" it" is" facing" environmental" and" social"
issues,"which"exclude"business"as"usual"as"an"option"for"sustainable"business"(Bocken,"Short,"
Rana,"&"Evans,"2014;"Herzig"&"Moon,"2013;"Murphy"&"Schlegelmilch,"2013;"Windsor,"2013;"
Lin?Hi"&"Muller,"2013)."In"order"to"create"the"holistic"solution"that"is"needed"for"the"problem"
business" models" should" be" improved" by" changing" their" value" proposition," creation" and"
capture" (Pitelis," 2009;" Bocken," Short," Rana," &" Evans," 2014)." Pitelis" explicitly" addresses" the"
need"of"ambidexterity"to"realize"the"co?creation"of"social"value"and"organizational"value."Or"
in" terms" of" March" (1991)," the" required" new" types" of" business" models" can" be" seen" as" the"
revolutionary" change" that" has" to" be" overcome" and" therefore" ambidexterity" could" help" to"
create"them.""
The" concept" of" shared" value" (Porter" &" Kramer," Creating" Shared" Value," 2011)"
improves"business"models"as"suggested"by"Pitelis"(2009)"and"Bocken"et"al."(2014):"it"changes"
value" proposition," creation" and" capture." The" concept" is" pretty" similar" to" what" others" call"
social"value"(Augusto"Felcio,"Martins"Gonalves,"&"Conceio"Gonalves,"2013),"but"goes"a"
bit"further"by"combining"organizational"and"social"value"in"an"integral"way."Shared"value"can"
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be" defined" the" economic," societal" and" environmental" benefits" relative" to" their" costs." The"
creation"of"shared"value"is"seen"as"both"a"means"as"an"end"for"organizational"performance."
An" organization" will" benefit" more" from" creating" the" highest" shared" value" rather" than"
maximizing"traditional"performance"measures"like"profit"or"revenue,"since"these"traditional"
measures"are"too"short?term"oriented"(Freeman,"Dunham,"&"McVea,"2007;"Porter"&"Kramer,"
Creating"Shared"Value,"2011;"Lindorff,"Jonson,"&"McGuire,"2012)."It"is"even"stated"that"if"one"
wants" to" build" an" organisation" that" not" just" survives" but" thrives," long?term" implications"
and" shareholder" issues" have" to" be" considered" like" they" are" considered" in" the" concept" of"
shared"value"(Kolodinsky"&"Bierly,"2013)."Based"on"the"above"it"can"be"stated"that"in"general"
researchers" see" the" creation" of" shared" value" as" an" important" opportunity" do" drive"
sustainable"growth."
The" creation" of" shared" value" can" be" characterized" as" followed" (Porter" &" Kramer,"
Creating"Shared"Value,"2011):"
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Joint"community"and"organizational"value"creation;"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"competing;"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"profit"maximization;"

The"shared"value"agenda"is"specific"per"organization"and"internally"generated;"

The" creation" of" shared" value" realigns" the" entire" organizations" budget," rather"
than"having"a"fixed"budget"for"e.g."CSR."

Although"this"is"a"clear"general"characterization"of"the"creation"of"shared"value,"the"
co?creation"of"organizational"and"social"value"(Pitelis,"2009)"will"be"needed"in"any"individual"
organization"in"order"to"apply"the"concept"more"specific"into"practice."The"most"important"
reason" for" this" is" that" the" agenda" of" shared" value" has" to" be" organization?specific."
Furthermore" shared" value" can" be" created" for" every" stakeholder," in" every" part" of" the"
operations,"therefore"it"seems"to"be"important"that"employees"are"not"only"efficient"in"their"
current"job,"but"also"look"for"innovation."Exploiting"the"current"operation"as"well"exploring"
options"to"create"shared"value"will"be"important"in"order"to"change"a"business"model"in"the"
way" Pitelis," Bocken" et" al." and" Porter" and" Kramer" suggested." Moreover," the" creation" of"
shared"value"is"an"on?going"process"(Porter,"Hills,"Pfitzer,"Patscheke,"&"Hawkins,"2011)"and"
one" has" to" look" into" new" opportunities" to" creating" shared" value" ones" another" has" been"
established."This"suggests"a"continuous"need"for"exploiting"and"exploring"skills."Based"on"the"
above"it"would"appear"that"the"level"of"contextual"ambidexterity"would"affect"the"creation"

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of"shared"value,"since"contextual"ambidexterity"is"about"the"option"for"individual"to"balance"
their"exploiting"and"exploring"activities."
"
On"the"other"hand"it"would"be"possible"that"structural"or"cultural"inertia"would"avoid"
people" to" look" into" new" ways" of" doing" business" (Tushman" &" O'Reilly," 1996;" Duysters" &"
Hagedoorn," 2001)" and" would" avoid" them" to" do" any" exploring" activities" regarding" the"
creation" of" shared" value." One" could" argue" that" the" level" of" structural" ambidexterity" would"
affect"the"creation"of"shared"value,"since"structural"and"cultural"inertia"can"be"overcome"by"
structural"ambidexterity"(Tushman"&"O'Reilly,"1996)."
"
This" research" will" aim" to" provide" recommendations" for" the" non?profit" organization"
Stichting" Veenendaal" Veenendaal." This" foundation" is" the" organizer" of" one" of" the" biggest"
Dutch" cycling" races," which" is" called" nowadays" Arnhem" Veenendaal" Classic." The" foundation"
went"almost"bankrupt"when"in"2012"some"main"sponsors"draw"back."Since"then,"they"try"to"
organize" the" race" in" an" innovative" way" and" try" to" find" new" ways" of" income." For" example,"
they" were" the" first" cycling" race" ever" that" broadcasted" live" footage" from" on?bike" cameras."
The" organization" tries" to" deliver" value" for" the" society" to" a" broader" extend," for" example" by"
doing"cycle"clinics"for"children"in"order"to"get"them"active"and"healthy."Fact"that"they"really"
considering" sustainable" survival" and" that" they" consider" how" to" create" value" for" society" in"
general" makes" the" organization" very" suitable" to" investigate" the" concept" of" shared" value."
Therefore,"this"thesis"investigates"how"contextual"and"structural"ambidexterity"influence"the"
creation"of"shared"value,"which"is"presented"in"the"problem"statement"below."
"

1.2.+Problem+Statement+
How! does! structural! and! contextual! ambidexterity! influence! on! the! creation! of! shared!
value!perceived!in!a!cycling!race!organization?!

Figure!1.!Visual!display!of!the!problem!statement.!

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12"

1.3.+Research+Questions+
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What"are"the"characteristics"of"shared"value"according"to"theory?"

What"are"the"driving"factors"of"structural"ambidexterity"according"to"theory?"

What"are"the"driving"factors"of"contextual"ambidexterity"according"to"literature?"

How" is" the" influence" of" structural" ambidexterity" on" the" creation" of" shared" value"
perceived,"empirically?"

How" is" the" influence" of" contextual" ambidexterity" on" the" creation" of" shared" value"
perceived"empirically?"
"

1.4.+Structure+
After" this" chapter," first" there" will" be" elaborated" expansively" about" the" considered"
variables," based" on" existing" literature." Hereafter" the" used" methods" will" be" explained,"
amongst" others" to" give" insights" about" the" validity" and" reliability" of" the" research." Then" the"
data" will" be" analyzed" and" the" empirical" research" questions" will" be" answered." Finally" a"
conclusion," recommendations" for" further" research" and" managerial" implications" will" make"
concrete"what"the"research"brought"us."In"the"managerial"implications"there"will"be"special"
attention" for" the" possible" advantages" that" the" organization" of" the" Arnhem" Veenendaal"
Classic"can"have"out"of"this"research."

13"
"

2.+THEORY+ABOUT+AMBIDEXTERITY+
2.1.+Introduction+
The"ambidexterity"in"successful"firms"has"been"investigated"increasingly"in"a"variety"
of"organizational"studies."The"topic"has"been"discussed"already"a"long"time"ago"by"amongst"
others" March" (1991)" and" Tushman" &" OReilly" (1996)," however" since" 2004" the" number" of"
studies" referring" to" ambidexterity" in" management" journals" has" been" increased" from" less"
than"10"in"2004"to"more"than"80"in"2009"(Raisch,"Birkinshaw,"Probst,"&"Tushman,"2009)."In"
order" to" describe" competent" organizations" researchers" adopted" the" human" trait" of"
ambidexterity"(the"ability"to"use"both"hands"with"equal"skill)"as"a"metaphor"(Carmeli"&"Halevi,"
2009)." In" management" studies" ambidexterity" means" that" firms" current" business" demands"
are" managed" properly," while" they" behave" adaptive" to" the" changing" environment"
simultaneously"(Gibson"&"Birkinshaw,"2004;"Tushman"&"O'Reilly,"1996)."
In" the" first" paragraph" of" this" chapter" there" will" be" elaborated" on" the" relation"
between"ambidexterity"and"sustainable"performance."Then"the"development"of"the"concept"
will"be"discussed:"which"tensions"made"it"difficult"to"achieve"ambidexterity"and"how"this"has"
led" to" two" different" forms" of" ambidexterity;" structural" and" contextual." For" both" of" them"
there" will" be" elaborated" on" the" crucial" elements" and" characteristics," which" allows" for"
research"about"the"influence"of"ambidexterity"on"the"creation"of"shared"value."

2.1.1.+Ambidexterity+related+to+performance++
As"mentioned"in"the"introduction"of"this"thesis,"ambidexterity"has"often"been"related"
to" better" and" more" sustainable" performance." These" relationships" have" been" viewed" from"
diverse" perspectives." Some" expect" that" ambidexterity" results" in" strategic" performance"
benefits:" From" a" resource?based" view" a" behavioural" context" in" which" exploitation" and"
exploration"can"simultaneously"flourish"might"be"considered"as"valuable,"rare,"and"costly"to"
imitate" resource," and" therefore" a" potential" source" of" competitive" advantage" (Simsek,"
Heavey," Veiga," &" Sounder," 2009," p." 811)." Along" the" same" line" it" is" also" argued" that" such"
capabilities" are" complex," fundamentally" backhanded," scattered," and" time?consuming" to"
develop" (Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004)." According" to" Tushman" and" OReilly" (1996)"
ambidextrous"organizations"are"more"likely"to"perform"superior"compared"to"organizations"
that"focus"solely"on"exploitation"or"exploration."Based"on"the"above"one"can"state"that"all"of"
these"researchers"argued"that"ambidextrous"organizations"have"an"advantage"compared"to"
those"who"are"not."
14"
"

Furthermore"it"has"been"argued"that"organizations"that"emulate"exploration"have"an"
inherent" risk," since" they" can" hardly" estimate" their" returns" and" it" may" take" a" long" time" to"
materialize"them"(Volberda"&"Lewin,"2003)."In"this"case"organizations"allocate"their"(scarce)"
resources" to" exploration" but" they" do" not" benefit" from" exploitation." It" is" stated" that"
successful" firms" earn" enough" from" exploitation" to" make" sure" that" the" organization" is"
currently"viable"and"that"these"organizations"in"the"same"time"focus"enough"on"exploration"
to"make"sure"that"they"will"be"viable"in"the"future"(Levinthal"&"March,"1993)."In"other"words"
one" can" say" that" successful" firms" have" the" right" balance" between" exploitation" and"
exploration."

2.1.2.+Empirical+evidence+
The"empirical"evidence"for"the"relationship"between"ambidexterity"and"performance"
has" been" investigated" extensively" in" 2008." Raisch" and" Birkinshaw" (2008)" stated" that" the"
study" of" Adler," Goldoftas" and" Levine" (1999)" was" one" of" the" first" researches" that" found"
empirical"evidence"for"the"positive"influence"of"ambidexterity"on"performance."They"found"
the" coexisting" of" exploration" and" exploitation" in" the" product" and" process" development" of"
Toyota." He" and" Wong" were" in" 2004" the" first" who" tested" formally" the" ambidexterity"
hypothesis." They" found" evidence" that" a" balanced" exploitation" and" exploration" strategy"
relates" positively" to" sales" growth" and" imbalanced" strategies" relates" negatively" to" sales"
growth"(He"&"Wong,"2004)."The"first"who"investigated"ambidexterity"at"business"unit"level"
were" Gibson" and" Birkinshaw" (2004)" when" they" investigated" contextual" ambidexterity."
Gibson" and" Birkinshaw" found" also" strong" evidence" that" ambidexterity" is" positively" related"
with" firm" performance." In" 2006" Lubatkin," Simsek," Ling" and" Veiga" found" evidence" for" the"
positive"relation"between"ambidexterity"and"performance"in"small?"and"medium?sized"firms"
(Lubatkin,"Simsek,"Ling,"&"Veiga,"2006)."Surprisingly"Venkataraman,"Lee"and"Iyer"(2007)"did"
not" find" empirical" evidence" for" the" relationship" (Raisch" &" Birkinshaw," 2008)." They" found"
evidence" that" a" temporal" cycle" of" exploitation" and" exploration" should" be" better" for" firm"
performance."
More"empirical"evidence"for"a"positive"relationship"emerged"later"on."Han"and"Celly"
showed" that" organizations" that! are! capable! of! pursuing! and! implementing! paradoxical!
(ambidextrous)! strategies! achieve! superior! performance! over! those! lacking! such! capability"
(Han" &" Celly," 2008," p." 335)." Sarkees," Hulland" and" Prescott" (2010)" found" evidence" that"
ambidexterity" within" the" market" function" under" the" right" circumstances" affects" firm"
performance"positively."Lin"et"al."found"that"ambidexterity"improves"business"performance"
15"
"

as"a"mediator"between"learning"capacity"and"business"performance"(Lin,"McDonough"III,"Lin,"
&" Lin," 2013)." Based" on" the" big" amount" of" empirical" evidence" one" can" state" that" the" right"
balance"between"exploration"and"exploitation"is"positively"related"to"performance."

2.2.+Development+of+ambidexterity+
The"first"researcher"that"used"the"concept"ambidexterity"was"Duncan"in"1976"(The"
ambidextrous" organization:" Designing" dual" structures" for" innovation)," however" most"
researchers" cited" Marchs" (1991)" article" as" the" impulse" for" the" current" interest" for"
ambidexterity" (Raisch," Birkinshaw," Probst," &" Tushman," 2009)." March" (1991)" started" to"
describe"the"effect"of"exploration"of"new"possibilities"combined"with"the"exploitation"of"old"
certainties"on"organizational"learning."

