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Teacher's Pack title page 24/9/02 2:41 pm Page 1

Contents
Introduction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

The particle model of solids, liquids and gases


Cells
Acids and alkalis
Reproduction
Energy resources
Simple chemical reactions
Forces and their effects
Environment and feeding relationships
Solutions
Electrical circuits
Variation and classification
The Solar System and beyond

End of Unit test mark record


Technician notes
Framework matching chart

2
4
44
84
120
160
202
242
298
338
378
420
458
499
501
519

Non-specialist Teacher Pack


Brian Arnold Geoff Jones Mary Jones Emma Poole

Ab Science Teachers Intro

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Page 2

Introduction
Absolute Science has been written to support the new Framework for Teaching
Science Years 7, 8 and 9 and fits exactly to the format of the Key Stage 3 Scheme
of Work from QCA.
The Pupil Books and Teacher Packs can be used in conjunction with each other or
as stand-alone teaching tools, to deliver fully the National Curriculum statutory
orders and implement the Framework for Teaching Science Years 7, 8 and 9.

Pupil Book
Each chapter in the Pupil Book contains:
A real-world example at the beginning of each chapter to give pupils a context
for the theory they are about to learn
Science content which matches the Scheme of Work
Questions interspersed throughout the text to reinforce and
consolidate learning are denoted by this icon.
Hints, tips and extra activities are denoted by this icon.
Think about questions for group or whole class discussion are
denoted by this icon.
YOU MAY BE ABLE
TO DO

WORKSHEET A1,
DENSITY OF A
MATERIAL.

acb?

Investigation activities contained on Worksheets in this Teacher Pack


are flagged by this icon.
This gives pupils an exact reference for where the investigation fits in with the
theory, but also gives the teacher the flexibility of deciding whether to carry
out the investigation or not.
A literacy activity at the end of each chapter are denoted by this icon.
A summary of Key ideas and Key words at the end of each chapter
A section of differentiated End of chapter questions

Specialist and Non-specialist Teacher Packs


Absolute Science has two Teacher Packs per year. One is for specialist, experienced
Science teachers, and one is for non-specialist Science teachers and newly qualified
teachers. The Non-specialist Teacher Pack is also ideal for cover lessons.

Both Teacher Packs contain:


Starting points, detailing what pupils should already know from their Key Stage
2 studies
A Language for learning checklist which denotes all language to be introduced
within the chapter
A Learning checklist denoting the key concepts pupils should be taught within
the chapter
Links to other Units in the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work and the Key Stage 3
Scheme of Work
Suggestions for Cross-curricular links, and Literacy, Numeracy and ICT activities
Learning outcomes for each chapter at three different levels
A Topic list for each chapter and accompanying teacher notes
Programme of Study references

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Introduction
A learning checklist for pupils
An overarching Lesson plan (usually eight per chapter) denoting lesson focus,
expectations for the lesson at three different levels, together with a list of
resources for each lesson
Practical and non-practical worksheets. All worksheets can be used with the
whole class since questions on each worksheet are matched to the three levels
of learning outcome as denoted on the overarching Lesson plan. Therefore,
more able pupils will be able to complete all questions, whereas less able
pupils should only be expected to answer the core questions
Extension worksheets for the most able pupils
A differentiated End of Unit test with exemplar mark scheme denoting
suggested levels
Answers to all Pupil Book and worksheet questions
An End of Unit test mark record sheet
A summary of the Technician notes for each lesson
Framework matching charts
In addition, the Non-specialist Teacher Pack contains:
Teaching hints and tips for each chapter
Detailed lesson plans containing starter activities and plenaries, together with
homework suggestions
All material contained in the Non-specialist Teacher Pack is contained on a fully
customisable CD-ROM giving the teacher full flexibility in the use of Absolute
Science.

Absolute Science and the QCA Scheme of Work


Absolute
Science
Chapter
2
4
8
11
3
6
1
9
5
10
7
12

Scheme of Work
Unit

Scheme of Work Unit title

7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
7G
7H
7I
7J
7K
7L

Cells
Reproduction
Environment and feeding relationships
Variation and classification
Acids and alkalis
Simple chemical reactions
Particle model of solids, liquids and gases
Solutions
Energy resources
Electrical circuits
Forces and their effects
The solar system and beyond

The Absolute Science Website


Log on to www.CollinsEducation.com/absolutescience to see:
Web-links for each chapter for Year 7 material
Extra teaching notes and worksheets to supplement the printed resources
Regularly updated Science Summaries which provide a digest of Science in the
news
The free teacher notes for the Absolute Science Key Stage 2Key Stage 3
Transition Project
Updated material arising from advances in Science or curriculum developments

Ab Sci InX Tch Notes Unit 1

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A PT ER

CH

1
7.5

HRS

MING

1 The particle model of solids,


liquids and gases

TI

AC

HER NO

Starting points
Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:
QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7b

TE

18/9/02

Not all solids are soluble


Separating mixtures of solids and liquids
Know that not all liquids contain water
Know that all materials are made up of very small particles

Language for learning


Boiling point
Compressible
Condense
Density
Diffusion
Expand

Expansion gap
Flow
Freezing point
Gas
Hypothesis
Incompressible

Liquid
Matter
Melting point
Property
Shape
Solid

Strength
Theory
Unique

Learning checklist
In this topic pupils should learn:
to classify different materials as solids, liquids or gases
that some materials can be much harder to classify
how to share and evaluate other peoples ideas
that new evidence may be used to change an existing theory
how to calculate the density of regular or irregular objects
how particles are arranged in solids, liquids and gases
how particles move in solids, liquids and gases
how to use a model to explain the behaviour of matter such as expansion,
pressure and diffusion
about changes of state

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
4D
5C
5D
6C

Title
Solids, Liquids And How They Can Be Separated
Gases Around Us
Changing State
More About Dissolving

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

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1 The particle model of solids, liquids and gases

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7H
8A
8H
8I
9L

Title
Solutions
Food and Digestion
The Rock Cycle
Heating and Cooling
Pressure and Moments

Cross-curricular links
Design & Technology: Working Characteristics of Materials
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity on snowflakes in the Pupil Book.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Worksheets A1, Density and A5, Expansion and contraction of metals involve
numerical calculations.

ICT

ICT
Worksheet A1, Density, could be extended by placing the data collected into a
spreadsheet and using spreadsheet tools to interpret the data.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Describe and explain observations, using the particle model
Materials and their properties
Classify materials as solid, liquid or gas
Explain the classification of some difficult materials
Describe materials as being made of particles and describe the movement and
arrangement of these
Begin to use the particle model to explain phenomena such as the mixing of
liquids and the expansion of a metal bar

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Describe observations and try to offer explanations for them
Materials and their properties
Classify materials as solid, liquid or gas and recognise that materials are made
of particles

Pupils who have progressed further


Scientific enquiry
Compare explanations of a phenomenon and evaluate whether evidence
supports or refutes them
Materials and their properties
Use the particle model to explain a range of phenomena
HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002
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Topic List and Teaching Notes


States of matter
The Pupil Book introduces this topic by asking pupils to classify objects from a
cartoon as solids, liquids or gases. The pupils are then asked to justify why they
have classified the materials as they have.
The Pupil Book includes references to some objects that may prove more difficult
to classify, but should help to develop pupils ideas. Pupils may well come up
with many different and possibly incorrect ideas, but at this stage they should be
encouraged to consider and evaluate all of the ideas suggested.

Solids are dense


This section is introduced in the Pupil Book by considering different ideas about
matter that have existed historically. Pupils could then investigate the link
between ideas, hypotheses and theories.
Pupils should then be helped to investigate how the particles are arranged in solids.
There could be an opportunity to carry out an activity based on density.
Worksheet A1, Density, can be used and includes a series of questions that could
be used to reinforce pupils ideas about density.

Arrangement of particles in a solid


Pupils should be reminded that solids are dense. The Pupil Book could be used to
explain how solids have their own shape, are strong and incompressible.
Pupils could then carry out a series of experiments based on crystals using
Worksheet A2, Growing crystals of copper sulfate and Worksheet A3, Splitting crystals.

Care should be taken when splitting crystals. Goggles should be worn and
pupils should be aware of the dangers of using either razor blades or knives.
The questions on the worksheets could be used to develop pupils ideas about
how the particles are arranged in solids.

Arrangement of particles in liquids and gases


In this section pupils should learn how the particles are arranged in liquids and
gases by looking at the evidence in the Pupil Book.
The Pupil Book also includes a summary of how the particles are arranged in
solids, liquids and gases.
Worksheet A4, Expansion and contraction of solids, could be used to reinforce
pupils ideas.

Are the particles in solids moving?


This section is introduced in the Pupil Book by looking at some dramatic effects of
expansion on railway tracks and on the length of Concorde. The pupils are then
asked to apply expansion to a new situation.
Pupils could then complete the activity on expansion and contraction of solids
given on Worksheet A5, Expansion and contraction of metals. Some pupils may
believe that the particles themselves are actually expanding and it may be
worthwhile to discuss this common misconception.
The ideas in this section could be summarised using the following demonstration.
However, care needs to be taken to ensure that pupils are not injured when

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

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1 The particle model of solids, liquids and gases


falling from either side of the bench or table pupils can stand at either side of
the bench or table to catch fellow pupils.

Demonstration to show why particles need more room when they


vibrate more vigorously
Sit as many pupils as possible side by side on a bench or table.
Tell the pupils to sway gently from side to side.
You should then find that the pupils at the ends of the bench/table are pushed
off by the pupils in the middle. There is not enough room for them. Because
the pupils are moving they need more room. The space taken up by the pupils
has increased. By making the pupils sway a little more vigorously it may be
possible to push even more of their classmates off the bench/table.
From this exercise the pupils should gain a better grasp of the idea that when a
solid is heated the particles from which it is made vibrate more vigorously and
so need more space to move, i.e. the solid expands.

Are the particles moving in liquids?


In the next section pupils could be asked to reflect on why mercury is unusual
and why it is used in thermometers. Pupils should be encouraged to suggest that
liquids expand more than solids on heating.
Pupils should then be introduced to the phenomenon of diffusion in liquids.
Pupils are very familiar with the idea of mixing things together, e.g. sugar and
milk in a cup of tea, or flour and eggs if making a cake. Diffusion then can be
explained as mixing without stirring. Pupils can then be given the opportunity to
carry out the experiment in Worksheet A6, Diffusion in liquids.

Are the particles moving in gases?


Pupils could be reminded about the way that particles move in liquids. The Pupil
Book could then be used to introduce some situations that involve gases and
pupils should be helped to understand these phenomena in terms of the
proximity and motion of the particles in the gas.
Pupils will in their everyday life be familiar with diffusion in gases, even though
they dont realise it! Examples such as How are you able to the smell perfume or
the aftershave of someone on the far side of the room? Point out that the
windows are shut and there is no breeze. So how does the smell spread? The
same argument can be used for food smells, stink bombs etc.
The instructions and reinforcement questions for Brownian motion are given on
Worksheet A7, Brownian motion.
Two experiments that can be used to demonstrate diffusion in gases are described
below:

To show diffusion in gases using nitrogen dioxide, which is brown,


and air which is colourless
Place one jar containing air on top of another jar containing nitrogen dioxide
(open ends together, separated by a piece of glass).
Remove the glass and hold the jars together.
When the glass is removed the nitrogen dioxide gas quickly mixes with the air,
so both gas jars contain the brown gas.
Some pupils may ask if the mixing is occurring because air is heavier and is
therefore falling into the lower jar and pushing the brown gas upwards. This is an

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

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excellent question which you can answer by repeating the experiment with the
jars reversed. The gases still mix showing that it is not the difference in the
weights of the gases that is causing the mixing.

To show diffusion in gases using hydrogen chloride and ammonia


Before the experiment starts, pupils need to be shown that if hydrogen chloride
gas, which is colourless, comes into contact with ammonia, which is also
colourless, a chemical reaction takes place which produces the gas ammonium
chloride which is white.

cotton wool containing


hydrogen chloride
cotton wool soaked
in ammonia solution

After a few moments white ammonium chloride gas begins to form in the tube
showing that gas particles from both sides have travelled (diffused through the
air) along the tube before reacting.
Questions you could ask the pupils include:
Where exactly is the white ammonium chloride seen?
Which of these two gases is diffusing fastest?
Questions which could be asked to consolidate understanding include:
Why is diffusion in liquids slower than diffusion in gases?
Name three examples of a) diffusion in liquids and b) diffusion in gases.
Why cant diffusion take place in solids? Devise a simple experiment to show that
this is true (i.e. place one solid on top of another there is no mixing).

Changing states
In this section pupils could be given an opportunity to revise their models of the
three states of matter. The Pupil Book contains a summary of theses ideas and
pupils could be helped to construct a concept map to show this information. This
section could also be used to introduce pupils to changes of state and the Pupil
Book contains an activity based on this idea.

Teaching hints and tips


States of matter
Many pupils will benefit from seeing and touching examples of solids, liquids and
gases. You may also find it beneficial to prepare in advance some key phrases
that pupils could use to explain their ideas about the three states of matter. At
this stage encourage pupils to talk about particles rather than atoms or molecules.
Pupils often use the terms incorrectly and explaining the differences at this stage
will detract from the concepts being developed in this topic. The terms atoms and
molecules are fully covered at a latter point in the Scheme of Work.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

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1 The particle model of solids, liquids and gases

Solids are dense


In the introduction, explain how scientists ideas evolve and change as more data
becomes available and more research is undertaken, and that even today our
understanding of the world around us is not complete.
Some pupils may need help with the density calculations you may chose to do
this as a whole class activity.

Arrangement of particles in a solid

Safety point
Pupils should use forceps to manipulate crystals and thought should be
given to crystals to be used for this exercise. If copper sulfate is used,
pupils should be reminded that although the crystals are an attractive
colour, they are also corrosive and should not be handled or placed in the
mouth. If pupils do handle the crystals, make sure that they thoroughly
wash their hands.

Arrangement of particles in liquids and gases.


By the end of this lesson pupils should have a firm grasp of the arrangement of
particles in all three states of matter. Question 7 in the Pupil Book is a clear
consolidation question on the properties of solids, liquids and gases.

Are the particles in solids moving?


Be aware that at this age many pupils believe that solids expand on heating
because the particles themselves have got larger rather than they are simply
vibrating more.

Are the particles moving in gases?


Before carrying out the Brownian motion experiment, emphasise to pupils that
there are air particles as well as smoke particles present in the Brownian cells, but
that the air particles are so small that they cannot be seen.

Safety point
The demonstrations on Worksheets A8 and A9 involve the gases bromine
and nitrogen dioxide. Both of these gases are toxic. Ensure that you are
familiar with your schools policy for using these chemicals.

Changing states
If this is the first time that pupils have made concept maps they will need some
guidance and support on how to construct them (See enclosed example).

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes and


Living Things

1a, 1b, 2m

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

1b

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A PT ER

What I have learnt


The particle model of solids, liquids and gases

Checklist

CHE CK LI

ST

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Boiling point

Flow

Melting point

Compressible

Freezing point

Property

Condense

Gas

Shape

Density

Hypothesis

Solid

Diffusion

Incompressible

Strength

Expand

Liquid

Theory

Expansion gap

Matter

Unique

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to classify different


materials as solids, liquids or gases
I know that some materials can be
much harder to classify
I know how to share and evaluate
other peoples ideas
I know that new evidence may be
used to change an existing theory
I know how to calculate the density
of regular or irregular objects
I know how particles are arranged
in solids, liquids and gases
I know how particles move in
solids, liquids and gases
I know how to use a model to
explain the behaviour of matter
such as expansion, pressure and
diffusion
I know about changes of state

10

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

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ap

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Absolute Science Lesson Plan

Ch

12

Chapter 1 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
States of matter

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 46

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can classify materials as solids, liquids or gases, according to


their properties. Recognise that some materials are harder
to classify.

Less Able Pupils

Can identify a material as a solid, liquid or gas, stating how they


behave differently.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus begin to develop ideas on the nature of


particles in solids, liquids and gases.

Room Date

Equipment & resources needed


Blindfold game: Identifying solids,
liquids and gases (team quiz)
Examples of solids, liquids and gases,
such as bricks/stones, beaker of water,
empty bottle, ice cube, a peeled banana,
un-set and set jelly, foam, fizzy water, rice
pudding etc. Blindfolds (or blacked-out
goggles).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Subject-specific vocabulary encountered, e.g. matter, gas, solid, liquid, property.

Cross-curricular development

Class
Time 50Mixed
mins

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Direct pupils to begin reading Chapter 1, pp. 4 and 5.

Pupils gain understanding of the key words for the


lesson: matter, gas, solid, liquid, property.

10

Get pupils to stand up for this class activity: they cover


their eyes with their hands. Say the name of a
material. If pupils think the material is a solid, they should
turn to the left. If a liquid, they stay facing forwards. If a gas,
they turn to the right. After each material, pupils open their
eyes to see if they agree with everyone else.
Pupils can be given 'lives', so all pupils are included for
each material.

Pupils recall ideas learned at Key Stage 2 and receive


immediate feedback from responses.

As a class, discuss: The properties of a material are what


we use to decide which group the material belongs to.
Make the distinction between properties and descriptions:
a property describes how a material behaves.

Pupils review a range of properties of materials.


Not all materials are easy to categorise as solid, liquid
or gas.

12

The following blindfold game can be played as a team quiz.


One pupil is blindfolded and has to identify a material as a
solid, liquid or a gas. They can also score points for their
team, by stating some of the properties that the material has.

For a range of materials, pupils make a direct link


between properties and states of matter.

In discussion, pupils can be asked for their ideas about


materials that are hard to classify, such as foam or thick
custard. Teams from the blindfold game can discuss ideas,
before sharing with the whole class.

Pupils understand that some materials may be a


mixture of solid, liquid and/or gas.

Direct pupils to copy and complete the table on


Pupil Book p.4, and to answer Qs 2 and 3.

All pupils have a record of the states of materials.

Ask pupils to prepare a short presentation of the properties


of solids, liquids and gases.
Less able pupils can be asked to focus on one state of matter.

Pupils revisit the main objectives and express them


to the rest of the class.

Homework: Finish answers to Qs 1 to 3 in the Pupil Book.

Differentiation
Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

13

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Absolute Science Lesson Plan

Ch

14

Chapter 1 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Solids are dense

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 48

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Evaluate ideas of matter from history, understanding how evidence


is used to formulate a theory. Calculate the density of regular and
irregular objects.

Less Able Pupils

Know how to work out volume of regular and irregular objects,


and how to work out the density of an object.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can understand and evaluate theories and
hypothese regarding matter.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Ideas about the density of
solids
Wood, Blu-tak, glass, metals, plastic,
foam, etc.
Demo: Arrangement of particles
Large and small marbles (or balls),
transparent rectangular/square container.
Demo: Comparing masses of the same
volume
Small cubic/cuboidal shapes (with
measurable height, width and depth) of
polystyrene and lead (or any dense
metal). Balance.
Chapter 1 Information sheet
One sheet per pupil.
Worksheet A1 Density
Per group:
Regular shapes of at least 5 materials.
Irregular shapes of at least 5 materials, all
with densities greater than water's and of
size to fit into a measuring cylinder.
Measuring cylinder containing water.

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Direct pupils to read the ideas of the cartoon of philosophers on Pupil
Book p.4.

Ask three pupils to read aloud the philosophers ideas about matter. Invite
pupils to discuss these ideas in small groups and then report back to the
class. Highlight (Pupil Book p.5) how a hypothesis develops into a theory.

Introduce (Pupil Book pp.89) the modern theory of particles. Before


practical work on density, set up a demo on ideas about density of solids.
Use some of the range of materials as examples to handle. First establish a
working definition of high density as: A large mass for its size. Ask pupils
to write down the main points in their exercise books.

Pupils gain a basic understanding of particle


theory and of the principle of density, and
have a record of these ideas.

Demo on arrangement of particles: Use small and large marbles in a


container to show that particles close together result in higher density,
particles further apart results in lower density.

Pupils understand that matter which consists of particles


packed very close together has a high density.

Demo on comparing masses of the same volume: Masses of a cube of


polystyrene and of metal are compared using a mass balance. Ask pupils to
predict which has the higher density. Then ask for other examples of
materials with a higher or lower density than the materials being tested.
Refer back to particle arrangement.

Abler pupils will have more ideas for materials


of high and low density.

Pupils appreciate that different materials have different


densities: they can make predictions based on their
existing knowledge.

Ask pupils to write down the word equation for calculating density from
the Chapter 1 Information sheet. Briefly demonstrate how to calculate
the volume of a regular and irregular shaped object, giving a simple
example on the board.

Less able pupils can be grouped with more able


pupils. Faster working pupils will complete
testing of more materials in the time available.

Pupils use the equation for calculating density, knowing


that, in order to calculate density, they must first measure
mass and volume.

20

Ask pupils to carry out the practical investigation on Worksheet A1


Density, recording the results in their workbooks.

Pupils have a record of calculating the density


of regular and irregular objects.

10

Pupils can either answer the questions in the Worksheet into their books,
or, in small groups, they can report their findings to the class.

All pupils can have an input into small- group


work at their level of competence.

Pupils understand that there were alternative theories of


matter in historical times.
Abler pupils will take a more active part in
group discussion and in reporting back to the
class.

Homework: Complete calculations and answers to questions in Worksheet A1. Complete answers to Qs 4 and 5 in the Pupil Book.

Pupils understand the meaning and relationship between


the terms 'hypothesis' and 'theory'.

Pupils consolidate their understanding of mass, volume


and density in solids, in the light of particle theory.

15

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Absolute Science Lesson Plan

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Chapter 1 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Arrangement of particles in a solid

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 58

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can state the basic properties of a solid, and relate them to the
arrangement of particles. Know how to make copper sulfate
crystals using a simple method.

Less Able Pupils

Know that the way a solid behaves is related to the arrangment of


particles in it. Can follow a simple practical method to make
copper sulfate crystals.

More Able Pupils

All of above, plus begin to appreciate processes such as dissolving


and changes of state.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Density
A cube of metal and a same-volume cube
of polystyrene, tank of water to immerse
each in.
Worksheet A2 Growing crystals of
copper sulfate
Per group:
Bunsen burner, tripod, gauze, heat-proof
mat. Copper sulfate powder (or copper
sulfate solution). Storage space for
evaporating dish.
Goggles.

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
In discussion, encourage pupils to revisit the key ideas about density from the
previous lesson, particularly, a definition of density.

Demo on density: Ask pupils to make a prediction in the backs of their books
about the outcome of placing a cube of metal and a cube of polystyrene of
equal volume on the surface of a water tank. Then demonstrate this exercise and
instruct pupils to write down their ideas about their observations. Then discuss
these ideas as a class.

Referring to the cartoons on Pupil Book pp.57, encourage pupils to add to


their understanding of the properties of solids: strong/incompressible/
definite shape).

Pupils understand that solids are dense,


incompressible, hard and have a definite shape.

Quick demo on incompressibility: Ask four pupils to sit side by side on a single
desk at the front of the class. It should be a tight squeeze. Ask two more pupils
to stand either side of the desk and try to squeeze the pupils even closer
together. Explain that because the particles in a solid are already closely packed,
it makes them incompressible.

Pupils understand the relationship between


particle arrangement in a solid and compression.

Bookwork: Ask pupils to transfer into their workbooks a summary of their ideas
of particle arrangement in a solid, making reference to the properties of a solid.
Their answers to Qs 1 and 2 may help them.

Pair off pupils, ensuring that more able are paired with less able pupils. Instruct
pupils to collect and set up the equipment needed in Worksheet A2 Growing
crystals of copper sulfate. Before pupils start, briefly run through the method,
adapting according to whether pupils make their own solution or have it provided.

The abler support less able pupils. The more able pupils may
begin to consider processes such as dissolving and changes
of state (liquid to gas).

15

Pupils do only the first part of A2, since it takes a day or so for the crystals to
grow. Tell pupils that they will come back to the crystals in the following lesson.
After the activity, and when the equipment is sufficiently cool, instruct pupils to
clear away, leaving their evaporating dish of solution to crystallise.

Pupils add solid to liquid to form a solution. They observe a


liquid (water) being turned into a gas (water vapour), and the
effect of evaporation on the concentration of a solution.

10

Summary activity on solid modelling. Clear enough room for pupils to be


arranged in a grid of about 5 by 6. They should stand very close (even touching)
and place one hand on the shoulder of the person in front and the other on the
shoulder of the person next to them. Invite them to relate the structure and
connections they make to the properties of a solid.

Homework: Finish writing down the ideas on particle arrangement in solids for A2.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils consolidate previous information about density.

Less able pupils need more encouragement to


articulate their ideas (right or wrong).

Less able pupils could be given a summary sheet


of 'missing words' exercise to stick into their
books.

Some pupils can observe this exercise so as to get


an exterior view of the grid.

Pupils' ideas about floating/sinking and density are challenged


or confirmed, observing that an object with a greater
density than water will sink.

Ideas on properties of solids are given a new, active context.

Pupils actively review particle arrangement to understand how


it explains the properties of solids.

17

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Chapter 1 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Particle arrangement in liquids and gases

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 69

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Use observational skills to draw a diagram. Understand how the


properties of liquids and gases are a result of the arrangement of
their particles.

Less Able Pupils

Use observational skills to draw a diagam. Can state the properties


of liquids and gases. Draw a diagram of the particles in liquids and
gases.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus make predictions about particle arrangement


based on the properties of liquids and gases.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Examination of crystals
Crystals prepared in Lesson 3 (Worksheet A2)
Per pupil:
Magnifying glass.
Demo: Properties of liquids
Tank of water, object for immersion
denser than water, beaker of water,
conical flask (fluidity, take containers
shape); syringe (imcompressible); bucket
of water (dense)
Demo: Properties of gases
Balloon (take containers shape); syringe
(compressible); balance (to weigh balloon
gases have low density).
Worksheet A3 Splitting crystals (optional)
Cotton thread or thin string. Beaker of
saturated copper sulfate solution.
Plasticine, razor blade or scalpel, hammer.

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

In and register.
Examination of crystals: Ask pupils to collect and examine their copper sulfate
crystals using a magnifying glass, and to make a drawing in their exercise books.

Pupils use their observation and drawing skills.

Instruct pupils to dispose of the crystals, except for one crystal. This can be used
(optionally) to grow a larger crystal and investigate where it can be split, see
Worksheet A3 Splitting crystals. Briefly discuss the main findings.

Pupils experience the phenomenon of particles in solids being


arranged in uniform shapes and structures.

10

Demo of properties of liquids: 1 Liquids are not strong sink an object in water.
2 Liquids can flow and have no definite shape pour water from a beaker and
it takes the shape of a conical flask. 3 Liquids cannot be squashed try
compressing a sealed syringe of water. 4 Liquids are dense - ask a pupil to lift
a bucketful of water.

Pupils experience properties of liquids.

Bookwork: Refer pupils to the cartoons on Pupil Book, pp.68, and ask them to
draw a spider diagram to illustrate 'The properties of liquids'.

10

Demo of properties of gases: 1 Gases fill up the container they are in blow
up a balloon. 2 Gases are easily compressed squeeze the balloon, or use a
sealed syringe containing air. 3 Gases have low density compare the mass of a
balloon and a solid object of equal size.

Bookwork: Refer pupils to Pupil Book pp.6-8 and ask them to draw a spider
diagram to illustrate 'The properties of gases'.

Ask the more able pupils to construct their own


spider diagram, before referring to the Pupil Book.

Pupils have a record of the properties of gases.

Ask pupils to copy into their workbooks the diagrams on Pupil Book pp.8 and 9
of the particle arrangements in solids, liquids and gases.

Ask abler pupils to first offer their own ideas on


particle arrangement (that will be confirmed/
adapted through consulting the Pupil Book.

Pupils understand the relationship between properties and


particle structures in solids, liquids and gases.

Support pupils working in pairs and asking questions, as they review all the
main points concerning properties and particle arrangement. They can then
complete Q 7 on Pupil Book p.9.

More able pupils can be paired with each other


to reflect the level and complexity of their
questions.

Pupils consolidate ideas on properties and structures of liquids


and gases.

Ask the more able pupils to construct their own


spider diagram, before referring to the Pupil Book.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils have a record of the properties of liquids.


Pupils experience the properties of gases.

Homework: After the demos, complete the spider diagrams The properties of liquids and The properties of gases. Answer Pupil Book Qs 6 and 7.

19

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Chapter 1 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Are the particles in solid moving?

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 912

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand how the movement of particles in a solid is affected by


temperature. Relate temperature change to the phenomena of
expansion and contraction.

Less Able Pupils

Know that particles in a solid are affected by temperature. Know


that when solids get hot they expand.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus can make predictions about particle


arrangement during expansion and contraction. Translate
expansion and contraction theory to alternative situations.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Worksheet A4 Expansion and
contraction of solids
Ball and ring, Bunsen burner.
Extension: Lengthening of wire
Per group:
Approx 40 cm of copper wire, 2 retort
stands, 50 g mass to suspend above
bench from wire, Bunsen burner, metre
ruler.
Worksheet A5 Expansion and
contraction of metals
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Understanding of words such as 'expansion', 'contraction' and 'phenomena'.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils to recap the particle models for solids, liquids and gases by referring
to their workbooks.

Pupils can swap books and evaluate each others'


notes.

Pupils review last lesson's learning objectives.

Direct pupils to look at the examples of expansion in solids, Pupil Book pp.910.
Ask them to answer Q 8 about the Eiffel Tower (possibly drawing a diagram to
illustrate it).

As a class demo, carry out the activity of Worksheet A4 Expansion and


contraction of solids. Ask pupils in pairs to discuss and predict the effect of
heating the ball, and to offer explanations using the particle model.

Address misconceptions that it is the particles themselves that are expanding


(getting bigger). Highlight that it is the movement of the particles that causes
expansion.

Pupils understand that an increase in temperature promotes


movement of particles in a solid.