2.2.1.+Exploitation+and+exploration+
March" (Exploration" and" exploitation" in" organizational" learning," 1991," p." 85)" states"
that" exploitation" is" in" essence" the" Refinement" and" extension" of" existing" competences,"
technologies,"and"paradigms."Its"returns"are"positive,"proximate,"and"predictable."According"
to"him"the"essence"of"exploration"is"experimentation"with"new"alternatives."Its"returns"are"
uncertain," distant," and" often" negative." In" general" the" way" from" learning" to" realization" of"
returns" is" way" longer" for" exploration" than" in" case" of" exploitation" (March," 1991)." Later" on"
these" definitions" became" also" denoted" as" alignment" (exploitation)" and" adaptability"
(exploration)"(Birkinshaw"&"Gibson,"2004).""
Since" exploitation" and" exploration" are" both" required" for" organizations," they" must"
contend" both" for" the" resources" of" an" organization." The" result" is" that" organizations" choose"
sometimes" explicitly" or" implicitly" between" exploitation" and" exploration." Understanding" de"
choice"between"exploitation"and"exploration"and"improving"the"balance"between"them"are"
complicated"because"the"returns"from"both"of"them"vary"about"the"expected"values"as"well"
as"in"their"timing,"variability"and"distribution"(March,"1991)."Organizations"that"focus"solely"
on"exploitation"will"suffer"from"destruction"of"the"current"activity"according"to"Levinthal"and"
March" (Myopia" of" Learning," 1993)." On" the" other" hand" organizations" that" focus" only" on"
exploration"will"not"capture"the"gains"from"the"obtained"knowledge.""

16"
"

Therefore"an"organization"has"to"focus"on"sufficient"exploitation"for"current"viability"
as" well" on" exploration" for" the" futures" viability." To" preserve" a" firm" in" the" long" haul" the"
appropriate" balance" between" exploitation" and" exploration" has" to" be" found," however" it" is"
hard" to" specify" this" balance" (Levinthal" &" March," 1993;" March," 1991)." Other" researchers"
found" that" at" any" moment" exploitation" and" exploration" could" be" at" odds," but" eventually"
exploration"creates"possibilities"that"an"organization"can"exploit"(Lavie,"Stettner,"&"Tushman,"
2010)." Consequently," exploitation" delivers" the" money" that" is" required" to" invest" in"
exploration."

Table!1.!Terms!associated!with!exploration!and!exploitation!according!to!March!(1991).!

"

2.2.2.+Tensions+in+organizational+ambidexterity+
Since"exploration"and"exploitation"differ"fundamentally"(see"Table"1),"both"activities"
may" require" different" structures," contexts," processes" and" strategies" (Raisch" &" Birkinshaw,"
2008;"Raisch,"Birkinshaw,"Probst,"&"Tushman,"2009)."Several"scholars"assert"that"there"is"a"
trade?off"between"the"alignment"of"an"organization"for"exploiting"existing"competences"and"
exploring" new" ones" (Floyd" &" Lane," 2000;" Levinthal" &" March," 1993;" Ancona," Goodman,"
Lawrence," &" Tushman," 2001)." In" order" to" deal" with" the" fundamental" differences" between"
exploitation" and" exploration," in" other" words:" in" order" to" organize" for" ambidexterity," one"
should"try"to"deal"with"four"tensions"(Raisch,"Birkinshaw,"Probst,"&"Tushman,"2009):"
-

Differentiation"versus"integration;"

Individual"versus"organizational;"

Static"versus"dynamic;"

Internal"versus"external""
Below"the"contradictions"of"each"tension"will"be"explained."Although"both"sides"of"a"

tension" has" contradicting" characteristics," this" does" not" mean" that" they" exclude" each" other"
17"
"

(He" &" Wong," 2004;" Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004;" Mom," Bosch," &" Volberda," 2007;" Raisch,"
Birkinshaw," Probst," &" Tushman," 2009)." Because" both" sides" are" contradicting," they" can"
resolve"each"others"shortcomings."For"all"of"the"four"tensions"scholars"argued"argued"that"a"
combination" or" balance" between" both" sides" gives" in" general" the" optimal" solution" (Raisch,"
Birkinshaw,"Probst"&"Tushman,"2009).""
Differentiation"versus"integration"relates"to"complementing"or"alternating"routes"to"
ambidexterity" (Raisch," Birkinshaw," Probst," &" Tushman," 2009)." Differentiation" refers" to"
separating" exploitation" and" exploration" into" different" organizational" units," in" contradiction"
with" integration," which" is" about" addressing" the" different" activities" within" a" single"
organizational"unit.""
Individual"versus"organizational"is"about"the"level"at"which"ambidexterity"manifests"
itself:"individual"level,"business"unit"level"or"organizational"level"(Raisch,"Birkinshaw,"Probst,"
&"Tushman,"2009)."According"to"several"scholars"(He"&"Wong,"2004;"Gibson"&"Birkinshaw,"
2004;" Mom," Bosch," &" Volberda," 2007;" Raisch," Birkinshaw," Probst," &" Tushman," 2009)" the"
ambidexterity"within"these"different"levels"is"interrelated."
Static" versus" dynamic" is" about" the" view" of" research" and" organizations" regarding" on"
ambidexterity" (e.g." Tushman" &" OReilly," 1996;" Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004)." The" most"
important"of"this"tension"is"that"one"should"realize"that"ambidexterity"is"not"a"static"concept."
Ones"an"organization"organizes"itself"for"ambidexterity"to"exploit"and"explore"simultaneously"
(static)," it" should" be" aware" that" this" way" of" organizing" should" be" revised" and" adjusted"
continuously"to"internal"and"external"changes"(dynamic)."""
The" last" tension" focuses" on" internal" versus" external" perspectives" on" ambidexterity"
(Raisch," Birkinshaw," Probst," &" Tushman," 2009)." Some" researchers" have" focused" on"
ambidexterity" within" organizations." Other" researchers" focused" on" the" importance" of"
external"knowledge"acquisition"of"new"knowledge"for"exploration.""

2.2.3.+Types+of+ambidexterity+
Initially"scholars"saw"ambidexterity"mainly"in"structural"terms"(Gibson"&"Birkinshaw,"
2004)" (Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004;" Tushman" &" O'Reilly," 1996)." Structural" ambidexterity" is"
defined" as" developing" structural" mechanisms" to" cope" with" the" competing" demands" faced"
by" the" organization" for" alignment" and" adaptability" (Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004," p." 211)."
However,"Gibson"and"Birkinshaw"(2004)"argue"that"there"is"increasing"recognition"amongst"

18"
"

researchers"that"the"right"processes"and"systems"in"a"given"context"can"accomplish"the"right"
balance"between"exploitation"and"exploration.""
These"processes"and"systems"provide"an"alternative"route"to"the"right"balance"than"
structures" or" architectures" intent" to" do" in" structural" ambidexterity." From" this" insight" the"
definition"of"contextual"ambidexterity"followed:"the"behavioral"capacity"to"simultaneously"
demonstrate" alignment" and" adaptability" across" an" entire" business" unit" (Gibson" &"
Birkinshaw," 2004," p." 209)." In" contextual" ambidexterity" explorative" aspects" are" about" doing"
the"right"things"(try"to"be"effective)"versus"exploitative"aspects,"which"are"about"doing"the"
things"right"(how"to"be"efficient)"(Simsek,"Heavey,"Veiga,"&"Sounder,"2009).""
It" is" interesting" that" the" differences" between" structural" and" contextual"
ambidexterity" are" aligned" with" several" tensions" regarding" the" difficulties" for" ambidexterity"
(2.2.2)." Structural" ambidexterity" delivers" differentiation" within" an" organization," but"
contextual" ambidexterity" involves" more" integration." Furthermore" is" the" balance" between"
exploration" and" exploitation" for" structural" ambidexterity" made" at" organizational" level," but"
for" contextual" ambidexterity" the" balance" is" made" at" individual" level." As" recognized" in"
paragraph" 2.2.2" both" sides" of" each" tension" should" not" be" seen" as" substitutes," but" as"
complements." Since" these" tensions" are" aligned" with" the" two" types" of" ambidexterity," the"
different" types" of" ambidexterity" should" also" be" considered" as" complements." With" the"
synergies"of"both"types"of"ambidexterity,"the"optimal"level"of"ambidexterity"will"be"achieved."
Therefore"in"this"study"both"structural"and"contextual"ambidexterity"will"be"investigated."
"

In"the"next"paragraphs"there"will"be"elaborated"each"form"of"ambidexterity"based"on"

six"main"characteristics:"mechanism"of"balance,"locus"of"balance,"role"of"top"management,"
nature"of"roles"&"skills"of"employees"and"challenges."

Table!2.!Structural!and!contextual!ambidexterity!aligned!with!two!central!tensions!of!ambidexterity.!

"

19"
"

2.3.+Structural+ambidexterity+
As"mentioned"two"types"of"organizational"ambidexterity"can"be"distinguished."Firstly,"
structural" ambidexterity," this" type" of" ambidexterity" focuses" mainly" on" the" structure"
(architecture)"of"an"organization."Secondly"there"is"contextual"ambidexterity,"which"relates"
to"the"systems"and"processes"of"an"organization."In"this"paragraph"elaborates"on"structural"
ambidexterity,"in"paragraph"2.4"contextual"ambidexterity"will"be"specified."

2.3.1.+Mechanism+of+balance+U+How+is+structural+ambidexterity+achieved?+
Structural"ambidexterity"is"mainly"used"in"big"organizations,"because"it"forms"a"top?
down" organizational" structure" that" physically" separates" different" units" or" department" that"
focus" on" either" exploration" or" exploitation." According" to" Benner" and" Tushman" are" these"
subunits"highly"differentiated"but"weakly"integrated"(Benner"&"Tushman,"2003)."Exploring"
units"are"typically"small,"decentralized"and"contain"loose"cultures"and"processes."Exploiting"
units" are" typically" larger," more" centralized" and" have" tight" cultures" and" processes" (Simsek,"
Heavey," Veiga," &" Sounder," 2009)." Units" as" production," the" so?called" upstream" units," are"
responsible" for" exploitation," in" contradiction" to" the" downstream" units" like" R&D," sales" and"
marketing,"which"are"responsible"for"exploration.""

2.3.2.+ Locus+ of+ balance+ U+ Where+ are+ decisions+ made+ about+ the+ split+
between+exploration+and+exploitation?+
The" upper" management" is" responsible" for" the" alignment" and" coordination" of"
exploitation" and" exploration" units" (Kates" &" Galbraith," 2007);" therefore" it" is" important" that"
the"top"management"is"ambidextrous"itself"(O'Reilly"&"Tushman,"2004)."On"the"other"hand"
core"business"managers"have"to"focus"solely"on"their"own"responsibilities"on"exploration"or"
exploitation,"rather"than"a"combination"of"both.""

2.3.3.+Role+of+top+management+
Since"business"units"focus"on"their"own"(narrow)"defined"tasks,"the"top"management"
team"is"responsible"for"the"overview"and"the"overall"coordination."The"top"management"has"
to"be"able"to"balance"exploitation"and"exploration,"therefore"it"is"really"important"that"the"
top" management" is" ambidextrous" itself" (Birkinshaw" &" Gibson," 2004)." " The" role" of" the" top"
management" can" be" described" as" the" following:" the" top" management" has" to" proactively"
define"structures"and"has"to"make"continuous"trade?offs"between"exploitation,"exploration"
and"the"possible"(thoroughgoing)"results"of"each"of"them."
"
20"
"

2.3.4.+Nature+of+roles+&+skills+of+employees+
As" described" above" a" structural" ambidextrous" organization" works" with" specialized"
units"that"focus"solely"on"their"own"task"(Lavie,"Stettner,"&"Tushman,"2010)."Roles"are"clearly"
defined" and" people" work" within" these" definitions." Production" people" focus" on" production,"
but" will" not" be" involved" in" R&D" for" example." Therefore" the" people" within" the" different"
business"units"will"get"more"specialized"skills."

2.3.5.+Challenges+
The" separation" of" departments" or" subunits" can" result" into" problems" in" the"
coordination"of"projects"and"managing"contradictions"in"the"top"management"team."When"
there"is"too"much"separation,"one"of"the"problems"that"could"occur"is"a"not"invented"here"
syndrome."In"that"case"the"employees"of"the"exploiting"unit"are"unwilling"to"adopt"what"the"
exploring"unit"developed"(Lavie,"Stettner,"&"Tushman,"2010)."The"main"challenge"to"achieve"
a"successful"structural"ambidextrous"organization"is"therefore"the"coordination"across"units."
It" is" crucial" that" the" senior" management" team" manages" the" contradictions" between"
exploitation"and"exploration"in"an"effective"way."

2.3.7.+Structural+ambidexterity+in+a+nutshell+
In" short" structural" ambidexterity" can" be" described" as" different" business" units" that"
fulfil" different" types" of" tasks" (exploitation" or" exploitation)." The" top" management" is"
responsible"for"the"right"balance"between"exploitation"and"exploration"and"coordinates"the"
underlying"activities."Therefore"the"top"management"team"has"to"be"ambidextrous"itself."

2.4.+Contextual+ambidexterity+
The" second" type" of" ambidexterity" (after" structural" ambidexterity)" is" contextual"
ambidexterity." According" to" Gibson" and" Birkinshaw" (2004)," the" key" issue" about" contextual"
ambidexterity" is:" How" can" a" single" business" unit" become" ambidextrous?" They" argue" that"
contextual"ambidexterity"is"the"answer."

2.4.1.+Mechanism+of+balance+U+How+is+contextual+ambidexterity+achieved?+
"

Individual" employees" divide" their" time" between" exploitation?focused" and"

exploration?focused"activities;"there"are"no"buffers"between"the"concurrent"activities"(Lavie,"
Stettner," &" Tushman," 2010)." However" the" right" organizational" (ambidextrous)" context" will"
stimulate"employees"to"make"the"optimal"trade?off.""
Ghosal"and"Bartlett"(1994)"argued"that"organizational"context"is"about"the"systems,"
processes" and" beliefs" that" individual" behaviors" can" be" composed" in" an" organization" and"
21"
"

should"enable"and"inspire"everyone"to"make"choices"between"exploitation"and"exploration"
in" their" work." Based" on" Ghosal" and" Bartlett" the" term" contextual" ambidexterity" was"
introduced" (Birkinshaw" &" Gibson," 2004)." Birkinshaw" and" Gibson" (2004)" argue" that" social"
support" and" performance" management" are" two" dimensions" that" distinguish" four" different"
types"of"contexts."However,"Gibson"and"Birkinshaw"(2004)"argued"that"they"did"never"fully"
cover"all"variables"influencing"contextual"ambidexterity"due"to"its"complexity."According"to"
their" theory" contextual" ambidexterity" is" influenced" by" variables" that" are" characterized" by"
discipline,"support,"stretch"and"trust."