Demo: To illustrate this fact, ask four pupils to sit side by side on a desk, facing
the rest of the class. Pupils should sway their heads from side to side to indicate
the vibration of the particles. As more 'heat' is introduced, the pupils begin to
sway their bodies. This has the effect of forcing the outer pupils off the desk.

Pupils understand that particles in a solid are vibrating. At


higher temperatures, this movement increases, causing the
material to expand.

15

Extend Worksheet A4 by asking pupils to investigate the effect of heating a


copper wire attached at each end to a retort stand with a small mass suspended
from the middle. Explain that they will record the effect of heating the wire as
the change in height of the mass from the table, but they must first predict the
effect. They should write a short method, then carry out the investigation.

Instruct pupils to write up their investigation on the heated wire, and to clear
all the equipment away.

Pupils should answer the questions in Worksheet A4. If time, abler pupils can
carry out Worksheet A5 Expansion and contraction of metals. They can do
this individually into their books or as an oral class exercise.

Pupils observe real examples of solids expanding and form a


relationship between temperature and the expansion of solids.
Expect more confident predictions from the
more able.

Pupils relate particle theory to the physical phenomenon of


expansion/contraction.

More able pupils can be paired with less able.


Faster pupils may have the time to answer the
Worksheet questions.

Pupils make predictions on the basis of the class


demonstration. They observe that heating a wire increases its
length, knowing that this is because the movement of particles
increases.

Abler pupils can research for A5 Q 10 as


Homework.

Pupils have a record of measuring expansion, and they have


reinforced the ideas and principles of expansion through
learning about different situations.

Homework: Pupils can finish writing up their account of the wire-heating investigation. They should complete Worksheet A5. Abler pupils can research into other situations where expansion or contraction of solids is
either helpful or problematic (A5 Q 10).

21

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Chapter 1 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 1013
Are the particles in liquids and gases moving?
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that liquids and gases expand or contract as they are


heated or cooled, and can relate this phenomenon to a particle
model. Can show that diffusion occurs because particles in liquids
and gases are always moving.

Less Able Pupils

Know that when liquids and gases get hot they expand, and as
they get cold they contract. Know that diffusion means 'mixing
without strirring'. Can state that diffusion does not happen in
solids.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus consider the relationship between


temperature and pressure of a gas.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Undersanding of the term 'diffusion'.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Expansion of liquids
Round-bottomed flask brim-full of
coloured water (food colouring). Bung
with 40 cm capillary tube into the
coloured water. Bunsen burner. Stand and
clamp. Ruler to measure height of water
in tube.
Worksheet A6 Diffusion in liquids
Per group:
Two beakers. Small amount of ink or
powdered potassium manganate(VII).
200 cm3 of cold water and of hot water.
Demo: Expansion and contraction of
gases
Clamped upside-down: empty roundbottomed flask with capillary tubing
containing water, with end in beaker of
water. (Flask heated by hands.)
Beaker of water. Diagram: For less able
pupils, 3-stage diagram: before heating,
during heating, during cooling.
Demo: Movement of gas particles, use
(a) Worksheet A7 Brownian motion
If conducted as a class activity, per group:
Brownian cell and cover slip; string (to
smoulder); low power microscope. OR
(b) Aerosol

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Chapter 1 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

In and register.
Ask pupils to recap the expansion of solids from their workbooks.

Pupils consolidate learning outcomes from Lesson 5.

Using Pupil Book p.10, introduce pupils to the role of mercury in thermometers.
Ask them to speculate on what happens to mercury if it gets hot/cold; refer to
the particle model of liquids. Ask Question 9 on p.10 and highlight the fact that
mercury is an unusual metal in being a liquid at room temperature.

Pupils appreciate that, unlike most metals, mercury is a liquid


at room temperature and that it expands when heated and
contracts when it cools.

Demo on expansion of liquids: Use the round-bottomed flask of coloured


water. Record the height of the water up the tubing. Ask pupils to work in pairs
to predict the effect heating will have on the water in the tube. Heat the flask,
then let it cool, noting the height of the water each time. Point out that liquids
seem to expand more than solids.

Pairing more and less able pupils, direct the class to carry out Worksheet A6
Diffusion in liquids. Instruct them to note down observations in their
workbooks, and to work out an explanation of these observations. To this end,
ask questions that will elicit the learning outcomes on the right.

Pupils observe that: solids can dissolve in liquids; diffusion is


'mixing without stirring'; diffusion happens faster in hot water.
Pupils deduce that: the particles in hot water move faster than
those in cold water.

Direct pupils to clear away equipment. Ask one or two groups to present their
main findings and explanation of observations.

Pupils record observations of diffusion and explain it in terms


of particles and temperature.

Demo on expansion and contraction of gases: Clamp the flask upside down
so that the end of the capillary tube (filled with water) is below the level of
water in the beaker. Ask a pupil to warm the flask with their hands, and the class
to observe what happens. Then the pupil removes their hands, and the class
observes what happens again. Ask the class to use the particle model to explain
what happened to the gas inside the flask.

Pupils learn that, like liquids, gases expand when heated and
contract when cooled.

Ask pupils to draw a 3-stage diagram of the last demo and to add explanatory
notes. Provide less able pupils with a diagram to copy. Ask more able pupils to
consider the pressure of the gas, inside and outside the flask. Meanwhile, set up
the next demo.

10

For a Demo on movement of gas particles, either use Worksheet A7 Brownian


motion; or, if time is short, spray a perfumed aerosol at the front of the class and
ask pupils to put up their hands as they smell it. Safety: Do not do this if there
are pupils with asthma. Ask pupils to review the evidence from this activity with
activity A6, to compare speeds of particles in a gas and in a liquid. Ask them to
speculate on diffusion in solids.

10

Divide pupils into groups of four and ask them to work out and write down an
explanation of one aspect of the lesson, using particle arrangement in liquids
and gases. Encourage them to pick an area they were unsure about during
the lesson.

Abler pupils make more predictions about the


effect of heating water.
liquids expand more than solids.

Less able pupils are supported with a diagram to


copy. More able pupils speculate on the pressure
of the gas, inside and outside the flask.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils learn that all liquids expand and contract in response to


temperature change. For any given increase in temperature,

Pupils have a graphic record of the demo on expansion and


contraction of gases.

Pupils observe evidence that: particles in a gas are moving


very quickly, and that diffusion in gases happens faster than in
liquids. Pupils hypothesise that diffusion is impossible in
solids.

Less able pupils will need more guidance in


formulating explanations.

Pupils have a record comparing particle movement in liquids


and gases, and the effect of temperature on particle
movement.

Homework: Complete the record of observations and results from (specified) demonstrations and Worksheet A6. Answer Pupil Book p.10 Q 10 and p.12 Q 11.

23

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Chapter 1 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Changing state

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 1415

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Use ICT models of particle theory to consolidate their


understanding. State the terms that describe changes of state and
relate these to particle theory. Know that different materials have
different melting and boiling points.

Less Able Pupils

Can use ICT models of solids, liquids and gases. Know the terms
for changes of state. Know that different materials have different
melting and boiling points.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus know that some materials can change
directly from a solid into a gas.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Optional: Particle theory computer
models
Computer(s), CD-ROM resources.
Demo: Solid to liquid change of state
Ice cubes, Bunsen burner, beaker,
thermometer.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

The meaning of: melting, freezing, boiling, condense.


An opportunity to use software to model the particle theory of solids, liquids and gases.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils to revisit ideas on expansion and contraction from Lesson 6.

15 (optional)

Pupils can spend part of this lesson using computer generated models of particle
theory (CD-ROM or internet based).

Refer pupils to Pupil Book p.14 to assimilate the definitions of the terms:
freezing, melting, evaporating and condensing. Present definitions with
particular reference to water.

10

Demo on soild to liquid state change: It may be helpful to demonstrate the


melting of an ice cube in a beaker over a Bunsen then the production of steam.
Instruct pupils to note down the changes in their workbooks using the above
terms.

As a class read through Pupil Book 14 and 15, then ask pupils to attempt
Qs 14, 15 and 16 about materials and their melting/boiling points.

10

Arrange pupils in small groups of 5 or 6 and ask them to prepare a 3-minute


presentation on 'changing state', using themselves to model the particles of a
solid, a liquid and a gas. Choose more able pupils to direct the activities of the
groups. One pupil who is not part of the 'material' should explain what is
happening.

Consolidation of key ideas: basic particle structure and


properties, expansion and contraction, and changes of state.

15

As time permits: Groups make their presentations to the rest of the class.
Ask pupils to comment on the presentations and to make notes in their
workbooks on the aspects that they found to be well presented.

Pupils have a record of all aspects of the topic of changing


state and have been encouraged to think critically.

Pupils experience alternative format and presentation of


particle theory.
Encourage more able pupils to change the
information in the book into their own words.

Pupils name the processes of changing solids to liquids to


gases and know that these changes are reversible.
Pupils observe state changes solid to liquid to gas, and use the
appropriate term for the processes.

More able pupils consider sublimation.

Homework: Complete record of the demo and presentation; write down answers to Qs 14, 15 and 16.

Pupils understand that different materials have different


melting and boiling points.

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Chapter 1 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Revision and consolidation of Chapter 1

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 Chapter 1

Expectations
Most Pupils

Will have an understanding of the particle model of solids, liquids


and gases.

Less Able Pupils

Will have a basic understanding of the topic.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus will be fluent in all aspects of the topic using
the full range of specific vocabulary.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Identify, use and explain key words.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Activity 1 Snowflakes
Pupil Book p.16. Dictionaries.
Activity 3 Mind map for topic
Large sheets of paper (A3). Markers.

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Chapter 1 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 1 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

This lesson can be run as a circus of four activities, each to be attempted in a


given time period (10 mins). All activities can be done simultaneously by a
quarter of the pupils before they move on to the next activity. Explain this to
the pupils and briefly describe the activities.

10

Activity 1 'Snowflakes': Direct pupils to read the literacy activity on Pupil Book
p.16, then answer the questions in their workbooks (make dictionaries
available).

10

Activity 2: Ask pupils to answer Qs 7 and 9 on pp.910. Work is set according


to time, not the number of questions that must be completed. Therefore, less
able students can work at their own pace.

Abler pupils complete questions more quickly


than less able pupils.

10

Activity 3 Mind map: Arrange pairs, with a more and a less able pupil in each
pair. Ask them to use the 'Key ideas' and 'Key words' on p.17 to construct a
mind map of the topic on large sheets of paper.

More able pupils could be asked to team up


with those less able.

10

Activity 4: Ask pupils to answer Q 8 and 10 from p.10.

Abler pupils complete questions more quickly


than less able pupils.

Instruct pupils to tidy away materials. Conduct a brief discussion of any


major points.

Homework: Answer Pupil Book p.18 End of chapter Qs 1 and 2.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils gain an understanding of scientific enquiry, extending


their subject related vocabulary.

Pupils have a record of the links they make between areas of


the topic.

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Information sheet (page 1)


Finding the density of a material
If we take a large number of small marbles and pour them into a plastic
container or beaker we can see that the marbles pack together very tightly
with only small gaps between them. If we repeat the experiment with larger
marbles they do not pack together quite so tightly and there will be larger
gaps between them.

The smaller marbles are packed together more densely than the larger
marbles.
10

cm

10

cm

10 cm

Each of these cu
1 cm 1 cm

Each of these cubes has the


same mass of 11 g.

1 cm

The particles of a piece of lead are packed together more densely than those
of polystyrene foam. Lead has a higher density than polystyrene foam.
To find the density of a material from which an object is made we need to
know the mass of an object made from that material and its volume. We can
then calculate its density using the equation.
Density =

mass
volume

Finding the mass of an object

To find the mass of an object we use a balance. Small masses we measure in


grams (g). Larger masses we measure in kilograms (kg).
1000 g = 1 kg

continued

28

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Ab Sc InX WrkShts Ch1

Information sheet (page 2)


Finding the volume of an object
If an object has a regular shape we can measure its length, width and height
and use these to calculate its volume.
Volume of block = length width height
Volume of block = 4 cm 2 cm 3 cm = 24 cm3
If the object has an irregular shape we have to use a different method of
measuring its volume. We use a measuring cylinder.
1 Pour some water into a measuring cylinder. Write down its volume.
2 Place the object in the water. Watch the water level rise.
3 Write down the new volume of the water.
4 Calculate the volume of the object using the equation
Volume of the object = new volume of water old volume of water.
50

50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

In this case the volume of the stone is 20 cm3 10 cm3 = 10 cm3.


To find the density of the object we now use the equation
Density =

mass
volume

If the mass of the stone is 50 g


50 g
10 cm3
Density of stone = 5 g/cm3

Density of stone =

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A1 Density

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Select 5 regular objects and 5 irregular objects and work out their densities.
Use the tables below to record your results.
Object

Length
(cm)

Height
(cm)

Width
(cm)

Volume
(cm3)

Mass
(g)

Density
(g per cm3)

Iron
block

24

48

Object

Old water
New water
Volume of
Mass
volume (cm3) volume (cm3) object (cm3) (g)

Density
(g per cm3)

Stone

20

2.0

50

30

60

Questions
1 Calculate the density of the following materials.
a A piece of wood, whose volume is 2 cm3 and mass is 1.3 g.
b A piece of steel, whose volume is 8 cm3 and mass is 64 g.
c A piece of glass whose volume is 20 cm3 and mass 52 g.
d A piece of cork whose volume is 200 cm3 and mass 48 g.
2 Find out which of the above materials will float in water. Can you see a
pattern?
Hint: Find out the density of water.

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A2 Growing crystals of
copper sulfate
1 Pour some saturated* copper sulfate solution into an evaporating dish
until it is between 23 and 34 full.
*A saturated solution of copper sulfate is made by adding copper sulfate
to water until no more will dissolve.

saturated solution
of copper sulfate

2 Put on a pair of goggles and heat the solution gently. Use a flame which is
just off yellow, i.e. open the air hole so that the yellow flame just
disappears. Try to avoid boiling the liquid. If the solution starts to bubble
remove the Bunsen burner from under the tripod and gauze and let the
liquid cool down a little before heating it again.
3 When half of the liquid has evaporated, turn the Bunsen burner off and
let the evaporating dish and its contents cool.
4 Place a piece of paper over the dish to prevent any dust or dirt getting
into the solution, then leave the dish somewhere safe for several days.
Crystals should form in the bottom and around the edges of your
evaporating dish.
5 Draw one or two of the crystals you have grown.
6 Do the crystals have the same basic shape?
7 What does this suggest about the arrangement of the copper sulfate
particles?

Growing larger crystals of copper sulfate


1 Take one of the crystals you have grown in the experiment described
above and fix it to a length of thin string or cotton.
2 Suspend the crystal in a saturated solution of copper sulfate as shown
below.

copper sulfate crystal


saturated solution
of copper sulfate
3 After about a day or two, look carefully at the crystal. Has the crystal
grown? What is its shape? Why does it have this shape? What does this
suggest about the arrangement of copper sulfate particles within the
crystal?

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A3 Splitting crystals

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1 Take a crystal and press it firmly into a piece of plasticine.


2 Place a sharp edge such as a razor blade or scalpel on top of the crystal so
that the blade is parallel to any straight face you can see on the crystal
surface.

Safety: Be careful when using sharp instruments!


3 Give the blade a sharp tap with a small hammer. What happens to the
crystal?
4 Now place the blade so that it is not parallel to any flat faces. Give it a
sharp tap. What happens this time? Can you explain the difference? What
does this suggest about the particles in the crystal?

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A4 Expansion and
contraction of solids (page 1)
The diagrams below show the same telephone wires in the summer and in
the winter.

summer

winter

The wires appear to be longer in the summer than they are in the winter.
Can you explain why this happens?
We can demonstrate this phenomenon in the laboratory by carrying out the
experiment described below.

1 Check that the ball will fit through the ring.


2 Warm the ball for 1520 seconds in a hot Bunsen flame.
3 Check to see if the ball will fit through the ring.

Safety: Do not touch the ball when heated!


4 Wait several minutes for the ball to cool down.
5 Check to see if the ball will fit through the ring.
6 Write a few sentences to explain what you have discovered from this
experiment.
7 Explain your observations using the particle theory.
8 What is a phenomenon?

continued

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A4 Expansion and
contraction of solids (page 2)
Questions
1 Why would it not be a good idea to hang new
telephone wires like those shown in the
diagram in the summer?

2 If you have a bottle with a screw top that is too


stiff to undo, try placing the top under a hot
water tap. Why might this make the top easier to
unscrew?

3 Explain why one end of this bridge is supported on rollers. What would
happen if both ends of the bridge had fixed ends?

Road made from


concrete slabs.
4 a
b
c

34

What will happen to the concrete slabs on a hot summers day?


What would happen to the slabs if there were no expansion gaps?
Why are the gaps filled with tar?

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A5 Expansion and
contraction of metals
A metal bar is measured. At room temperature its length is exactly
100.00 cm. The bar is then placed in a freezer over night. In the morning,
immediately after being removed from the freezer it is re-measured and is
99.70 cm long.
1 By how much has the length of the bar changed?
2 Has the bar expanded or contracted?
3 Why has the length of the bar changed?
The same bar is now placed in a hot oven for an hour. When it is measured it
is now found to be 101.10 cm long.
4 By how much has the length of the bar changed compared with its
length at room temperature?
5 Has the bar expanded or contracted?
6 Why has the length of the bar changed?
7 What happened to the width of the bar during this experiment?
8 What would happen if the experiment was repeated with a bar which
was twice as long?
9 Does the temperature of the freezer and of the oven affect how much
the bar expands or contracts?
10 Can you think of two situations where the expansion and contraction of
materials is
a used to our advantage and
b a disadvantage that we must allow for?

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A6 Diffusion in liquids

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After 5 minutes

After 15 minutes

1 Pour some cold water into a beaker until it is 34 full.


2 Very gently add one small drop of ink or dye.
3 Watch what happens to the colour of the water over the next 15 minutes.
4 Now repeat steps 1 to 3 but using hot water rather than cold water.
After a while you will see that the colour begins to spread through the
water, until all the water is coloured. The ink/dye particles have moved
through the water particles, without being stirred. This is called diffusion.
When you repeated the experiment using hot water, what did you notice?
Why do you think this happens?

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A7 Brownian motion

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1 Your teacher will help


you connect your
Brownian cell to a
power supply.

microscope
glass rod
lamp

2 Light one end of a


piece of string. Allow
it to burn for a few
seconds, then blow out
the flame.

cover slip
smoke
glass cell

3 Whilst the string is still smouldering, push the burnt end inside the cell so
that the cell fills with smoke.
4 Remove the string and immediately place a glass cover slip over the open
end of the cell, so that the smoke cannot escape.
5 Place the cell beneath the objective lens of your microscope. It is usually
best to use the least powerful lens if you have several to choose from,
e.g. if you have a choice of 10 or 100, choose the 10 lens.
6 Looking from the side of the microscope, lower the microscope until the
objective lens is almost touching the cover slip.
7 Whilst looking down the microscope, slowly turn the screw so that the
microscope lens moves upwards.
8 If all goes well, you should see some very small silvery dots moving around
within the cell. If you cannot see the dots, then repeat steps 6 and 7. If
after 5 minutes you can still see nothing, go back to step 2 and put some
new smoke into your cell.
During the experiment there are smoke particles, small
pieces of ash, and air particles trapped in the cell. Air
particles are too small to be seen even with very
powerful microscopes so the silvery specks you can see
are smoke particles. They look silvery because they are
reflecting light from the lamp.
If you look carefully you can see that a) the smoke
particles are moving in all different directions and
b) the direction of any particular smoke particle keeps
changing. This type of motion can only be caused by the
air particles inside the cell. There is nothing else in there.
The air particles must be colliding with the smoke particles, making them
move.
Smoke particles
move in a
haphazard way.

Air particles are extremely small compared with smoke particles (compare
the size of a pea with the size of an elephant). If they are able to move the
much larger smoke particles they must be travelling at very high speeds.
Also, as the smoke particles are all being knocked in different directions the
air particles must also be moving in lots of different directions.
The evidence gathered from this experiment therefore suggests that the
particles of a gas are moving around at high speeds and in all directions.

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End of Unit test

TI

The particle model of solids, liquids and gases


1

The diagram below shows a bottle of squash.


Label the points a, b and c to show where there is a solid, a liquid or a gas.

(3)
2

Put the following materials into the table below.


nitrogen

stone

Solids

oxygen

oil

wood

Liquids

milk
Gases

(6)
3

The boxes drawn below show particles in each of the three states of matter.

The particles are still quite close


together, but there is no regular pattern.

The particles are close together


and form a regular pattern.

The particles are well spread out and


are in all parts of the container.

State which box represents:


a a solid
b a liquid
c a gas
(3)

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Chapter 1 End of Unit test


4

Water can exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas.


In which state is the water, when the particles
a are close together, but able to move about?

b are far apart and moving quickly in all directions?


c

have a fixed position, but can vibrate?


(3)

Describe why, when the ball is cool it passes


through the ring easily, but when it is
heated it will not.
You must use the word particles to explain
your answer.

(2)

Describe why you are able to smell a rose from the far side of the room.
You must use the word particles in your answer.

(2)

A balloon is filled with air.


How do the gas particles inside this balloon cause pressure?

Explain why the pressure increases if the balloon is heated.

(3)

Explain why a small child is able to lift a large inflatable boat but unable
to pick up a small bar made of lead. You should use the word particles in
your answer.

(3)
Total marks: 25

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Extension question

5c
0 cm

A block of granite is measured.

a Calculate the volume of the block. (You


need to show all your workings to gain
full marks).

5 cm

(2)
b The block has a mass of 900 g. What is the density of the block? (You
need to show all your workings to gain full marks).

(3)

measuring
cylinder
with water

60

60

50

50

40

40

30
20
10

measuring
cylinder
with pebble
in water

30
20
10

mass of
pebble
= 125 g

Calculate the density of the pebble shown below.


You need to show all your workings to gain full marks.

(5)
Total marks: 10

40

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The particle model of solids,


liquids and gases

WERS

Text answers
4
5
6
7

8
9
10
11
12
13
14

a Solids are hard to compress.


b Solids have a high density.
a Liquids can flow.
b Liquids do have a fixed volume.
a Gases have a low density.
b Gases do not have a fixed volume.
solids
gases
liquids
liquids and solids
summer
It is a liquid at room temperature.
The blackcurrant gradually diffuses through the water.
When a gas is cooled it contracts
0C
15 a solid
0C
b gas
a solid
16 a solid
b liquid
b liquid

Literacy activity answers


a
b
c
d
e
f

one of a kind
When it is so cold that the flakes can reach the ground without melting.
Kepler found that every snowflake has 6 sides.
It could not be proved until X-ray crystallography was discovered 300 years
later.
X-ray crystallography
in a regular pattern

End of chapter answers


1

a close, vibrate, shape, volume


b move, volume, shape
c quickly, directions, volume, shape
a
b

The particles are close together


and form a regular pattern.

Solid particles can


only vibrate.
4
5
6

The particles are still quite close


together, but there is no regular pattern.

Liquid particles can


flow past each other.

a true
b true
c true
f true
g false
h true
a ice melting
b water boiling
flow, diffusion, particles
liquid, gas, condense
incompressible, hypothesis, theory
density, expansion, melting

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The particles are well spread out and


are in all parts of the container.

Gas particles are


completely free and
move very fast.

d true
e false
i false
c water freezing

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Chapter 1 Answers

Worksheet answers
A1 Density
1

a A piece of wood = 0.65 g/cm3


c A piece of glass = 2.6 g/cm3

b A piece of steel = 8 g/cm3


d A piece of cork = 0.24 g/cm3

A4 Expansion and contraction of solids


1
2
3
4

The wires will contract in winter and may snap.


The top will expand and become loose.
There would be no room for expansion and the bridge may buckle.
a They will expand.
b The slabs would push against each other and perhaps crack.
c Tar is soft and will allow for expansion. It will fill the gaps when the
slabs contract.

A5 Expansion and contraction of metals


1
2
3

3.0 mm or 0.30 cm
contracted
The particles in the metal bar have cooled and are moving less vigorously.
They need less space and so move closer together.
4 1.10 cm
5 expanded
6 The particles have become warm and are vibrating vigorously. They need
more space and move further apart.
7 This will have expanded too.
8 It would increase twice as much.
9 Yes the hotter the oven, the more the particles vibrate and therefore
need more room. In a cooler freezer, the particles vibrate less and
therefore need less room.
10 a Gas in a hot air balloon and gases within an air freshener.
b Bridges without expansion gaps and pavements without expansion gaps
(or answers similar to this).

A6 Diffusion in liquids
This mixing suggests that the particles in a liquid are not in fixed positions but
are able to move around. The higher the temperature of the particles, the
faster the particles can move.

End of Unit test answers


1

2 There are two solids, stone (1) and wood. (1)


There are two liquids, oil (1) and milk. (1)
There are two gases, nitrogen (1) and oxygen. (1)

3
4

a box 2 (1)
a liquid (1)

Particles vibrate more on heating, (1)


so take up a larger volume. (1)
Particles escape/evaporate from a rose. (1)
Particles diffuse through the air (to your nose). (1)
a Gas particles hit/collide with walls of balloon (creating pressure). (1)

6
7

42

a soild (1)
c gas (1)
b liquid (1)

b box 1 (1)
b gas (1)

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c box 3 (1)
c solid (1)

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Chapter 1 Answers
b When heated the particles move faster. (1)
Which makes them hit the walls of the balloon more often. (1)
8 The child is able to pick up the inflatable because it is much lighter than
the lead. (1)
It is lighter because its particles are more spread out (not as tightly packed)
as those in lead. (2) Accept: Lead is denser than air. (1)
Total marks: 25

Extension answers
a Volume = 10 cm 5 cm 6 cm = 300 cm3 (2)
b Density = 900 g/300 cm3 = 3g/cm3 (2)
If the correct units are given for both answers give one mark. (1)
c Volume of pebble = 48 cm3 23 cm3 = 25 cm3 (2)
Density of pebble = 125 g/25 cm3 = 5 g/cm3 (2)
If the correct units are given for both the volume and the density give
one mark. (1)
Total marks for Extension: 10

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7a

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


The names and functions of some major organs in plants and animals
Some of the life processes common to living things e.g. movement, growth,
reproduction, nutrition

Language for learning


Organs
Function
Cells
Micrograph
Specimen

Slide
Cover slip
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Cell membrane

Cell wall
Cellulose
Vacuole
Sap
Chloroplasts

Chlorophyll
Photosynthesis
Tissue

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
that organisms are made up of organs, tissues and cells
the names and functions of some organs in animals and plants
to recognise cells from micrographs
how scientists came to understand that all living things are made of cells
how to use a microscope and prepare simple slides
how to observe and draw specimens seen using a microscope
the structure of a typical animal cell and a typical plant cell
the functions of cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, vacuole and
chloroplast
the structures and functions of some specialised cells
that new cells are produced by division of existing cells
how to measure very small objects under a microscope

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
5A
6B

44

Title
Keeping healthy
Micro-organisms

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2 Cells

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7B
7D

Title
Reproduction
Variation and Classification

Cross-curricular links
None for this chapter
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity included within the Pupil Book on burns and skin
grafts. Worksheet B2, How cells were discovered.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Can be introduced via comparing the number of cells in samples under the
microscope looking at ratios.

ICT

ICT
Spreadsheets can be used to record data.
There is an extension question in the Pupil Book which requires internet research.
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolutescience

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Describe some earlier ideas about the structure of living things and relate these
to evidence from microscope observations
Make observations using a microscope and record them in simple drawings
Life processes and living things
Identify and name features of cells and describe some differences between
plant and animal cells
Explain that growth occurs when cells divide and increase in size
Describe how cells are grouped to form tissues

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Relate drawings to observations made using a microscope and describe what
they found out from their investigation
Life processes and living things
Recognise that all organisms are made from cells and name some parts of a cell

Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Explain how evidence from microscope observations has changed ideas about
the structure of living things
Estimate the sizes of specimens viewed under the microscope and justify the
sample chosen in an investigation of onion cells

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Suggest a question about onion cells that can be investigated and use an
appropriate sample
Life processes and living things
Be able to describe how some cells in an organism are specialised to carry out
particular functions

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Starter activity
The topic is introduced with a story involving an organ that is unusual in that it
does not have a function the appendix. This introduces the term function which
is used extensively throughout the rest of this topic. Pupils are asked to recall their
knowledge of some organs and their functions, in both humans and plants.

What are organs made of?


Pupils are provided with evidence which suggests that all living things are made
up of cells. Hookes drawing and the micrographs all show that living organisms
are made up of boxes. You may need to point out that a box is not necessarily
square! They should also be encouraged to imagine what the boxes look like in
three dimensions.
The fact that living organisms are made of cells, and the structure and functions
of cells, is a constant theme running throughout the material covered in all of the
KS3 years.
This section also considers how the development of a new technology, in this case
microscopes, can enable the discovery of new scientific information. Worksheet
B2, How cells were discovered, provides an opportunity for more able pupils to
investigate the development of cell theory in more detail.

Using a microscope to look at cells


Worksheet B1, Using a microscope, introduces the use of a microscope. You may
need to provide a different illustration if the microscopes you use are significantly
different from the one shown in the Pupil Book and on Worksheet B1.
Worksheet B1 suggests looking at a hair, rather than at cells. This avoids the
need to make a slide; moreover a hair is much easier to find and focus on than
cells are. Pupils should become absolutely confident and competent with their
use of a microscope before attempting to use one to see cells.
Pupils can then move on to Worksheet B3, Looking at plant cells and Worksheet
B4, Looking at animal cells, in which they make temporary mounts of plant cells
and animal cells, observe them using a microscope and make drawings of them.
It is suggested that plant cells are observed first, as they are larger and easier to
find and focus than animal cells. If you can attach a video camera to a
microscope, you can show pupils what it is that they should expect to see.

Safety points:
Follow local regulations regarding the use of cheek cells. If sterile cotton
buds are used to remove the cells, and immediately dropped into a
container of disinfectant, there is no significant risk involved in this activity.

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2 Cells
Cover slips are very easy to break. However, the glass is very thin and
tends to produce few cuts. If the steps described on Worksheet B1 are
followed, then students will not break the slide by hitting it with the
objective lens, even if the microscopes you are using do not have an
automatic stop to prevent this.
Pupils find drawing what they can see down a microscope very difficult.
Worksheet B5, Making drawings of biological specimens, asks them to work out
some of the features that make a good drawing.
Worksheet B6, How big are onion cells?, gives more able pupils the opportunity
to make approximate measurements of the lengths of an onion cell. The need for
calibration is avoided by using a transparent scale placed directly on the slide.

The structure of cells


Pupils should learn the structures of a typical plant cell and animal cell, and be
able to describe the functions of each part. There is a great deal of new
terminology here, and Worksheet B7, Animal and plant cells, provides practice in
its use. Questions 3 and 4 in the Pupil Book encourage them to summarise and
remember the differences between plant cells and animal cells.

Special kinds of cells


In this section, pupils look at a variety of cells from plants and animals, and
consider how their structures relate to their functions. The cells chosen are ones
with relatively obvious structural specialisations, but there are many other
examples which could equally well be used.
You can use the diagrams in the Pupil Book to introduce the idea of using
annotated diagrams to explain biological structures and functions.
Pupils often believe that large organisms have larger cells than small organisms,
and here they are asked to think about whether or not this is true, and how they
might go about finding the answer. This could be handled as a class discussion,
and would be an opportunity to think about how to design an investigation to
answer a simple question.
Worksheet B8, Specialised cells, can be used for class work or for homework.
Explain that not all organisms have several cells, and that some animals consist of
only one cell which meets all the needs of the animal to e.g. feed, grow and
move around.

Cells, tissues and organs


A plant leaf is used to explain how similar cells are grouped to form tissues with a
particular function, and how tissues are grouped to form organs. Pupils often find
it difficult to believe that something as thin as a leaf can be made of many layers
of cells, and the photograph of a leaf miner track is used to help to bring this
home to them.

Where do new cells come from?


The process of cell division is dealt with very simply; this is much too soon to
introduce any details of mitosis. Pupils are asked to remember how vital the
nucleus is to the cell, and why it is essential that each new cell contains one.
Later, in Chapter 4, they will appreciate how they each began as a single cell
which divided repeatedly to form all of the cells in the body, whilst Chapter 11
will briefly consider the idea that some features are handed from parent to
offspring via the nucleus of sperm and egg.

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Further Worksheet notes


Filamentous algae (see Worksheet B9, Investigating cells in filamentous algae) are
easy to see using a microscope, and you can often find pairs of smaller cells
amongst the normal sized ones. This suggests that the filament grows longer by
cell division; these small cells are ones which have recently divided and have not
yet grown to full size.
However, pupils should appreciate that this evidence is very circumstantial, and
that there could be other explanations for the variations in size of the cells. To get
a firm answer to the question how do filamentous algae grow?, further
investigation would be required.
If pond water is used for mounting the algae, there may a bonus of other small
animal-like and plant-like single-celled organisms to observe.
The idea that new cells always come from old immediately suggests the question So
where did the first cell come from? There is still no universally accepted view on this,
and more able students may like to investigate current theories on the origin of life.

Teaching Hints and tips


Worksheet B1 Using a microscope
This is likely to be the first time that students have used a microscope. It is
therefore recommended that they spend some time learning how to use it, looking
at simple objects such as a hair or a piece of newsprint, before attempting to look
at cells.
You could also provide a set of prepared slides of interesting objects, which pupils
can use to practise the use of a microscope.

Safety points
If the microscopes use an external light source and a mirror, ensure that
students cannot reflect the Sun from the mirror up the microscope
eyepiece, to avoid eye damage.
Check if your microscopes allow the objective lenses to move down so
far that they hit a slide placed on the stage. If they do, then students
will need to be shown how to avoid damaging either the objective lens
or the slide. When focusing, they should:
Look from the side of the microscope, not down the eyepiece, and
gently turn the focusing knob until the objective lens is very close to, but
not touching, the slide.
Then look down the eyepiece, and slowly turn the focusing knob in the
other direction until the object on the slide comes into focus.
Cover slips are very fragile and easily broken. Warn students about this.

Worksheet B3 Looking at plant cells


It is suggested that pupils look at plant cells before animal cells, as they are much
larger and easier to see.
The thin epidermis (skin) from the inside of one of the layers in an onion bulb are
very easy to obtain and to make into a slide. You could also try using red onions
some of the epidermis cells have red sap, which stands out clearly under a microscope.

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2 Cells
It is easiest to cut small pieces of one of the onion layers, and then peel off the
epidermis, rather than trying to cut pieces of the epidermis alone.
Have a drop of water on the slide before peeling off the epidermis it will
quickly curl up if it is allowed to dry. You may need to push the epidermis down
into the water droplet; try using a blunt seeker for this. Make sure that it is
completely covered by water before lowering a coverslip onto it.
If you have access to a video camera and monitor which you can use with a
microscope, do use this to show students what they should expect to see.

Safety points
See notes on Worksheet B1, Using a microscope.
Try to ensure that pupils don't get water (or any other liquid) onto the
lenses of the microscope. Using a coverslip, and cleaning the slide with
filter paper before placing it on the microscope stage, should help with this.

Worksheet B4 Looking at animal cells


Cheek cells are easy to obtain. However, check on local regulations. If students
use sterile cotton buds to collect the cells, and if these are immediately placed
into disinfectant after use, then there is no risk of transfer of microorganisms from
one pupil to another.
Do emphasise that it is just a few loose cells from the inner surface of the cheek
that are to be collected not a lump of skin!
When the cotton bud is rubbed onto the surface of the microscope slide, there
should be almost nothing visible.
A stain was not needed to see the onion cells, but you will need to use a stain
such as methylene blue to make these animal cells show up clearly.
The cells are smaller than onion cells, so they will be more difficult for the
students to find. If they look at where they are placing the slide (with the
'interesting bit' over the hole in the stage) and use the lowest power (smallest)
objective lens, they should be able to see cells. Once again, the use of a video
camera to show the students what they are looking for is highly recommended.

Safety points
As for Worksheets B1, Using a microscope and B3, Looking at plant cells.

Worksheet B5, Making drawings of biological specimens


This is a fairly high-level skill, and you should not expect too much from the
pupils at this stage. However, it is a very good idea to lay down some simple
guidelines at as early a stage as possible.
Each pupil is asked to make their own list of do's and don'ts. You could then
build up a class list of these, and then attempt, through discussion, to prepare
them down to a few simple points. These could include:
trying to make sure that the shapes and proportions are roughly correct
using an HB pencil and a good rubber, so that you don't make too much of a
mess if you need to rub something out and try again
using single, clear lines, not fuzzy ones with multiple pencil marks
not using too much shading (indeed, it is probably best not to use it at all)
not using colour unless is it really helpful to make one part stand out from another
making a large drawing (even though what you are looking at is very small)

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Labelling is also important, and points could include:

drawing label lines with a ruler, and making sure they touch what they are labelling
not letting label lines cross over each other, as this can be confusing
writing the labels themselves horizontally
keeping the labels well away from the drawing itself.

Students who are progressing especially rapidly could also consider the importance
of using a scale, so that a person looking at their drawing realises how very small
the object really is.

Worksheet B6, How big are onion cells?


This is not an easy exercise, and it is probably best to use it only with students
who are competent and confident when making simple temporary slides and
using a microscope.
The method suggested is an unorthodox one normally, the size of an object on
a slide is measured using an eyepiece with a graticule inserted into it, and a
special (and very expensive) slide on the stage with a very fine scale engraved
onto it. The eyepiece graticule needs to be calibrated against the scale on the
slide. This is difficult even for AS level students.
The method described here uses small, circular plastic scales which are actually
intended to be used as eyepiece graticules. However, pupils can use one of these
instead of a coverslip. The piece of plastic will need to be placed upside-down on
the slide, so that the scale and the cells can be seen at the same time. The scale
lines will appear very thick, but some approximate judgment of size can be made.
Pupils who are progressing a little faster than most may like to investigate one of
the questions suggested in step 7. You can use this to help them to develop the
skills of planning, controlling variables, choosing a suitable sample size and
recording results.

Worksheet B9, Filamentous algae


During most times of the year, you will probably be able to find filamentous
algae growing near the surface of a pond. It looks like 'green scum', but when
you pull it out of the water you will see that it is made up of long, intertangled
threads. These threads are each made up of a single string of cells, which are easy
to see under the microscope.
Alternatively, you can buy prepared slides of filamentous algae, but do try to use
fresh specimens if possible.
It is well worth having a good look yourself first to check the state of the
filaments. Ideally, you want to be able to find some parts of a filament where
there are two small cells next to each other which look as though they have been
formed by division of a normal-sized cell.

Programme of Study References

50

Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes and


Living Things

1a, 1b, 2m

1b

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

Absolute Science Year 7

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What I have learnt


Cells

E C K LI ST

Checklist

CH

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Organs

Cover slip

Vacuole

Function

Cytoplasm

Sap

Cells

Nucleus

Chloroplasts

Micrograph

Cell membrane

Chlorophyll

Specimen

Cell wall

Photosynthesis

Slide

Cellulose

Tissue

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know that organisms are made up


of organs, tissues and cells
I know the names and functions of
some organs in animals and plants
I know how to recognise cells from
micrographs
I know how scientists came to
understand that all living things are
made of cells
I know how to use a microscope
and prepare simple slides
I know how to observe and draw
specimens seen using a microscope
I know the structure of a typical
animal cell and a typical plant cell
I know the functions of cytoplasm,
nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall,
vacuole and chloroplast
I know the structures and functions
of some specialised cells
I know that new cells are produced
by division of existing cells
I know how to measure very small
objects under a microscope

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

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Chapter 2 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Organsofare
made up of cells
States
matter
Use of the microscope

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil
PupilBook
Book11pp.
pp.2024
46

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can give examples of human and plant organs, and state their
functions.
Can use a microscope.

Less Able Pupils

Understand that humans, and plants, contain organs, and can give
some examples. Know how to use a microscope.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand how organs are specialised for
different functions. Can use a microscope to make clear and
accurate observations.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room Date

Class
Time 50Mixed
mins

Equipment & resources needed


OHTs and/or video clips
To illustrate a range of plant and animal
organs.
Worksheet B1 Using a microscope
Per group:
Microscopes (and lamps, if appropriate).
Slides.
Specimens for the second part of activity
B1, e.g. prepared slides of an insect's leg
or wing.
Further specimens for quick workers e.g.
section of a plant root, whole small insect.
Worksheet B2 (extension) How cells
were discovered
One sheet per pupil (for Homework).

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register
Introduce the topic: What are living organisms made of?
Conduct a Q and A with the class on the idea of organs being
made up of cells, referring to the photographs on p. 22.

More able pupils will have an idea of what


organs are, and will volunteer information.

Understand that plants and animals contain organs


which are made up of cells.

As an optional activity: Ask pupils to identify organs in OHT slides


and/or video clips; ask about the functions/importance of
these organs. Refer again to the idea of organs being made up
of cells, and that this can be investigated with a microscope.

Read through Worksheet B1 Using a microscope with the class.


Emphasise points about care with lenses; illumination; focusing; slide
position.

Ask pupils to collect and set up microscopes

15

Support pupils as they examine a hair and second specimen. For each
specimen, ask pupils in pairs to discuss what they see and to make
notes of their observations in their workbook. If they have time,
they can investigate further specimens, and make drawings.

Recap the main aspects of the image seen under a microscope,


including the inverted image. If time, select and display some
drawings to introduce what makes a good drawing of a specimen.

Ask pupils to pack up and check all microscopes and slides are
returned.

Pupils can give examples of plant and animal organs


and can state their functions.

Some pupils will show greater proficiency


at recording observations than others.

Pupils understand how to use a microscope and


record their observations.

Homework: Answer Q 1, Pupil Book p. 21, and the question at the foot of Pupil Book p. 23. More able pupils could carry out Worksheet B2 (extension) How cells were discovered.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Plant cell structure
Cell parts

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 2325

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Describe the structure of plant cells, and the names and functions
of the main parts. Make drawings of plant cells as seen under the
microscope.

Less Able Pupils

Know that plants are made up of cells, and know the names of
some cell parts. Use a microscope to observe plant cells.

More Able Pupils


.

All the above

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B3 Looking at plant cells
Per group:
Microscope (and lamp), filter paper,
dropping pipette, knife, onion layer,
microscope slide and cover slips.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning tissue, cell, membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, chloroplast, vacuole, cell wall.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Remind pupils of aspects covered in Lesson 1: organs and cells.
Introduce the idea of tissues and instruct pupils to write down
definitions of: cell, tissue, organ.

If not yet covered, direct pupils to copy and complete the table in Q 1
of the Pupil Book p.21 filling in names and functions of organs. Then
have a brief class discussion of pupil's answers.

With the class, read through and explain Worksheet B3 Looking at


plant cells, and remind pupils of microscope techniques.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils have a written record of the meanings of the
terms: cell, tissue, organ.
Pupils have a record of some examples of organs and
their functions.

Safety! Caution with blades.


15

Ask pupils to carry out the instructions, and help those unsure of
procedures, e.g. how to focus the microscope, what to draw.
(Suggest to abler pupils that they use Pupil Book p.25 to identify parts
on their diagrams, and to note their functions in their workbooks).

Direct the class to pack up their microscopes.

10

Collect and discuss some of the plant cell diagrams. Compare with the
photo and drawing in Pupil Book 1 p.24. Discuss the functions of
parts seen, asking pupils to note down the functions and to identify the
parts on their drawings.

Pupils will produce drawings of various


quality.

Pupils draw plant cells as they appear under a


microscope.

Pupils will have varying appreciations of


cell parts and their functions.

Pupils have drawn and labelled a diagram of a plant


cell.

Homework: Use Pupil Book 1 pp. 2426 to label parts of the plant cell diagram and to describe the function of each part.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Animal cell structure

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 2325

Expectations
Most Pupils

Describe the structure of animal cells, and the names and functions
of the main parts. Make drawings of animal cells as seen under the
microscope.

Less Able Pupils

Know that humans are made up of cells, and know the names of
some cell parts. Use a microscope to observe human cells.

More Able Pupils

All of the above.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B4 Looking at animal cells
Per group:
Microscopes (and lamps). Cotton buds.
Disinfectant. Methylene blue, with
dropper. Microscope slides and cover slips.
OHT (optional)
Animal cell images.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

Refer to Pupil Book p.25 to remind pupils of plant cell structure, and
the main plant cell parts.

With the class, go through Worksheet B4 Looking at animal cells,


clarifying procedures and reminding pupils of microscope technique.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils will produce drawings of varying


quality, according to skill or understanding.

Pupils have drawn some human cells as they appear


under a microscope.

Abler pupils can use Pupil Book p.25 to add


the functions of the parts on their diagrams.

Pupils have drawn and labelled a diagram of an animal


cell.

Safety! Use and disposal of cotton bud for sampling cheek cells.
Safety! Use of methylene blue stain.
15

Direct pupils to do the practical activity, completing it be drawing two


or three cells.

Instruct pupils to pack up their microscopes.

15

As a class, discuss a selection of cheek cell diagrams referring to


Pupil Book pp. 24 and 25. If time, show and discuss OHTs of other
animal cells.

Homework: On cheek cell diagrams, complete the labelling and add notes of cell part functions.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Differences between plant and animal cells
Drawing biological specimens

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 2426

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know the differences between plant and animal cells. Can make
simple, clear drawings of cells as seen under the microscope.

Less Able Pupils

Know that both plants and animals (including humans) are made
of similar cells. Can use drawings to describe their observations
under the microscope.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand and explain the differences


between plant and animal cells. Understand that a drawing is a
representation of the key features of a cell.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B5 Making drawings of
biological specimens
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)

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Chapter 2 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Remind pupils of plant and animal cell features from previous lessons.

10

Direct pupils to answer Qs 2, 3 and 4 from Pupil Book 1 p.26 in their


workbooks.
Then go through these with the class.

Introduce Worksheet B5 Making drawings of biological specimens


by reviewing with the class some of the drawings that pupils completed
in Lessons 2 and 3.

20
5

Direct pupils to work through Worksheet B5, Qs 1, 2 and 3.


Check through the do/don't list with pupils before they begin the
posters for Q 4.
Hold a class discussion comparing the posters to reaffirm the key points
on how to draw biological specimens as seen under a microscope.

Homework: Finish the poster for Worksheet B5.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils understand, and have written down, a table of


differences between plant and animal cells.

Differentiation by outcome pupils will


produce work of varying quality.

Pupils understand, and have written down,


the key features of a good biological drawing.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Cell specialisation

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 27

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand how different cells are specialised for different


functions.

Less Able Pupils

Recognise that animals and plants contain a range of different


types of cells.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can explain the relationship between cell
structure and function in a range of different plant and animal
tissues.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B7 Animal and plant cells
Sheets for class activity
Worksheet B8 Specialised cells
Sheets for class activity. Books and other
resources containing
information/illustrations of specialised
cells micrographs of blood, nerve
tissue, muscle, plant stem/root, leaf,
potato tuber.
OHTs or equivalent (electronic images for
whiteboard use) of these cell types.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Remind pupils of plant/animal cell differences from Lesson 4. Then
ask them to answer Q 4 on Pupil Book p.26.

Introduce the idea of specialised cells. Remind pupils of the earlier


work on cells and organs (Pupil Book pp. 2021).

20

Introduce Worksheet B8 Specialised cells, giving guidance on sources


of information for chosen cells.
Pupils work through Worksheet B8.

Share with the class the results of their research.


Reaffirm the main ideas, with the help of OHTs etc.

10

Direct pupils to use source material to draw and label the other
examples of specialised cells.

Homework: Complete work on the last cells chosen.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Abler pupils will annotate their drawings,


relating structure to function.

Pupils have a record of the structure and function of a


specialised cell.
Pupils understand that different specialised features can
be found in different cells, and that these are related to
the cells' functions.

Abler pupils add annotations to their


drawings.

Pupils have drawn examples of several specialised cells,


and described how they are adapted for their function.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Cell size
Planning an investigation reliability

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 2729

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can state the approximate size of a cell giving a numerical value.


Plan an experiment with a sufficient number of results for
reliability.

Less Able Pupils

Know the approximate size of plant cells, e.g. in relation to the


thickness of a leaf.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand the range of cell sizes.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B6 How big are onion cells?
Video microscope if available.
Red (optional) and white onions.
Per group:
Microscope (and lamp). Onion. Filter
paper. Dropping pipette. Knife.
Microscope slides. Scale for microscope
slides, with 0.1 mm divisions (Philip
Harris micrometer graticules, approx 10
for 10).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

NB: This activity maybe over-ambitious for some classes. In this case, the experiment can be a whole-class activity led by the teacher using
a video microscope.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

Remind pupils of previous work on the variety of cell types; ask them
for examples. Explain how leaf cell structure illustrates cell differentiation (
(e.g. Pupil Book 1 p.29 and other refs. as in Lesson 5); lead on to a
discussion of cells making up tissues and of cell size.

With the class, read through Worksheet B6 How big are onion cells?
(They need to have carried out Worksheet B3 for the full procedure)

20

Direct pupils to work through Worksheet B6. Help them to choose a


second onion sample. Ensure that they record measurements in their
workbooks.

Ask pupils to pack away microscopes etc.

Review the practical activity with the class. Discuss plant cell size, and
the number of cells that need to be sampled to compare two regions
of the same or different onions.

Pupils understand that, in an investigation, results have


to be repeated for reliability.

Ask pupils to write down their conclusions in their workbooks.

Pupils have a record of cell size in plant


tissues.

Homework: Answer Pupil Book Qs 5 and 6 on p. 29.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils reinforce the concept of cells organised into


tissues.

Abler pupils can find the mean cell lengths


from two different regions.
Less able pupils will simply compare
cell sizes.

Pupils know the approximate size of plant cells.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Cell division and growth

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 3031

Expectations
Most Pupils

Understand the importance of the nucleus in cell division and


growth. Understand tissue culture and grafting.

Less Able Pupils

Understand that growth is accompanied by cell division.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand that cells always come from
other cells.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet B9 Investigating cells in
filamentous algae
Video microscope.
Per group:
Pond water with filamentous algae.
Microscope and lamp. Filter paper.
Dropping pipette. Microscope slides and
cover slips.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning skimming and scanning. Literacy activity New skin for burns victims.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 2 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

Referring back to diagrams on Pupil Book p. 25, remind pupils of cell


structure and cell parts, especially the nucleus. With p.30, introduce the
idea of growth and cell division, then ask pupils to answer Qs 7 and 8.

With the class, read through Worksheet B9, Investigating cells in


filamentous algae.

15

Direct pupils to carry out the activity, giving guidance if pupils are
uncertain of what to draw, and directing them to source material to
answer Q 4. Pupils should write findings in their workbooks.
Then pupils can answer the questions on the Worksheet.

Ask pupils to pack up the microscopes.

Hold a review of the activity. Discuss answers to Q 3: How do


filamentous algae get longer? And Q 5: What other organisms were
observed? Were they like animals or plants, and why?

10

Introduce the Literacy activity on p. 31 New skin for burns victims.

Homework: Complete answers to Worksheet B9 and the Literacy activity.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils produce drawings of varying quality.

Pupils know that growth is associated with cell division,


and understand the key role of the cell nucleus.

Less able pupils may need this time for


catching up on earlier activities.

Pupils understand the ideas of tissue culture and skin


grafting.

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Chapter 2 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Review of cell biology
Checking pupil progress

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 Chapter 2

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know how the use of the microscope has led to an understanding


of cell structure and cell division. Have ideas about how to
construct a 3-D model of a cell.

Less Able Pupils

Demonstrate knowledge of cell structure and function. Construct a


simple 3-D model of a cell.

More Able Pupils

All of the above and show knowledge of the history of how our
understanding of cells developed.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Chapter 2 End of Unit test
One set of sheets per pupil

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Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

30

Pupils complete end of unit test. Say that they can complete the
Extension questions if they have time.

Abler pupils complete the Extension questions.

15

Hold a discussion with the class on how they would construct a


model plant cell. Ask: What items/materials would you use? What
would each represent? Then ask the same for a model animal cell.

More able pupls may have more suggestions


as to how to construct a model cell.

Homework: Draw and explain how to make a model plant or animal cell.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils reinforce their knowledge of cell structure.

67

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B1 Using a microscope

2
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Ab Sc InX Worksheets Ch2

R K SH EE

1 Collect a microscope, and set it up as shown in the


diagram. Switch it on.

light from
lamp

2 Turn the objective lenses around until the smallest


one is above the hole in the stage.

3 Collect a glass slide. Pull a hair from your head, and


lie the hair across the middle of
the slide.
4 Put the slide, with the hair on it, onto the stage of
the microscope. Make sure that part of the hair is
directly above the hole.

5 Looking from the side, NOT down the microscope,


turn the focusing knob until the objective lens is as
close to the hair as you can get without touching it.

6 Now look down the


eyepiece. Slowly turn the
focusing knob in the other
direction, so that the
objective lens slowly moves
up and away from the hair.
Stop as soon as you can see
something.
If you cannot see anything, go
back to step 5 and try again.

Tip:
If your
microscope has
two focusing
knobs, use the
big one first to
help you to find
the hair. Then use
the small knob to
focus as clearly
as possible.

7 Now collect another specimen to look at.


Work through steps 3, 4, 5 and 6 again.
8 Choose one of the specimens that you have looked at. Put it back under
the microscope again. Using a sheet of plain paper, a soft pencil and a
rubber, make a careful drawing of what you can see.

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Ab Sc InX Worksheets Ch2

R KSH EE

B2 (extension)
How cells were discovered
Robert Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight in 1635. He was interested in
almost every branch of science. In 1665, he published a book called
Micrographia, in which he described some of the things that he had seen
using a microscope. Here is an extract from it.

Questions

I took a good clear piece of Cork and with a Pen-knife sharpend as keen
as a razor, I cut a piece of it off and thereby left the surface of it
exceeding smooth, then examining it very diligently with a Microscope,
me thought I could perceive it to appear a little porous; but I could not
so plainly distinguish them as to be sure that they were pores . I
with the same sharp pen-knife cut off from the former smooth surface an
exceeding thin piece of it, and placing it on a black object Plate and
casting the light on it with a deep plano-convex Glass, I could
exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like
a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular these pores,
or cells, were not very deep, but consisted of a great many little Boxes,
separated out of one continued long pore by certain Diaphragms
Nor is this kind of texture peculiar to Cork onely; for upon examination
with my Microscope, I have found that the pith of an Elder, or almost any
other Tree, the inner pulp or pith of the Cany hollow stalks of several
other Vegetables: as of Fennel, Carrets, Daucus, Bur-docks, Teasels,
Fearn & c. have much such a kind of Schematisme, as I have lately
shown that of Cork.

1 What did Robert Hooke see when he first looked at a piece of


cork with his microscope?
2 What did he do to help him to see the structure of the cork
more clearly?
3 Explain why Hooke decided that all kinds of plants were made
of cells.
4 Find out about one of the following people. When did he live?
How did he help to increase our knowledge of cells?
Anthony von Leeuwenhoek
Robert Brown
Theodor Schwann
Matthias Schleiden

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Collect
a dropper pipette
a piece of filter paper
a cover slip
a piece of onion
Make a slide of a thin piece of onion skin, like this:
1 Put a drop of water onto the
centre of the slide.

2 Cut a small square from


an onion bulb.

3 Peel off the skin, and place it


gently in the water drop.
Push it down into the water.
4 Lower a cover slip over the skin,
taking care not to trap too
many air bubbles.

5 Use a piece of filter paper to dry the


slide.

6 Put the slide that you have made onto the stage of the microscope. Place it
so that the piece of onion skin is over the hole in the stage.
7 Look down the eyepiece. Gently turn the focusing knob until you can see
the piece of onion skin.
8 Make a drawing of what you can see.

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B4 Looking at animal cells

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RKSHEE

1 Set up a microscope.
2 Get a clean microscope slide
ready. Then collect a new
cotton bud. Put it into your
mouth, and gently rub it over
the lining of your cheek.

3 Smear the cotton bud over the


middle of the microscope slide.
Immediately put the cotton
bud into a beaker of
disinfectant.

4 Place a small drop of methylene blue onto


the smear on the microscope slide.

5 Gently lower a cover slip onto the methylene blue. Use a small piece of
filter paper to soak up any stain that has spread out from underneath the
cover slip.
6 Now put your slide onto the stage of the microscope. Place it so that the
part with the smear on it is over the hole in the stage.
7 Make sure you are using the smallest objective lens, then focus on the
slide. When you have found some cells, you can try changing over to a
bigger objective lens.
8 Make a drawing of two or three cells.

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B5 Making drawings of
biological specimens
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Biologists often need to draw things. They may want to keep a record for
themselves, or they may want to use the drawing to explain to other people
what they have seen.
You dont have to be a wonderful artist to make good biological drawings!
But you do need to think carefully about what you are doing.
Here are some drawings that some pupils using microscopes made of the
onion epidermis cells in the photograph on page 24 in your textbook.
Pupil A

cytoplasm

cell wall

ce
ll

wa
ll

Pupil B

eus
cl
u
nucleus plasm
n
cyto

cell wall
cytop
lasm

Questions

Compare these drawings with the drawings in your book. You will probably
agree that the drawings in your book are better than the pupils drawings.

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1 Look carefully at pupil As drawing of the onion epidermis


cells. Make a list of the differences between pupil As drawing
and the one in your book.
2 Do the same for the drawing made by pupil B.
3 Use your answers to questions 1 and 2 to make a list of six
dos and donts that you think would help the pupils to
make better drawings next time.
4 Make a poster that will help people to make good biological
drawings.

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B6 (extension)
How big are onion cells?
You are going to measure the length of some onion cells. When you have
practised doing this, you can investigate whether there is any difference in
the length of onion cells from different kinds of onions, or from different
parts of the same onion.
1 Set up a microscope, and collect all of the things that you will need to
make a slide of a piece of onion epidermis.
2 Make a slide of some onion epidermis cells, exactly as you did before.
However, instead of putting a cover slip on top, use a piece of transparent
film with a tiny scale drawn on it. Your teacher will show you how to do
this.
3 Using the smallest objective lens, focus on the onion cells. You should be
able to see the scale and the onion cells together. They will look a bit like
this.
1

0.1mm
4 Each division on the scale is exactly 0.1 mm long.
Use the scale to measure the length of an onion cell. You will probably be
able to estimate this to the nearest 0.25 mm. Write down the
measurement you have made.
5 Repeat this for another 9 cells.
If you cannot see that many cells against the scale at once, then you could
remove the slide from the stage, take off the scale, and replace it in a
different position. Or you could make another slide using the same part of
the same onion.
6 Calculate the mean (average) length of one cell. Do this by adding up all
of the lengths, and dividing by 10.
7 Choose one of the following ideas to test:
Are epidermis cells from red onions any smaller or larger than epidermis
cells from ordinary onions?
Are epidermis cells from near the middle of an onion any smaller or
larger than epidermis cells from near the outside of it?
Think about exactly how you will do this. You may like to discuss your
ideas with a friend, or to ask your teacher for advice.
When you have decided what to do, carry out your investigation. Make
sure that you record your results very clearly, so that everyone can
understand what you found out.

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B7 Animal and plant cells

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R KS H E E

1 Name all the parts labelled on these two diagrams. A


B
C

Animal cell

D
E

F
G
H
I

Plant cell
2 From the diagram of the plant cell above, write down the letter of the
part which does each of these things.

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This part controls what goes in and out of the cell.