2.4.1.1.+Two+dimensions+of+contextual+ambidexterity+
Ghoshal" and" Bartlet" (1994)" investigated" these" four" variables" after" they" identified"
them" as" the" primary" dimensions" of" organizational" context." They" argued" that" organizations"
have"to"further"discipline"and"stretch"in"order"to"stimulate"individuals"to"insist"on"ambitious"
goals,"but"simultaneously"organizations"have"to"support"and"trust"employees"to"assure"that"
this" happens" in" a" harmonious" way." Organizational" contexts" can" be" characterized" with" a"
combination" of" two" dimensions:" performance" management" (stretch" and" discipline)" and"
social" context" (trust" and" support)" (Birkinshaw" &" Gibson," 2004)." Gibson" and" Birkinshaw"
concluded" that" these" two" are" also" the" dimensions" that" are" important" for" contextual"
ambidexterity.""
A" right" balance" between" the" two" dimensions" is" important;" too" much" insistence" on"
one" of" them" creates" problems." Too" much" stretch" and" discipline" (performance" dimension)"
will"cause"burnouts"and"embittered"employees."Too"much"trust"and"support"(social"context)"
will"cause"an"atmosphere"in"which"nothing"gets"done."Good"organizational"contexts"create"a"
supporting" environment" that" inspires" an" individual" to" so" anything" in" order" to" deliver" good"
performance" (Gibson" &" Birkinshaw," 2004)." A" schematic" overview" of" the" dimensions" and"
different"types"of"contexts"can"be"found"in"figure"1."
Gibson"and"Birkinshaw"(2004)"enhance"the"framework"of"Ghosal"and"Bartlett"(1994),"
by"arguing"that"individuals"in"a"supportive"organization"context"will"engage"in"both"exploiting"
and" exploring" activities," which" results" in" contextual" ambidexterity." The" optimal" context" for"
contextual" ambidexterity" is" the" high" performance" context." In" this" case" there" is" high"
performance"management"and"high"social"support."

22"
"

"
Figure! 2.! Four! types! of! organizational! contexts,! developed! by! Birkinshaw! and! Gibson! (2004),! based! on! the!
framework!of!Ghosal!and!Bartlett!(1994).!

2.4.2.+ Locus+ of+ balance+ U+ Where+ are+ decisions+ made+ about+ the+ split+
between+exploration+and+exploitation?+
"

Although" the" right" context" will" help" an" organization" to" become" contextual"

ambidextrous," the" real" trade?off" between" exploitation" and" exploration" in" a" contextual"
ambidextrous"organization"made"at"business"unit"level"or"individual"level"(Lavie,"Stettner,"&"
Tushman,"2010).""In"other"words:"the"locus"of"balance"is"at"the"front"line"rather"than"at"the"
top"as"it"is"in"structural"ambidexterity."

2.4.3.+Role+of+top+management+
"

The" role" of" the" top" management" in" an" organization" that" aims" to" be" contextual"

ambidextrous"is"to"ensure"that"employees"work"in"the"right"context"(Birkinshaw"&"Gibson,"
2004)."They"have"to"find"the"right"balance"between"stretch,"discipline,"trust"and"support"in"
order"to"develop"the"high"performance"context"or"supportive"structure"as"it"is"described"in"

23"
"

paragraph"2.4.1.2."So"the"top"management"in"a"contextual"ambidextrous"organization"has"to"
provide"the"right"context"for"employees"to"behave"themselves"ambidextrous."

2.4.4.+Nature+of+roles+
"

Compared" to" structural" ambidexterity," the" roles" of" employees" in" a" contextual"

ambidextrous" organization" are" relatively" flexible." As" people" do" not" work" in" a" separated"
business" unit" to" do" either" exploitative" or" explorative" work" only," the" employee" or" the" unit"
managers" define" selves" what" their" role" is" and" which" skills" they" need" to" fulfill" it" (Lavie,"
Stettner,"&"Tushman,"2010)."Of"course"in"every"organization"there"are"some"boundaries"that"
define"an"employees"job"and"no"employee"will"have"total"freedom."Therefore"the"nature"of"
roles"and"skills"of"employees"can"be"described"as"relative"flexible."

2.4.5.+Skills+of+employees+
"

Since"employees"of"contextual"ambidextrous"organizations"have"to"be"ambidextrous"

themselves," they" need" ambidextrous" skills." Birkinshaw" and" Gibson" (2004)" identified" the"
behaviors"of"ambidextrous"individuals."According"to"them"ambidextrous"individuals:"
-

take"the"initiative"and"are"alert"to"opportunities"beyond"the"confines"of"their"own"
jobs"

are"cooperative"and"seek"out"opportunities"to"combine"efforts"with"others"

are"brokers"always"looking"to"build"internal"linkages"

are"multitaskers"who"are"comfortable"wearing"more"than"one"hat."(Birkinshaw"&"
Gibson,"2004,"p."49)"
Based"on"the"above"one"could"state"that"an"ambidextrous"individual"is"able"to"look"

beyond"his"own"single"task."Therefore"their"skills"have"to"be"more"general."

2.4.6.+Challenges+
"

The" main" challenge" for" a" contextual" ambidextrous" organization" is" to" manage" the"

contradictions" between" exploitation" and" exploration" within" an" organizational" unit" (Lavie,"
Stettner," &" Tushman," 2010)." As" denoted" in" paragraph" 2.2.2," four" tensions" describe" these"
contradictions." So" the" main" challenge" is" to" deal" with" the" four" tensions" of" ambidexterity"
within"a"single"organizational"unit."

2.4.7.+Contextual+ambidexterity+in+a+nutshell+
"

In"short"contextual"ambidexterity"can"be"described"as"the"right"supportive"context"in"

which" employees" or" business" units" make" themselves" the" trade?off" between" exploitation"
24"
"

(doing"the"things"right)"and"exploration"(doing"the"right"things)."The"top"management"team"
is"responsible"for"the"development"of"the"organizational"context."

2.5.+Summary+
Ambidextrous"organizations"are"able"to"deal"simultaneously"with"exploration"as"well"
as" exploitation:" two" fundamentally" differing" disciplines." Because" of" that" are" ambidextrous"
organizations" able" to" sustain." Furthermore" it" has" been" proven" that" ambidextrous"
organizations"perform"better.""
Four"different"tensions"make"it"hard"to"organize"for"ambidexterity:"
-

Differentiation"vs."integration;"

Individual"vs."organizational;"

Static"vs."dynamic;"

Internal"vs."external."
A"combination"of"different"types"of"ambidexterity"can"help"to"deal"with"the"tensions."

Two"different"types"of"ambidexterity"that"have"been"identified"are"structural"and"contextual"
ambidexterity." The" difference" between" structural" and" contextual" ambidexterity" are" the"
means"that"are"used"to"achieve"ambidexterity."Structural"ambidexterity"uses"dual"structures"
to"separate"exploitative"and"explorative"activities,"while"individuals"are"enabled"to"consider"
both" explorative" and" exploitative" aspects" of" their" work" in" contextual" ambidextrous"
organizations."A"detailed"comparison"of"the"two"concepts"can"be"found"in"Table"3."
"

25"
"

Table!3.!A!comparison!between!structural!and!contextual!ambidexterity!based!on!Birkinshaw!&!Gibson!(2004)!
and!Lavie,!Stettner!and!Tushman!(2010).!

"
"
"

26"
"

3.1.+CREATION+OF+SHARED+VALUE+
3.1.+Introduction+
Nowadays" the" creation" of" value" for" both" an" organization" itself" as" well" for" the"
community" in" which" it" operates," is" seen" as" both" means" and" ends" of" organizational"
performance." Organizations" will" benefit" in" the" long" run" more" from" creating" the" highest"
shared" value" rather" than" maximizing" traditional" performance" measures" like" profit" or"
revenue"(Freeman,"Dunham,"&"McVea,"2007;"Porter"&"Kramer,"Creating"Shared"Value,"2011;"
Lindorff," Jonson," &" McGuire," 2012)." Because" of" that" it" is" interesting" to" answer" some"
questions" about" the" creation" of" shared" value:" where" it" comes" from," what" shared" value"
actually"is,"how"it"can"be"created"and"how"this"creation"can"be"characterized."This"chapter"
gives"the"answers"needed"in"order"to"enable"further"research."

3.2.+From+CSR+to+Shared+value+
For" a" long" time" CSR" (Corporate" Social" Responsibility)" has" been" considered" as" an"
important" topic" both" the" academic" and" in" the" practical" world" (Fukukawa," Balmer," &" Gray,"
2007;"Porter"&"Kramer,"Creating"Shared"Value,"2011;"Szmigin"&"Rutherford,"2013;"Lee,"Moon,"
Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014).!In"more"recent"research"the"concept"of"CSR"has"met"the"concept"
of" sustainability" to" achieve" long?term" performance." The" scholars" argue" that" performance"
needs"precise"control"of"its"own"success"within"the"social"and"natural"environment"in"order"
to" sustain" (Lee," Moon," Cho," Kang," &" Jeong," 2014;" Hildebrand," Diogo," Sen," &" Bhattacharya,"
2011)." This" change" gave" CSR" a" strategic" function" (Porter" &" Kramer," Creating" Shared" Value,"
2011;"Hildebrand,"Diogo,"Sen,"&"Bhattacharya,"2011;"Lee,"Moon,"Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014)"
because" it" allows" firms" to" profit" not" only" from" goodwill" and" publicity," but" also" from" the"
creation"of"societal"value"(Lantos,"2001;"2002)."Some"scholars"view"this"way"of"using"CSR"as"
the"use"of"a"non?market"strategy"(Baron"&"Diermeier,"2007;"Lee,"Moon,"Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"
2014)."
In" 2011"Porter" and" Kramer" upgraded" the" concept" of" strategic"CSR"to" CSV" (creating"
shared" value)," this" resulted" in" an" organization" benefiting" on" their" core" competitiveness"
instead" of" their" collateral" competence" (Lee," Moon," Cho," Kang," &" Jeong," 2014)." The"
determining" point" between" CSR" and" CSV" is" that" the" activities" do" not" only" deliver" societal"
values" to" the" communities" operate" in," but" also" deliver" substantial" economic" benefits" that"
improve"their"own"competiveness"and"competences"(Spitzeck"&"Chapman,"2012).""

27"
"

Grounds" for" this" difference" are" the" both" positive" as" well" negative" influences" of"
externalities" on" an" organization" (Porter," Hills," Pfitzer," Patscheke," &" Hawkins," 2011)." In"
contradiction"with"CSR,"CSV"does"not"accept"the"existing"view"that"there"is"no"relationship"
between" a" firms" (sustained)" performance" and" the" development" of" the" community" it" is"
involved"in"(Lee,"Moon,"Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014)."According"to"the"concept"of"CSV"the"lack"
of" commitment" to" the" community" can" be" assigned" to" the" fact" that" organizations" only"
emulate" short?term" profits" out" of" true" intentions" of" innovation" and" strategy" (Porter" &"
Kramer,"2011;"Lee,"Moon,"Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014)."
Shared" value" has" been" considered" in" later" research." In" these" researches" (e.g."
Spitzeck"&"Chapman,"2012;"Lee"et"al.,"2014)"the"definition"of"Porter"and"Kramer"is"used:"the"
concept" of" shared" value" can" be" defined" as" policies" and" operating" practices" that" enhance"
competitiveness" of" a" company" while" simultaneously" advancing" the" economic" and" social"
conditions"in"the"communities"in"which"it"operates.""Value"is"defined"as"benefits"relative"to"
costs,"not"just"benefits"alone"(Porter"&"Kramer,"2011,"p."66).""

3.2.1+Research+on+CSV+
Notwithstanding"the"fact"that"diverse"giant"companies"like"Nestl"and"Unilever"make"
robustly"use"of"CSV,"only"a"select"group"of"scholars"addressed"the"concept"yet"(Lee,"Moon,"
Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014)."However,"this"is"also"due"to"the"relative"newness"of"the"concept,"
which"was"introduced"in"2011"by"Porter"and"Kramer."Since"2011,"the"original"article"has"been"
cited"2259"times"(Google,"2015)"included"182"times"by"the"Web"Of"Science"Core"Collection"
(Thomson"Reuters,"2015)."
Because" CSV" is" a" relative" recent" term," some" studies" tried" to" extend" the" related"
theory"(Szmigin"&"Rutherford,"2013;"Moon,"Parc,"Yim,"&"Park,"2011)."Others"tried"to"develop"
a" business" strategy" in" a" specific" societal" field" like" the" low?income" market," social"
entrepreneurs"and"the"environment"(Lee,"Moon,"Cho,"Kang,"&"Jeong,"2014)."Lee"et"al."(2014)"
investigated" how" firms" evolve" from" a" CSR" strategy" into" CSV." Pirson" (2012)" did" a" research"
about" the" role" of" CSV" for" social" entrepreneurs," since" social" entrepreneurs" are" seen" as" the"
basis" for" CSV" strategies" (Porter" &" Kramer," 2011)." Spitzeck" and" Chapman" investigated" CSV"
activity" by" the" use" of" the" socio?eco?efficiency" tool," focused" on" the" creation" of" value" in" the"
environmental"areas"(Spitzeck"&"Chapman,"2012)."Despite"the"diverse"range"of"researches,"
none"of"them"came"up"yet"with"a"manner"to"measure"the"creation"of"shared"value.""
"
28"
"

3.4.+Characteristics+of+CSV+
In"order"to"allow"for"do"more"research"regarding"the"CSV"and"in"order"to"allow"for"
measurement," the" characteristics" of" CSV" have" to" be" clear." The" creation" of" shared" value" in"
general" can" be" characterized" as" it" is" in" table" 4" (Porter" &" Kramer," Creating" Shared" Value,"
2011)."To"make"the"differences"clear"between"CSR"and"CSV,"there"is"also"a"characterization"
of"CSR"shown."

Table!4.!A!characterization!of!CSV!and!CSR!(Porter!&!Kramer,!Creating!Shared!Value,!2011).!

The"first"of"these"five"has"a"big"overlap"with"traditional"CSR"strategies,"the"others"deliver"
a"clear"differentiation"between"CSV"and"CSR."Firstly"joint"community"and"value"creation."This"
means"that"shared"value"will"be"created"if"the"organization"as"well"as"the"community"around"
the"organization"profit"both"from"value"creation."For"the"total"picture"this"will"deliver"a"more"
optimal"creation"of"shared"value"then"value"creation"that"is"meant"to"deliver"value"only"to"an"
organization."
Secondly,"the"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"competing."This"contradicts"with"the"
traditional"CSR"strategies,"in"which"value"creation"for"others"is"seen"as"a"must"that"does"not"
enhance" your" competitiveness." CSV" improves" your" competitive" position," for" example" by"
improving"the"value"for"the"consumers"or"by"becoming"more"productive"because"of"better"
treating"your"personnel."
29"
"

Thirdly" the" creation" of" shared" value" is" integral" to" profit" maximization." Creating" shared"
value"will"enhance"profit"direct"or"indirect."The"influence"of"externalities"is"here"important."
This"is"based"on"the"same"reasoning"as"the"previous"characteristic"differing"from"CSR."
Fourth" characteristic" is" that" shared" value" creation" is" company?specific." This" is" logical"
since" shared" value" is" integral" created" in" the" organizations" (production)" processes," value"
chain" and" with" the" community" around" it." Since" these" three" elements" are" never" totally" the"
same"for" two"different"organizations,"the"creation"of"shared"value"is"company?specific"and"
therefore"internally"generated."
Lastly"CSV"realigns"an"entire"organizations"budget"rather"than"having"a"fixed"CSR"budget."
This"is"logical,"since"CSV"is"integrated"in"competing"and"profit"maximization."This"means"that"
CSV"will"become"part"of"the"daily"business."