This part controls what the cell does.

This part contains chlorophyll, so this is where


photosynthesis happens.

This part is very strong and helps to hold the cell in shape.

This part contains a sugary liquid called cell sap.

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1 Choose one kind of plant cell and one kind of animal cell from this list.
Animal cells
red blood cell
nerve cell
muscle cell

Plant cells
xylem vessel cell
guard cell
cell from inside a potato

2 Hunt out information about the two cells you have chosen. Then make an
annotated drawing of each one like the drawings on page 24 in your
textbook.
The annotations need to explain
what is special about the structure of the cell
what its function is and how its structure helps it to do this.

Single-celled organisms
Specialised cells are found in multicellular organisms where there
are lots of cells, and where different groups of cells can do
different tasks to keep the organism alive.
Some organisms, called single-celled organisms, consist of only
one cell, and that cell has to do all the tasks that the organism
needs to live. A single cell is very small and could easily dry out,
so single-celled organisms are generally found in water. Amoeba
and Paramecium are examples. You may see some when you do
Worksheet B9.

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B9 Investigating cells in
filamentous algae
You may have seen green scum growing on the surface of a pond. This
green slimy-looking material is made up of long threads. Each thread is
made of many plant cells joined to each other in a long line. It doesnt
actually feel slimy at all!

Questions

The organism that is made of these threads is called a filamentous alga.


Filamentous means made of threads. An alga is a very simple plant-like
organism. The plural of alga is algae.
1 Set up a microscope and collect what you need for making a slide.
2 Take a small piece of filamentous alga. Gently tease out just one or two
threads. You only need tiny pieces.
3 Put a drop of water on your slide. Put the threads of alga into the water,
and gently lower a cover slip onto them.
4 Using the smallest objective lens, focus on one of the threads. Then make
a drawing of three or four cells.

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1 Are the cells like plant cells or like animal cells? Explain why
you think this.
2 Move the slide very slowly and gently so that you can look at
the cells all along the thread. Are all the cells the same? If
not, how do they differ from each other?
3 Filamentous algae can grow. The filament gradually gets
longer. How do you think this happens?
4 You wont be able to actually watch the filament getting
longer. So you will need to do some detective work to find
out if your answer to 3 could be right. Can you see any
evidence that suggests the alga grows in the way you
suggest?
5 You may be able to see some other living organisms on your
slide. If you can, then describe one or two of them. Do their
cells look like plant cells or animal cells?

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End of Unit test


Cells
1 Complete the table by writing each word next to its correct definition.
function
cell membrane
cell wall
nucleus
chloroplast
tissue
organ
Word

Definition
a group of many similar cells all helping with the
same function
a part of an animal or plant which is made up of
many tissues
the job that something does
a thin covering around a cell which controls what goes
in and out
a dark spot inside a cell which controls what the
cell does
a green structure found inside some plant cells, which
carries out photosynthesis
a layer of cellulose which surrounds a plant cell
(7)

2 The diagram shows a plant cell.

A
B
C
D
E

Write down the letters of three parts which


would not be found in an animal cell.

(3)
3 The diagram shows a microscope.
Write the letter of each of these
parts of the microscope.
the objective lens

C
E

the stage
the eyepiece

(3)

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Chapter 2 End of Unit test


4 The diagrams show several different kinds of cells.
B
A

a Write the letter of the cell which carries out each of these functions. The
first one has been done for you:
absorbing water from the soil

carrying oxygen around an animals body


making food by photosynthesis

fertilising an egg

(3)

b Explain how cell C is adapted to carry out its function.

(2)
c i) In which part of an animals body is cell B found?

(1)
ii) In which part of a plant is cell D found?

(1)

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Chapter 2 End of Unit test


5 a The diagrams show a cell dividing. They are arranged in the wrong order.
A

Write the letters of the diagrams in the correct order.

(2)

b The diagram shows some cells


in the tip of a bean root.
The root has been growing.

cell A

cell B

cell C

i) Which cell, A, B or C, do you think is the youngest cell, and which is the
oldest cell?
youngest cell

oldest cell
(1)

ii) Explain how you decided this.

(2)
(Total marks: 25)

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Chapter 2 End of Unit test

Extension questions
6 Chris wanted to make a slide of some cheek cells. To make them easier to
see, he decided to use a blue stain called methylene blue. He placed the cells
on a microscope slide, and then added some water in which methylene blue
had been dissolved.
He waited for a while, to give time for the methylene blue particles to
spread from the water into the cells. When he looked down the microscope,
this is what the cells looked like.

pale blue

dark blue

a Name the part of the cell which had absorbed most stain.
(1)
b Chris put a new sample of cheek cells onto a slide. This time he added
a red stain. The stain did not colour the cells. He thought that this
might be because the stain could not get into the cell.
Which part of the cell might have prevented the stain from entering?

(1)
7 Today, all scientists accept that all living organisms are made of cells. Describe
how one or more of these scientists helped this discovery to be made.
Robert Hooke

Anthony von Leeuwenhoek

Theodor Schwann

Robert Brown

Matthias Schleiden
(6)

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WERS

Cells
Text answers
1
Organ

Name

Function

flower

Helps with reproduction

leaf

photosynthesises/makes food

stem

holds the leaves and flowers up

root

obtains water and minerals from the soil

brain

controls activities, thinks

lungs

get oxygen from the air, and get rid of carbon dioxide

heart

pumps blood around the body

stomach

digests food

2 The onion cells are underground, where they do not get any light. The
function of chloroplasts is to absorb sunlight and carry out photosynthesis,
so they would be useless underground.
3
Part of cell

Do animal
cells have it?

Do plant
cells have it?

What is its function?

cytoplasm

yes

yes

this is where reactions


happen

nucleus

yes

yes

it controls the activities of


the cell

cell
membrane

yes

yes

it controls what goes in and


out of the cell

cell wall

no

yes

it helps to hold the cell in


shape, and stops it bursting
when it absorbs lots of water

vacuole

no

yes/usually

it stores useful substances


such as sugars

chloroplast

no

yes

it absorbs energy from


sunlight and carries out
photosynthesis

4 A animal cells they dont have cell walls. (These are cells from the gall
bladder.)
B plant cells they have cell walls (which look brown). (These are cells
from a potato tuber. The pink material inside them is
cytoplasm and starch grains, and the pale blue is sap in
vacuoles.)
C plant cells they have cell walls (which appear colourless) and chloroplasts
(the green blobs). (These are cells from a moss leaf.)

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Chapter 2 Answers
5 Pupils should be able to pick out at least three different kinds of cells:
a layer of cells covering the upper surface, called the epidermis; there is a
similar layer covering the lower surface;
a layer of tall, narrow palisade cells
a layer of smaller, more rounded cells, with big air spaces between them.
6 The palisade cells and the spongy cells can photosynthesise. You can tell this
because they contain chloroplasts (not easy to see just visible as small
specks).
7 The nucleus.
8 They have to grow larger.

Literacy activity answers


a There is nothing to stop the body from drying out, nor to stop bacteria and
other harmful organisms getting in.
b It may not be possible to find enough undamaged areas to take skin from.
c The new skin has been made in a laboratory, under the control of scientists
who control how and where it happens.
d New skin can be produced more quickly using this method, so the persons
burns can heal faster.
There is no need to damage other parts of the body by taking skin away.
More skin can be produced, so even if large areas of the body are burnt, it
may be possible to make enough new skin to cover it all.

End of chapter answers


1 a tissues
b cell membrane
c cell wall
2 The sentence about the eye should refer to sight or seeing.
The sentence about the heart should refer to pumping blood around the
body.
3 The sentence about the flower should refer to reproduction, or producing
seeds.
The sentence about the leaf should refer to photosynthesis or making food.
4 See the diagram of a plant cell on page 25.
5 cell wall, chloroplasts, vacuole.
6 a cell membrane
b vacuole
c chloroplast
d nucleus
7 The series of diagrams should show the nucleus dividing first, followed by
the cytoplasm.

Worksheet answers
B2 (extension) How cells were discovered
1 At first he thought he could see something porous.
2 He cut several thinner slices of the cork, placed it on a dark background and
shone light onto it with a lens (a deep plano-convex Glass).
3 He could see cells in every kind of plant that he looked at.

B7 Animal and plant cells {To be checked}


1 A nucleus
D cell membrane
G chloroplast
2 D; F; G; E; H

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B cell membrane
E cell wall
H large vacuole

C cytoplasm
F nucleus
I cytoplasm

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Chapter 2 Answers

End of Unit test answers


1
Word

Definition

tissue

a group of many similar cells all helping with the same


function

organ

a part of an animal or plant that is made up of many


tissues

function

the job that something does

cell membrane

a thin covering around a cell that controls what goes in


and out

nucleus

a dark spot inside a cell which controls what the


cell does

chloroplast

a green structure found inside some plant cells, which


carries out photosynthesis

cell wall

layer of cellulose that surrounds a plant cell

(7)
2 A, C and E (3)
3 objective lens = C, stage = E, eyepiece = A (3)
4 a carrying oxygen = B
making food by photosynthesis = D
fertilising an egg = A (3)
b it has a large surface area
which helps it take up a lot of water/take water up quickly (2)
c (i) in the blood/in a blood vessel/in the heart (1)
(ii) in the leaf (1)
5 a Correct order: D, B, A, C (2)
b (i) youngest is C, oldest is A (1)
(ii) the smallest cells are the youngest/the largest cells are the oldest
cells have to grow after they have divided/small cells have just divided
(2)
Total marks: 25

Extension answers
6 a nucleus (1)
b the cell membrane/cell surface membrane (1)
7 Give one mark for any correct statement about a named scientist.
(Note that pupils could write a lot about one scientist, or a little about
several of them.) (6)
Total marks for extension: 8

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7e

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Know that solids can dissolve and form solutions
Have experience of mixing materials and seeing that new materials are formed
as a result of a reaction

Language for learning


Acid
Alkali
Corrosive
Caustic
Harmful

Irritant
Hydrochloric acid
Sulfuric acid
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonia

Sodium
hydrogencarbonate
Neutral
Universal indicator
pH scale

Neutralisation
Litmus
Antacid

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
some everyday acids and alkalis
unknown chemicals should not be tested by taste
the safe use of chemicals in the laboratory
the importance of eye protection
indicators change colour when placed in acids or alkalis
the names of some common acids and alkalis used in the laboratory
the colours shown by full range universal indicator, how to use it and present
results
the pH scale, how to use it and present results
if equal amounts of acid and alkali are mixed a neutral solution is made and
the temperature change shows that a chemical reaction has taken place and
that this reaction is called neutralisation
how to plan an investigation into antacid tablets

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
6C
6D

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Title
More About Dissolving
Reversible and Irreversible Changes

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Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
8G
8H
9E

Title
Rocks and Weathering
The Rock Cycle
Reactions of Metals and Metal Compounds

Cross-curricular links
Design & Technology: Use of acids and alkalis in Food Technology
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity included within the Pupil Book on Acid Rain

+2 8=

Numeracy
Numeracy can be introduced via calculating volumes of acids and alkalis needed
for neutralisation

ICT

ICT
Spreadsheets can be used to record data
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolutescience

Learning outcomes
Most Pupils
Scientific enquiry
Describe how to deal with hazards relating to acids and alkalis
Suggest how to investigate a question about antacids, planning and making a
fair comparison
Materials and their properties
Name some common acids and alkalis and classify solutions as acidic, alkaline
or neutral, using indicators and pH values
Describe what happens to the pH of a solution when it is neutralised
Describe some everyday uses of acids, alkalis and neutralisation

Pupil who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Describe some hazards of acids and alkalis
Explain how they made a fair comparison into their investigation into antacids
Materials and their properties
Name some common acids and alkalis
State some everyday uses of acids and alkalis and classify solutions using indicators

Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Explain how their conclusions match the evidence obtained and suggest ways
in which the data collected could be improved
Materials and their properties
Explain how a neutral solution can be obtained and relate the pH value of an
acid or an alkali to its hazards and corrosiveness

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Topic List and Teaching Notes


Starter activity
This topic can easily be introduced by placing acids and alkalis in an everyday
context. Pupils are introduced to different types of everyday acids and alkalis by
their teacher and are then asked to spot as many as they can in a typical kitchen
(see below).

Acids and alkalis and how to use them


Pupils could be asked to state what they already know about acids and alkalis.
The Pupil Book gives examples of everyday acids and alkalis and there is an
exercise to identify the acids and alkalis in a typical kitchen. Many foods contain
acids and the Pupil Book contains an exercise where pupils can find the acids in
different foods.
In this section pupils should appreciate that although some acids and alkalis are
dangerous, many are used in everyday situations. Many acids taste sour. However the
identity of unknown acids and alkalis should not be attempted by taste, as some
chemicals can be very dangerous.
If tasting experiments are carried out in the laboratory then care must be taken to
ensure that samples are not contaminated.

Being safe
The Pupil Book introduces the idea of how hazards can be avoided by paying
attention to warnings. The Pupil Book shows hazard cards. Pupils could be also be
shown real hazard cards, and their attention drawn to the hazard symbols.
If bottles of dangerous chemicals are made available, then these bottles or containers
should be sealed or emptied before being given out to pupils.
The Pupil Book shows examples of lorry hazard signs and the need for these signs is
discussed.
This topic could provide a good introduction to the safe use of chemicals at home.
The Pupil Book shows two pupils discussing safety, and pupils can use these to help
them to write a set of rules for using acids and alkalis.
The importance of eye protection when dealing with acids and alkalis should be
reinforced.
This could also be a good opportunity to introduce pupils to your expectations for
dealing with accidental spills of chemicals and the procedure to be followed should a
pupil get a chemical in their eye.
Some pupils may not be aware that alkalis are often more dangerous than acids, and
it may be worthwhile to remind pupils of this.

Pupils should deduce that diluting an acid or alkali with water can make that
chemical less dangerous. However, under no circumstances should water be
added to concentrated sulfuric acid. If the sulfuric acid is to be diluted, then the
concentrated acid must be added to the water.
This may also be a good opportunity to bring to pupils attention to the new spelling
of the words sulfur and sulfuric.

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Making indicators
In the Pupil Book this section is introduced using two hydrangea bushes. One is in
acidic soil the other in alkaline soil. It should be stressed that the bush has
changed colour.
Pupils may be given the opportunity to make their own indicators by extracting
plant dyes. Beetroot, red cabbage and blackcurrants all work well and are
available at different times of year. Instructions for making indicators are given on
Worksheet C1, Making indicators.
Pupils should appreciate that the indicators work because they change colour in
acidic or alkaline conditions.

Using indicators
The pupils should also become familiar with the names of some common acids
and alkalis, through testing these solutions with indicators such as blue or red
litmus. Instructions for this are given on Worksheet C2, Using indicators.
Household alkalis such as bleach should not be made available for testing, but
could be mentioned as strong alkalis, and therefore dangerous.
The Pupil Book shows the colour shown by a number of indicators, followed by
some questions that could be used as a review of this section.

Universal indicator
The next section on universal indicators and the pH scale is introduced in the
Pupil Book.
Pupils should also have access to full range universal indicator and use this to
compare the strength of different acids and alkalis. Pupils should also be able to
relate the pH number to the strength or weakness of an acid or an alkali.
Instructions for a puzzle about an experiment using universal indicator are given
on Worksheet C3, Using universal indicator.
In discussion the acids and alkalis being tested should be described as strongly or
weakly acidic/alkaline.
Discussion of dilute and concentrated acids, or weak and strong acids, is not
required at this level. However, an extension question concerning the effect of
dilution of the acid on its strength could be introduced.

Neutralisation
Pupils can study the effects of neutralisation in a number of everyday situations,
such as wasp and bee stings. This could include the use of a pH meter to monitor
the pH of an acidic solution as an alkali is added to it, or vice versa.
Pupils could be asked to monitor the temperature change during a neutralisation
reaction. It should be emphasised that the rise in temperature provides evidence
that a chemical reaction has taken place. Instructions are given on Worksheet C4,
Neutralisation.
As an extension activity, pupils could be shown various graphs showing how the
pH changes as an alkali is added to an acid and be asked to explain what is
happening. Worksheet C5 (extension), Neutralisation, may be used as source
material.

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Investigating indigestion tablets


In this section it may be useful to remind pupils that acid is found in the
stomach, but too much acid can cause indigestion. Pupils should be informed
that antacids form alkaline solutions and so can be used to neutralise the excess
acid.
Pupils can then be encouraged to investigate various aspects of neutralisation.
Starting questions could include:
Do all brands of indigestion tablet work at the same speed?
Do all brands of indigestion tablet neutralise the same amount of acid?

Worksheet C6, Indigestion tablets, gives some extra help in planning an


investigation.
The results of each of the groups can be collected and then shared with the class.

Teaching hints and tips


Acids and alkalis and how to use them
Emphasise to pupils that not all colourless liquids are water. This could be
reinforced by asking students why they should not drink from a bottle that they
have found, even if it looks like water.
Students could be asked to suggest what other liquids, apart from water, are
colourless.
At this levels common names for chemicals have been used where this makes the
concepts involved more accessible for pupils.

Safety points
Ensure that pupils appreciate your expectations and safety rules about
working in the laboratory. Your rules and expectations should be restated
and reinforced before all practical activities.
Pupils should always wear goggles when dealing with any acids or alkalis.
Make sure you are familiar with your schools procedure for dealing with
chemical handling and spills before each lesson.
Ensure that you know where the eye wash point is in the room you are
working in.
Always reference, and make sure that you are familiar with, Hazcards
before using any chemicals.
Pupils should be reminded that they should always wash their hands at the
end of every Science lesson.

Making indicators
This experiment could be used to introduce pupils to the names of some common
laboratory acids and alkalis. Some pupils may find the spelling and pronunciation
of some of these chemicals e.g. hydrochloric acid difficult. You may wish to
reinforce spellings on the board as a whole class exercise.

!
88

For safety reasons, you may wish to cut up the beetroot or red cabbage for
Worksheet C1, Making indicators, with a knife yourself.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

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18/9/02

3:46 pm

Page 89

3 Acids and Alkalis

Using indicators
If preferred, an alternative experiment in which one indicator could be used to
test a variety of solutions, could be substituted in place of the one shown on
Worksheet C2, Using indicators.

Universal indicator
There are a lot of chemicals that pupils will need to access in this practical.
Spread the bottles of chemicals around the room to minimise pupil congestion.

Neutralisation
This lesson may give some opportunities to use ICT.
Pupils could use the internet to explore secondary sources of information to
investigate some every day uses of neutralisation e.g. websites for shampoos and
soaps.
Consider using a temperature sensor connected to a data logger to follow the
temperature change during a neutralisation reaction.
Pupils could also be introduced to pH meters.

Investigating indigestion tablets


This practical could be introduced by showing pupils the (empty) packets for a
variety of antacids. Try to encourage different groups to investigate different
neutralisation questions, so that a good range of outcomes can be discussed.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

2a, 2e, 2f, 2g, 2h,


2i, 2l, 2m

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

3d, 3f

Absolute Science Year 7

89

Ab Sci InX Tch Notes Unit 3

APTER
CH

IN

3
TI

CHE CK LI

ST

18/9/02

3:46 pm

What I have learnt


Acids and alkalis
When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Acid

Hydrochloric acid

Neutral

Alkali

Sulfuric acid

Universal indicator

Corrosive

Sodium hydroxide

pH scale

Caustic

Sodium

Neutralisation

Harmful
Irritant

Checklist

Page 90

hydrogencarbonate

Litmus

Ammonia

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

Antacid

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I can name some everyday acids


and alkalis
I know that unknown chemicals
should not be tested by taste
I know about the safe use of
chemicals in the lab
I know about the importance of
eye protection
I know that indicators change
colour when placed in acids or
alkalis
I know the names of some common
acids and alkalis used in the lab
I know the colours shown by full
range universal indicator and how
to use it
I know the pH scale and how to
use it
I know that if equal amounts of
acid and alkali are mixed a neutral
solution is made
I know that with the creation of
new substances and a temperature
change, a chemical reaction has
taken place
I know that the reaction between
equal amounts of acid and alakli is
called a neutralisation reaction

90
HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

Ab Sci InX Tch Notes Unit 3

18/9/02

3:46 pm

Page 91

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Chapter 3 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
States of matter

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 3435

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can identify some acids and alkalis and recognise that they are not
all hazardous, naming some everyday uses.

Less Able Pupils

Recognise that some everyday materials contain acids or alkalis.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus begin to develop an understanding of the


properties of acids and alkalis, stating specific examples of their
use.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Investigating some properties of acids
and alkalis
Set out as a circus: Samples of common
non-hazardous acids and alkalis, e.g.
vinegar, lemons, sour milk, toothpaste,
indigestion remedy, etc. Mark where
appropriate: Sample not to be tasted.
Recording acids in foods and
household goods
Put out examples of labels from food and
other household materials (that do not
have hazard warnings).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Knowing important vocabulary, e.g. origin of the word alkali, and names of acids featured on food labels.

Cross-curricular development

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils individually to write down as many words as they can
(min. 3) that they associate with 'acids'. Set a strict time limit,
e.g. 60 seconds.

Faster working pupils will generate more


associated words.

Pupils begin to focus on acids, their effects and specific


vocabulary.

Ask pupils to pair up, and give them a further 60 seconds to explain
the words on their lists, and to swap words to make a combined list.
Pairs can then compete with the rest of the class for the most words.
Pupils should retain the lists for use after the activities.

Pupils share initial ideas about acids,


explaining their reasons for their word
associations.

15

Introduce acids and alkalis as 'two groups of chemicals'. Highlight the


origin of the word alkali. Ask pupils to read Pupil Book p. 34, and to
transfer the names and uses to their workbooks in the form of two
spider diagrams titled Acids and Alkalis.

Abler pupils may start to consider the


properties of these chemicals.

10

Investigating some properties of acids and alkalis. As a class activity,


provide a range of non-hazardous household substances in a circus, and
ask pupils in small groups to consider a range of non-hazardous
household substances, checking for: smell, colour and, if appropriate,
taste. Allow groups 2 minutes at each station.

Less able pupils can share ideas and pick


up vocabulary from the more able.

Recording acids in foods and household goods. Provide pupils with


a selection of labels or packaging and ask pupils to list the acids
contained in them.

10

Refer back to the lists of acids and alkalis pupils compiled at the start
of the lesson. Ask whether they have changed their ideas about the
sorts of substances that are acids or alkalis.
Pupils can answer as many questions on p.35 as they have time for.

As a class, invite pupils to discuss what they found out, compared


with their initial ideas about acids and alkalis.

Homework: Finish Qs 1 to 4 on Pupil Book p.35.

Pupils record the names and uses of common acids and


alkalis, and begin to recognise similarities/differences
between them.

Pupils appreciate that there are different types


of acid.
Fast workers have the opportunity to
complete more questions.

Pupils reject and/or reinforce the ideas about acids and


alkalis they had at the beginning of the lesson. They
have identified acids and alkalis in familiar household
products.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Safety with acids and alkalis

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 3638

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can recognise and interpret common hazard symbols. Can state the
safety rules for dealing with acids and alkalis. Understand that
adding water has an effect on the strength of the acid or alkali.

Less Able Pupils

Can recognise common hazard symbols. Can state the main safety
rules when dealing with acids or alkalis.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus know that adding water to an acid or an


alkali dilutes it and makes it less hazardous.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Knowing the meaning of words including: hazardous, irritant, corrosive.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Mystery liquids activity
Per group:
Beaker marked A and beaker marked B,
both containing water
Safety exercise
To pass round the class:
One or more sets of Hazard cards (ref.
Pupil Book p.36). Samples of empty
bottles with hazard symbols.

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HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Mystery liquids activity: Invite groups to collect Beakers A and B and
ask them to discuss and write down a list of ways to find out which one
of the two beakers contains water. Ask pupils not to try out their ideas
yet, just to note them down. Do not reveal what is in the other beaker
(water).

As a class, review pupils' ideas, which may include tasting, boiling and
smelling the liquids. Say that one of the beakers may contain a strong
acid. Then ask pupils to refer back to their list, and to say why any of
their previous suggestions might be dangerous.

10

Use the opening activity to emphasise how important it is to label


substances and use hazard symbols, both in the lab and in industry.
Introduce the words corrosive, harmful and irritant Hold a whole-class
discussion on the meaning of these words. Then ask pupils to draw
their own hazard symbol for each word while leaving room to copy the
correct symbol alongside.

10

Direct pupils to read Pupil Book p.36 and pass round sample Hazard
cards or empty chemicals bottles with hazard symbols on them. Then
ask pupils to draw in the correct hazard symbols for Corrosive, Harmful
and Irritant.

Emphasise that the next part of the lesson concerns SAFETY and is to be
heeded very seriously. Ask pupils to work in pairs. Refer them to the
cartoons on pp.37 and 38 and ask them to share reading the students'
statements in each drawing about working safely with acids and alkalis.
Tell pupils to decide which statements they agree with, working out a
reason in each case.

Ask pupils for their opinions on each cartoon. Briefly summarise the
safety considerations, paying particular attention to the importance of
safety goggles. Through Q and A, ensure that pupils (or you) address
any areas of misunderstanding in the discussion.

10

Direct pupils to Pupil Book pp.37 and 38, and to draw up in their
workbooks a list of at least 5 safety rules for handling acids and alkalis.

At the end of the list writing, set up a spillage of water. Ask pupils what
they would do if the spillage had been acid. Link measures to hazard
signs on lorries (p.36). Discuss the effect of adding water to a strong acid
or alkali: it dilutes the substance and makes it less hazardous. But
emphasise that under no circumstances should water be added to
concentrated sulfuric acid.

95

Homework: Answer Qs 6 and 7 on Pupil Book p.37.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Most pupils begin by focussing on factors


such as smell and taste. Abler pupils may
second-guess the activity, and demand to
know: 'What is in the other beaker?' If so,
ask them to concentrate on How can we
find out if it is water?

Pupils begin to focus on the properties of water, its


appearance and uses. Pupils may consider simple
laboratory procedures, such as heating.

As well as appreciating that many substances share


some of water's physical properties, pupils develop an
understanding of the specific nature of certain chemicals
and, more importantly, the dangers of their misuse.
Faster working pupils may elaborate on
their symbols by offering short written
explanations next to each one.

Pupils use their imagination to come up with


appropriate symbols. This requires high-level thinking of
the words and so develops deeper understanding.

Pupils compare their symbol with the ones in common


use, thus reinforcing the meaning of the symbols.

Pupils rectify popular (and dangerous) misconceptions,


e.g. that acids are harmful while alkalis are not.

More able pupils can be asked to list their


safety precautions in order of importance,
the most important first.

Pupils make a record of safety rules.

Pupils revisit safety precautions in a 'real life'


(simulated) situation. They know that adding water to
an acid or alkali dilutes it.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Is it an acid or an alkali?
Making and using indicators

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 39

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that indicators are made from dyes that chage colour in
response to acid or alkaline conditions. Can recognise some acids
and alkalis used in the lab.

Less Able Pupils

Know how to extract dye from a plant and that the dye may
indicate that a substances is either an acid or an alkali.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus know that indicators are made from dyes that
change colour in response to acid or alkaline conditions and can
name some acids and alkalis commonly used in the lab.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Understanding the term indicator.


Recording data in the results table.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet C1 Making indicators
Per group:
Three test tubes, pestle and mortar. Sand
for grinding. Beetroot. Distilled water,
dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute
sodium hydroxide solution.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Following Lesson 2 on safety, give pupils 1 or 2 minutes to write down
in rough as many rules for dealing with acids and alkalis as they can.
As a class, review these rules and also the types of hazard symbols
pupils will encounter (Corrosive, Harmful and Irritant).

Faster working pupils will write down more


rules.

Pupils recall safe practices for working with acids and


alkalis.

Direct pupils to read Pupil Book p.39. Ask them to try and develop
their own definition of what an indicator is, and to write it down in
rough.

Now ask pupils to share definitions in their group, and agree on a single
definition. Then lead the class in pooling definitions and deciding on a
consensus. Ensure that this discussion highlights the fact that dye may
be extracted from natural sources other than those on p.39. Also
introduce the idea that some substances are neither acidic nor alkaline,
and that these can be termed neutral.

10

Choose pupils at random to say what practical steps they would take to
ensure safety when working with acids and alkalis. Examples: tying hair
back; wearing goggles, putting bags away. Introduce Worksheet C1
Making indicators. As a class, read through the instructions, emphasising
that pupils will use beeroot dye to test samples of dilute hydrochloric
acid, distilled water and sodium hydroxide. Then ask them to draw up
the table (step 7) for recording the results. Optional: Ask pupils to write
a simplified version of the method.

15

Organise pupils in groups, mixing abler and less able pupils. Direct them
to carry out the extraction of dye from beetroot. Throughout the activity,
emphasise the importance of safe working practice and good recording
of results.

Instruct pupils to clear away equipment before starting the crossword


featured on Worksheet C1.

Pupils focus on vocabulary associated with acids,


alkalis and indicators.

Ask pupils to draw conclusions about the use of indicators.


Do this by means of asking pupils to make small presentations of their
C1 findings, or by eliciting a summary from the whole class through
Q and A.

Pupils reinforce their understanding of acids, alkalis and


indicators through discussing the findings of practical
activity.

Homework: Finish off the crossword on Worksheet C1.

Pupils formulate their own ideas of what an indicator is


and what it does.
Abler pupils support the less confident in
reaching an understanding of what an
indicator is.

Pupils recognise that beetroot is just one of many


sources of natural dyes that can be used as indicators.

Pupils reinforce safe working practice before using acids


and alkalis.

More able pupils support the less able.