3.4.+Summary+
In"the"introduction"of"this"chapter"some"questions"were"considered."In"this"summary"
a"quick"recap"of"the"answers"will"be"given.""
CSV" comes" from" the" field" of" CSR." It" differs" from" CSR" since" CSV" assumes" that" if" a"
company"delivers"societal"value,"this"can"deliver"also"value"for"the"company."Therefore"CSV"
will" drive" business" in" the" long" run." Shared" value" can" be" defined" as" policies" and" operating"
practices" that" enhance" competitiveness" of" a" company" while" simultaneously" advancing" the"
economic"and"social"conditions"in"the"communities"in"which"it"operates.""Value"is"defined"
as" benefits" relative" to" costs," not" just" benefits" alone" (Porter" &" Kramer," 2011," p." 66)." The"
general"characteristics"of"shared"value"creation"are:"
?"

Joint"community"and"organizational"value"creation;"

?"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"competing;"

?"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"profit"maximization;"

?"

The"shared"value"agenda"is"specific"per"organization"and"internally"generated;"

?"

The" creation" of" shared" value" realigns" the" entire" organizations" budget," rather" than"
having"a"fixed"budget"for"e.g."CSR."

30"
"

3.3+ Structural+ and+ contextual+ ambidexterity+ and+ creation+ of+


shared+value+
"

According" to" the" theory" around" creating" shared" value," the" old?fashioned" way" of"

doing" business," purely" focused" on" revenues" and" profits," will" not" sustain." A" focus" on" the"
creation"of"shared"value"is"therefore"needed."Since"the"CSV?view"on"doing"business"is"pretty"
new,"it"is"not"yet"clear"how"organizations"should"organize"to"create"shared"value."Innovation"
is" needed" in" three" fields:" products" and" markets," the" definition" of" productivity" and" in" local"
clusters.""
Ambidexterity" is" a" proven" concept" in" the" old?fashioned" way" of" doing" business" and"
leads" to" better" organizational" performance" in" terms" of" revenue" and" profits." However"
ambidexterity"may"also"be"useful"in"order"to"create"shared"value."Since"innovation"and"co?
creation"is"needed"to"create"shared"value,"two"characteristics"of"ambidexterity"seem"to"fit"to"
these"requirements."Firstly,"fact"that"ambidexterity"stimulates"innovation"and"organizational"
learning" (Lin," McDonough" III," Lin," &" Lin," 2013)." Secondly," the" fact" that" ambidextrous"
organizations"are"able"to"combine"contrasting"demands"and"therefore"may"be"better"in"co?
creation."Exploiting"the"current"operations"as"well"exploring"options"to"create"shared"value"
will"be"important"in"order"to"change"a"business"model"like"Porter"and"Kramer"argued."
The"expectation"is"that"ambidextrous"organizations"will"be"quicker"in"finding"options"
to" create" shared" value" in" more" parts" of" their" operations," compared" to" companies" that" are"
not"that"ambidextrous."
"

31"
"

4.+RESEARCH+METHOD+
"

The" fourth" chapter" addresses" and" clarifies" the" research" methods" that" are"

used." The" chapter" explains" the" design," dependent" and" independent" variables" and"
how"they"will"be"measured."Furthermore"an"overview"of"the"population"and"sample"
is" given," validity" and" reliability" are" justified" and" at" the" end" everything" will" be"
summarized.""

4.1.+Research+design+
"

This" research" has" a" descriptive" and" exploratory" purpose." The" research" is" built" on"

primary"data"because"of"the"newness"and"specificity"of"the"concepts."This"implies"also"that"
the"study"will"deliver"indicative"results"only."The"data"will"be"collected"by"the"use"of"semi?
structured"interviews."The"choice"for"semi?structured"interviews"is"also"due"to"specificity"and"
complexity"of"the"concepts."A"semi?structured"interview"secures"that"all"relevant"topics"will"
be"addressed,"but"keeps"room"some"for"company"specific"or"new"insights."
The" research" will" be" cross?sectional" due" to" time" restrictions." Furthermore" the"
research" aims" at" the" extent" to" which" the" process" of" creation" of" shared" value" is" in" place,"
rather"than"the"development"of"shared"value"itself"(Saunders"&"Lewis,"2012)."

4.2.+Analysis+
"

The" analysis" of" interviews" asks" for" a" context" in" which" the" interviews" become"

comparable" (Meuser" and" Nagel," 2002," p." 451)." Only" then" one" can" be" able" to" extract"
representative"data"from"the"sample."The"aim"is"to"identify"relations"and"influences"that"are"
not" only" applicable" to" the" individual" interviewees," but" that" are" representing" his" or" her"
function" in" the" organization." Furthermore," during" the" analysis" insights" will" be" discovered,"
gathered"and"structured.""
During"the"analysis,"a"special"focus"is"needed"on"the"context"in"which"the"interview"
was" carried" out;" therefore" a" sequential" reconstruction" of" the" data" is" required." A" detailed"
description"of"this"reconstruction"will"be"displayed"below."
"

32"
"

4.2.1.+Transcription,+categorization+and+data+display+
All" interviews" are" recorded" with" the" consent" of" the" interviewees" in" order" to"
transcribe" them" afterwards." In" order" to" make" sure" that" no" relevant" information" will" be"
missed,"the"complete"interviews"will"be"transcribed."No"single"part"will"be"left"out."
After"the"transcription,"meaningful"categories"will"be"developed"in"order"to"describe"
the"data."These"categories"will"be"related"to"the"variables"and"their"characteristics"Units"of"
data"(pieces"of"text"from"the"transcript)"will"be"attached"to"the"right"category."Hereafter"the"
data"will"be"displayed"in"a"so?called"data"display,"which"gives"a"clear"overview"of"what"is"said"
in" the" interviews" about" the" different" elements" of" the" research" (Saunders" &" Lewis," 2012)."
Ones"the"data"display"is"made,"the"data"will"be"analyzed"in"order"to"discover"patterns"and"
logical"relations,"which"can"answer"the"research"questions."

4.3.+Sample+
"

This" research" will" be" done" in" a" specific" field," this" makes" it" important" to" give" some"

information" about" the" sample," since" this" has" some" implications" for" the" interviews." The"
sample" contains" people" from" Dutch" cycling" organizations" that" organize" races" in" the" UCI"
Europe"Tour"1.1"or"2.1"categories."This"means"that"the"race"exists"out"of"one"(1.1)"or"more"
(2.1)" stages" and" that" they" have" certain" requirements" regarding" the" field" of" participants."
Maximal"half"of"the"participating"teams"may"be"UCI"WorldTeams,"which"is"the"highest"class"
in" international" cycling." The" rest" of" the" participating" teams" can" be" UCI" professional"
continental" and" continental" teams," which" are" the" second" and" third" highest" international"
cycling"divisions."Above"these"1.1"and"2.1"categories"there"are"the"UCI"WorldTour"races"and"
1.HC"and"2.HC"(hors"category)"races."This"means"that"the"worlds"best"riders"will"prefer"these"
higher" races" compared" to" 1.1" and" 2.1" races," since" they" have" more" importance" in" terms" of"
prize" money," publicity" and" ranking?points." This" has" some" implications" for" the" possibilities"
that"the"organizations"in"the"sample"have."The"investigated"organizations"are:"

"

Ronde"van"Drenthe"(RvD)"

Ronde"van"Zeeland"Seaports"(RvZS)"

Volta"Limburg"Classic"(VLC)"

Ster"ZLM"Toer""GP"Jan"Van"Heeswijk"(SZT)"

Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic"(AVC)"
In" general" the" pro" cycling" industry" is" very" dependent" on" sponsoring" and" therefore"

financially"unstable."There"is"a"rising"acknowledgement"that"other"revenue"streams"have"to"
33"
"

be"found"in"order"to"sustain."This"makes"the"cycling"industry"a"typical"case"for"CSV,"since"the"
industry" is" looking" how" to" create" value" for" others" via" this" way," for" it" selves." This" can" be"
compared" with" reconceiving" products" and" markets" and" redefining" productivity." On" the"
other"hand"this"can"be"seen"as"a"call"for"ambidexterity,"since"exploration"is"needed."
"

An" important" part" of" CSV" is" the" community" in" which" an" organization" operates."

Regarding"the"community,"it"can"be"stated"that"the"sample"is"much"unified."Common"parts"
of"the"communities"are"always:"participating"cyclists,"(local)"governments,"funders,"fans,"and"
residents."This"implies"that"the"organizations"have"similar"CSV"opportunities."An"example"is"
the" public" attention" for" cycling" races," which" can" be" very" useful" for" showcasing" businesses"
and" the" beautiful" environments" of" a" region" to" a" bigger" public." This" may" boost" several"
industries"in"the"region"like"tourism."
"

In" order" to" investigate" the" level" of" contextual" and" structural" ambidexterity," it" has"

been"tried"to"interview"from"each"organization"at"least"two"people,"preferably"from"different"
parts" of" the" organization." However," due" to" several" circumstances" it" was" not" possible" to"
interview"two"people"from"every"organization."Only"one"organization"did"not"have"time"for"
an" interview" and" therefore" did" they" fill" in" a" questionnaire" by" e?mail." The" final" sample" and"
method"is"displayed"in"table"5."

Table!5.!Overview!of!the!respondents!and!interview!techniques.!

34"
"

4.4.+Gathering+information+about+the+variables+
"

In"order"to"gather"the"right"information,"semi?structured"interviews"are"developed."

These" semi?structures" contain" the" main" characteristics" of" the" variable," in" order" to" be" sure"
that" information," which" is" relevant" to" analyze" the" variables" and" their" relation" will" be"
included"in"the"interviews."Below"an"overview"of"these"characteristics"will"be"given."

4.4.1.+Dependent+variable:+creating+shared+value+
In" order" to" identify" the" extent" to" which" an" organization" creates" shared" value," it" is"
important"that"questions"will"be"asked"regarding"the"characteristics"of"CSV."As"mentioned"in"
chapter"3"the"creation"of"shared"value"has"five"characteristics:"
?"

Joint"community"and"organizational"value"creation;"

?"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"competing;"

?"

The"creation"of"shared"value"is"integral"to"profit"maximization;"

?"

The"shared"value"agenda"is"specific"per"organization"and"internally"generated;"

?"

The" creation" of" shared" value" realigns" the" entire" organizations" budget," rather" than"
having"a"fixed"budget"for"e.g."CSR."

4.4.1.1.#Note#on#the#characteristics#of#CSV#
These"characteristics"are"made"for"traditional"businesses"that"want"to"generate"the"
highest" revenues" and" the" highest" profits," but" since" the" investigated" organizations" do" not"
target"to"maximize"profit,"the"characteristics"require"some"elaboration"in"order"to"develop"a"
fair"view"regarding"CSV"in"cycling"organizations.""
First"the"concept"of"competing."Traditional"business"would"look"upon"competing"in"
terms" of" the" highest" market" share," highest" revenue" or" highest" profits." Cycling" race"
organizations" are" in" general" non?profit." They" compete" differently." Cycling" organizations" all"
want"to"become"the"best"cycle"event"and"want"to"get"the"highest"sportive"level"in"their"race,"
this"means"the"best"riders"and"all"riders"in"their"best"shape."Four"elements"make"it"difficult"
to"achieve"this:"there"is"only"a"limited"number"of"riders"that"is"seen"as"world"top,"the"number"
of"teams"of"a"certain"level"that"are"allowed"to"start"in"your"race"is"restricted"to"your"level?
category," the" best" teams" have" some" mandatory" higher" level" races" in" order" to" stay" on" the"
highest" level" and" an" athlete" can" hold" his" top" shape" only" for" a" limited" time" period." So"
competing"means"for"cycling"organizations:"to"achieve"the"highest"sportive"level.""
35"
"

Another" concept" of" the" characteristics" that" needs" some" elaboration" is" profit"
maximization." Although"all"of"the"organizations"in"the"sample"are"non?profit"organizations,"
they"do"have"to"generate"money"in"order"to"exist"sustainable."Therefore"it"is"also"important"
to"focus"at"the"characteristic"CSV"is"integral"to"profit"maximization."

4.4.2.+Independent+variable:+ambidexterity+
For"the"independent"variable"ambidexterity,"two"types"are"investigated,"since"these"
types"can"complement"each"other:"structural"and"contextual"ambidexterity."Below"the"main"
aspects" of" the" concepts," which" will" be" addressed" in" the" semi?structured" interviews," are"
displayed:"
-

Mechanism"of"balance"?"How"is"ambidexterity"achieved?"

Locus" of" balance" ?" Where" are" decisions" made" about" the" split" between" exploration"
and"exploitation?"

Role"of"top"management"

Nature"of"roles"

Skills"of"employees"

Challenges"
Regarding" structural" ambidexterity" there" will" be" more" emphasis" on" the" role" of"

different" units" for" the" organization" in" general." For" contextual" ambidexterity" there" will" be"
emphasis"on"the"aspects"within"the"organizational"unit"in"which"the"interviewee"operates."
A"combination"of"the"presence"of"aspects"for"both"types"of"ambidexterity"will"give"
some"insights"in"the"level"of"total"ambidexterity."Separately"they"can"provide"insights"about"
how"the"different"types"of"ambidexterity"influence"the"creation"of"shared"value"in"their"own"
way."

4.5.+Validity+and+reliability+
Because" of" the" exploratory" and" qualitative" nature" of" this" study," generalizing" and"
repeating" results" is" harder" than" it" is" for" a" quantitative" approach." Therefore" validity" and"
reliability" will" be" discussed" to" ensure" the" integrity" and" quality" of" the" research." Yin" (2010)"
establishes" four" tests" that" assess" the" construct" validity," internal" validity," external" validity,"
and"reliability"of"research"designs"(see"table"6)."

36"
"

Table!6.!Tactics!to!ensure!research!validity!and!reliability!(Yin,!Case!study!research:!design!and!methods,!2003)!
!