Pupils develop practical skills with safe practice.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Using indicators

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 40

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that the colour change in some dyes can be used to classify a
substance as an acid, an alkali or neutral. Can name some common
acids and alkalis used in the lab

Less Able Pupils

Can classify a substance as an acid or an alkali using an indicator.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus consider the neutral state.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Recording information in the form of a table.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet C2 Using indicators
Per group:
Three dropping pipettes and labelled
beakers. In each, a small amount of
indicator: red litmus; blue litmus; methyl
orange. Reagent bottles of dil.
hydrochloric acid and dil. sodium
hydroxide. Beaker of distilled water. Rack
and 9 test tubes. Labels for test tubes.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Through Q and A, recap work on making and using indicators in
previous lessons. Introduce the fact that there is a range of indicators
that can be used in the lab.

Pupils know that indicators can come from various


sources including natural sources. They know the names
of common indicators used in the lab.

Ask pupils to speculate on the term neutral. Invite pupils to share their
ideas with each other in small groups, encouraging all in the group to
make suggestions. Then ask groups to present ideas to the class, which
then reaches a consensus definition.

Pupils are aware that some substances are neither acidic


nor alkaline.

As a class, read through Worksheet C2 Using indicators. Discuss how


many samples of acid, neutral and alkaline solutions they will need to
test the indicators supplied. If indicators are provided as solutions,
emphasise that only a few drops should be added to the test solutions.

Ask the faster working pupil in each pair to collect the apparatus
required. Warn pupils not to mix reagents at this stage. Ask the other
pupil to write down in their workbooks the chemicals and the
equipment they will be using for the activity, and to copy the table
from C2 (instruct them to amend it if different indicators are used).

Direct pupils to swap over: the pupil who set up the equipment does
the book work, while the other reviews the equipment and reagents
and checks that their workbook record is correct.

10

Direct pairs to carry out the activity. First they prepare three samples
each of the acidic solution, the neutral solution and the alkaline solution,
and label each clearly. They then test each sample with each indicator,
and record results in the table in their books.

Pupils have a record of tests of acidic, neutral and


alkaline solutions using three indicators.

Direct pupils to clear away equipment, and then to check their results
against those in the table on Pupil Book p.40, and to look for patterns
in the results.

Pupils confirm their findings, and highlight and discuss


any anomalous results.

10

Ask if any results differ from the Pupil Book ones, and discuss those that
do. Direct pupils to do the Copy and Complete exercise on C2. If time,
they can also answer Q 8 on Pupil Book p.40.

Faster working pupils will complete more


questions.

Pupils reinforce paper-based knowledge with practical


results.

To summarise findings, hold a class review of the tabulated results of the


practical investigation. Encourage all pupils to decide what their results
mean to them.

Abler pupils may suggest where results would


not be conclusive as to the nature of a
solution, e.g. using red litmus does not
distinguish between acid and neutral.

Pupils further consolidate their conception of the


usefulness of indicators in classifying whether a solution
is acidic, alkaline or neutral.

Homework: Finish the C2 Copy and Complete exercise and Pupil Book p.40 Q 8.

Differentiation

Those requiring more time for book work


can rely on their partner to set up the
equipment, while they check it.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils gain practice in following a prescriptive method.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Universal indicator and the pH scale

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 4042

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know how universal indicator can be used and are able to relate
the pH scale to acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions. Can solve a
puzzle using universal indicator.

Less Able Pupils

Know how universal indicator can be used to show whether a


solution is acidic, alkaline or neutral. Carry out an experiment
using universal indicator.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus know how diluting an acid affects its pH.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Understanding the pH scale.


Using a pH meter.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet C3 Using universal
indicator
Per group:
Reagent bottle or beaker of each of the
following solutions:
hydrochloric acid, ethanoic acid, sodium
hydroxide, distilled water, sodium
hydrogencarbonate.
Label these A to E.
Universal indicator solution, 5 test tubes.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register. Ask pupils to write down from memory the names of
the indicators used in Lesson 4.

Most pupils will remember litmus, while


more able pupils may recall methyl orange.

Pupils recall the names of indicators.

10

Remind pupils of all the indicators they have used in previous lessons.
Introduce pupils to universal (full-range) indicator and the pH scale.
Using Pupil Book 1 pp.4041, ask pupils to write a summary of the
Pupil Book information in their workbooks.

Pupils know that indicators change colour when placed


in acids or alkalis. They know the colours shown by a
full-range indicator covers the full pH scale.

Ask the class to discuss in groups (each mix of more or less able) why
they think that lemons do not need hazard symbols, even though they
contain acid. Why is toothpaste safe to put in your mouth, despite the
fact that it is alkaline? Then groups share their ideas with the class.

Pupils understand that there is a range of


acidity/alkalinity and that stronger acids are more
hazardous than weaker acids.

15

Introduce the puzzle using Worksheet C3 Using universal indicator. if


not supplied per group, ensure that bottles/beakers containing chemicals
are spaced around the room. Remind pupils to follow safety procedure,
e.g. in the case of spillage. Then instruct groups to carry out the activity.

Pupils are reacquainted with the names of some


common laboratory acids and alkalis. They use universal
indicator to record pH.

Instruct the class to clear away the equipment.

10

Run through the results the pupils have recorded. Then ask them to
complete the C3 questions and so solve the puzzle. If time, ask the
pupils to give the answers (orally or written) to Pupil Book p.42
Qs 9, 10 and 11.

Tell the class that if a lorry containing a strong acid crashes and the acid
spills out, then fire fighters will add lots of water to the acid. Ask pupils
to consider: How does diluting the acid affect its pH?

Pupils have experience of matching types of solution


with their universal indicator colour and hence pH
number.
More able pupils will make the link between
dilution, strength and concentration.

Homework: Complete the workbook summary of Pupil Book pp.4041. Answer p.42 Qs 911.

Pupils know that diluting a strong acid or alkali has an


effect on its strength.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Neutralisation

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 4243

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that adding an acid to an alkali can produce a neutral


solution. Can give real life examples.

Less Able Pupils

Can identify a material as a solid, liquid or gas, stating how they


behave differently.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus begin to develop ideas on the nature of


particles in solids, liquids and gases.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Understanding of the term neutralisation.


Interpretation of graphical information.
Use of datalogger and PC to record pH.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Simulated wasp sting
Vinegar to neutralise.
Demo: Worksheet C4 Neutralisation
100 cm3 beaker, 100 cm3 measuring
cylinder, thermometer, dilute hydrochloric
acid and dilute sodium hydroxide
solutions. Phenolphthalein (or universal
indicator).
Demo: Worksheet C5 (extension)
Neutralisation
Titration apparatus: Burette, funnel,
beaker. pH meter and, if available,
datalogger. Dilute hydrochloric acid and
dilute sodium hydroxide solutions.
Graph paper. Optional: indicator (as for
Worksheet C4).

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Chapter 3 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register. Ask the pupils to read the notes they made in Lesson 5.

Pupils reinforce the use of universal indicator.

Play at being stung by a wasp (if it is summer), then administer your


own first aid (vinegar), whilst explaining that wasp stings are alkaline.
Ask pupils to suggest why putting vinegar on the sting might help.
Alternatively, ask pupils for 'sting' anecdotes and treatments.

Pupils link their own experiences to neutralisation


treatment. They learn that acids and alkalis are chemical
opposites and can have an effect on each other.

Direct pupils to read Pupil Book 1 pp.4243, and to copy the definition
of neutralisation at the foot of p.42 in their workbooks. Then they
should answer Q 12 p.43 and review answer as a class.

15

Carry out either of these demos.


Demo of Worksheet C4 Neutralisation shows the temperature change
during the neutralisation reaction. Phelophthalein indicates the
neutralisation point.
Demo of Worksheet C5 (extension) Neutralisation, of an acid/alkali
titration (alkali goes into the burette) using a pH meter and a
datalogger, if available.
Before starting, ask pupils for their ideas and predictions about the
activities. C4: What temperature change do you expect? C5: Predict the
pH at the start, at neutralisation and at the end.

10

If a graph was produced from C5, hold a class discussion of it.


Otherwise, ask pupils to make a copy of the graph on the worksheet.
Ask them to write where on the graph: the acid is being added, the
solution is neutral, and the acid has stopped being added. It is as well
to point out that although a solution is 'neutral', it can be dangerous
and damaging to skin.

Direct pupils to read Neutralising soils on Pupil Book 1 p.43 and to


answer Q 13.

Summarise the uses and importance of neutralisation through discussion


and summative questioning.

Homework: Write down the answers to Pupil Book p.43 Qs 12 and 13.

Differentiation

Not all pupils will complete all parts of


Question 12.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils record a defintion of neutralisation.

Pupils observe neutralisation, titration and use


datalogging equipment.

Extra worksheet C5 copies can be provided


for less able pupils.

Pupils interpret data generated in the form of a graph


and can relate it to an activity they experience.

Pupils learn of a practical application of the


neutralisation reaction.
You can ask pupils to formulate questions
for each other.

Pupils consolidate their ideas about acids, alkalis and


neutralisation.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Investigating indigestion tablets

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 43

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can plan and carry out an investigation into the effectiveness of


antacids, using good scientific principles and an understanding that
informs planning.

Less Able Pupils

Establish that indigestion is caused by acid in the stomach, which


can be neutralised by antacids.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus can make comparative predictions prior to


testing and ensure a fair test.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Recording results in a table.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Acid indigestion remedies
Packets and/or leaflets of common
antacid indigestion remedies.
Worksheet C6 Indigestion tablets
Per group:
Samples of 3 different antacids in either
powder or tablet form. Test tubes/racks.
Dilute hydrochloric acid. Universal
indicator solution.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register. As a class, recap main points of neutralisation from Lesson 6


before reading Pupil Book 1 p.43 on treating indigestion.

Indigestion is introduced as another example of


neutralisation at work.

Remind pupils about acid in the stomach (Pupil Book 1 p.34).


Demo on acid indigestion remedies: Show pupils a range of packages and
leaflets for some common antacid indigestion remedies. Ask them to identify
how the remedies are intended to work, and to suggest what sort of solution
would work and be safe to take.

Ask pupils to suggest ways in which one remedy might be more effective than
others, and how they might investigate their suggestions. The discussion should
lead pupils towards an investigation subject for Worksheet C6.

More able students will consider the parameters


of time, the volume of acid to be neutralised,
and perhaps the use of powder versus tablets.

Pupils make comparative predictions and suggest ideas for


practical investigations.

10

With Worksheet C6, Indigestion tablets, direct pupils to work in pairs to plan
an investigation into indigestion remedies and neutralisation and then to carry
it out. Questions to be investigated can include: Do all brands of indigestion
remedy work at the same speed? Do all brands neutralise the same amount
of acid?

Pair less able pupils with those more able. Some


pupils will readily choose the nature and
complexity of their investigation, while others
may need support.

Pupils develop investigation planning techniques through


stepwise Q and A guidance of the worksheet which prompts
consideration of the important factors.

20

Check pupils plans before they start. Ensure particular attention to fair testing
and safety issues.

Instruct pupils to clear away all equipment.

Arrange for pairs to pool results and direct a discussion of them. Ask pupils to
write down conclusions relevant to the question they investigated.

Pupils consolidate ideas about the neutralisation reaction by


considering the chemical implications of taking this form of
'medicine'.

Pupils carry out practical procedures including measuring,


observing and recording.

Pupils make an assessment of the plan and outcome of their


investigation.

Homework: Using notes on Worksheet C6 and recorded results, write up an account of planning and carrying out the investigation, and include a conclusion of the question posed.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 Chapter 3
Revision and consolidation of Acids and Alkalis topic
Alternative: End of Unit test

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Activity 1: Acid rain
Pupil Book p.44. Dictionaries.
Activity 3: Mind map (using p.45)
Large sheets of paper (A3). Marker pens.

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Have increased confidence with the topic and establish a solid


platform for future work.

Less Able Pupils

Pick up on areas of the topic previously not accessed.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus consolidate understanding of the key


concepts and learn subject specific vocabulary.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:

Carrying out Literacy activity on acid rain (Pupil Book p.44). Identification and explanations of key words.
Solving anagrams.

Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 3 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.

You can run this lesson as a circus of four activities which can be
attempted in a given time period (10 mins each). All activities can be
done simultaneously, each by a quarter of the pupils before they move
on tothe next activity. Explain this to the pupils and briefly describe the
activities.

10

Activity 1: Acid rain. Direct pupils to read the text of the literacy
activity on Pupil Book 1 p.44, then answer Qs a to f in their
workbooks. Dictionaries can be made available.

10

Activity 2: Direct pupils to write in their workbooks answers to End of


chapter Qs 1, 3 and 5 on Pupil Book 1 pp.46 and 47.

Work is set according to time, not the


number of questions that must be completed.
Therefore, less able students can work at
their own pace.

10

Activity 3: Mind map. Referring to the Key ideas and Key words on
Pupil Book p.45, pupils in pairs can be asked to construct a mind map
of the topic on large sheets of paper.

Team up more able pupils with those who


are less able.

10

Activity 4: Direct pupils to write in their workbooks answers to End of


chapter Qs 2, 4 and 6 on Pupil Book 1 pp. 46 and 47.

Instruct the class to tidy away, and hold a brief discussion of any points
of interest or uncertainty.

Homework: Complete answers to End of chapter Qs on Pupil Book 1 pp.46 and 47.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

To reassure the less able, encourage all pupils


to do what they can in the allotted time at
their own pace.

Pupils encounter a real-life example of acids


and alkalis and their subject related
vocabulary is extended.

Pupils consolidate their understanding of


acids, alkalis and allied ideas.

Pupils make their own links between areas on this topic.

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C1 Making indicators

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Indicators can be made by extracting dyes from plants.


Beetroot, red cabbage and blackcurrants all work well.
These instructions explain how to make a beetroot indicator.

Instructions
1 Take the beetroot and carefully cut it into 1 cm3 cubes.
2 Place 4 or 5 cubes of beetroot with a little sand into a
mortar and carefully grind up the cubes using the pestle.
3 If necessary add a little water and continue to crush the
plant material.
4 Using a plastic pipette transfer the beetroot juice into a test tube.

Testing your indicator


5 Place three clean test tubes in a test tube rack.
In the first, place a 2 cm depth of hydrochloric acid.
In the second test tube place a 2 cm depth of water.
In the third test tube place a 2 cm depth of sodium hydroxide.
6 To each of the three test tubes add a couple of drops of
your beetroot indicator.
7 Copy this table into your book and fill in the results.
Hydrochloric
acid

Water

Sodium
hydroxide

Questions

Colour of indicator

across
1 These chemicals taste sour. (5)
4 Opposite of 1 across (7)
5 A pestle and can be
used to grind up plants (6)
6 Litmus can be blue or - (3)

down
2 Indicators work by changing
(6)
3 A neutral chemical with the
formula H2O. (5)

2
3

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Indicators work by changing from one colour in acids to another in alkalis.


There are many different indicators. In this experiment you are going to use a
range of different indicators to test an acidic, a neutral and an alkaline solution.
You may be given solutions of indicators or indicator papers to use in this
experiment.
During this experiment you will need to remember that hydrochloric acid is
acidic, water is neutral and sodium hydroxide is alkaline.

Instructions
1 Place a 2 cm depth of the acidic solution in three test tubes. Do the
same for the neutral solution and the alkaline solution.
2 Test one sample of acidic solution using the red litmus
indicator. If using the indicator solution, add a few drops.
If using indicator paper, insert one end.
3 Add your result to a table like the one below.
The first result has been completed for you.
4 Now repeat the procedures for the remaining solutions
and indicators, adding your results to the table.
Results table
Indicator

Acidic solution

red litmus

red

Neutral solution

Alkaline solution

blue litmus

Questions

methyl orange

Copy and complete.


Indicators work by changing .
Red is a useful . Red litmus is
in acidic and neutral solutions and in alkaline
solutions.
Blue litmus is in alkaline and neutral solutions and
in acidic solutions.
If an unknown solution turns red litmus blue the solution is an
.
If an unknown solution turns red litmus red and blue litmus
blue, that means it must be a solution.

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C3 Using universal indicator

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You have been asked to solve a puzzle.


The labels have fallen off the bottles of 5 different chemicals.
The labels are

sodium h
ydrogencarbonat
e solution
a weak a
lkali

xide
sodium hydro
li
a strong alka

distilled water
a neutral solution

ethanoic acid
a weak acid

hydrochloric acid
a strong acid

The five solutions have been labelled A, B, C, D and E.

1 Place a small amount of solution A into a test tube.


2 Add a couple of drops of universal indicator to the solutions.
3 Use your observations to fill in a table like the one below.
4 Now repeat steps 1 to 3 for the remaining solutions.
Solution

Colour with U.I.

pH

Description

A
B
C
D

Questions

Copy the table below and, from your observations, complete it


to show which label each bottle should be given.
Solution

Label

A
B
C
D
E

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C4 Neutralisation

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Neutralisation is a chemical reaction.


When chemical reactions occur there is often a temperature change.
In this experiment you will monitor the temperature during a neutralisation
reaction.
1 Place 25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid in a beaker.
2 Measure the temperature of the acid and record it in a table like the one
below.
3 Add 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide to the acid.
4 Measure the maximum temperature and record your result.
Results table
temperature (C)
acid

Questions

acid and alkali

1 Which piece of apparatus should be used to measure the


volume of a liquid?
2 Which piece of apparatus should be used to measure the
temperature of a liquid?
3 Copy the table below, then complete the table to show the
temperature rise in each experiment.
Temperature
of acid (C)

Temperature
of acid + alkali (C)

sulfuric acid +
sodium hydroxide

20

24

ethanoic acid +
sodium hydroxide

18

20

hydrochloric acid
+ ammonia solution

19

22

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Temperature
change (C)

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C5 (extension)
Neutralisation
A pH meter can be used to monitor the pH of a solution.
acid

10 11 12 13 14
strong alkali

strong acid

weak alkali

neutral

weak acid

pH 1

alkali

The graph below shows how the pH changes as 50 cm3 of an alkali, sodium
hydroxide is added to 25 cm3 of an acid, hydrochloric acid.
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
pH 7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Questions

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Volume of sodium hydroxide added (cm3)

1 Sketch the graph in your book.


2 What is the pH of the hydrochloric acid?
3 How much alkali had to be added to the acid to form a
neutral solution (pH 7)?
4 What is the pH of the sodium hydroxide?

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C6 Indigestion tablets

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R KSH EE

1 What question do you want to investigate?

2 Which variable will you change?

3 Which variable will you need to measure?

4 Which variable will you need to keep the same to make it a fair test?

5 What do you think will happen?

6 Why do you think this will happen?

7 How will you carry out the experiment?

8 How will you make it safe?

9 How will you record your results?

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Ab Sci InX EUT and Ans Unit 3

End of Unit test


Acids and alkalis
1

You find two bottles containing colourless liquids. Unfortunately the labels
have fallen off the bottles. One label is for sulfuric acid, the other label is
for spring water.
Should you try to tell the liquids apart be tasting them? Explain your answer.

(2)

Substances that change colour when placed in an acid or alkali are


called .
(1)

Which of these is an alkaline solution?


water

lemon juice

vinegar

sodium hydroxide

(1)
4

Indigestion is caused by too much acid in the stomach.


Calcium hydrogencarbonate is often used in indigestion tablets.
Is calcium hydrogencarbonate solution:
a acidic

b neutral

alkaline?

(1)

What is the name given to the chemical reaction between equal amounts
of acid and alkali?

(1)

What piece of apparatus could be used to measure the temperature


increase during a chemical reaction?

(1)

A new shampoo has a pH value of 6.


Which of the following options is the best description of the shampoo?
a strongly acidic

b weakly acidic

d weakly alkaline

neutral

e strongly alkaline

(1)

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Chapter 3 End of Unit test


8

Look at the table below. It shows what happened when three solutions
labelled x, y and z were tested with red litmus and with blue litmus.
An acidic solution will turn blue litmus red, while an alkaline solution will
turn red litmus blue.
red
Solution Red litmus

Blue litmus

goes blue

stays blue

stays red

goes red

stays red

stays blue

Result for
solution x

blue

test tube

State which of these solutions is


a acidic

b neutral

alkaline

(3)
9

Solutions can also be tested using universal indicator solution.


The colour of the universal indicator shows whether the solution was
acidic, neutral or alkaline.
Here are some results.
Colour of U.I. solution red

orange

green

blue

purple

pH value

56

89

10 14

1 4

The universal indicator solution was used to test a number of solutions.


The colour of the universal indicator solution was recorded in the table.
a Complete the table below to show whether each solution is acidic,
neutral or alkaline.
Solution

Colour of U.I. solution

shampoo

blue

battery acid

red

salt water

green

milkshake

orange

Acid/neutral/alkali

(4)
b Which of these four solutions is the strongest acid ?

(1)
Equal amounts of the milkshake and the shampoo are mixed together.
Look at these four options. Tick which is the most likely pH value of the
mixture?
pH 1

pH 3

pH 9

pH 7

(1)

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Chapter 3 End of Unit test


10 Bee stings are acidic. Look at the 3 solutions.
If you were stung by a bee, which of these
three solutions should you use to treat
the sting?

pH

Solution

camomile

vinegar

salty water

(1)
11 The table on the right shows the pH of
4 soil samples.
a The herb mint grows best in
alkaline soils. In which of these 4
soils would the mint grow best?

Soil

pH of sample

7.0

6.2

6.5

8.0

(1)
b The soil from the farm which provided sample B is too acidic to grow a
good crop of mint. What should the farmer add to the soil to neutralise
the acid in the soil.

(1)
(Total marks: 20)

Extension questions
12 The diagram on the
right shows the pH of
the soil that a number
of crops grow best in.

pH

a At which pH do potatoes grow best?

b A soil has a pH of 6, which of these crops will grow best in this soil?

At what pH do cauliflowers grow best?

d Will potatoes grow best in neutral soils?

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Chapter 3 End of Unit test


e Will turnips grow well in acidic soils?

(5)
13 The table below shows the colour of four different indicators in acidic,
neutral and alkaline solutions.
Indicator

Acid

Neutral

Alkali

phenolphthalein

colourless

colourless

pink

U.I.

red

green

purple

red litmus

red

red

blue

blue litmus

red

blue

blue

a What colour is U.I. in hydrochloric acid?


b A solution turns phenolphthalein pink. What type of solution is it?

A solution turns phenolphthalein colourless and blue litmus red.


What type of solution is it? ...

d What colour is U.I. in sodium hydroxide? ..


e A solution turns U.I. green and phenolphthalein colourless.
What type of solution is it? ...
(5)
(Total extension marks: 10)

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WER S

Acids and alkalis


Text answers
1
2

6
7

8
9
10
11
12

13

14

a
c
a
b
c

hydrochloric b they contain (citric) acid


sulfuric acid
d sour milk
e contain formic acid
oven cleaner, washing up liquid, soaps
They dissolve the grease in you skin.
It comes from the Arabic word for ashes al kali. If ashes are dissolved in
water they form solutions which are good for cleaning things.
a So everyone is certain about what the container holds and what to do.
b The acids they contain are not strong enough to hurt you.
a Wash it off and tell your teacher.
b Move everyone away, cover the area with sand. Sweep it up and dispose
of the sand carefully.
a blue
b red
c blue
d red
a 7
b below 7
c 8 to 14
pH 2
a 13 or 14
b 8 or 9
a Wasp stings are alkaline, bee stings are acidic.
b Rub vinegar on it.
c Rub camomile or a solution of baking soda on it.
a Dissolve the soil in (distilled) water. Then filter it and test the filtrate
with indicator.
b Most crops grow well in a soil with a pH value near to neutral.
c Add lime.
d It will increase.
a Too much acid.
b An alkali.
c The antacid neutralises the extra acid.

Literacy activity answers


a

b
c
d
e
f

Fuel Something which can be burnt to release heat.


Corrosion the process by which objects are eaten away.
Nutrients minerals that the plants require.
Amphibians vertebrates with moist skins which breed in water.
Environment the surroundings which affect plants, animals and people.
When a fuel containing sulfur is burnt it forms sulfur dioxide.
If sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere it can dissolve in rain to
form acid rain
It washes away essential nutrients from the soil, some trees die quickly,
while others are attacked by pests.
In spring snow melts and lots of acidic water enters the lake, just at the
time when many insects, fish and amphibians are hatching.
If we use less electricity e.g. switch off lights when not in use and only fill
kettles with the water we need.

End of chapter answers


1
2
3
4

118

acid
alkali
indicator
neutralisation
corrosive
pH range
pH 1 red
pH 6 yellow
pH 4 orange
pH 7 green
pH 8 blue
pH 12 purple
acids, sour, acids, goggles, colour
a acids
b oven cleaner/washing up liquid/soap/bleach

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Chapter 3 answers
5

Solution

Colour with U.I.

Colour with red litmus

Colour with blue litmus

green

red

blue

red

red

red

blue

blue

blue

yellow

red

red

purple

blue

blue

red

red

red

Worksheet answers
C1 Making indicators
Across

acids, alkalis, mortar, red

Down

colour, water

C2 Using indictors
Colour, litmus, indicator, red, blue, blue, red, alkali, neutral

C3 Using universal indicator


Solution

Label

Sodium hydroxide strong alkali

Hydrochloric acid strong acid

Ethanoic acid weak acid

Distilled water neutral solution

Sodium hydrogen carbonate solution weak alkali

C4 Neutralisation
1

A measuring cylinder

2 A thermometer

3 4C, 2C, 3C

C5 (extension) Neutralisation
2

pH = 1

3 25 cm3

4 pH = 13

End of Unit test answers


1
2
5
8
9

no (1) some chemicals are dangerous to taste (1)


indicators (1)
3 sodium hydroxide (1)
4 c alkaline (1)
neutralisation (1)
6 thermometer (1)
7 b weakly acidic (1)
a Y (1)
b Z (1)
c X (1)
a shampoo (weak) alkali (1)
battery acid (strong) acid (1)
salt water neutral (1)
milkshake (weak) alkali (1)
b battery acid (1)
c pH 7 (1)
10 camomile (1)
11 a D (1)
b lime (1)
Total marks: 20

Extension answers
12 a 5 (1)
b beetroot (1)
13 a red (1) b alkali(ne) (1)
Total marks for extension: 10

c
c

6 or 7 (1)
acid(ic) (1)

d no (1)
e no (1)
d purple (1) e neutral (1)

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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A PT ER
4
IN

4 Reproduction

TI

EA

CHE

R NO

HRS

TE

Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7b

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Describing the human life cycle in terms of infancy, childhood, adolescence,
maturity and ageing
Know that organisms are made of cells which have a nucleus
Know that cells are adapted for their functions

Language for learning


Zygote
External fertilisation
Internal fertilisation
Ovaries
Ovulation
Oviduct
Cilia

Uterus
Testes
Penis
Vagina
Cervix
Enzymes
Pregnant

Embryo
Placenta
Umbilical cord
Amnion
Fetus
Antibodies
Development

Adolescence
Puberty
Hormones
Sex hormones
Period
Menstruation

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
to identify and name the main reproductive organs in humans, and describe
their functions
that fertilisation happens when the nuclei of sperm and egg fuse, forming a
zygote
that the zygote develops into a young animal by cell growth and division
what is meant by the terms external and internal fertilisation, and some
examples of animals that use these
how sperms and eggs are specialised for their functions
the functions of the placenta and amnion during pregnancy
to see patterns in data about smoking and birthweight
how birth takes place, and the importance of parental care
the main stages of the human life cycle
about the menstrual cycle
how to collect, organise and present data about variation
how to interpret line graphs showing human growth

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4 Reproduction

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
5B

Title
Life Cycles

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7A

Title
Cells

Cross-curricular links
PSHE & Sex Education: Physical and Emotional Changes at Puberty
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity in the Pupil Book on Test Tube Babies.
Worksheets D1, Patterns of reproduction, and D4, Birth, can also be used for
literacy activities.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Worksheets D5, Effects of smoking during pregnancy, and D9, Human growth,
involve obtaining information from graphs.
Worksheet D8, How tall are the people in my class?, involves constructing a
histogram and calculating means.

ICT

ICT
Worksheet D8 could be extended by placing the data in a spreadsheet and using
spreadsheet tools to interpret the data.
Visit www.absolutescience.co.uk for relevant websites and further information.

Learning Outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Select information about reproduction from secondary sources
Present and interpret data about height in bar charts and graphs, indicating
whether increasing the sample they used would have improved the work
Life processes and living things
Identify and name the main reproductive organs and describe their functions
Describe fertilisation as the fusion of two cell nuclei
Describe egg and sperm cells
Explain how the fetus obtains the materials it needs for growth
Describe the menstrual cycle

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Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
With help, find information from selected secondary sources and present data
in bar charts and tables
Life processes and living things
Identify and name the main reproductive organs
Describe fertilisation as the fusion of egg and sperm
Identify the importance of the placenta in supplying food for a developing fetus

Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Explain whether the sample size in the investigation of height was sufficient for
comparisons to be made with national data
Life processes and living things
Explain how egg and sperm cells are specialised
Describe how they carry information for the development of a new life
Explain patterns in the numbers of eggs produced by different animals

Topic List and Teaching Notes


PSHE Issues
The way in which the topic of reproduction is dealt with should be considered in
relation to the schools overall policy on the teaching of PSHE. It may or may not
be appropriate to discuss health, social and emotional issues here. The text in the
Pupil Book has deliberately avoided these aspects of reproduction, leaving you
free to introduce them if you wish, but to avoid them if provision is made for
them to be covered elsewhere in the curriculum.
Although some Year 7 pupils will be happy to talk freely about a whole range of
issues relating to reproduction, others will find this very embarrassing and
difficult. There is an argument for taking a detached view of the biology involved,
thus allowing all pupils to acquire an understanding of the facts they need to
know without immediately becoming involved in emotional issues.
While some Year 7 pupils will give the impression that they know it all already, it
is most unlikely that they will have a correct understanding of the biology that
underlies human reproduction, growth and development.

How does a new life start?