4.5.1.+Validity+
4.5.1.1.#Construct#validity#
To" achieve" construct" validity," a" researcher" has" to" choose" correct" measures" for" the"
concept"that"is"investigated"(Saunders"&"Lewis,"2012)."To"assure"construct"validity,"there"is"
chosen" for" two" different" sources" of" evidence:" theoretical" literature" and" empirical" data"
acquired" through" interviews." Next" to" that," to" make" the" derivation" of" the" evidence"
transparent," a" chain" of" evidence" will" be" maintained" (Yin," Case" study" research:" design" and"
methods,"2003)."This"chain"is"provided"by"a"detailed"description"of"all"steps"in"the"process,"
for"example"data"collection"and"analysis."Lastly,"Yin"(2003)"requests"for"the"review"of"a"draft"
of"the"study"by"key"informants"in"order"to"achieve"construct"validity."Therefore"the"approach"
taken"in"the"study"was"discussed"with"some"of"the"interviewees"and"the"supervisor."However,"
because" this" is" a" final" thesis" that" has" to" be" written" by" the" researcher" only," the"
researcher/author"makes"all"final"decisions."

37"
"

4.5.1.2.#Internal#validity#
"

For" internal" validity" the" researcher" has" to" establish" a" causal" relationships" between"

conditions"that"lead"to"other"conditions."However,"Yin"(2003)"argues"that"internal"validity"is"
not"applicable"to"exploratory"studies"like"this"one."It"is"not"the"concern"of"a"study"like"this"to"
make" causal" claims," only" indicative" results" are" possible." Nonetheless," the" analysis" of" the"
interviews" is" partially" explanation" building" and" addresses" competing" explanations" to" some"
extent."

4.6.1.3.#External#validity#
"

The" results" of" an" external" valid" study" can" be" generalized," if" a" study" is" not" external"

valid,"they"are"only"relevant"to"the"specific"project."For"this"study,"this"would"mean"whether"
it"is"possible"to"apply"the"recommendations"developed"within"the"study"that"are"focused"on"
Dutch"cycling?race"organizations"to"other"settings"and"environments"such"as"other"industries"
of"regions."Because"of"the"nature"of"the"research"external"validity"will"be"low."If"indications"
for"causal"relationships"are"found,"these"indications"should"be"tested"hypothetical"amongst"
different"cases"before"they"are"generalizable."

4.5.2.+Reliability+
"

The"reliability"can"be"proved"if"a"research"can"be"repeated"with"the"same"actions"and"

the"results"are"similar"to"the"original"study"(Yin,"Case"study"research:"design"and"methods,"
2003)." For" reliability" it" is" important" that" the" researcher" worked" in" such" a" way" that" the"
research" can" be" reproduced." Therefore" all" steps" should" be" explained" clearly." Thus," a"
researcher"should"aim"to"minimize"bias"and"errors"in"a"study.""
"

In"order"to"achieve"reliability"in"this"thesis,"all"process"steps"have"been"described"in"

detail."However"since"the"interviews"that"are"used"are"semi?structured,"a"perfect"repetition"
of"the"study"and"results"would"not"be"possible."

38"
"

5.+RESULTS+
5.1.+General+observations+
"

Before"the"variables"are"analyzed,"some"general"observations"are"done,"in"order"to"

have"a"more"complete"view."Regional"governments"initiated"originally"three"out"of"five"races,"
the" goal" of" the" races" were" to" promote" the" region" or" province." Two" out" of" five" races;" Ster"
ZLM" Toer" and" Volta" Limburg" Classic," were" initially" initiated" for" the" love" of" cycling" by" some"
local" cycling" friends." Local" governments" do" a" financial" contribution" for" all" organizations"
because"the"race"has"general"value"for"the"region,"however"none"of"them"is"still"initiated"by"
a"government."
"

All" organizations" are" organizing" professional" sport" events" with" professional" top"

athletes," however" all" organizations" are" non?profit" foundations" with" only" voluntary"
contributors" and" board." Only" one" of" the" respondents" got" paid" for" his" organizational" work,"
the"managing"director"of"VLC."The"organizing"committee"hires"him"as"he"has"his"own"event?
management"company."Although"all"organizations"consist"mainly"of"volunteers,"all"of"them"
work"with"professional"suppliers"and"partners"for"e.g."the"finish"entourage"and"the"neutral"
equipment"service.""
"

All" of" the" organizations" exist" pretty" long." The" youngest," SZT" has" in" 2015" its" 29th"

edition."The"oldest"is"the"RvD,"who"had"in"2015"its"55th"edition."This"does"not"mean"that"all"
organizations"are"financially"sustainable;"all"of"them"agree"that"every"year"it"is"really"hard"to"
find"enough"funds."A"respondent"of"the"Ronde"van"Zeeland"Seaports:"the!contract!with!our!
main!sponsor!Zeeland!Seaports!ended!this!year!and!we!did!not!find!a!new!one!yet."
As" mentioned" in" the" previous" chapter," all" organizations" are" organizing" basically" a"
cycling"race"on"the"same"level,"but"most"of"them"organize"some"side?events"or"other"races"as"
well"during"the"same"event."Side?events"can"be"described"as"extra"events"which"are"related"
to"the"main?race,"although"they"are"not"necessary"to"organize"this"main?race."An"overview"of"
the"characteristics"of"the"five"events"can"be"found"in"the"table"7,"below."
"
"

39"
"

Table!7.!Overview!of!the!five!events.!

"

5.2.+Creation+of+shared+value+within+the+sample+
During" the" interviews" the" interviewees" addressed" different" forms" of" value" that" is"
generated"by"their"cycling"race"event."In"this"paragraph"it"will"be"identified"to"which"extent"
this"can"be"seen"as"the"creation"of"shared"value.""
In"order"to"judge"CSV"for"each"organization"first"two"elements"have"to"be"identified:"
what" delivers" value" for" community" as" well" as" the" value" for" the" organization." Cycling" race"
organizations"easily"value"for"the"community"they"operate"in."Most"races"in"the"sample"are"
even" created" in" order" to" generate" attention" for" their" region." Cycling" is" an" attractive" sport"
with"fans"all"over"the"world,"and"therefore"high?level"cycle"event"attracts"the"attention"of"a"
lot"of"people."Governments"like"to"have"more"attention"for"the"region"as"they"see"the"value"
40"
"

for"the"community."An"example"is"the"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic:"VeenendaalJveenendaal!
(former!name!of!AVC)!has!ones!been!started!to!promote!Veenendaal.!That!was!not!because!
of!me,!but!because!of!the!Mayor!and!Aldermen.!They!asked!us!to!think!about!how!we!could!
promote!Veenendaal!best."
The" majority" of" the" monetary" value" that" cycling" organizations" create" are" subsidies"
and" sponsoring." All" of" the" respondents" identified" the" three" motives" for" companies" and"
governments"to"fund"events:"
-

As"a"favour"because"they"appreciate"what"the"organization"does"for"the"community"
and"want"to"support"the"liveability"or"because"they"love"the"sport;"

Because" they" view" the" event" as" a" nice" attraction" which" is" an" opportunity" for"
relationship"management"(sponsors"get"often"VIP"packages"like"a"seat"in"one"of"the"
cars"or"the"best"place"to"watch"the"finish);"

Because" they" want" to" generate" more" brand" awareness" with" a" name" connection" or"
banners"next"to"the"race."
Although" the" respondents" do" not" agree" about" the" importance" of" the" individual"

motives"to"sponsor"a"cycling"race,"all"of"the"respondents"acknowledge"that"these"are"all"of"
the" motives" for" companies" and" governments" to" fund" their" event." Furthermore" all"
respondents" agree:" The" higher" the" attraction" power" of" the" race," the" more" publicity" the"
event"will"get,"the"stronger"these"motives"are"and"the"more"sponsoring"an"organization"will"
get."On"the"other"hand"does"this"result"in"more"attention"for"the"region"and"will"this"boost"
also"the"value"for"the"community"around"the"organization.""
Two" ways" have" been" identified" to" become" attractive" and" create" more" value" as" a"
cycling"race"event:""
-

By"growth"in"the"cycling"race"itself"

By"growth"breadthwise"with"side?events."
For" both" of" the" methods" the" degree" to" which" they" create" shared" value" for" each"

organization"will"be"discussed"along"the"five"characteristics"as"they"are"mentioned"in"4.4.1."
"

41"
"

5.2.1.+Value+creation+by+the+cycling+race+itself+
5.2.1.1.#Joint#community#and#organizational#value#creation#
According"to"one"of"the"respondents"the!press,!sponsors!and!people!care!primarily!
about! one! thing:! the! sportive! level! of! the! participation! field." However" one" of" the" other"
respondents" denotes" that" extra" revenues" generated" via" this" way" thrives" organizations" also"
to"higher"costs:"I!say!always:!a!big!advertisement!costs!more!than!a!small!one.!So!the!bigger!
your!event!is,!the!higher!money!that!is!involved!with!it.!"
Although" a" better" participants" field" will" on" balance" not" per" se" result" in" more"
financial" value" for" the" organizations," it" does" deliver" them" extra" value" in" another" way." All"
organizations"are"non?profit"and"are"active"because"they"want"to"have"the"best"cycling"event."
So"the"level"of"participants"does"deliver"joint"community"and"organizational"value,"in"terms"
that" the" respondent" used" one" could" say" that" the" level" of" participants" is" the" size" of" the"
advertisement."
AVC" tries" in" an" alternative" way" to" get" some" attention" for" their" race." They" present"
themselves"as"test"case"for"the"cycling"race"of"the"future"and"try"to"get"some"attention"for"
that." For" example:" they" were" the" first" organization" that" placed" cameras" on" the" bikes,"they"
used" alternative" broadcast" methods" and" changed" the" maximum" allowed" number" of"
participants"per"team.""

5.2.1.2.#CSV#is#integral#to#competing#(achieving#the#highest#sportive#level)#
Based" on" the" level" of" participating" teams" of" each" race" (Appendix" II)," SZT" creates"
clearly" the" highest" value." The" others" do" not" differ" that" much," their" participants" value"
ranking" is" really" comprehensive" to" ones" personal" opinion" about" the" value" of" WorldTeams"
(best" teams" of" the" world)" compared" to" the" value" of" Professional" Continental" teams." For"
example"if"one"compares"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic"to"Ronde"van"Drenthe,"AVC"has"three"
WorldTeams" participating" and" RvD" only" one." On" the" other" hand" RvD" has" ten" Professional"
Continental"Teams,"versus"AVC"where"only"2"teams"from"this"category"start.""

5.2.1.3.#CSV#value#is#integral#to#maximizing#profit#
As" discussed" in" 5.2.1.1" improving" the" field" of" participants" does" not" only" generate"
more" income" but" will" also" result" in" higher" costs." Therefore" normally" this" will" not" result" in"
maximizing"profit."However"SZT"tries"to"utilize"extremely"well"the"attraction"power"of"their"
race" in" order" to" maximize" their" profit." One" of" the" respondents" of" SZT" gives" an" example:"
Boxtel! made! wrong! decisions! about! shale! gas! drilling.! Ones! they! realized! that! they! totally!
42"
"

changed!their!policies!and!decided!to!start!an!antiJshale!gas!campaign.!We!utilized!this!with!
prints!about!their!campaign!on!our!cars!that!drove!to!the!entire!municipality!We!always!try!
to!find!connecting!surfaces!with!municipalities.!Especially!at!municipalities!you!have!to!touch!
a!nerve!that!legitimizes!to!spend!public!money."

5.2.1.4.#The#CSV#agenda#is#specific#per#organization#and#internally#generated##
Although"the"attractive"power"of"a"cycling"event"works"for"every"organization"in"the"
same"way,"the"execution"is"for"every"organization"specific."Every"organization"has"to"find"the"
optimal" connection" for" their" situation" regarding" (local)" companies" and" governments." From"
the" examples" in" the" previous" paragraph" it" becomes" clear" how" the" individual" organizations"
have" their" own" fulfillment." The" application" of" the" attraction" power" for" relationship"
management"is"by"all"organizations"done"in"the"same"way."

5.2.1.5.#CSV#realigns#the#entire#organizations#budget#
Since" the" level" of" the" field" of" participants" determines" the" main" part" of" an"
organizations"budget,"and"is"closely"related"to"both"revenues"as"well"as"costs,"one"can"state"
that"value"creation"by"the"race"itself"realigns"the"entire"organizations"budget."

5.2.2.+Value+creation+by+sideUevents+
Side?events" can" just" like" the" cycling" race" itself" also" be" used" to" make" the"
advertisement" larger," but" compared" to" the" participants" field" side" events" have" two"
advantages"when"it"is"about"value"creation:"
-

Side?events"do"not"necessarily"cost"money"or"can"even"generate"income;"

Side?events" can" be" attractive" for" people" in" a" different" way" and" therefore" attract"
people"that"normally"do"not"feel"to"go"and"watch"cycling"races."

In"the"table"8"an"overview"of"the"different"side"events"per"organization"are"displayed."
"
"
"
"
"
"
43"
"

Organization!

(Planned)!sideJevents!

Ronde!van!Drenthe!(RvD)!

Tour"event"(1650"participants)"
Other"(women)"cycling"races"
Festivities"in"villages."

Ronde!van!Zeeland!Seaports!(RvZS)!

No"side?events"

Volta!Limburg!Classic!(VLC)!

Tour"event"(2500"participants)"
Youth"cycling"races""

Ster!ZLM!Toer!!GP!Jan!Van!Heeswijk!(SZT)!

Festivities"and"pending"programs"
at"finish"locations"

Arnhem!Veenendaal!Classic!(AVC)!

Pending"program"
Tour"event"(planned)"

Table!8.!Overview!of!the!(planned)!sideJevents!of!each!organization.!

In" the" following" paragraphs" will" be" discussed" to" what" extent" the" different"
organizations" meet" the" characteristics" of" CSV" with" their" side" events." As" the" Ronde" van"
Zeeland" Seaports" has" no" side?events," they" do" not" create" shared" value" and" cannot" be"
discussed"in"these"paragraphs."""

5.2.2.1.#Joint#community#and#organizational#value#creation#
First" of" all" will" be" distinguished" which" side?events" from" the" overview" create" joint"
value" for" both" the" community" as" for" the" organization" self." Significant" value" for" the"
community"and"organization"is"created"by"side?events"as"they"generate"more"attention"for"
the"event"as"this"leads"to"more"attention"for"the"community"and"funding"from"sponsors"or"
governments." The" second" option" to" create" joint" value" with" side?events" is" by" gaining"
revenues"out"of"them"for"the"organization"and"another"form"of"value"for"the"community"
All"side"events"create"some"joint"value"for"community"and"organization."Nonetheless"
it"can"be"stated"that"the"tour"events"create"an"extraordinary"amount"of"shared"value"as"they"
stimulate"big"groups"of"people"to"go"sporting,"which"is"good"for"their"health."Next"to"that"the"
participants" get" in" general" extra" feelings" for" the" main" race" as" they" participated" actively"
during"the"event."The"tour"events"also"generate"extra"income"out"of"subscription"fees."For"
RvD" this" last" argument" does" not" fully" apply," since" they" donate" this" money" to" the" local"
44"
"

hospitals."Nonetheless"they"still"create"a"little"bit"extra"value"for"themselves,"as"the"doctors"
of"these"hospitals"now"help"voluntarily"with"medical"services"during"the"cycling"races."

5.2.2.2.#CSV#is#integral#to#competing#(achieving#the#highest#sportive#level)#
Of" course" all" extra" attractive" power" of" the" side" events" can" lead" to" more" funding,"
which" allows" for" better" participants" during" the" main" race." However," this" second"
characteristic"of"CSV"can"be"applied"to"especially"the"extra"races"of"RvD."Because"teams"can"
combine" two" races" with" only" one" trip" to" Drenthe" it" is" cheaper" to" have" them" there."
Furthermore," one" of" the" other" races" is" since" several" years" a" women" WorldCup" race."
Eurosport" TV" has" an" agreed" with" the" UCI" that" they" broadcast" these" WorldCup" races." Our!
men!race!that!is!on!the!same!day!can!profit!from!the!fact!that!Eurosport!is!around!and!can!is!
therefore!on!the!television!as!well.!"

5.2.2.3.#CSV#value#is#integral#to#maximizing#profit#
As" described" in" 5.2.3.1" the" tour" event" VLC" and" the" planned" tour" event" from" AVC"
contribute"directly"to"maximizing"profit,"since"their"revenues"outweigh"costs."However,"the"
AVC"tour"event"still"needs"to"be"executed."The"other"side"events"that"are"organized"do"not"
contribute"directly"to"profit"maximization."

5.2.2.4.#The#CSV#agenda#is#specific#per#organization#and#internally#generated##
Of" course" every" organization" has" a" different" side?event" agenda," however" not" all"
these" agendas" are" totally" internally" generated." RvD" and" AVC" communicated" that" the"
governments" are" requesting" for" side?events." Moreover" RvD" and" SZT" give" a" local" unit" the"
possibility"to"develop"the"agenda"for"side?events,"which"cannot"be"cald"internally."AVC"works"
either"with"external"parties,"however"the"board"determines"what"every"party"is"going"to"do."
VLC"either"determines"their"own"agenda."

5.2.2.5.#CSV#realigns#the#entire#organizations#budget#
Based"on"the"same"arguments"as"mentioned"in"5.2.2.3"the"tour"events"of"AVC"and"
VLC"are"two"side?events"that"to"a"certain"extent"realign"the"entire"budget."However,"the"AVC"
tour"event"still"has"to"be"executed."All"other"side"events"are"budget?neutral"or"are"done"with"
a"fixed"budget,"so"they"are"not"in"line"with"this"fifth"characteristic"of"CSV."
"

5.2.3.+Overview+of+CSV+in+the+sample+
Based"on"the"interviews"and"the"analysis"above"a"detailed"overview"of"the"degree"of"
application"for"the"characteristics"of"CSV"on"every"organization"is"made."These"tables"can"be"
45"
"

found" in" Appendix" V." An" overview" is" given" below" in" table" 9." All" organizations" create" much"
shared"value"with"their"cycling"race"event."Since"they"all"do"this"largely"in"the"same"way,"the"
researcher"decided"to"exclude"indirect"created"shared"value"for"the"side?events"in"order"to"
get"a"clear"view"at"the"degree"they"contribute"to"the"creation"of"shared"value."
Overview!of!CSV!judgment!
Characteristics!

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

3"

1"

3"

2"

3"

3"

1"

2"

3"

2"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

1"

3"

2"

2"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!&!

2"

1"

3"

2"

2"

CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!

2"

2"

3"

2"

3"

Total!score!(Average!!11)!

11"

6"

14"

11"

12"

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!
creation!
CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!
highest!sportive!level)!

internally!generated!

0:"Characteristic"cannot"be"applied,"1:"Characteristic"can"be"applied"but"to"a"small"degree,"
2:" Characteristic" can" be" applied" to" a" certain" degree," 3:" Characteristic" can" be" applied," 4:"
Characteristic"can"be"applied"very"well."
Green:"creates"overall"more"CSV"then"average,"yellow:"creates"overall"about"the"average"
degree"of"CSV,"red"creates"overall"less"CSV"then"average."
Table!9.!Overview!of!the!CSV!scores,!based!on!the!detailed!judges!in!Appendix!V.!

5.3.+Ambidexterity+in+the+sample+
"

Ambidextrous"organizations"are"able"to"exploit"their"traditional"business"and"explore"

in"new"businesses."This"thesis"investigates"structural"and"contextual"ambidexterity."In"order"
to" assess" the" level" of" structural" ambidexterity" a" visual" overview" of" each" organizational"
structure" is" made," based" on" the" interviews" and" information" at" websites" of" the" considered"
organizations."This"overview"can"be"found"in"appendix"I."For"each"investigated"organization"
the"exploitative"and"explorative"activities"are"discussed"and"thereafter"the"level"of"structural"
and"contextual"ambidexterity"will"be"discussed."
46"
"

"

Because"the"sample"contains"all"organizations"that"organize"cycle"races"for"29"years"

or"more,"the"organization"of"a"cycling"race"and"the"associated"required"activities"can"be"seen"
as" the" exploitative" activities" for" all" of" them." Necessary" activities" are" activities" like" blocking"
the" roads" or" attracting" sponsors." As" the" organizations" do" not" all" explore" in" the" same" way,"
this" will" be" discussed" for" each" organization" individually," just" like" the" main" characterizing"
statements"of"the"respondents."A"detailed"overview"about"which"characteristics"of"structural"
and"contextual"ambidexterity"are"applied"to"each"organization"can"be"found"in"Apendix"VI."

5.3.1.+Ambidexterity+at+Ronde+van+Drenthe+
"

As" RvD" started" last" edition" to" organize" side?events" this" can" be" seen" as" their"

explorative"activity."The"board"decided!to!attract!an!extra!organization!member!who!will!be!
responsible! for! sideJevents." It! would! be! very! difficult! to! organize! the! side! events! in! each!
village!we!race!through,!therefore!we!work!with!local!groups!in!the!villages!that!organize!the!
side! events! overthere." These" local" groups" are" responsible" for" the" extra" activities" in" these"
groups."This"makes"the"organization"structural"ambidextrous.""
"

Furthermore"the"chairman"declared"that"the"board"wants"people"to"think"along"with"

them"how"to"improve"the"activities"they"are"doing."The"chief"of"the"unit"for"route"security"
confirms"this:"I!feel!stimulated!to!think!about!how!to!improve!my!activities!and!the!activities!
of! my! unit.! I! think! most! of! the! organizational! members! feel! supported! in! this! way,! but! this!
can!differ!a!bit!for!each!individual.!Not!everybody!is!the!type!of!person!that!comes!up!with!
new!ideas.!If!I!have!ideas!about!how!to!improve!the!work!that!has!to!be!done!I!will!discuss!
them!in!order!to!improve!everything."
"

Here" becomes" clear" that" there" is" also" contextual" ambidexterity" in" the" RvD." At" a"

lower," business" unit" level" people" are" thinking" about" doing" the" right" thing" and" doing" the"
things" right." Moreover" they" feel" stimulated" to" do" so," which" indicates" that" there" is" a" good"
ambidextrous"context.""

5.3.2.+Ambidexterity+at+Ronde+van+Zeeland+Seaports+
In"Zeeland"there"is"no"real"exploration"outside"cycling."The"chairman"indicates"that"
the"main"novelties"in"their"event"are"often"special"route"elements,"for!example!we!were!the!
first! that! rode! through! the! Westerscheldetunnel,! even! before! it! was! open! for! traffic.! He"
indicates:!If!we!are!doing!these!improvements,!the!board!thinks!and!decides!about!them!
Employees! are! thinking! solely! along! with! us! when! it! is! about! execution,! never! about! the!

47"
"

strategic! decisions! You! run! always! into! the! same! problem:! you! work! with! volunteers! and!
they!are!no!professionals"
The"lack"of"exploration"is"at"least"partly"due"to"the"financial"pressure,"which"brought"
them" in" a" sort" of" survival" mode:! we! could! invent! a! lot,! but! we! are! nearby! starving.! The!
contract!with!our!main!sponsor!Zeeland!Seaports!ended!this!year!and!we!did!not!find!a!new!
one!yet.!If!we!want!to!organize!one!more!edition!next!year!I!have!to!know!in!September!that!
we!have!the!money!to!do!this.!Till!that!time!it!makes!no!sense!to!think!about!improvements.!
For!now!our!focus!is!to!find!a!new!sponsor."
There"is"neither"contextual"ambidexterity."The"answers"of"an"employee"who"is"over"
25" years" active" for" the" organization" as" leader" of" an" organizational" unit" highlight" this:" Yes!
you!can!come!up!with!ideas,!but!then!they!say!immediately:!is!it!workable!and!profitable?!
He"gives"an"example:"When!I!did!technical!services,!we!placed!billboards!at!several!places,!
you!could!generate!some!money!with!them.!If!come!up!now!with!that!idea!they!say!it!is!too!
much! work! to! construct! The" employee" neither" feels" involved:! Formerly! we! had! a! nice!
organization!committee.!The!meetings!were!from!the!chairman!till!the!man!of!the!technical!
services.! That! is! how! you! should! do! your! meetings,! all! and! sundry! together,! not! separated!
with!everybody!or!anything!else!they!do.!That!does!not!work.!"
Based" on" the" above" RvZS" cannot" be" described" as" structural" or" contextual"
ambidextrous.""

5.3.3.+Ambidexterity+at+Volta+Limburg+Classic+
VLC"has"developed"in"the"last"few"years"one"clear"explorative"activity,"a"tour"event"
for"recreational"cyclists"the"day"after"the"race."In"the"policy"plan"for"2015?2018"there"is"one"
fixed"board"position"defined"that"is"responsible"for"the"organization"of"this"tour"event."This"
coordinator"has"amongst"other"a"coordinating"assistant."The"other"parts"of"the"organization"
are" focused" on" the" cycling" race." The" respondent" explains:" Everybody! has! his! own! area,!
however! some! people! have! to! oversee! everything." This" makes" the" Volta" Limburg" Classic"
organization"as"a"structural"ambidextrous"organization."
It" seems" that" the" board" seriously" is" interested" in" the" opinions" and" ideas" of" lower"
organizational"unit"and"that"they"support"employees"to"come"up"with"them,"but"the"units"do"
not"balance"between"exploitation"and"exploration"themselves.!The!board!is!responsible!for!
renewal! and! improvement.! They! have! multiple! consultation! moments! with! lower!

48"
"

organizational!parts!and!short!communicationlines."Therefore"the"VLC"cannot"be"seen"as"a"
contextual"ambidextrous"organization."

5.3.4.+Ambidexterity+at+Ster+ZLM+Toer++GP+Jan+Van+Heeswijk+
SZT"is"also"aware"of"exploration."One"of"the"respodents"says:"SideJevents!are!going!
to! be! important." Both" of" the" respondents" of" this" organization" emphasize" that" the" big"
picture"needs"to"be"totally"complete"and"are"aware"of"the"necessity"of"renewals."A"part"of"
these" are" the" side" events" next" to" the" actual" race" in" the" different" start" and" finish" locations"
they" have." We! have! the! local! committees! to! organize! that.! That! is! how! we! try! to! make!
everywhere!something!of!it.!We!do!that!every!year.!Look,!you!do!not!have!turn!always!on!the!
autopilot,! because! that! does! not! go! right.! There" is" clearly" structural" ambidexterity" in" that"
way.""
Also" contextual" ambidexterity" is" important" in" this" organization." Both" respondents"
highlight" that" the" importance" to" have" social" talks" with" people," to" give" them" responsibility,"
trust"and"space"to"explore"within"their"jobs."One"of"them"tells:"Carrying!fences!only,!does!
not! work,! you! have! to! challenge! people! so! they! can! use! their! qualities! in! their! work." The"
other" respondent" gives" an" example:" The! coordinator! of! the! cars! etcetera! was! yesterday!
evening!here!to!discuss!things!with!me.!He!told!me!who!is!driving!in!which!car!and!other!stuff,!
I! told! him! it! was! all! right,! but! he! is! the! one! that! arranges! it,! not! me.! Of! course! we! stay!
informed! about! each! other,! but! he! is! the! one! who! arranges! that! part! The" input" of"
organizational" units" is" really" appreciated:" Of! course! we! evaluate! with! every! coordinator!
about!what!went!good!and!what!should!be!done!different!according!to!them."!

5.3.5.+Ambidexterity+at+Arnhem+Veenendaal+Classic+
We!try!to!renew!everything,!we!as!board!decide!what!happens!in!there.!An!external!
person!is!our!race!director,!especially!his!technical!wishes!we!try!to!fulfill!as!far!as!possible!!
We!started!to!work!now!with!a!professional!marketing!office!who!can!judge!best!how!we!can!
offer!most!to!our!sponsors.!Some!of!our!volunteers!will!acquire!new!sponsors,!managed!by!
this! office.! Also" for" side" events" they" want" to" work" with" separated" units:! We! work! with!
external!parties.!One!has!not!the!ability!to!do!that!next!to!the!organization!of!a!cycling!race.!
We! neither! have! the! knowledge.! If! we! have! to! help! somewhere,! we! will! do! that,! but! really!
organizing! it! ourselves! is! not! possible." This" is" typical" exploration" in" a" structural"
ambidextrous"way,"however"they"seem"to"be"less"focused"on"contextual"ambidexterity."

49"
"

5.3.6.+Overview+of+ambidexterity+in+the+sample+
Based"on"the"interviews"and"the"analysis"above"a"detailed"overview"of"presence"of"
characteristics" for" structural" and" contextual" ambidexterity" in" every" organization" is" made."
These" tables" can" be" found" in" Appendix" VI." From" here" a" categorization" amongst" the"
organizations" is" made" regarding" the" level" of" ambidexterity" (table" 10)." RvD" and" SZT" are"
categorized" as" very" ambidextrous" since" they" are" both" contextual" and" structural"
ambidextrous." RvZS" is" not" ambidextrous" at" all," VLC" and" AVC" are" solely" structural"
ambidextrous."
""
Type!of!ambidexterity!

RvD**!

RvZS*!

VLC***! SZT**!

AVC***!

Structural!ambidexterity!

1"

0"

1"

1"

1"

Contextual!ambidexterity!

1"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0:"organization"cannot"be"qualified"like"this,"1:"organization"can"be"qualified"like"this.""
!

Type!of!ambidexterity!

RvD**!

RvZS*!

VLC***! SZT**!

Total!ambidexterity!

2"

0"

1"

2"

AVC***!
1"

2:" organization" is" both" structural" and" contextual" ambidextrous," 1:" organization" is" either"
structural" or" contextual" ambidextrous," 0:" organization" is" nor" structural" nor" contextual"
ambidextrous."
Table! 10.! Overview! of! the! types! of! ambidexterity! in! the! corresponding! organizations.! Based! on! the! detailed!
judgments!in!Appendix!VI.!