The topic begins with a description of frogs mating, which should allow all pupils
to get started on this topic without embarrassment. The first few words in the
extensive terminology associated with reproduction are introduced, including the
difference between external and internal fertilisation. Question 1 asks pupils to
look for patterns in the relationship between an animals environment and its
method of fertilisation.
Pupils who are progressing quickly could be given Worksheet D1, Patterns of
reproduction, which allows them to practise and develop their literacy skills as
they take this topic a little further.

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4 Reproduction
Many pupils will confuse the terms animal and mammal. This is an
opportunity to remind them that mammals are just one type of animal. (It may
be worth thinking back to the work on animal and plant cells from Chapter 2,
Cells.) This is a classic instance where common usage of a term differs from its
correct use in science. Pupils should realise that birds, amphibians, reptiles and
insects, as well as mammals, are all animals.
Development and parental care in frogs and mammals is outlined, and pupils are
asked to use this information to explain further the patterns they have picked out
in the numbers of eggs produced by different animals. A discussion could be
introduced here on parental care in humans and other animals, including the way
in which human parents provide for their childrens emotional needs as well as
physical ones, although it may be better to leave this until reproduction in
humans has been covered.

How humans reproduce


The Pupil Book provides simple diagrams showing the position and structure of
the reproductive organs in a man and a woman. Models can be very helpful
here. Worksheets D2, Human male and female reproductive organs, and D3, The
functions of the reproductive organs, provide opportunity to learn and reinforce this
knowledge.
Pupils may already have considered how sperm and egg cells are adapted for
their functions in Chapter 2, Cells, and this is revisited here.
Pregnancy, development and birth are dealt with simply. Pupils often have
difficulty understanding the role of the placenta; one common misconception is
that the mothers blood flows through it and into the baby. A literacy exercise
relating to birth is provided on Worksheet D4, (extension) Birth, while
Worksheet D5, The effects of smoking during pregnancy, provides for the
development and practice of numeracy skills as well as an understanding of how
a mothers behaviour (in this case smoking) may harm her unborn child.
The terminology in this section has been kept to a minimum, but it is still very
extensive and will require a determined effort by most pupils to learn the
meanings and correct spellings of the words. Worksheet D6, Reproduction
wordsearch, should help with this. (Note that the correct spelling for a developing
baby in the uterus is now fetus, not foetus.)
Some advantages of breast-feeding over bottle feeding are briefly discussed, but
you may like to broaden this discussion by pointing out some of the advantages
to the mother of bottle feeding for example, being able to hand over to the
father sometimes! The photographs on pages 56 and 57 could be a starting point
for this discussion.
Worksheet D7, A summary of reproduction, will help pupils to bring together
what they have learnt so far.

How do humans change as they grow?


Some pupils may find this topic even more embarrassing than that of reproduction,
because it relates directly to them at an age when they may be finding changes in
their bodies not entirely easy to cope with. Its very important to be aware of these
sensitivities, and to reinforce constantly that different people develop at different
ages, and that practically anything can be considered normal.
Physical changes in adolescence and the roles of sex hormones are introduced,
and the menstrual cycle is described.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

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Worksheet D8, How tall are people in my class?, provides an opportunity for
practical work, measuring variation in height within the class. This exercise gives
practice in a number of data collecting and handling skills measuring lengths,
recording them, sorting data into groups and drawing a histogram. Some pupils
may need considerable help with this; you may like to ensure that those whose
skills in this area are not very strong are working in a group with others who can
help them. If you have access to IT facilities and a spreadsheet program such as
Excel, this opens up the possibility of looking for associations between different
features such as height, age, gender and so on.
Worksheet D9, Human growth, provides practice in interpreting line graphs, as
well as considering the reliability of data and relating this to sample size. Pupils
should appreciate that the larger (and more randomly selected) the sample, the
more reliable the data are likely to be, in the sense that they will be more
representative of the whole population of people in the country sampled.

Programme of Study References

124

Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes and


Living Things

2a, 2e, 2h, 2j, 2k

1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f,


2f, 2g, 2h, 2m

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

Absolute Science Year 7

HA

PTE
R

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4
E CK L I S T

Checklist

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What I have learnt


Reproduction
When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Zygote

Penis

Fetus

External fertilisation

Vagina

Antibodies

Internal fertilisation

Cervix

Development

Ovaries

Enzymes

Adolescence

Ovulation

Pregnant

Puberty

Oviduct

Embryo

Hormones

Cilia

Placenta

Sex hormones

Uterus

Umbilical cord

Period

Testes

Amnion

Menstruation

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to identify and name


the main reproductive organs in
humans, and describe their
functions
I know that fertilisation happens
when the nuclei of sperm and egg
fuse, forming a zygote
I know that the zygote develops
into a young animal by cell growth
and division
I know what is meant by the terms
external and internal fertilisation
I can state the functions of the
placenta and the amnion during
pregnancy
I can see patterns in data about
smoking and birthweight
I know how birth takes place, and
the importance of parental care
I know the main stages of the
human life cycle
I know about the menstrual cycle
I know how to collect, organise and
present data about variation

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Absolute Science Year 7

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Chapter 4 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 4851
The patterns of reproduction in different animals

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that aquatic animals often have external fertilisation,


whereas terrestrial animals usually have internal fertilisation.

Less Able Pupils

Understand that different animals have different patterns of


reproduction.

More Able Pupils

For any particular animal type, can relate the type of fertilisation to
the number of eggs produced and the survival chances of the
offspring.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Date
Room

Class
Time 50Mixed
mins

Equipment & resources needed


Introductory discussion
A variety of video clips, OHTs, pictures
etc. illustrating reproduction in a range of
different animals.
Video clip: Reproduction in an aquatic
animal
(for discussion and comparison with
mammalian reproduction)

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Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

15

In and register.
Hold an introductory Q and A discussion with the class on different
patterns of reproduction in different types of animal including number
of eggs and whether internal or external fertilisation occurs. Use OHT
pictures/video clips as prompts.

Some pupils will already have an idea of the


different patterns of reproduction, and will
be able to volunteer information.

10

Ask pupils to read Pupil Book 1 pp.4851 and to write down answers
to Qs 1 and 2.

Abler pupils can go on to do Worksheet D1


(extension) Patterns of reproduction.

10

As a class, review pupils' answers to the Pupil Book and Worksheet D1


questions. Ask pupils to write down the definitions agreed on for terms
in Worksheet D1 Q1.

If available, show a video clip illustrating reproduction in an aquatic


animal such as a fish or a frog.

10

As a class, hold a discussion on reproduction in the aquatic animal on


the video clip, and contrast this with human/mammalian reproduction.
Cover especially: number of eggs, parental care, survival. Ask pupils to
take notes

Homework: In your workbook, write down 4 differences between reproduction in a terrestrial mammal and an aquatic animal.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils understand that different animals have different


patterns of reproduction.
Pupils write down the meanings of the terms internal
and external fertilisation.

Pupils can relate the differences in number of eggs, etc.


to animals environments.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
The human reproductive organs

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 5153

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know the names and functions of the main female and male
reproductive organs. Understand that, when fertilisation occurs,
the cell nuclei fuse.

Less Able Pupils

Can name the main female and male reproductive organs.


Understand that fertilisation is the fusion of egg and sperm.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand the relationship between


structure and function in the reproductive systems, and in the male
and female gametes.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


OHT demo: Human reproductive
systems
OHTs and other illustrative material of
human male and female reproductive
systems.
Worksheet D2 Human male and
female reproductive organs
One sheet per pupil
Paper exercise in conjunction with:
Worksheet D3 Functions of the
reproductive organs
One sheet per small group (paper
exercise)

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:

Language for learning: names of reproductive organs; words with different meanings in scientific and everyday
use, e.g. cell, fuse.

Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Through Q & A, recap the main points of Lesson 1 on animal
reproduction. Introduce human reproduction: humans are terrestrial
mammals and internal fertilisation takes place.

With OHTs etc, illustrate the structure of the human male and female
reproductive systems. Linking with structure and location, outline the
functions of the various parts.

Distribute Worksheet D2 Human male and female reproductive


organs and ask the class to label the diagrams.

Ask pupils to check the labels on each other's diagrams. Reinforce the
idea of fertilisation as fusion of sperm and egg; cover functions in more
detail as given on Pupil Book 1 p.52.

Arrange pupils in small mixed-ability groups and provide them each


with Worksheet D3 The functions of the reproductive organs. Ask
pupils to add the D3 labels to one of the copies of Worksheet D2.

Working in small groups, more able pupils


can help others.

Pupils know the functions of the main parts of the


human reproductive system.

10

Ask pupils to review the text (and photo) on Pupil Book 1 p.52
describing the organs, egg and sperms, and then answer Qs 3 and 4
(pp.5253).

Faster pupils can add a drawing of a sperm


and an egg, and label or annotate these.

Pupils know the structure of the sperm and egg, and


understand the process of internal fertilisation in
humans.

Summarise through class discussion the work on functions of


reproduction system parts on the structure of sex cells and on fertilisation.

Pupils will certainly want to ask questions,


which will be at their own different levels of
understanding.
Pupils know the names of the main parts of
the human reproductive system.

Homework: Describe how egg and sperm are adapted to their functions. Complete Pupil Book p.53 Q 4.

Pupils consolidate their understanding of the structure


and functions of the human reproductive organs.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 5255
Fertilisation and early development of the embryo

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Developing human fetus
Video/OHT diagram

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand how the fetus obtains the materials it needs for


growth.

Less Able Pupils

Know that the placenta supplies food to the developing fetus.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand in detail the roles of the


placenta, amnion, umbilical cord and uterus in maintaining the
developing fetus.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:

Language for learning: e.g. ovulation, fertilisation, placenta, sperm; words with similar but distinct meanings,
e.g. baby and fetus. NB alternative spellings of fetus/foetus.

Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 4 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Review Lesson 2 information on the human reproductive systems and
fertilisation. Then introduce the concept of pregnancy.

Throughout the lesson, less able pupils


concentrate on structure, whereas more able
pupils look at the relationship between
structure and function.

10

Use a video to show the developing embryo/fetus in the uterus.

10

Refer to Pupil Book 1 p.55 for a diagram of an embryo in the uterus,


and the OHT showing the fetus in the uterus. Hold a Q and A session
based on the video augmented with an OHT diagram of the fetus.
Establish the roles of the uterus, the placenta, the umbilical cord and the
amnion. Clarifying terms, discuss the division of the zygote to form an
embryo which implants in the uterus wall; its development into a fetus
at 11 weeks; its becoming a baby at birth.

Pupils understand how the fertilised egg divides and


develops further in the uterus.

Instruct pupils to draw and label a diagram of the human fetus in the
uterus.

Pupils have drawn and labelled a diagram of the fetus


and uterus.

10

Ask the class if they are uncertain about any aspects of structures and
their function, and revisit the associated terms, referring to Pupil Book 1
pp.5355. Ask pupils to write down in their workbooks the functions
of the uterus, placenta, umbilical cord and amnion.

Pupils record the functions of the structures associated


with the fetus.

Through Q and A, check that the pupils have gained confidence with
names and functions.

Homework: Referring to the labelled drawing which the pupils made of the fetus in the uterus, construct a table with headings giving the Parts and Function of each part.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Pregnancy, birth and care of the baby.

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 5657

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand the process of birth; and the importance of the care of


the baby before and after birth. Can make calculations based on
data in bar charts.

Less Able Pupils

Know how birth occurs and that smoking during pregnancy is


harmful to the unborn child. Understand the significance of data in
a bar chart.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand the experience of birth, from the
point of view of the mother and the baby. Read and can interpret
written information, and information in a bar chart.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning, e.g. gestation


Using data

Cross-curricular development
PSHE: sex education: Care of the baby

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet D4 (Extension) Birth
One sheet per more able pupil (paper
exercise)
Worksheet D5 Effects of smoking
during pregnancy
One sheet per more able pupil (paper
exercise)
The process of birth
Video clip

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Chapter 4 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Revisit the development of the fetus from Lesson 3 and discuss aspects
of prenatal care (explain term), in particulart diet and smoking.

10

Introduce Worksheet D5 Effects of smoking during pregnancy and


askpupils to write down the answers to Qs 1, 2 and 3 from Pupil Book 1
in their workbooks. Using Q and A, assist pupils who have difficulty
interpreting the bar chart or who don't understand the vocabulary in D4.

10

Discuss answers to the questions. Recall (Pupil Book p.55) the structures
around the embyo, and in discussion about care of the unborn baby,
relate them to diet and smoking habits of the pregnant woman.
Ask pupils to summarise in their workbooks the aspects of prenatal care
and the lifestyle they think important to the health of the fetus.

Referring the class to pp.56 and 57 in Pupil Book 1, introduce birth and
postnatal care. Then show the video clip on the process of birth.

10

Instruct pupils to make notes on: birth; milk; care of the newborn baby.

With the class, summarise the main points about birth and care of the
baby before and after birth.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Abler pupils who finish D5 Qs 13 can


begin Worksheet D4 (extension), Birth.

Pupils record the key points about prenatal


care.

More able pupils who finish early can


continue with Worksheet B4.

Pupils record the key points about birth and postnatal


care.

Homework: Answer Worksheet D5 Q 4, which asks how harmful substances in cigarette smoke inhaled by a pregant woman reach her unborn baby. More able pupils to finish Worksheet D4.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Review of work on reproduction

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 5157

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Show understanding of the processes involved in human


reproduction, and link these processes together.

Less Able Pupils

Show knowledge of the structure and function of the human


reproductive systems.

More Able Pupils

Understand human reproduction, and can compare the processes


involved with those of other animals.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet D6 Reproduction
wordsearch
One sheet per pupil
Make an OHT for checking the
wordsearch with the class.
Worksheet D7 A summary of
reproduction
Per pupil: One sheet plus one blank A4
sheet, scissors and glue stick

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Chapter 4 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

10

In and register.
Using Q and A, briefly recap the work on reproduction in humans and
other animals (Pupil Book 1 pp.4857).

10

Distribute Worksheet D6 Reproduction wordsearch. Suggest pupils


can, if they prefer, find the words and write them down, and later match
them to the definitions.

Less able pupils can find the words and


match them to the definitions later as the
teacher goes through the answers.

Check through the answers to the wordsearch with the class using an
OHT of the worksheet.

Pupils record key definitions of terms related


to reproduction.

15

Distribute Worksheet D7 A summary of reproduction and items to


make the summary. Invite pupils to confer if unsure about sequence
and matching labels.

Ask the class to check answers to the worksheet.

Discuss the stages in the worksheet: ask pupils if they do not undertsand
the progress from any stage to the next.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils understand the main points about human


reproduction and can relate these in sequence.

Homework: Read from Pupil Book 1 p.51 (How humans reproduce) to p.55, matching in your mind the stages of the collage you prepared to the text you are reading. On the collage, write
down Day 1 alongside the first stage. Then write times from Day 1 (in days or weeks) for the other five stages.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Growth and development.

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 5860

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can create and analyse a bar chart or histogram to represent the


heights of the pupils in their class. Interpret growth curves based
on national statistics.

Less Able Pupils

Understand how height varies within the class. Know the pattern of
growth from birth to adulthood.

More Able Pupils

Can carry out a mathematical analysis of growth data.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning, e.g. puberty, adolescence.


Using data and constructing bar charts.
Creating and using a spreadsheet (optional).

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet D8 How tall are the people
in my class?
Per pupil:
Paper for height list.
Per group:
Metre rule or tape measure.
Graph paper for the bar chart.
Optional: Use of spreadsheet programme,
e,g, Excel, for handling data.
Worksheet D9 Human growth
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise).

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Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Discuss the topic of the human life-cycle, illustrated and described on
Pupil Book pp. 5859. Through Q and A, assist pupils to link growth to
cell division, and emphasise the role of cell nuclei in influencing
characteristics: check whether pupils understand the cause of identical/
non-identical twins.

With the class, read through Worksheet D8 How tall are the people
in my class? Explain that pairs will first make a list of everyone's height,
then sort them into ranges of height with the tally chart. Also that the
graphs y-axis need only have enough divisions for the maximum
number of people tallied for a height range (not the whole number of
pupils in the class).

12

Direct pairs to record their heights in centimetres, and to prepare a tally


chart. Each pair then reports their heights to the class, and each pupil
makes their own list of the heights (to be used for homework). After
that, pairs complete the tally chart.

Check that all pupils have the same number of tallies/people, then direct
pupils to individually draw their bar chart. If facilities allow, pupils can
use a spreadsheet program to do this.

10

Introduce Worksheet D9 Human growth. Ask pupils to note down


answers to Qs 1 to 6.

As a class, check pupils' answers to D9 and discuss their responses to


Qs 2 to 6.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils have written down the main stages of the human
life-cycle.

Pupils gain experience in data collection and handling.

Less able pupils simply construct the


histogram. More able pupils can use a
spreadsheet program.

Homework: Using the heights list, complete the bar chart and as many of Qs 14 on Worksheet D8 as you can.

Pupils understand the concepts of height variation and


growth.

Pupils understand that the nature and size of a sample


influences results. They understand that growth maybe
measured in different ways.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Menstrual cycle

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 Chapter 4 Lesson 7

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


The menstrual cycle.
OHT
Teenage problem pages
Per group:
Examples from teenage magazines of
problems to be solved.

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand the menstrual cycle. Can share information about the


emotional side of sex, and discuss ideas.

Less Able Pupils

Know the main changes associated with puberty in girls and boys.
Are aware of some of the emotional issues associated with sex.

More Able Pupils

Can help other pupils to understand the emotional issues


associated with sex.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Room

Language for learning, e.g. menstruation, ovulation, mammary glands.

Cross-curricular development
PSHE and sex education.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Review earlier work on ovulation (Pupil Book p.62 and describe simply
how this is controlled by hormoes and the state of the uterus (no
ovulation during pregnancy).

10

Introduce menstruation and the menstrual cycle using an OHT diagram


showing the main stages. See also Pupil Book p.62 and, if time, ask
pupils to copy the diagram into their workbooks.

10

Ask pupils to suggest other physical affects of sex hormones: different


hormones affect girls and boys. Discuss the development of secondary
sexual characteristics with sensitivity (see Teacher notes). Direct pupils
to make a table of changes in girls and boys.

Discuss emotional changes during puberty: emotional maturity


accompanying/contrasted with physical maturity.

10

Introduce situations from teenage problem pages and ask pupils in


groups to discuss the problems posed.

Hold a class discussion of the solutions proposed.

Homework: Complete the diagram of the stages of the menstrual cycle.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils draw a diagram of the main stages of the


menstrual cycle.
Some pupils will have a good idea of the
main changes at puberty, and will be able to
volunteer information. Check for
misconceptions with other pupils.

Pupils tabulate the main changes at puperty in girls and


boys.

Working in small groups, abler pupils can


help those who are less able.

Pupils understand some of the emotional issues


associated with sexual development and reproduction.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Review of work on reproduction
Literacy activity on test tube babies
End of Unit test

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 Chapter 4

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Interpret information given to them about fertility treatment.


Show understanding of the details of the structure and function
of the human reproductive systems.

Less Able Pupils

Understand the idea of test tube babies. Show knowledge of the


human reproductive systems, fertilisation, and development of the
fetus.

More Able Pupils

Confront some of the ethical and moral issues associated with


fertility treatment. Show understanding of the basis of human
reproduction at the level of cells (gametes and zygote).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Literacy activity on test-tube babies.

Cross-curricular development
PSHE and sex education.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Test tube babies
Graph paper for bar chart.
End of unit test
One test per pupil (paper based test).

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Chapter 4 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 4 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Introduce literacy activity Test tube babies on Pupil Book 1 p.63,
selecting pupils to read the description aloud.

10

Ask pupils to work on the questions on test tube babies, writing answers
in their workbooks.

As a class, go over the answers to the literacy activity. Pupils can check
each others' bar charts.

Hold a brief review of work on reproduction. Optional: Run through


the End of chapter questions, p.65, to be set for homework, to check
that terms are understood.

25

Distribute the Chapter 4 End of Unit test and instruct pupils to work
through it, saying that they can answer the Extension questions if they
have time.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Less able pupils may need help to answer


these questions.

Pupils understand how human fertility can be artificially


manipulated.
Pupils handle data and construct a bar chart.

More able pupils will answer the extension


questions.

Homework: Answer all or some (specified in terms of differentiation) of the End of chapter questions.

Pupils consolidate knowledge and understanding of


human reproduction.

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D1 (extension)
Patterns of reproduction
Animals that live their whole lives in water are called aquatic animals, while
those which live on land are said to be terrestrial. There are also some
animals, such as amphibians (frogs, toads, newts and salamanders) that live
on land as adults but begin their life as aquatic tadpoles, and have to go
back to the water to breed.
Many aquatic animals reproduce using external fertilisation, while terrestrial
animals use internal fertilisation. For example, female fish usually release
thousands of eggs known as spawn into the water, while at the same
time the males release even larger numbers of sperm. The sperm swim
through the water to fertilise the eggs. In most fish, these huge numbers of
fertilised eggs are left to develop and hatch on their own. Amphibians, like
fish, use external fertilisation, and normally do not care for their young.

Questions

Birds and mammals all use internal fertilisation, so the new life begins inside
the females body. Birds then lay their eggs and care for them in a nest. So
the young bird develops outside the females body, but is cared for by one or
both of the parents before and after hatching. In mammals, however, the
young develop inside the females body, attached to her by the placenta.
Mammals also care for their young after birth, feeding them on milk and
teaching them how to fend for themselves before they leave to live
independent lives.

1 Write down definitions of each of these terms:


fertilisation
internal fertilisation
external fertilisation
aquatic
terrestrial
2 The populations of most species of animals stay roughly the
same year on year. How many surviving young must each pair
of animals produce in their lifetime, if the population is not to
increase or decrease?
3 Using the information above, and also your own knowledge,
explain in a couple of sentences why most female fish
produce many thousands times more eggs than female birds
or mammals.
4 Some animals are exceptions to the usual rule. Find out about
how one of these animals reproduces:
cichlid fish sticklebacks guppies midwife toads
5 Human parents look after their young for longer than any
other animal. Can you think of any reasons why this is so?

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D2 Human male and


female reproductive organs
Label the diagrams, using the words listed below.
ovary

oviduct

uterus

cervix

vagina

testis

sperm duct

penis

Female

Male

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D3 The functions of the


reproductive organs
Use these labels to add annotations to the diagrams of the male and female
reproductive organs (Worksheet D2).
You could either copy the labels, or cut them out and stick them onto the
diagrams.

where eggs
are made

where sperm
are made

where fertilisation
happens

where the
embryo develops

where sperm are deposited


in the females body

this part is lined


with cilia
(tiny microscopic
waving hairs)

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the tube that


sperm travel
along before
they leave the
mans body

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D4 (extension)
Birth
Here is a description that a first-time mother wrote about how she gave
birth to a baby girl:

After being pregnant for nine months, I felt so huge and lumbering that I
was really impatient for the birth to begin. At last, things began to happen. I
was at home when I started to feel some cramp-like pains in my abdomen. I
guessed that this was it, and I rang John to come home.
I had been going to ante-natal classes at the hospital, so I had a good idea of
what to expect. All the same, it was pretty scary! Anyway, I kept on pottering
about and doing things, though the pains were getting a bit more frequent
and a bit stronger each time.
By the time my husband got home, the pains were quite uncomfortable, and
I needed to sit down. He scooped up the bag I had kept ready, bundled me
into the car, and drove me off to the hospital.
The midwife measured my blood pressure and heart rate to make sure that
all was well, and listened to the babys heartbeat as well. The pains gradually
got more and more painful and frequent. I knew that they were caused by
the muscles in my uterus contracting. At first, these muscles gradually pull
the cervix wider. Later, they start to push the baby down through the vagina
and into the outside world. I had been taught special breathing exercises to
use to help to ease the pains, and they did help a lot. It was really good to
have John with me; he had been to the classes too, so he was able to help
me and encourage me.
The midwife offered me some painkillers to help with the pain, and this
made me much more comfortable. A few hours after I had come into
hospital, the baby was well on its way. I was able to use the muscles in my
abdomen to help to push the baby through the vagina and into the big wide
world outside.

Questions

The midwife picked up the baby, and showed it to me. Its a lovely little girl,
she said. I felt really exhausted, and John looked just as tired! The baby
didnt look very lovely she was wet and sticky, with a bright red face, and
was yelling loudly. The midwife wiped her gently, and gave her to me to
hold. I cannot ever remember having such a wonderful feeling in all my life
we had made a new human being!

146

1 Imagine that you have a 6-year-old brother or sister. Your


mother is going to have another baby. Using drawings and a
few words, produce a short account which will help your
younger brother or sister to understand what is going to
happen. Try to remember what it felt like to be six. Do you
think there are some things that you might decide not to tell
them about? If so, why do you think that?
2 Birth must be a tough time for a baby. Write an account of
birth from the babys point of view.

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D5 Effects of smoking
during pregnancy
A newborn baby that weighs less than 2500 g is said to have a low
birthweight. Babies with low birthweight are more likely to have health
problems than heavier babies.
The bar chart shows the percentages of babies with a low birthweight born
to mothers who smoked different numbers of cigarettes per day.

Percentage of babies born with low birthweight

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
None

Less than 15

15 or more

Number of cigarettes smoked by


a mother per day during pregnancy
1 What percentage of babies born to non-smoking mothers have a low
birthweight?
2 What percentage of babies born to non-smoking mothers have a
birthweight that is not too low?
3 What is the effect of smoking during pregnancy on the chances of a
womans baby having a low birthweight?
4 Tobacco smoke contains a number of different harmful substances. When a
pregnant woman inhales cigarette smoke, these substances go into her
lungs and then into her blood. Explain how these substances could then
get into her babys body.

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D6 Reproduction
wordsearch
Find as many words as you can to do with reproduction.
Then write each of the words you have found next to its correct definition.
O F

E R T

S A T

V O Y R B M E X P A
U E Y Z K A P

D C E

E M I

L K L

L B M A M M A L R Q U E
A A

O N

B D C 0 A M W V A K C

T V M C E P N C S U R E T U
I W Y N D O V
O K T A

D U C T E E

P B L Y

N A T E R O Z
B

I
I

J O W S T

X R E

T O

R D G H N B R G A W I

C U J G F

E C M E T

A Q E

E T U S T H O O Z

V S Y

A female sex cell A male sex cell


Tiny hairs which sweep an egg along the oviduct
A fertilised egg
The fusing together of a male nucleus and a female
nucleus
An animal which has internal fertilisation and lays eggs with hard
shells
When an egg leaves an ovary
A fetuss life-support system in the uterus
A liquid made by mammary glands on which mammals feed their
young
A baby in the first few weeks after fertilisation
Where eggs are made Where sperms are made
A protective sac surrounding the developing fetus
What an embryo becomes after growing in the uterus for 11
weeks
Animal which has internal fertilisation and internal
development
A young amphibian
The process in which a baby mammal enters into the outside
world
The cord which connects a fetus or embryo to the
placenta
The organ in which a mammalian embryo develops
The tube that an egg travels along after leaving the ovary

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D7 A summary of
reproduction
These diagrams show the different stages in human reproduction.
Cut out the diagrams, and paste them onto paper in the correct order.
Then either copy or cut out each description, and put it next to the diagram
with which it belongs.

fertilised egg

The tiny zygote divides


over and over again,
forming a little ball of
cells called an embryo.

Once a month, an egg


leaves one of the
ovaries.
This is called ovulation.

If sperm are present,


then the egg may be
fertilised in the oviduct.
The egg is now a
zygote.

The embryo sinks into


the soft lining of the
uterus.

The embryo is attached


to its mother by the
placenta, and protected
by an amnion
containing fluid.

After nine months in


the uterus, the baby is
born.

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D8 How tall are the


people in my class?
You are going to measure the height of everyone in your class, and draw a
graph to display the results.
You will need a straight, plain wall that people can stand against. You will
also need a metre ruler or better still a long tape that measures in
centimetres.
1 Measure a persons height by resting a flat book or ruler on the top of
their head as they stand with their back to the wall, without shoes. Make a
small mark on the wall before they move away.
Then use the ruler or tape measure to measure Height (cm) Tallies Number of people
the distance between the mark and the floor.
below 120
/
1
Record the measurement in centimetres.
120 - 129
//
2
2 Collect the results for everyone in your class.
130 - 139
Then sort them out using a tally chart like the
one on the right. You may need to use different 140 - 149
height ranges this will depend on the range
150 - 159
of heights that there are in your class.
160 - 169
3 Use your results to draw a graph to display
your results. The axes will look rather like this, 170 - 179
but you may need to use different scales for
180 - 189
your results.
190 and over

Number of people

5
This bar shows
there are two
people whose
height is between
120 and 129 cm

4
3
2
1
0

110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210

Questions

Height (cm)

150

1 Complete this sentence:


The height of people in my class ranges from ........... cm to
........... cm.
2 Calculate the mean height for people in your class. To do this,
add up everyones height (in cm) and divide by the number of
people.
3 How many people are shorter than the mean height?
4 How many people are taller than the mean height?

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D9 Human growth

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The plots on the graph show the mean (average) heights of boys and girls at
different ages. The data were collected from hundreds of measurements of
boys and girls of each age. Then the mean heights were calculated for each
age.

200
175
boys

Average height in cm

150
125

girls

100
75
50
25
0
0
2
(birth)

8
12
10
Age in years

14

16

18

1 Use the graph to find the mean height of (a) boys and (b) girls at age 12.
2 How do these results compare with the results you found when you
measured people in your class?
3 Suggest reasons for any differences between your results and the ones in
the graph.
4 Which results do you think give the most reliable information - your results
or the ones in the graph? Explain why you think that.
5 What is happening to the cells in a persons body as they grow?
6 Do you think that height is the best way to measure growth? Suggest one
other way in which it could be measured, and explain whether you think
this way would be better or worse than measuring height.