5.4.+Relationship+
"

The" data" from" the" interviews" indicate" that" non?ambidextrous" organizations"

create" less" shared" value" compared" to" organizations" that" are" at" least" partially"
ambidextrous."The"non?ambidextrous"organization"reaches"as"best"performance"for"
two" of" the" characteristics" the" same" score" as" the" worst" performances" of" the" other"
organizations," compared" to" all" other" scores" they" underperform." " Furthermore" it" is"
remarkable"that"these"data"indicate"that"organizations"that"are"both"structural"and"
contextual" ambidextrous" create" less" shared" value" then" organizations" that" are" only"
50"
"

structural" ambidextrous." The" solely" structural" ambidextrous" organizations"


outperform" both" of" the" total" ambidextrous" organizations" when" it" is" about"
realignment" of" the" entire" organizations" budget." The" data" indicate" that" total"
ambidextrous"organizations"suffer"to"create"shared"value"in"such"a"way"that"it"affects"
the" entire" organization" as" it" is" not" about" their" main" activity." The" same" logic" arises"
when"it"is"about"the"characteristic"that"CSV"is"integral"to"maximizing"profit."Although"
the" solely" structural" ambidextrous" organizations" perform" on" average" also" better"
regarding" joint" community" and" organizational" value" creation" and" the" CSV" agenda,"
these" indications" are" not" as" strong" as" the" above" mentioned" indications." In"
contradiction" with" the" other" characteristics," the" total" ambidextrous" organizations"
outperform"all"other"organizations"when"it"is"about"the"degree"of"CSV"that"is"integral"
to"competing."
Overview!of!CSV!judgment!&!type!of!ambidexterity!

RvZS*!

AVC**!

VLC**!

SZT***!

RvD***!

1"

3"

3"

2"

3"

1"

2"

2"

3"

3"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

2"

3"

2"

1"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!

1"

2"

3"

2"

2"

2"

3"

3"

2"

2"

6!

12!

14!

11!

11!

Characteristics!
Joint!community!and!organizational!value!
creation!
CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!
the!highest!sportive!level)!

organization!&!internally!generated!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!
budget!
Total!score!(Average!!11)!

0:" Characteristic" cannot" be" applied," 1:" Characteristic" can" be" applied" but" to" a" small" degree," 2:"
Characteristic" can" be" applied" to" a" certain" degree," 3:" Characteristic" can" be" applied," 4:" Characteristic"
can"be"applied"very"well."
*Nor"contextual"nor"structural"ambidextrous"**Solely"structural"ambidextrous,"***Both"contextual"as"
51"
"

well"structural"ambidextrous."
Green:" creates" overall" more" CSV" then" average," yellow:" creates" overall" about" the" average" degree" of"
CSV,"red"creates"overall"less"CSV"then"average"
Table!11!Combination!of!table!9!and!table!10.!Provides!insight!in!the!relationship!between!the!variables.!

5.5.+Conclusion+
"

In"general"all"of"the"organizations"seemed"to"make"quite"some"shared"value,"

however," the" differences" became" mostly" clear" when" one" looks" into" the" created"
shared" value" by" side" events." Regarding" the" two" types" of" ambidexterity" some" more"
differences" occurred." One" organization" was" not" ambidextrous" at" all," however" this"
could"be"due"to"the"fact"that"they"are"situated"in"a"survival"mode,"although"one"the"
lack"of"ambidexterity"could"also"be"a"cause"for"this"situation."This"organization"met"
hardly" the" characteristics" of" CSV" compared" to" the" others." Two" organizations" are"
solely"marked"as"structural"ambidextrous,"whereas"two"others"were"both"structural"
as" well" contextual" ambidextrous." Surprisingly" the" structural" ambidextrous"
organizations" could" meet" the" characteristics" of" CSV" for" a" larger" degree" then" the"
totally" ambidextrous" organizations." As" exception" total" ambidextrous" organizations"
seemed"to"be"better"able"to"create"shared"value"integral"to"competing."
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
52"
"

No!

CSV!characteristics!

Only!

ambidext.! contextual!
Joint!community!and!organizational!

Only!

Totally!

structural!! ambidext.!

"

?"

"

"

"

?"

"

"

"

?"

"

"

"

?"

"

"

"

?"

"

"

?!

Clear!

Slightly!

Neutral!

Slightly!

Clear!

negative!

negative!

impact!

positive!

positive!

impact!

impact!

impact!

impact!

value!creation!
CSV!is!integral!to!competing!
(achieving!the!highest!sportive!level)!
CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!
profit!
The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!
organization!&!internally!generated!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!
budget!
Total!score!
Indication!
of!colors:!

?"
Unknown!

Table!12.!Indicative!impact!of!several!forms!of!ambidexterity!on!the!diverse!characteristics!of!CSV,!based!on!
this!research!

53"
"

6.+CONCLUSION+AND+DISCUSSION+
6.1.+Conclusion+
As" the" research" statement" of" this" thesis" is:" How! does! structural! and! contextual!
ambidexterity! influence! on! the! creation! of! shared! value! perceived! in! a! cycling! race!
organization?!It"is"now"interesting"to"take"a"look"back"at"the"research"questions"and"make"up"
conclusions"regarding"the"influence."
First" CSV." According" to" the" theory" CSV" can" be" characterized" as" joint" organizational"
and" community" value" creation," which" is" integral" to" competing" and" profit" maximization."
Futhermore"is"the"CSV"agenda"organization?specific"and"therefore"internally"generated."The"
creation"of"shared"value"realigns"the"entire"organizations"budget,"rather"than"having"e.g."a"
fixed"budget"for"CSR."
Then"structural"and"contextual"ambidexterity."These"two"types"have"different"means"
to" achieve" the" same" end:" finding" a" right" balance" between" exploitation" and" exploration." In"
structural"ambidextrous"organization"the"locus"of"control"is"at"the"top"of"the"organization,"as"
they" decide" which" separated" units" will" focus" on" explorative" or" exploitative" activities." In"
contextual" ambidextrous" organizations" employees" or" business" units" determine" the" right"
balance"themselves,"and"feel"stimulated"to"do"so"because"the"upper"management"provides"
them"an"optimal"context.""
Based"on"the"interviews"and"analytics"that"are"done"in"chapter"five,!this"research"indicates"
regarding"the"research"statement"that:"
-

A"total"lack"of"ambidexterity"has"a"negative"influence"on"the"creation"of"shared"value"
perceived"in"a"cycling"race"organization;"

For"the"creation"of"shared"value"perceived"in"a"cycling"race"organization,"in"general"it"
is" better" to" be" structural" ambidextrous" than" both" structural" and" contextual"
ambidextrous;"

The"influence"of"solely"contextual"ambidextrous"cycling"race"organizations"cannot"be"
judged" based" on" this" research," however" this" research" indicates" that" contextual"
ambidexterity" can" reduce" the" positive" effect" of" structural" ambidexterity" on" the"
creation"of"shared"value"perceived"in"a"cycling"race"organization;"

Cycling"race"organizations"that"are"both"structural"as"well"contextual"are"best"able"to"
integrate"CSV"into"competing."
54"

"

6.2.+Discussion+
As"expected"the"results"indicate"that"ambidexterity"stimulates"CSV"or"at"least"a"lack"
of"ambidexterity"influences"CSV"negatively."However,"the"most"remarkable"in"this"research"is"
that"total"ambidextrous"organizations"do"not"create"more"shared"value"then"solely"structural"
ambidextrous"organizations."This"is"not"in"line"with"several"researchers"(Gibson"&"Birkinshaw,"
2004;"He"&"Wong,"2004;"Mom,"Bosch,"&"Volberda,"2007)that"suggested"that"two"different"
forms"of"ambidexterity"can"complement"each"other"and"therefore"reach"a"higher"level."
On" the" other" hand" the" theory" of" ambidexterity" is" normally" tested" in" relationship"
with"more"traditional"forms"of"firm"performance."In"that"way"this"thesis"is"in"line"with"these"
other" researchers" as" the" total" ambidextrous" organizations" seemed" to" be" the" best" in"
integrating"CSV"in"competing.""
Furthermore" the" expected" relationships" between" ambidexterity," CSV" and"
sustainable"existence"are"also"confirmed"in"this"research"since"the"only"organization"that"is"
not"ambidextrous"and"does"not"create"that"much"shared"value"is"the"organization"that"has"
the"most"financial"troubles"at"this"moment."

6.3.+Limitations+&+Further+research+
"

A" main" limitation" of" this" thesis" was" that" from" two" organizations" only" one" person"

responded," this" downgrades" the" internal" validity," especially" when" it" is" about" contextual"
ambidexterity" since" one" person" can" never" judge" totally" how" a" certain" context" feels" for"
another" person." Another" limitation" is" that" at" the" moment" of" research" not" all" events" had"
taken"place"this"year."For"SZT"this"was"not"a"giant"problem,"as"it"starts"almost"and"concrete"
information" like" participating" team" already" are" announced." For" AVC" this" was" a" bigger"
problem" because" the" researcher" now" had" to" balance" between" expected" shared" value" and"
real"created"shared"value"during"last"years"event.""
"

To" use" give" the" outcomes" more" value" it" would" be" interesting" if" one" would"

investigate"the"same"model"more"across"several"branches."Hereafter,"if"it"is"totally"clear"how"
the" connection" between" ambidexterity" and" CSV" works," it" would" be" interesting" to" do" the"
study"in"a"quantitative"way"

55"
"

7.+MANAGERIAL+IMPLICATIONS+
As" mentioned" in" the" first" chapter" the" managerial" implications" will" have" extra"
attention" for" Stichting" Veenendaal" Veenendaal," the" organization" of" Arnhem" Veenendaal"
Classic."
A"manager"in"a"cycling"race"organization,"like"AVC,"could"learn"from"this"thesis"that"it"
is"valuable"to"be"aware"from"exploitation"and"exploration."Next"to"that"he"should"be"aware"
of"the"importance"of"CSV,"as"this"study"indicates"that"CSV"helps"to"survive.""
Although"there"are"some"indicative"results"a"manager"should"not"yet"use"the"results"
as"arguments"for"changes"in"his"organization"or"into"daily"practice"as"they"are"only"indicative"
at"this"moment"and"it"is"not"yet"sure"how"strong"the"relations"are."The"strongest"indication"
the"research"brings"one"is"that"if"a"manager"wants"to"organize"for"CSV,"it"is"really"important"
to"have"some"form"of"ambidexterity."

56"
"

LIST+OF+ABBREVIATIONS+
AG"

"

Anton"Ganzeboom"

AVC"

"

Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic"

BU"

"

B"Uiterwijk"Winkel,"security"manager"RvD""

CSV"

"

Creating"shared"value"

FR"

"

Frans"Reijnhoud,"route"&"security"manager"RvZ"

FVI"

"

Femmy"van"Issum,"chairman"of"RvD"

JL"

"

Jan"Livius,"race"director"and"secretary"of"SZT"

JvS"

"

Job"van"Schuppen,"Chairman"of"AVC"

RP"

"

Roy"Packbier,"(contracted)"managing"director"of"VLC"

RvD"

"

Ronde"van"Drenthe"

RvZS"

"

Ronde"van"Zeeland"Seaports"

SZT"

"

Ster"ZLM"Toer""GP"Jan"van"Heeswijk"

TP"

"

Toine"Poppelaars,"chairman"of"RvZS"

VLC"

"

Volta"Limburg"Classic"

"

57"
"

REFERENCES+
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62"
"

APPENDIX+I++ORGANIZATIONAL+STRUCTURES+

"
"

"
"
"

63"
"

"

"

64"
"

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

65"
"

+
"
"
"
"

66"
"

APPENDIX+II++PARTICIPANTS+LEVEL+
Value!ranking!based!on!level!of!participants!
Average!

Rank!

Team!

#!

1!

SZT"

9"

2!

VLC"

6"

"

3!

RvD"

6"

"

4!

RvZS"

5,5"

"

5!

AVC"

4"

"
"

Number!&!percentage!WorldTeams!
%!of!

Rank!

Team!

#!

1!

SZT"

6"

30%"

2!

AVC"

3"

17%"

"

3!

RvZS"

3"

16%"

"

4!

VLC"

2"

9%"

"

5!

RvD"

1"

4%"

"

field!

"

67"
"

Number!&!percentage!of!World!&!Pro!continental!teams!
%!of!

Rank!

Team!

#!

1!

SZT"

12"

60%"

2!

RvD"

11"

48%"

"

3!

VLC"

10"

45%"

"

4!

RvZS"

8"

42%"

"

5!

AVC"

5"

28%"

"

field!

"

Since"the"1.1"and"2.1"level"are"the"highest"and"therefore"most"valuable"races"for"continental"teams"
(excepted" the" 1.HC" and" 2.HC" races" in" their" home" country)," the" continental" teams" do" not" add"
significant"value"for"the"organizations."WorldTeams"and"ProContinental"teams"really"add"value"to"
the"participants"field."Since"the"extra"value"of"WorldTeams"compared"to"Pro"Continental"teams"is"
arguable,"an"average"ranking"has"been"made"as"well"to"make"a"fair"judgement"regarding"the"value"
of"the"field"
"

68"
"

APPENDIX+III++PARTICIPATING+TEAMS+
WorldTeams! Full"list"
Code!

Name!

14?3?

21?3?

4?4?

17?6?

22?8?

2015"

2015"

2015"

2015"

2014"

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

ALM"

AG2R"LA"MONDIALE"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

TGA"

TEAM"GIANT"?"ALPECIN"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

KAT"

TEAM"KATUSHA"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

MOV"

MOVISTAR"TEAM"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

OGE"

ORICA"GreenEDGE"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

SKY"

TEAM"SKY"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

LAM"

LAMPRE"?"MERIDA"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

LTS"

LOTTO"SOUDAL"

0"

1"

0"

1"

0"

AST"

ASTANA"PRO"TEAM"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

BMC"

BMC"RACING"TEAM"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

TEAM"CANNONDALE"?"
TCG"

GARMIN"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

EQS"

ETIXX"?"QUICK"STEP"

0"

1"

0"

1"

0"

FDJ"

FDJ"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

IAM"

IAM"CYCLING"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

TLJ"

TEAM"LOTTO"NL"?"JUMBO"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

TCS"

TINKOFF"?"SAXO"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

TFR"

TREK"FACTORY"RACING"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

!!

TOTAL!

1!

3!

2!

6!

3!

!!
!

!!
!
69"

"

Pro!
Continental!

Full"list"

Code!

Name!

14?3?

21?3?

4?4?

17?6?

22?8?