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End of Unit test


Reproduction
1 Complete these sentences, using some or all of these words:
internal

external

sperm

eggs

spawn

tadpoles

Frogs have fertilisation. A female frog lays into


the water. The male frogs then release onto them. The
fertilised eggs are known as They grow into .
(5)
2 The sentences below describe the functions of some of the organs in the
male and female human reproductive systems. Next to each one, write the
name of the organ which is being described. You can use each word once,
more than once or not at all.

Male organs:
testis
sperm duct
Female organs:
ovary
oviduct

penis
uterus

vagina

This is where eggs are made.


This is where sperm are made.

Fertilisation happens inside this tube.


This tube carries sperms from the testis to the penis.
This is where the embryo develops.
(5)
3 The diagram shows
a fetus inside its
mothers body.

a What is the name


of the fluid which
surrounds the fetus?

(1)

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Chapter 4 End of Unit test


b Give one function of this fluid.

(1)
c Explain how the fetus obtains its oxygen.

(2)
4 The diagram shows a sperm cell.
a State three ways in which the
sperm is similar to all animal cells.
1
2
3
(3)
b State two ways in which a sperm cell is specially adapted to carry out its
function of fertilising an egg. For each adaptation, explain how it helps the
sperm cell to do this.
1 special adaptation
how it helps
2 special adaptation
how it helps
(4)
5 Each person begins their life as a single cell. Explain how this cell eventually
becomes the millions of cells that make up a persons body.

(2)

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Chapter 4 End of Unit test


6 The graph shows how the height of a boy changed between the ages of 8
and 21.

Height (cm)

200
175
150
125
100
8

10

12

14 16 18
Age (years)

20

22

a How tall was the boy when he was 13 years old? (Remember to include
units in your answer.)

(1)
b Between which years did he grow most quickly?
and
(1)
(Total marks: 25)

Extension question
7 Both external fertilisation and internal fertilisation must be successful
strategies, because fish, amphibians, birds and mammals all manage to
produce enough young to carry on the next generation. Write about half a
page comparing the advantages and disadvantages of external and internal
fertilisation. Try to use words such as but, whereas and however to make
the links between the two. You might start off like this:
External fertilisation can only take place in water, whereas internal
fertilisation can take place either in water or on land.

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(Total marks: 10)

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4
ANS ER S
W

Reproduction
Text answers
1 a Cod fish and frogs use external fertilisation.
Robins, guinea pigs and humans use internal fertilisation.
b Sperms will find an egg more easily with internal fertilisation.
c Eggs will be safer with internal fertilisation.
d Fewer eggs will be eaten by predators or unfertilised with internal
fertilisation than with external fertilisation. Therefore fewer eggs need to
be produced by animals which use internal fertilisation, as there is a much
greater chance of each egg being fertilised and developing into an
embryo.
2 The young of animals which show parental care, such as mammals, are more
likely to survive until adulthood than the young of animals which do not
care for their young. So mammals do not need to produce so many eggs as
fish, because each egg has a much better chance of successfully developing
into an adult.
3 The sperm are made in the testes.
They travel along the sperm duct and through the penis.
They swim from the vagina through the moisture in the uterus.
They arrive in the oviduct.
Here one sperm fertilises the egg.
4
Sperm cell

Egg cell

Contains a nucleus.

Contains a nucleus.

Has a cell membrane.

Has a cell membrane.

Is much smaller than most cells.

Is much larger than most cells.

Has only a small amount of cytoplasm. Has a large amount of cytoplasm.


Has a tail to help it to swim.

Contains food reserves in its cytoplasm.

Has a head containing enzymes to


help it to push into the egg.
5 Growth spurts for girls from birth to 2 years, then again between about 9
or 10 and 12 years old.
For boys from birth to 2 years, then between about 12 to 15 years.
The rate of growth is about the same for boys and girls until the girls begin
their growth spurt at about 9 or 10, which is a year or two earlier than the
boys. The boys growth spurt is then steeper and longer than the girls, so on
average boys end up being taller.

Literacy activity answers


a Although her ovaries still make and release eggs, the eggs cannot travel
along the oviducts. A sperm swimming up through the uterus and into the
oviduct will not be able to meet an egg.
b To make sure that at least one of them is successfully fertilised.
c Two or three fertilised eggs are placed in the womans uterus. If they all
develop into babies, then she will have twins or triplets.

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Chapter 4 Answers

End of chapter answers


1 The uterus is the part of the mothers body where an embryo grows into a
baby.
The placenta is an embryos life-support system, which connects it to its
mother.
The amnion is a bag around the embryo, which makes a fluid in which the
embryo floats.
The baby is pushed out through the vagina when it is born.
A mother feeds her new-born baby on milk.
2 Frogs and fish have external fertilisation, the young develop outside the
females body and they do not care for their young. This means that many
eggs are not fertilised, or do not develop and survive until adulthood.
Humans are mammals, so we have internal fertilisation, the baby develops
inside the mothers body and we care for our young. This means that there
is a much better chance of an egg being fertilised and developing into an
adult human being.
4 Any three of: pubic hair grows, breasts develop, hips widen, menstruation
begins.
5 a About 28 days.
b B.
c The uterus lining becomes thicker and softer, ready for the zygote to sink
into it if the egg is fertilised.
d The uterus lining breaks down.
6 Advantages: breast milk is free, served at the right temperature, sterile,
contains exactly the right balance of nutrients, contains antibodies to
protect the baby against infectious diseases, breast feeding helps to develop
a bond between mother and baby
Disadvantages: not all mothers enjoy breast feeding, some mothers find
breast feeding very difficult, it may be inconvenient, if the baby is bottle fed
then the father can help more

Worksheet answers
D1 (extension) Patterns of reproduction
1 Fertilisation the joining of the nuclei of an egg and a sperm.
Internal fertilisation fertilisation that happens inside the females body.
External fertilisation fertilisation that happens in water outside the
females body.
Aquatic living in water.
Terrestrial living on land.
2 Two.
3 Fish eggs are less likely to be fertilised and more likely to be eaten than bird
or mammal eggs because fertilisation is external. Young fish are less likely to
survive to adulthood because the parents do not care for their young.
5 There are many points that could be made, but perhaps the most important
is that we have such large, complex brains, and complex behaviour which
means that it takes us much longer to grow to mental and emotional
maturity than any other animal.

D5 Effects of smoking during pregnancy


1 3.5%
2 96.5%
3 The more she smokes, the greater the chance that her baby will have a low
birthweight.
4 They will cross the placenta, passing from the mothers blood into her
unborn babys blood.

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Chapter 4 Answers

D6 Reproduction word search


A female sex cell egg
A male sex cell sperm
Tiny hairs which sweep an egg along the oviduct cilia
A fertilised egg zygote
The fusing together of a male nucleus and a female nucleus fertilisation
An animal which has internal fertilisation and lays eggs with hard shells bird
When an egg leaves an ovary ovulation
A fetuss life-support system in the uterus placenta
A liquid made by mammary glands on which mammals feed their young milk
A baby in the first few weeks after fertilisation embryo
Where eggs are made ovary
Where sperms are made testis
A protective sac surrounding the developing fetus amnion
What an embryo becomes after growing in the uterus for 11 weeks fetus
Animal which has internal fertilisation and internal development mammal
A young amphibian tadpole
The process in which a baby mammal enters the outside world birth
The cord which connects a fetus or embryo to the placenta umbilical
The organ in which a mammalian embryo develops uterus
The tube that an egg travels along after leaving the ovary oviduct

D9 Human growth
1 a about 140 cm
b 150 cm
3 The results presented here are drawn using data from thousands of different
young people and means have been calculated for each height. So the
sample size was much greater than the one which the pupils used.
4 The ones in the graph are most likely to give the true picture, because the
sample size was greater.
5 The cells divide and grow, then divide again and so on.
6 Height can be a good indicator of growth, and it has the great advantage
that it is quick and easy to measure. However, it does not include any
changes in the proportions of the body, nor of width or weight. Students
may suggest weight as another good way of measuring growth. This has the
disadvantage that weight can fluctuate, so a weight gain may not really
indicate growth.

End of Unit test answers


1 Frogs have external fertilisation. A female frog lays eggs into the water. The
male frogs then release sperm onto them. The fertilised eggs are known as
spawn. They grow into tadpoles. (5)
2 ovary; testis; oviduct; sperm duct; uterus (5)
3 a amniotic fluid (1)
b supports/protects, the embryo/fetus (1)
c from its mother
from her blood
through the placenta
(any 2 for 2 marks) (2)
4 a has cytoplasm
has nucleus
has cell membrane (3)
b 1 has a long tail
2 has enzymes in its head
which helps it to swim to the egg
which help to digest a way into
the egg (4)

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Chapter 4 Answers
5 The single cell carries on dividing over and over again. All the different kinds
of specialised cells, tissues and organs are formed in this way. (2)
6 a 140 cm (1)
b 13 and 15 years (1)
(Total marks: 25)

Extension answers
7 Allow up to seven marks for facts and ideas, including discussion of the
number of eggs and sperms that need to be produced and why, and three
marks for an attempt to compare the two (rather than simply describing one
and then the other). (10)
(Total marks: 35)

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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5 Energy resources

9
TI

AC

MING

HER NO

TE

HRS

Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7i

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Have experience of burning materials
Know that plants and animals need food for growth and that plants need
sunlight to grow

Language for learning


Bunsen burner
Chemical
potential energy
Energy transfer
Food chain

Fossil fuel
Fuel
Joule
Non-renewable
energy resource

Primary consumer
Renewable
energy resource
Solar energy
Source of energy

Stored energy
Secondary
consumer
Tertiary consumer

Learning checklist
In this topic pupils should learn:
the terms fuel and energy
the safe use of the Bunsen burner
controlling variables to make a fair test
evaluation of results
that coal, oil and gas are fossil fuels
how fossil fuels are formed
the term renewable
some renewable sources of energy and how they work
the advantages and disadvantages of some different renewable sources of
energy
why solar cells are black
all living things require energy for everyday activities
animals get this energy from the food they eat
different foods contain different amounts of energy
the amount of energy a food contains can be shown on nutritional information
labels
energy is measured in Joules ( J) and that 1J = 1Nm
the amount of energy in different foods can be compared by burning them
and measuring the temperature rise of a test tube of water
food chains show how energy is transferred
most of our energy originally comes from the Sun

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5 Energy resources

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
4C
6A
6D
6G

Title
Keeping Warm
Interdependence and Adaptation
Reversible and Irreversible Changes
Changing Circuits

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
8I
9I

Title
Heating and Cooling
Energy and Electricity

Cross-curricular Links
Design and Technology: Understanding Materials (Resistant Materials)
Citizenship: Energy-supply issues
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity on James Joule in the Pupil Book
Worksheet E4, Renewable sources of energy, contains a crossword puzzle as does
Worksheet E7, Energy from foods.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Worksheets E3, Different fuels, E5, Investigating solar cells, and E7, Energy from
foods, contain numerical calculations.

ICT

ICT
The results from the investigative activities could be recorded on a spreadsheet
and spreadsheet tools could be used to interpret the data.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Plan a fair comparison of the energy output of a range of fuels or foods
Control relevant variables
Reduce error by repeating readings
Comment on the accuracy of results
Produce rules for the safe operation of a Bunsen burner
Physical processes
State that fuels release energy when burnt and describe how renewable energy
resources can be used to generate electricity and provide heating
Explain why the conservation of fuels is important
Identify energy transfers within a range of systems including those involving
living things

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Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Make a fair comparison of the energy output of a range of fuels or foods and
with help produce a bar chart or line graph of results
Use a Bunsen burner safely
Physical processes
Name a range of fuels used domestically and in industry and some renewable
energy resources
Give examples of how to save fuels
Identify energy transfers in some systems

Pupils who have progressed further


Scientific enquiry
Compare the effectiveness of different energy-transferring appliances, e.g.
camping stoves, windmills etc,
Physical processes
Compare the advantages and limitations of a range of energy resources and
give examples of how to use fuel economically
Describe energy transfer links between the Sun, energy resources and
themselves

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Fuels
The Pupil Book introduces this topic via illustrations of different types of fuels.
Pupils should be helped to define fuels as substances that are burnt to release
energy, and that energy is needed to make things happen. The Pupil Book
contains an exercise in which the pupils can identify a number of fuels and relate
them to their uses.
This section could also be used to introduce pupils to the different types of
energy. There are exercises to familiarise pupils with these different energy types
and with energy changes.

Bunsen burner
This topic could also provide a good introduction to the safe use of the Bunsen
burner.
The Pupil Book introduces the pupils to the need for Bunsen burners in the
laboratory. There is an activity in the Pupil Book based on a dialogue between
two students which pupils can use to help to write a set of rules for its safe use.
Worksheet E1, The Bunsen burner, may be used to reinforce the names of the
parts of the Bunsen burner.

Energy in different fuels


There could be an opportunity to plan and carry out an experiment comparing
the energy given out by different fuels. Pupils should be helped to decide which
factors need to be constant and which factors need to be changed to keep this a

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5 Energy resources
fair test. Worksheet E2, Planning fuels, could be used to help pupils plan their
investigation.

If the experiment is carried out by pupils, care must be taken and risk
assessments should be carried out. Goggles should be worn and only small
quantities of the fuels should be made available to pupils to minimise potential
risks. Under no circumstances should petrol be made available.
(There is a further opportunity later in this topic to carry out a similar
investigation to compare the amount of energy in different fuels)
Pupils could be asked to evaluate the results. They could be encouraged to
consider repeating the experiments to increase accuracy, or to consider the
methods for controlling the other variables such as temperature or volume more
accurately. Worksheet E3, Different fuels, shows a sample set of results and a
series of questions to help students learn how to evaluate results.

Non renewable fuels


In this section pupils should learn that coal, oil and natural gas are fossil fuels.
Pupils should already be familiar with the process of the formation of fossil fuels.
The Pupil Book introduces fossil fuels and gives a short account of their formation
together with a number of possible follow up activities.

Renewable sources of energy


The Pupil Book introduces the ideas that fossil fuels may not last forever. Pupils
may be given the opportunity to calculate how long Britains fossil fuel resources
will last, and what could be done to extend the life of these reserves. The Pupil
Book then discusses the issue of renewable energy resources.
Some pupils may already be familiar with renewable sources of energy. Videos or
models may be used to help other pupils visualise them. Pupils should be able to
explain what makes something a renewable source of energy. Pupils should know
how solar, biomass, wind, waves, tidal and geothermal sources work and should
also be able to explain some advantages and disadvantages of each type of
source.
The activity in the Pupil Book or Worksheet E4, Renewable fuels, could be used to
help pupils to organise their ideas about renewable energy resources.

Investigating solar cells


Pupils may be given the opportunity to carry out an investigation to compare
whether solar cells should be made out of black or out of silver materials.
Instructions are given on Worksheet E5, Investigating solar cells.
On cold or overcast days, trays could be placed equal distances from a heater
inside the classroom.

Energy and food


Pupils should learn that the unit of energy is the Joule ( J) and that 1 J = 1 Nm
Some pupils may recall that the energy in foods is often reported in calories. One
calorie is equal to about 4 J.
The Pupil Book asks pupils to reflect upon where athletes get their energy.
In this section pupils should learn that living things (plants and animals) require
energy to keep them alive. Pupils should learn that they get their energy from the
food they eat, and that the amount of energy in different foods is shown by the
nutritional information on food labels.

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Some pupils may be sensitive about issues involving weight and slimming. Care
should be taken in such discussions. Be aware that some pupils may believe that
it is the act of exercise which makes someone healthy, and therefore that the
exercise has given them energy. It should be stressed that all activities require
energy from the food that is eaten.
The pupils may be given an opportunity to carry out the questions in the Pupil
Book to calculate the amount of energy in various meals, and to reflect on the
amount of energy they have gained from the food they have eaten in the last 24
hours. The pupils are also given the opportunity to discuss why different people
require different amounts of energy.

Investigating the energy in food


In this section, pupils could be given the opportunity to design and carry out an
investigation to compare the amount of energy in different foods. A set of
prompt questions to help pupils plan the investigation is given by Worksheet E6,
Planning foods, while a fuller set of instructions to carry out the investigation is
given by Worksheet E7, Energy from foods.

The room should be checked to ensure that it is well ventilated. Pupils should be
reminded that goggles must be worn and that no food should be eaten in the
lab. Due to the risk of peanut allergies, nuts should be avoided in this activity;
crisps, popcorn, cereals and cat biscuits all burn well.
The Pupil Book shows a sample set of results and some questions to help pupils
to begin to analyse and evaluate an investigation.

Green plants
In this section pupils will learn that the energy in the foods they eat can be
traced back to the Sun. Food chains can be drawn to show how the energy is
passed on.
Care should be taken to ensure that pupils do not believe that fertilisers give
plants their energy.
The Pupil Book contains a number of food chains for the pupils to practice with
and some questions to reinforce pupils ideas.

Teaching hints and tips


Fuels
Although pupils will not have studied energy at Key Stage 2, they will have used
the term energy in many everyday situations. A common misconception amongst
pupils of this age is that exercise gives you energy because it makes you healthier.

The Bunsen burner


If this is the first time that pupils have used Bunsen burners it is very important
that pupils are aware of your expectations.

Safety points
Heavy reinforcement of safety issues in this lesson will help set good
habits. In particular ensure that all pupils:
Wear goggles when using Bunsen burners
Tie back long hair, tuck ties out of the way etc.

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5 Energy resources
Know only to leave a lit Bunsen on a standing (yellow) flame
Pupils should be reminded of these safety issues whenever Bunsen burners
are used in future.

Energy in different fuels

Safety points
Ensure that you are familiar with your schools procedure for using fuels
and make sure that all pupils are fully aware of your safety expectations.
Pupils should be reminded to wear goggles. Make sure that the stock bottles
of fuels are well away from the area in which the fuels are to be burnt.
Worksheet E3, Different fuels contains an introduction to writing an evaluation,
an area which many pupils find difficult. You may have to spend time explaining
what exactly an evaluation is and how to go about writing one. It may be an idea
to provide pupils with an exemplar evaluation for their reference.
Ensure that pupils can calculate averages. Less able pupils may need help in
calculating averages.

Non renewable fuels


Many pupils will never have seen coal and they may benefit from seeing and
touching it. You could explain that for many years, coal was the most popular form
of domestic fuel. Sealed samples of artificial crude oil could also be shown to pupils.

Safety point
If pupils are handling fuels remember to get them to wash their hands
once the fuels have been handled.

Investigating solar cells


Consider investing in a model solar cell. Solar buggies make particularly
impressive additions to a lesson.
The emphasis of the practical on Worksheet E5, Investigating solar cells should be
the planning of the experiment and the evaluation of the results. A full
explanation of the comparative absorption of radiation by black and silver
surfaces is not needed here.

Energy and food


Pupils could be asked (in the previous lesson) to find and bring to the lesson
nutritional labels from foods that they have eaten.
Watch out for, and stamp out any issues of teasing or unpleasantness over issues
of weight and slimming.

Investigating the energy in foods


Pupils should be reminded of your expectations over safety (see main teaching
notes).
Remind pupils that they will need to record the temperature both at the end and
at the beginning of each experiment if they are to be able to calculate the
temperature change.

Green plants
Emphasise that the direction of the arrows in food chains shows how the energy
is passed on. A common misconception is that the arrows show what is eating
what and hence many pupils draw the arrows the wrong way around.

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Programme of Study References

166

Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

Materials and
Their Properties

Physical Processes

1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2d,


2e, 2f, 2g, 2h, 2i,
2j, 2k, 2l, 2m, 2n,
2o, 2p

2d, 2j, 3a

2i

1c, 5a, 5b, 5c, 5e,


5g

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Sc4

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PTE
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What I have learnt


Energy resources

CK LI S

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Bunsen burner

Joule

Solar energy

Chemical potential

Non-renewable

Source of energy

energy

energy resource

Energy transfer

Primary consumer

Food chain

Renewable

Checklist

Tertiary consumer

energy resource

Fossil fuel
Fuel

Stored energy

Secondary consumer

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to use a Bunsen burner


safely
I know how to control variables to
make a fair test
I know how to evaluate results
I know that coal, oil and (natural)
gas are fossil fuels
I know how fossil fuels are formed
I know some renewable sources of
energy and how they work
I know the advantages and
disadvantages of some different
renewable sources of energy
I know that solar cells are black
I know that all living things require
energy for everyday activities
I know that different foods contain
different amounts of energy
I know that energy is measured in
Joules ( J) and that 1 J = 1 Nm
I know that the amount of energy in
different foods can be compared by
burning them and measuring the
temperature rise of a test tube of water
I know that food chains show how
energy is transferred
I know that most of our energy
originally comes from the Sun

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Chapter 5 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Energy and energy resources

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 6668

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Learn and recognise the terms: work, energy, energy resource and
energy conversion. Become familiar with nine types of energy, and
the unit of energy, the joule, J.

Less Able Pupils

Know that energy is needed for things to work or happen. Know


that there are different sorts of energy which can be changed from
one to another. Carry out the energy conversions safely.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus are able to relate energy resources to types of
energy and to recognise a variety of familiar energy conversions.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing a mnemonic, writing sentences to explain energy changes.


Use of the unit for energy, the joule, J.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Circus of 5 energy conversion activities
One circus for every 5 pairs of students, so,
for a class of 30 students working in pairs:
Three sets of 5 energy conversion
activities (or suitable alternatives): power
pack circuit with bulb (lamp); electric bell
with battery (sound); clockwork toy
(movement); pendulum (potential/
kinetic); candle (heat).
Hold spares of apparatus in reserve in
case of breakage or failure.
For each activity, prepare an Instruction
card giving simple written instructions
under headings: What to do with the
apparatus; What to observe and record.
Paper on which to draw table.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils to write in their workbooks the topic title Energy and energy
resources, followed by words (at least 3) that they link with energy.
Remind pupils that everyone has an idea of what it is to have energy or
to be energetic, but that scientists need to be more specific. Explain
what scientists mean by work, then explain that energy is the capacity
to do work.
Write a definition of energy for the students to copy (see Learning
outcomes), and explain that both work and energy are measured in the
same units, namely joules, J.

More able pupils suggest more words that


link with energy,

Pupils record definitions of work, energy and the joule:


Work is done when a force is moved.
Energy is the capacity or ability to do work.
One joule is the energy needed to move a force of
1 newton a distance of 1 metre.

10

Introduce the idea that fuels are useful sources of energy. They are
called energy resources. When they are burned the reaction is called
combustion they release heat or thermal energy. The energy stored in
fuels is chemical potential energy.
Refer pupils to the cartoon on Pupil Book p.66 showing some different
sorts and uses of fuels, and ask them to draw and complete the table
for Q 1.

Less able pupils may need to be helped to


complete the exercise.

Using Q and A, ask pupils to suggest other sorts of energy and sources
for those types of energy. Write these on the board and have pupils
copy them into their workbooks. Chapter 5 can be referred to if they
run out of ideas.
Then refer to the Types of energy drawings on p.67. Tell pupils to write
down the first letter of each sort of energy and then to make up a
mnemonic to help remember all nine, e.g. Happy Elephants, Singing
Songs, Can Knit Long Nose Gloves. (First letters can be in any order.)

Persuade less confident pupils to help in


preparing the mnemonic.

Pupils have a written record of the nine sorts of energy


illustrated on p.67, and have made a mnemonic to help
remember them.

17

Explain that, when something works, energy is usually converted or


changed from one form into another.
Introduce the circus of 5 energy conversion activities. Instruct pupils
to draw a large table with the two headings: Sort of energy present at
the start; How it changed and the sort of energy after conversion. Tell
pupils that, for each set of apparatus, they should follow the instructions
given, and write down a sentence under each heading on their table,
e.g. The candle contains chemical potential energy. The candle burns
and chemical potential energy is changed to heat (thermal) and light
energy. Give pairs up to 3 minutes at each of the five points in their
part of the lab.

Faster, more able pupils will write more


detailed sentences about the conversions.

Pupils recognise energy conversions in simple examples.

As a class, review the results and write on the board examples of


statements for pupils to copy if they had difficulties. The table should
go in their workbooks.

Less able pupils or pupils who worked less


quickly copy statements.

All pupils have a complete record of some energy


changes.

Direct pupils to look at the drawings of Energy changes on p.68, and


then to do Q 2, writing similar sentences for the conversions in
the cartoon on p.67.

More able pupils make more valid


suggestions and can explain them.

Pupils can recognise different energy changes.

169

Homework: Complete the table for the energy conversion circus. Complete and learn the mnemonic for Energy types.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
The Bunsen burner

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 6870

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know how to use a Bunsen burner safely to heat water, and


recognise the need to follow very strict rules for safety. Be able to
adjust the flame to make the burner flame heat at different rates or
just be visible.

Less Able Pupils

Use the Bunsen burner safely and with confidence. Use the
measuring cylinder to measure volume and the thermometer to
measure temperature.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus can relate rate of burning fuel to rate of conversion


of energy, hence rate of heating.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Using the Bunsen burner
Per group:
Bunsen burner, heatproof mat, tripod,
gauze, wooden splint (spill, taper). 10 cm
piece of thin constantan wire and tongs.
Two pairs of goggles.
Safely measuring the temperature of
heated water
The above apparatus, plus the following.
Two 250 cm3 beakers (or two 100 cm3
beakers), boiling tube, test-tube holder,
measuring cylinder, thermometer (10C
to 100C).
Worksheet E1 The Bunsen burner
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Labelling the diagram and completing written statements to answer questions from the worksheet.
Measuring temperature, time and volume.
Using a temperature probe.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Instruct pupils to write in their workbooks several ways we get heat at
home. Explain that in a laboratory we use a special burner because:
(a) we often need very high temperatures, (b) we need to be able to
control the heat output, and (c) we need to be safe.

More confident/able students make more


suggestions. Direct questions to less able/
confident students to encourage them to
contribute too.

Pupils relate the different sources of heat energy to their


uses.

10

Bunsen burner demonstration: Demonstrate the parts of a Bunsen


burner without lighting it, then put on goggles and demonstrate how
to light the burner with the air hole closed. Vary the air hole and
explain the uses of each different flame. Golden yellow is the SAFETY
flame as we can see that it is lit! Half-open air-hole gives a hot flame for
normal heating and fully open air-hole gives a very hot ROARING flame
for strong heating. Then direct pupils to Pupil Book p.69 and the
diagrams of pupils discussing the Bunsen burner and ask the class to
develop a set of rules for its safe use. Write this list on the board and
instruct pupils to take notes.

A less confident pupil may help with the


demonstration.

Pupils record how to use a Bunsen burner safely.

Now direct each pair to collect a set of apparatus for using the Bunsen
burner. Remind the class how to light a Bunsen and then allow them to
light theirs from a lit burner. They should investigate how to vary the
flame with the air-hole. Instruct them to hold a piece of constantan
wire with tongs and to put the wire into the various flames. They
should judge by the redness of the wire where the flames are hottest
and where the gas is or is not burning. Instruct pupils to put out their
burners or leave them on a safety flame.

Demonstration on safely measuring the temperature of heated


water: Show the class how to measure a volume of water, say, 50 cm3,
with a measuring cylinder, and transfer it to a beaker. Then demonstrate
how to measure the water's temperature safely with a thermometer.
Emphasise that the thermometer MUST NOT be brought near to the
flame.

15

Pupils should then investigate how changing the type of flame (e.g.
collar open or closed) can affect how much a given amount of water
increases in temperature over a set time.

10

Review the class results, referring to Pupil Book pp.6870. Distribute


Worksheet E1 The Bunsen burner and ask pupils to answer it in their
workbooks.

Pupils learn the safe way to light a burner and can


adjust the flame. Using constantan wire, they 'see'
where the flame is hot or not so hot.

It may be necessary for safety during the


demonstration to have the burners off. If so,
a couple of more confident capable pupils
could be asked to relight them all afterwards.

All pupils will have seen how to heat water safely with a
burner.

Pupils have the experience of measuring a volume of


water, measuring its temperature and heating it with a
burner.
Less able or slower pupils can write phrases
or single-word answers to the Worksheet
E1 questions.

Homework: Answer Qs 3 and 4 on Pupil Book p.70. Complete a tidy set of rules for using a Bunsen burner safely.

Pupils have a record of how a Bunsen burner can be


used safely for heating at different rates.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Energy in different fuels

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 70

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can recognise the range of variables which may need to be


controlled to make a test fair or valid. Are able to select the
variables to control. Are able to suggest a valid range of
measurements to give useful results.

Less Able Pupils

Know that a test must be fair so that it can be used to make a valid
comparison. Know that to describe a fuel as the 'best' fuel is
unhelpful because it does not explain why best and what it is best for.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand how to control variables in the


design of an experiment and how to make a comparison of the
results to form a valid conclusion.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet E2 Planning a fair test
Energy from different fuels
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)
Demo: Measuring the chemical energy
in a liquid fuel
Fuel burner: oil-burning type with wick and
lid. Liquid fuels, e.g. ethanol, propanol,
butanol. Measuring cylinder, 100 cm3
beaker, thermometer (10C to 100C),
clamp-stand, heat-proof mat, top-pan
balance, goggles for the whole
group/class, matches.
Outline for the investigation (copy
steps from T&LA column, leaving
appropriate gaps): for less able pupils.
Worksheet E3 Different fuels
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise: see
Homework)

Writing instructions for the experiment.


Measuring temperature, calculating gain in temperature, measuring volume, measure mass,
calculating loss in mass.
Using a temperature probe, connecting the balance to the computer.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Using Q and A, remind the class of the following:
The Bunsen burner burns the fuel methane and its rate of heat energy
output can be varied. It and other fuels burn in air, in a combustion
reaction. When fuels burn they are changed to new chemical substances
and energy is released.

More able or faster pupils make more


suggestions.

Lesson 2 work is consolidated.

Distribute Worksheet E2 Planning a fair test Energy from


different fuels. Go through the questions with the class, noting
suggestions on the board, then instruct pupils to complete the sheet.

More able pupils make more valid


suggestions, but in a brainstorm record all
suggestions, whether valid or not.