2015"

2015"

2015"

2015"

2014"

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

ANDRONI"GIOCATTOLI"?"
AND"

SIDERMEC"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

BAR"

BARDIANI"CSF"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

BOA"

BORA?ARGON"18"

1"

0"

0"

1"

0"

BRETAGNE?SECHE"
BSE"

ENVIRONNEMENT"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

CJR"

CAJA"RURAL?SEGUROS"RGA"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

CCC"

CCC"SPRANDI"POLKOWICE"

1"

1"

1"

0"

0"

COFIDIS,"SOLUTIONS"
COF"

CREDITS"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

COL"

COLOMBIA"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

CLT"

CULT"ENERGY"PRO"CYCLING"

1"

1"

1"

0"

0"

DRAPAC"PROFESSIONAL"
DPC"

CYCLING"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

MTN"

MTN"?"QHUBEKA"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

NIP"

NIPPO"?"VINI"FANTINI"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

ROOMPOT"ORANJE"
ROP"

PELOTON"

1"

1"

1"

1"

0"

RVL"

RUSVELO"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

STH"

SOUTHEAST"

1"

0"

1"

0"

0"

EUC"

TEAM"EUROPCAR"

0"

0"

0"

0"

0"

TNN"

TEAM"NOVO"NORDISK"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

70"
"

TOPSPORT"VLAANDEREN"?"
TSV"

BALOISE"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

UNITEDHEALTHCARE"
PROFESSIONAL"CYCLING"
UHC"

TEAM"

1"

1"

0"

""

0"

WGG"

WANTY"?"GROUPE"GOBERT"

1"

0"

1"

1"

1"

!!

TOTAL!

10!

5!

8!

6!

2!

!!

!!

!!
!

Continental!

Selection"out"of"180"teams"

Code!

Name!

!!

14?3?

21?3?

4?4?

17?6?

22?8?

2015"

2015"

2015"

2015"

2014"

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

BBD"

BABYDUMP"

1"

1"

1"

1"

0"

CCT"

CCT"?"CHAMPION"SYSTEM"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

CJP"

CYCLINGTEAM"JO"PIELS"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

RIJ"

CT"JOIN'S"?"DE"RIJKE"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

LDT"

LEOPARD"DEVELOPMENT"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

MET"

METEC?TKH"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

PVC"

PARKHOTEL"VALKENBURG"

1"

1"

1"

1"

1"

SEG"

SEG"RACING"

1"

1"

0"

0"

1"

TCQ"

COLOQUICK"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

COH"

TEAM"COOP?OSTERHUS"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

TTB"

TRE"BERG?BIANCHI"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

RIW"

RIWAL"PLATFORM"

1"

1"

0"

0"

0"

MMM"

TEAM"3M"

0"

1"

1"

1"

1"

SGT"

TEAM"STUTTGART"

0"

1"

0"

0"

0"
71"

"

VASTGOEDSVC"GOLD"
VGS"

PALACE"

0"

1"

1"

1"

0"

SKT"

AN"POST"CHAINREACTION"

0"

1"

1"

0"

1"

RDT"

RABOBANK"DEVELOPMENT"

0"

0"

1"

1"

1"

VERANDAS"WILLEMS"
WIL"

CYCLING"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

WBC"

WALLONIE"BRUXELLES"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

0"

0"

TEAM"TREFOR"?"BLUE"
TBW"

WATER"
DEV"TEAM"GIANT?

DGS"

SHIMANO"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

ACT"

ASTELLAS"CYCLING"TEAM"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

START?TRIGON"CYCLING"
STF"

TEAM"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

STG"

TEAM"STLTING"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

""

NAT"TEAM"NEDERLAND"

0"

0"

0"

0"

1"

!!

TOTAL!

12!

11!

12!

8!

13!

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

!
Number!of!teams!
WorldTeams!

1"

3"

2"

6"

3"

10"

5"

8"

6"

2"

" Continental!Teams!

12"

11"

12"

8"

13"

" Total!number!of!teams!

23"

19"

22"

20"

18"

Pro!Continental!Teams!

"
" %!of!participating!teams!
"
"

""

""
RvD!

" RvZS!

""
VLC!

""
SZT!

AVC!
72"

WorldTeams!
!

Pro!Continental!Teams!
" Continental!Teams!
" Total!number!of!teams!

"

4%"

16%"

9%"

30%"

17%"

43%"

26%"

36%"

30%"

11%"

52%"

58%"

55%"

40%"

72%"

100%"

100%"

100%"

100%"

100%"

"

73"
"

APPENDIX+IV++VALUE+CREATED+BY+CYCLING+ORGANIZATIONS+
The" following" types" of" value" created" by" cycling" race" organizations" have" been"
identified:"promotion"for"the"region,"entertaining"spectators,"contributing"to"the"liveability,"
promotion" for" sponsors," entertaining" sponsors" and" their" relations," economic" spin?off" and"
value"for"the"sport."

+
IV.1.+Promotion+for+the+region+
Since" cycling" is" an" attractive" sport" with" fans" all" over" the" world," a" high?level" cycle"
event"attracts"the"attention"of"a"lot"of"people."Therefore"the"region"in"which"a"cycle"event"
takes"place"can"become"better"known"because"of"the"event,"or"people"can"get"reminded"to"
the"region."Governments"like"to"have"more"attention"for"the"region."Job"van"Schuppen"(AVC)"
explained:"VeenendaalJveenendaal!(former!name!of!AVC)!has!ones!been!started!to!promote!
Veenendaal.! That! was! not! because! of! me,! but! because! of! the! Mayor! and! Aldermen.! They!
asked! us! to! think! about! how! we! could! promote! Veenendaal! best.! This" can" result" in" for"
example" more" touristic" visits" or" more" attention" for" businesses" in" the" region." This" makes"
promotion"for"the"region"a"value"that"is"generated"by"cycling"race"organizations."

IV.2.+Entertaining+spectators+
As"people"go"out"and"take"a"look"at"cycle"events"it"can"be"assumed"that"they"like"are"
entertained" by" the" events." Anton" Ganzeboom" (SZT):" Well,! we! assume! that! we! anyway!
create!value!or!the!spectators,!who!are!cognoscente.!You!see!every!year!during!our!race!that!
the!interest!in!it!increases.!As"explained"in"5.2.1"and"5.2.4"the"attention"of"spectators"and"
followers" increases" the" promotional" value" for" sponsors" and" the" region." The" attention" of"
spectators"can"be"really"big,"for"example"the"Arnhem"Veenendaal"Classic"has"mentioned"on"
its" website:" Public! interest! along! the! route! is! difficult! to! judge,! but! is! estimated! at! least!
250000!people!(Stichting"Veenendaal"Veenendaal,"2014)."So"the"second"type"of"value"that"
cycling"creates"is"entertaining"value"for"the"spectators"who"enjoy"the"events."

IV.3.+Contributing+to+the+liveability+
Some! sponsor! us! for! the! liveability! of! Hoogeveen" explained" Femmy" Van" Issum"
(RvD),"so!that!is!also!why!we!organize!the!event.!This"value"is"further"defined"by"the"Volta"
Limburg" Classic" in" their" policy" plan:" For! a! humanJbeing! it! is! important! to! live,! work! and!
recreate!in!a!region!in!which!one!feels!home.!Sport!activities!contribute!to!this!pleasure.!!
74"
"

IV.4.+Promotion+for+sponsors+
In"the"same"way"as"cycle"races"are"able"to"promote"a"region,"they"can"also"promote"
sponsors" if" these" sponsors" are" visible" in" communication" about" the" event." This" can" be" by"
banners" along" the" road," which" are" seen" by" spectators" or" on" pictures" of" the" event" or" by"
selling" the" events" name" to" a" sponsor." For" example" Volta" Limburg" is" a" service" provider" for"
central"heating"in"the"Dutch"province"Limburg."Since"they"pay"to"be"part"of"the"name"of"the"
Volta"Limburg"Classic,"their"name"is"prominent"in"everything"that"is"written"or"told"about"
the"race.""

IV.5.+Entertaining+sponsors+and+their+relation+
According"to"Toine"Poppelaars"(RvZ)"The!main!goal!of!our!sponsors!is!to!entertain!
their!business!relations.!Anton"Ganzeboom"(SZT)"explains"it:"Cycling!lends!itself!incredible!
good!for!relationship!marketing!or!contact!management.!If!you!want!to!do!something!with!
guests!and!you!want!to!do!something!specially!and!entertaining,!then!you!should!take!them!
to!a!cycling!race!Cycling!is!something!exciting!and!for!a!lot!of!people!very!interesting!to!see!
up!close.!The"entertainment"value"they"aim"for"is"the"special"experience"that"a"few"guests"in"
each"race"can"become"part"of"the"race"if"they"can"sit"in"one"of"the"cars"or"if"one"has"the"
perfect" view" at" the" finish" line" with" drinks" and" food." These" are" exclusive" entertaining"
moments." The" entertaining" value" is" one" of" the" reasons" why" businesses" are" willing" to" keep"
sponsoring"each"year:"A!lot!of!companies!see!networking!as!a!normal!part!of!their!business!
operations.!

IV.6.+Economic+spinUoff+
A" cycling" race" attracts" a" lot" of" people:" participants" and" their" staff," suppliers,"
spectators." This" results" in" an" economic" spin?off" for" the" region," since" all" these" people" will"
spend" their" money" in" the" region." Besides" the" organizations" need" suppliers" that" often" are"
found" locally" and" deliver" value" to" them." Femmy" van" Issum" (RvD):" also! economic! value! of!
course.!There!flows!a!lot!of!money.!For!example!we!had!1983!hotel!stays!during!that!week!
on!the!Friday!evening!we!had!650!people!for!dinner."Also"Roy"Packbier"(VLC)"is"explains"the"
spin?off:"75000!goes!to!suppliers!in!our!region,!but!the!spinJoff!is!way!bigger!than!that.!You!
should!think!of!hotel!stays!and!the!catering!industries.!

IV.7.+Value+for+the+cycling+sport+
"

Of"course"cycling"race"organizations"provide"also"value"for"cyclists"and"their"teams."

Anton"Ganzeboom"(SZT):"we!create!employment!for!cyclists!as"the"organizers"all"pay"fees"
75"
"

to"their"(best)"participants."Volta"Limburg"Classic"has"some"specific"value"for"talented"riders"
according"to"Roy"Packbier:"The!Volta!Limburg!Classic!is!the!stepJup!to!the!real!top.!Former!
winners! that! became! later! really! famous! are! Michael! Boogerd! and! Tony! Martin! (Both"
competed" on" the" WorldTour" level," Michael" Boogerd" became" national" champion" and" Tony"
Martin"became"even"world"champion"on"the"time"trial)."

76"
"

APPENDIX+V++CSV+JUDGEMENT+
V.1.+General+overview+
0)

Characteristic"cannot"be"applied"

1)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"but"to"a"small"extent"

2)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"to"a"certain"extent"

3)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"

4)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"very"well"

Overview!

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

3"

1"

3"

2"

3"

3"

1"

2"

3"

2"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

1"

3"

2"

2"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!

2"

1"

3"

2"

2"

CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!

2"

2"

3"

2"

3"

Total!score!

11"

6"

14"

11"

15"

Characteristics!
Joint!community!and!organizational!value!
creation!
CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!
highest!sportive!level)!

and!internally!generated!

"

V.2.+Detailed+judgement+
0)

Characteristic"cannot"be"applied"or"below"average;"

1)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"to"some"extent;"

2)

Characteristic"can"be"applied"very"well"or"above"average."

"
Ronde!Van!Drenthe!
Characteristics!

!
Cycling!

!
Side!

Overall!

77"
"

race!

events!

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!creation!

1"

2"

3"

CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!highest!

1"

2"

3"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

0"

1"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!and!

1"

1"

2"

2"

0"

2"

sportive!level)!

internally!generated!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!

+
"
Ronde!Van!Zeeland!Seaports!

Cycling!

Side!

race!

events!

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!creation!

1"

0"

1"

CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!highest!

1"

0"

1"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

0"

1"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!and!

1"

0"

1"

2"

0"

2"

Characteristics!

Overall!

sportive!level)!

internally!generated!!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!
"

78"
"

"
Volta!Limburg!Classic!

Cycling!

Side!

race!

events!

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!creation!

1"

2"

3"

CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!highest!

1"

1"

2"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

2"

3"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!and!

1"

2"

3"

2"

1"

3"

Characteristics!

Overall!

sportive!level)!

internally!generated!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!
"
Ster!ZLM!Toer!!GP!Jan!Van!Heeswijk!

Cycling!

Side!

race!

events!

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!creation!

1"

1"

2"

CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!highest!

2"

1"

3"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

2"

0"

2"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!and!

1"

1"

2"

2"

0"

2"

Characteristics!

Overall!

sportive!level)!

internally!generated!!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!!

79"
"

"
Arnhem!Veenendaal!Classic!

Cycling!

Side!

race!

events!

Joint!community!and!organizational!value!creation!

2"

1"

3"

CSV!is!integral!to!competing!(achieving!the!highest!

1"

1"

2"

CSV!value!is!integral!to!maximizing!profit!

1"

1"

2"

The!CSV!agenda!is!specific!per!organization!and!

1"

1"

2"

2"

1"

3"

Characteristics!

Overall!

sportive!level)!

internally!generated!!
CSV!realigns!the!entire!organizations!budget!

80"
"

APPENDIX+VI++AMBIDEXTERITY+JUDGEMENT+
Structural!ambidexterity!

RvD!

Exploitation?focused"and"exploration?focused"

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

1!

0"

1"

1"

1"

1!

0"

1"

1"

1"

1!

0"

1"

1"

1"

Roles"of"employees"are"relatively"clearly"defined."

1!

1"

1"

1"

1"

Employees"are"more"specialists."

1!

1"

1"

1"

1"

It"is"challenging"to"coordinate"across"units"and"to"

1!

0"

1"

0"

1"

activities"are"done"in"separated"teams"or"units."
There"is"locus"of"balance"between"exploitation"
and"exploration"at"the"top"of"the"organization."
The"top"management"proactively"defines"
structure"and"makes"trade?offs"between"
exploitation"and"exploration."

managing"contradictions"at"the"senior"
management"team."
"
Contextual!ambidexterity!

RvD!

RvZS!

VLC!

SZT!

AVC!

The"right"organizational"context"stimulates"

1!

0"

0"

1"

0"

There"is"locus"of"balance"at"employee"or"business" 1!

0"

0"

1"

0"

1!

0"

1"

1"

0"

Roles"of"employees"are"relatively"flexible."

0!

0"

0"

1"

0"

Employees"are"more"generalists."

0!

0"

0"

1"

0"

individual"employees"to"divide"their"time"
between"exploitation?focused"and"exploration?
focused"activities"in"an"optimal"way."

unit"level."
The"top"management"develops"supportive"
structure"in"which"individual"employees"act."

81"
"

Managing"contradictions"between"exploitation"

0!

0"

0"

1"

0"

and"exploration"within"organizational"units"is"a"
challenge."
"

82"
"