Pupils have copy of a range of variables which may


affect the measured heat energy output of the fuels in
the experiment.

15

Help pupils to plan an investigation to measure the chemical energy


in a liquid fuel. A suitable procedure is as follows.
Measure out 50 cm3 water into a 100 cm3 beaker. Record the starting
temperature of the water. On a balance, measure (and record) the mass
of the burner + lid + fuel. Set up the apparatus with the beaker
clamped 10 cm above the burner. Light the burner and measure the
water temperature during warming until it is, say, 20C hotter than at
the start. Then put out the burner by placing the lid quickly over the top.
Repeat the measurement of mass of the burner etc. on the balance and
record. Calculate the mass of fuel which has been used in heating the
water.

Pupils learn how to plan an investigation.

Demonstrate the procedure using one of the fuels.

Pupils see or help make the measurements for the


experiment. They appreciate the quantities and timescale involved in the process, and also realise the
SAFETY precautions which need to be taken.

10

Distribute Worksheet E3 Different fuels and explain thet this is a sample


set of results. Explain temperature change and how to calculate averages.
Ask pupils to complete Qs 1 and 2.

Pupils have practice in calculating temperature


differences and averages from real results.

10

Discuss E3 Qs 3, 4 and 5 which pupils may answer.

Pupils begin to evaluate a set of results.

Homework: Complete Worksheet E2, and do Worksheet E3.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Fossil fuels

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 7072

Expectations
Most Pupils

Know that fossil fuels are an important source of energy which


took so long to form that they cannot be replaced, hence are
called non-renewable fuels.

Less Able Pupils

Know that fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are the main
sources of energy used in Britain today.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand the process of converting dead


plants and animals into fossil fuel.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:

Describing the process of formation of fossil fuels using own prose.


Appreciating the time scale involved in the formation of fossil fuels
and the time scale over which present resources may be exhausted.

ICT:

Using Word or Paint etc to illustrate their storyboard and/or leaflet.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Fossil fuels and fossils display
Samples of coal, oil and natural gas (or
mock-ups labelled as such). Some fossil
remains.
Demo: Layer formation
About 6 wide glass/plastic tubes containing
water and layers of different coloured
sediment settled in them. Equivalent layers
of soil in different tubes should be the
same depth. Layers from top to bottom:
1 Water + Elodea (or equivalent), light
coloured soil layer below. 2 Same but with
dark 2nd soil layer on top, burying Elodea.
3 A third (top) layer of contrasting
coloured soil (Elodea in 2nd layer).
Remainder tubes: repeat and add new top
(contrasting) layer for each.
Strip of paper (for time line for row of
tubes). Sample of finely divided soil to
add to the last tube during demo.
Storyboard on fossil formation
Large sheet of plain paper per pupil.
Vocabulary list. On the board, to help less
able pupils answer Q 5 Pupil Book p.71

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Chapter 5 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Use Q and A to remind pupils of the range of fuels investigated in
Lesson 3, how the chemical potential energy was converted and released
from the fuel as heat (and light) energy, and how the fuels were
compared.

Pupils recall 'burning' or combustion, and energy


conversion, here, energy released as heat (and light)
from chemical potential energy stored in fuels.

Refer to commonly used fuels that are collectively called fossil fuels
and the text on Pupil Book p.71. Ask: What is a fossil? When did the
fossilised animals and plants live? How were they made into fossils?
How long did that take? Why do we use the term fossil fuels.
Set out the fossil fuels and fossils display and ask the class to describe
their origins.

Pupils experience a range of fossil fuels and consider the


process of their formation.

15

Set out the demonstration on layer formation. Place the tubes


randomly and ask pupils to put them in order, with the oldest first.
Put a strip of paper alongside the row as a time line. Use arbitrary
300 million years ago for the oldest (Carboniferous) and present for
the youngest, and add pupil suggestions for ages of the other tubes.
Then add some soil to the most recent tube. Point out bubbles of air
floating up out of the layer as it settles.
Explain that living things died, were buried and changed into fuel
because they couldn't rot in the absence of air. Direct pupils to write a
storyboard on fossil formation, with time-line, captions and labels,
showing how once-living things were buried and became fossilised.

More able pupils find this exercise


straightforward.
Less able pupils are helped by preparaing
the captioned storyboard or flow diagram.

All pupils have a record of how fossil fuels were formed


with a time-line so that they can start to appreciate the
time scales involved.

Ask pupils to answer Q 5 on p.71 in their workbooks.

To help answer Q 5, less able pupils may


need the vocabulary list, which can be
written on the board.

The conditions needed for fossil formation will be


reinforced.

15

Ask the class: If fuels took millions of years to form, how long will they
last if we carry on using them at the present rate? Explain the term
non-renewable.
As a Q and A, ask the class Q 7 (leaving 7b till the end), and direct them
to write the answers in their workbooks. To answer d, they may need
prompting to realise what fossil fuels are used for and to imagine life
without them.

Abler pupils may find it easy to suggest more


lateral solutions, such as use alternative
resources or search for new deposits of
these resources. Less able pupils may suggest
using less and may need support to
appreciate alternative solutions.

Pupils appreciate the limited supply of fossil fuels and


the need to find alternatives if our lifestyle is to be
maintained.

Hold a class discussion: If fossil fuels are going to run out, what could
we use in their place? What could we do to make them last longer?
Extension: Direct the class to do Q 8 (design a leaflet).
Pupils appreciate that they can influence the rate of use of fossil fuels.

All pupils will be able to make some


suggestions, with more coming from abler
pupils.

Pupils appreciate that they can influence the rate of use


of fossil fuels.

Homework: Answer Q 5 on Pupil Book p.71.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

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Chapter 5 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Renewable energy resources

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 7275

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand the need for alternative sources of energy and know


how energy from renewable sources can be converted into
electricity. Understand the term renewable.

Less Able Pupils

Know that renewable energy resources can be used to supplement


fossil fuels.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand the limitations to the use of


renewable energy resources and costs to the environment of using
them.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:

Acquiring new vocabulary on renewable resources through


completing Worksheet E4, advantages and disadvantages of.
Appreciation of the relatively short time scale involved in replacing
renewable energy resources compared to fossil fuels.

ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Producing renewable energy
Possible scenario: A simple generator
where e.g. a bulb is lit by the electricity
produced as a weight falls and turns a
pulley attached to a dynamo by a belt.
Items required:
Dynamo generator, connecting leads, croc
clips, low voltage filament bulb, string,
weight on hanger, pulley and belt to
connect to dynamo.
Worksheet E4 Renewable sources of
energy
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)

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Chapter 5 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

In and register.
Use Q and A to remind pupils of the fossil fuels met in Lesson 4, that
they stored chemical energy and that they will run out soon.

Pupils appreciate the problems associated with the


limited supply of fossil fuels and the rate they are being
used up.

Explain that fossil fuels are very useful and relatively cheap, so we need
to find ways to make them last longer. Refer to Pupil Book p.72 for end
to supplies. Scientists are investigating and developing renewable
energy resources to replace them. Ask: What are the characteristics of a
good renewable energy resource?

Pupils know that a renewable resource can be replaced


within a relatively short time.

10

Carry out the demonstration on producing renewable energy,


explaining the parts of the apparatus. Pupils see that the bulb lights up.
Ask them to list in their workbooks the types of energy and energy
conversions (recap ref. Pupil Book p.67) involved in producing the
electricity and the light, etc.
Then ask the class to suggest natural examples of things with energy
which can be used to turn a generator.
On the board, draw a table with 3 column headings: Renewable energy
resource; Origin: Time it takes to replace used energy from the same
source. Ask pupils for column entries. For column 3, add e.g. Wind
power: Replaced immediately; Biomass: Time for plants to grow), which
shows pupils why we refer to these resources as renewable.

Abler pupils can identify energy changes at


each step of the generator, while less able
pupils can describe the starting and finishing
energy (and may stop at electricity).
Abler pupils may suggest more feasible
resources, while less able students may need
more support to appreciate the time needed
to replace the alternative energy resources
which could be used in a generator.

Pupils know about at least six alternative renewable


energy resources.

15

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of renewable resources and


their limited supply and note points on the board. Distribute Worksheet
E4 Renewable sources of energy and ask pupils to complete the first
part of it as a record of this information.

Less able pupils may need more support to


transfer the discussion to the worksheet.

Pupils have a record of the advantages and


disadvantages associated with renewable energy
resources. Some understand the link between limited
supply and cost to the environment.

10

Direct pupils to complete the diagram in E4 and start doing the


wordsearch.

With Q and A, remind the class of the renewable energy resources they
have written about.

Homework: Complete Worksheet E4. Answer any of Qs 915 (Pupil Book pp.7275) not dealt with during the lesson.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils consolidate knowledge of renewable fuels.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Investigating solar panels

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p.75

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can carry out a fair test and record their experimental procedure
accurately. Can form a conclusion based on the evidence of their
and others experiment.

Less Able Pupils

Can carry out and record results from a safe (fair) test. Know that
the energy comes from the Sun and is absorbed by the panel
because the water gets warmer.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus appreciate that solar panels are made from
dark rather than shiny materials because they need to absorb heat
and shiny surfaces reflect it. Also appreciate the limitations of their
test and be able to suggest ways to improve or extend the
investigation.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet E5 Investigating solar
panels
Per group:
Two shallow glass or plastic trays, cooking
foil, black paper, 10 to 110C
thermometer, 100 cm3 measuring
cylinder. Timer. Access to sunlight, or use
a bench lamp as a back-up if poor
weather conditions.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing a formal investigation procedure (Aim, Diagram, Method, Results, Conclusion).


Measuring volume, temperature and time.
Using a temperature probe.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 5 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Liken the investigation set-up to the working of a real-life solar panel,


and establish the idea that an energy input (from heat travelling as rays
from the Sun or a lamp) causes a temperature increase in water.

Distribute Worksheet E5 Investigating solar cells. Instruct groups to


collect apparatus components.
Demo: Set up the apparatus as an example, then direct groups to
assemble theirs. Speed is important, to leave a clear 30 mins for the
experiment. Bench lamps should illuminate both trays equally.

Less able pupils may need help in setting up


the apparatus (including measuring water
volumes.

Pupils reproduce apparatus assembly with accuracy.

30

Check set-ups and then direct groups to record starting temperatures.


They should leave all apparatus in the same position for 30 minutes.
At this stage, ask groups to discuss:
Which surface colour, black or silver, do they expect to be better for a
solar panel?
Meanwhile, direct them to write up the procedure in a formal way,
under headings: Aim; Diagram; Method; Results table. After 30 mins,
they should record final temperatures, and write a Conclusion, based
on which solar panel is warmest.

Less able pupils may need help in measuring


and recording temperatures accurately.

Pupils can measure volume, temperature and time.


They have written a formal account of the test for their
records.

Direct pupils to answer the questions on Worksheet E5. Then, as a


class, discuss the results and how they are presented, and calculate an
average increase in temperature for both colours of tray.

Less able pupils may need to use a calculator


to help with calculations.

Pupils can calculate an increase in temperature and the


average increase in temperature.

To evaluate the validity of the test, ask: Was it carried out for long
enough to give a conclusion? Were all the results the same for all the
groups? How could the differences in individual results be overcome?
How could the investigation be extended?

Abler pupils suggest more improvements for


the design and more ways to extend the
enquiry.

Pupils compare the results of using black or silver


coating in a solar panel to form a conclusion about the
energy-absorbing capacity of solar panel surfaces.

For solar panels, pupils link an energy input with an


increase in temperature.

Homework: To be used for Lessons 7, 9 and 10, note down all the foods you eat in 24 hours. List them as the foods are listed in the upper table of Pupil Book 1, p.77.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Energy from food

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 7678

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that they need to take in a fuel or energy source called food.
Know that different sorts of food provide different amounts of
energy in a diet.

Less Able Pupils

Know that food contains energy and the amount per 100 g is
recorded on a food label in kilojoules, kJ, or kilocalories, Cal.

More Able Pupils

As above plus understand that different people need different


energy intakes related to their age, size, gender, level of physical
activity and health.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Nutritional information labels on the
packaging of a wide variety of foods.
Lesson 8 forward planning: Collect
pupils' foods (see Homework, this lesson)
and, for each group to do Worksheet E7,
prepare same-mass samples of a range of
foods.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing about the food John Tyndall took on his climb.


Calculating the percentage energy in foods, the energy in a meal, comparison of the energy in food with the
energy needs of various people.
Using a programme to calculate the energy intakes from particular combinations of foods.

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 5 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils where they get their energy from (food).

10

How do we get the energy from food? (respiration) Remind pupils of


the combustion reaction for fuels, and explain that respiration is a
controlled, stepwise combustion reaction and that, overall, the food
reacts with oxygen, producing carbon dioxide and water amongst the
waste products. What do we use the energy for? (growth, repair,
movement, reproduction, etc.)

Abler pupils make more suggestions about


the uses of the energy from the food.

Pupils know that food is a renewable resource which


can be called a fuel because the reaction to release the
energy, respiration, is similar to combustion.

15

Introduce the topic of amounts of energy in different foods (Pupil Book


pp.76 and 77). Distribute Nutritional information labels. Nutritional
information tells us what nutrients we can get if we eat a 100 g portion
of the food. Why do they tell us this? (We may want to eat more or
less of each sort of food.)
In science we measure energy in joules. Food is usually labelled in
kilojoules, kJ, and in kilocalories, Cal. To prepare for this lesson's
homework, tell the class to look at the energy panels (p.76) and the
energy table (p.77) and to suggest how to calculate the energy of the
food eaten in the 24 hours that they recorded for Lesson 6 homework.
Then, as a class, work through Qs 18 and 21.
If time and resources allow, pupils can use a computer program to
calculate diet energy examples.

Sensitivity may be advisable when comparing


the energy intake and activity of young
people because they are at an age when
body image is strongly linked to self esteem.
Abler pupils can relate the energy used to
the work done, and may remember that
1 joule = 1 N m. Less able pupils may find
it easier to use a calculator to work out the
amount of energy in a meal and match needs
to diet.

Pupils know the unit of energy, the joule, J, and the


kilojoule, kJ. 1000 J = 1 kJ
Also, the kilocalorie Cal.

10

Ask for hypotheses on why different people need different amounts of


energy per day from their diet, e.g. size, level of activity etc.
Look at the idea John Tyndall had (p. 78).

Abler pupils see that in his calculations Tyndall


included only the energy used to climb the
mountain (i.e. the energy to move and lift
his weight), but left out energy for keeping
his body working and warm.

10

Using Q and A, review the topics covered in this lesson.

Pupils know that they need energy to survive and that it


comes from all the food they eat.

Homework: Bring in some foods from home to test. [Arrange collection in good time for Lesson 8.]

Pupils have an idea of the energy content of different


sorts of foods.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Comparing energy from different foods

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p.78

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that food is a source of chemical potential energy which is


converted to heat energy on burning. This heat can be used to
warm water, to compare the amount of energy stored in the foods.

Less Able Pupils

Know that food contains energy which can be released when it is


burnt. Carry out the experiment to burn food safely.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can suggest ways to improve the design of the
experiment and the reliability of the results.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing a conclusion relating relative temperature increase to energy


released from the food.
Measuring temperature, volume, mass,
Using a temperature probe.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet E6 Planning a fair test
Energy in foods
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)
Apparatus items: Selection of samemass food items, e.g. popcorn, dried
catfood pellets, cereals, savoury snacks
etc. Mounted needle, boiling tube, 100
cm3 measuring cylinder, test-tube rack,
10 to 100C thermometer, clamp stand,
Bunsen burner, goggles.
Vocabulary list to write on the board.
Demo: Testing for energy in a food
sample
(see below for equipment)
Worksheet E7 Energy from foods
Per group (plus one set for demo, see
above):
Same-mass samples of dry foods to burn
eg. popcorn, dried catfood pellets,
cereals, savoury snacks, etc.
Mounted needle, boiling tube, 100 cm3
measuring cylinder, test-tube rack, 10 to
100C thermometer, clamp stand,
Bunsen burner, goggles.
Results table: Plan it for writing on
board or flip chart, with room for several
results for each type of food tested.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Ask: How can we measure the energy stored in food? We could use a
similar reaction to the one used to compare energy in different fuels.
Distribute Worksheet E6 Planning a fair test Energy in foods. Tell
the class they are going to plan a test to find out how much energy is
stored in some foods.
First, through Q and A, brainstorm the variables which need to be
considered, and write them on the board. Next, they should decide
which variables should be kept the same controlled and which should
be varied.
Plan the procedure through Q and A, showing the apparatus and writing
the vocabulary list on the board.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

The more confident pupils make more


suggestions of variables to control, change
and to measure. They may also relate this to
Exercise E3, comparing the energy in fuels,
and may make valid suggestions for the
experimental procedure.
Less confident students can use the
apparatus and vocabulary list as prompts.

Pupils have a written plan for Worksheet E6.

Demo: Worksheet E7 Energy from foods with one food sample so


that all pupils can see. Invite less confident students to help in the
demonstration. Show the class how to use the mounted needle safely
and how to dispose of the burnt food.

20

Direct groups to follow the instructions on E7 for as many food samples


as they safely have time for. They should record the start and end
temperatures for each test in a table, and every member of each group
should do at least one sample. Foods can be repeated if there is time.

Faster, more confident students will do


more tests.

Pupils can: measure the volume of water with a


measuring cylinder; measure the temperature of water
with a thermometer; record values in a table; work
safely.

10

Collect several results for each type of food from the groups and write
them in a Results table on the board. Ask groups to calculate the
temperature rise for each food sample, and add those. Then, for the
examples on view, identify a roughly average (mean) value for each
food type, and ask the class: Which type of food caused the greatest
temperature increase? Which food released the most energy?

Less able pupils can use a calculator to work


out the results. Abler pupils may question
why the results of the groups differ, and how
to modify the design of the test to make the
results more reliable.

Pupils can calculate an increase in temperature and can


compare the various temperature increases to deduce
which food releases the most (stored) energy.

Instruct groups to clear away the apparatus and clean their work area.
Ask pupils to write a conclusion for their own results.
Extension: Ask the class to suggest ways to modify the test to make
the results more accurate and more reliable.

More able pupils make more valid


suggestions, and can explain them.

Pupils relate temperature increase to energy released


and compare foods as sources of energy.

Homework: Do the Crossword on Worksheet E7 and bring in the list of food eaten over 24 hours for the next lesson.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 9

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Food chains

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 7980

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Appreciate that there are many food chains in an ecosystem and


that we humans enter the food chain as consumers at several
levels. Know that plants are producers, herbivores are primary
consumers and carnivores are secondary consumers.

Less Able Pupils

Know that energy is transferred along a food chain.

More Able Pupils

Can appreciate that plants absorb and use more energy than they
pass on to the herbivores which eat them. Know that energy is lost
to the chain at every link along it. (However, it is not lost to the
universe!)

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Learning the vocabulary associated with food chains.


Using the terms primary and secondary.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Optional visual aids
Plants or pictures of plants.
Pictures of herbivores, e.g. grazing sheep,
and carnivores, e.g. a bird with a worm.
List of foods eaten over a 24-hour
period
From Pupil Workbooks, as Homework for
Lesson 6 (and also used in Lesson 7).

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Chapter 5 Lesson 9 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 9 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Use Q and A to remind pupils that they get energy from food, and the
sorts of food that contain most energy. Where do they think the energy
in their food came from? This is a renewable energy resource: it must
come from an inexhaustible supply, which is...? (the Sun)

20

Refer the class to Pupil Book p.79 showing that the Sun's energy is taken
into the food chain by plants. Elicit the following by Q and A:
Plants make their own food from simple chemicals in the air and soil
(carbon dioxide and water). They are called producers, e.g. grass or
oak leaves.
Plants are eaten by herbivorous animals, e.g. worms, so some of the
energy moves on to a primary consumer.
Primary consumers can be eaten by carnivorous animals, e.g. voles, so
some of the energy moves on again to these secondary consumers, etc.
Ask pupils to draw and label this simple food chain, showing the
direction of the movement of energy.
Next they should look at the three illustrations on Pupil Book pp.7980
suggesting food chains, and should each one out as a food chain with
arrows.

Abler pupils appreciate that not all the


energy taken in at any level is passed up
through the chain to the consumer.
Less able pupils may find it difficult to put
humans into the chain.

Pupils have a record of several food chains and can


match the terms to the organisms at each level in the
chain.

15

Refer pupils back to their list of foods eaten over a 24-hour period
(Lesson 6 homework). Tell them to choose 3 or 4 simple foods or one
with several ingredients, and draw a food chain for each item in their
workbooks. For each, they should say whether they are the primary,
secondary or even tertiary consumer.
If time allows, discuss whether it is preferable to get energy from
producers or from consumers, or a mixture of both. Ask: For the planet
as a whole, is it easier to produce enough food for a massive population
if everyone is a primary, a secondary or a tertiary consumer? For each
person individually, is it easier to extract the energy they need from
food which is a producer or a primary/secondary consumer?

Employ sensitivity when introducing humans


fit into the food chain. Some pupils may not
appreciate that we are animals, some may be
vegetarian or vegan, some may not have
realised that part of their food came from an
animal source.
Abler pupils appreciate that not all the
energy taken in at any level is passed up
through the chain to the consumer. They
appreciate that we can produce more food
per hectare if farmers produce vegetables
rather than animals.

Pupils relate the food they eat to the energy in the food
chain.

Ask: Why, when an animal eats a kilogram of food, does it not become
a kilogram bigger? Where does the energy from the food go? What does
the animal use it for?
Extension: Why does a hedgehog eat lots of food in autumn? Why
does an oak tree lose its leaves in autumn?

Less able pupils may welcome lists of words


or ideas to choose from.

Homework: Complete Qs 23 and 24.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 10

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Revision of the energy topic

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 Chapter 5

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Recall: the different sorts of energy and resources.; how fossil fuels
were formed and the need for renewable fuels too; how energy is
measured and how it is transferred through a food chain.

Less Able Pupils

Recall key aspects of the whole topic and can make links between
energy available and work done. Know who James Joule was and
how his work led to a greater understanding of energy.

More Able Pupils

Can form links between sorts of energy and appropriateness of


choice, weighing up the pros and cons.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Energy: key words (optional)
Display of these words, from Pupil Book
p.82 and any others.
End of chapter questions
Graph paper (for bar chart in Q 5)

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Reading and developing comprehension of language through the story of James Joule.
Construction of a bar chart to represent relative energy values in foods.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 5 Lesson 10 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 5 Lesson 10 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Use Q and A to remind pupils of the mnemonic for types of energy that
they composed in Lesson 1.

10

Ask several pupils to read out the passage about James Joule, Pupil
Book p.81. (It is concept dense and will stand repetition.) Then ask the
class what they understand by the words in question a, from memory
or looking up in the text. The words could be enlarged for display or
written on the board. Lead the class briskly through each answer,
leaving just enough time to record it.

Abler pupils comprehend more of the terms


and phrases in the passage. Less able pupils
need more support to put the new terms
and phrases into language which they can
readily understand.

Refer the class to p.82 for the Key ideas which they have encountered
and the Key words they have used, to help them when they do the End
of chapter questions.

More able pupils remember the key points


more readily. Less able pupils probably need
more clues (words, visual images) to recall
the subject matter.

25

Instruct the class to do the End of Chapter questions in their workbooks.


Set the pace: not so fast that pupils skip bits, not so slow that they don't
cover enough in the time available.
As an option, ask pupils to answer Q 1 and follow this by a class review,
writing answers on the board; and so on. Qs 1 to 4 could be done in
15 to 20 mins, the bar chart could take 5 to 10 mins, and the poster
can be an extra.

More able pupils can proceed without


support, but may need encouragement to
record complete answers.
Less able pupils will benefit from the double
opportunity to hear answers and see the
answers written for them to copy. They may
also need support to complete the bar chart
accurately and carefully.

Use Q and A to remind pupils of key ideas and Key words from the
energy topic.

Homework: Draw the poster for End of chapter Q 6.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils remember 9 types of energy.

Pupils relate the joule to the man who did lots of


pioneering work on the concept of energy.

Pupils reuse the terms and ideas they have learnt in new
situations and examples. Pupils will have written
answers that supplement their notes on the topic and
aid understanding.

All pupils have a summary of the energy


topic for revision.

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E1 The Bunsen burner

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Bunsen burners are used to heat things.


1 Use the words below to label the parts of the Bunsen burner.
collar

rubber tubing

chimney

base

flame

Look at these three diagrams of a Bunsen


burner. Write a sentence to answer each
question.
2 What colour is the Bunsens flame?

3 When should this flame be used?

Collar closed

4 When should this flame be used?

Collar half
open

5 What colour is the flame when the


collar is open?

6 When should this flame be used?

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E2 Planning a fair test


Energy from different fuels
1 What question do you want to investigate?

2 Which variable will you change?

3 Which variable will you need to measure?

4 Which variable will you need to keep the same to make it a fair test?

5 What do you think will happen?

6 Why do you think this will happen?

7 How will you carry out the experiment?

8 How will you make it safe?

9 How will you record your results?

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E3 Different fuels

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thermometer
boiling tube

clamp stand

30 cm3 of water

spirit burner
balance

The spirit burner in the diagram contains butanol.


Butanol is a fuel: when it burns it releases heat energy. Some of this heat
energy is being used to heat the water in the boiling tube. Two pupils
carried out this experiment. They burned 1 g of four different fuels and
repeated each experiment so that they could get more reliable results.
The table below shows the pupils results.
Water temperature (C)
Fuel

Experiment 1
Start End

Start End

Butanol

19

45

20 44

I.P.A.

18

58

18

56

Ethanol

20 63

19

62

Hexanol

20 33

20 35

Questions
190

Change

Experiment 2

Average change

Change

1
2
3
4

Calculate the temperature change in each experiment.


Calculate the average temperature change for each fuel.
Why is it a good idea to repeat an experiment?
Is all the energy from the fuel being used to heat up the
water in the boiling tube?
Hint: Look carefully at the outside of the boiling tube.
5 If you could carry out this experiment again, what would you
do to improve your results?

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E4 Renewable sources
of energy

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Use your Pupil Book to copy and complete the diagram below showing the
advantages and disadvantages of these renewable sources of energy.
Biomass
Advantage:

Solar

Wind

Disadvantage:

Advantage:

Advantage:

Disadvantage:

Disadvantage:

Renewable Sources
of Energy

Waves

Geothermal

Advantage:

Advantage:

Tidal

Disadvantage:

Disadvantage:

Advantage:
Disadvantage:

Puzzle
L A O C M D T Y G
S

E C P U V O

R S A S T O R M S
R E N E W A B L
E A D B N L

O W

T S T E A M N K M
A K L O R T E P D
W B

O M A S S B

Solve these clues then find the words hidden in the wordsearch.
1

Coal, and natural gas are fossil fuels. (3)

Fossil fuels are non . (9)

Oil and gas were formed at . (3)

Coal was formed on . (4)

Wind can harness energy from the wind. (8)

Wave ducks could be damaged by these. (6)

Plant or animal material. (7)

Solar are very expensive to build. (5)

Cars can burn alcohol as an alternative to this fuel. (6)

10

Hot rocks turn water into this. (5)

11

A fossil fuel made from plants. (4)

12

Hydroelectric power is generated when this falls. (5)

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Solar panels absorb radiant heat energy. In this experiment you will
investigate whether they should be made from black or from silver materials.

100 cm3

silver

Prepare one black and one silver tray.


Add 100 cm3 of water to each tray.
Place a thermometer into each tray.
Record the temperature of the water in each tray.
Place each tray outside in the Sun.
Leave the trays for 30 minutes.
Record the temperature of the water in each tray.

Questions

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

black

1 Which piece of equipment would you use to measure the


volume of the liquid?
2 Why is the same amount of water put in each tray?
3 Why are the trays left in the Sun for the same amount of
time?
4 Calculate the temperature rise for the water in each tray.
5 Should solar panels be made from silver or from black
materials? Write a sentence to explain your answer.

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E6 Planning a fair test


Energy in foods
1 What question do you want to investigate?

2 Which variable will you change?

3 Which variable will you need to measure?

4 Which variable will you need to keep the same to make it a fair test?

5 What do you think will happen?

6 Why do you think this will happen?

7 How will you carry out the experiment?

8 How will you make it safe?

9 How will you record your results?

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E7 Energy from foods

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Different foods contain different amounts of energy.


In this experiment you will investigate which food contains the most energy.
1 Use a measuring cylinder to put 30 cm3 of water into a boiling tube.
2 Secure the boiling tube using a clamp stand.
3 Record the temperature of the water.
4 Use a mounted needle to pick up the food sample.
5 Hold the food sample in the Bunsen burner flame until it begins to burn.
6 Move the burning food sample under the boiling tube.
7 Record the maximum temperature that the water reaches.
8 Repeat for the other food samples.
9 Use your results to fill in a table like the one below.
Sample

10

Starting water
temperature (C)

End water
temperature (C)

Change in water
temperature (C)

Which food contains the most energy?

Crossword
1
2
4
3

Clues
across

down

3 Used to measure temperature. (11)

1 Foods contains this type of energy.


(8)

5 When these are burnt they release


heat. (5)
6 When food is burnt it releases
and light energy. (4)

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2 A measuring cylinder is used to


measure the of a liquid. (6)
4 Different foods contain different
amounts of this. (6)

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End of Unit test


Energy resources
1 In what units do we measure energy?

(1)
2 What type of energy does a battery contain?

(1)
3 What type of useful energy does a radio produce?

(1)
4 What type of energy is found in food?

(1)
5 a How do we release the energy stored in a fuel?

(1)
b What type of energy is stored in the wood?

(1)
c Where did the energy stored in the wood originally come from?

(1)
6
a How would you increase the temperature
of the flame of this bunsen burner?

(1)
b Why, if you need to leave a lit Bunsen
unattended, should it be adjusted so that
it produces a yellow flame?

(1)

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Chapter 5 End of Unit test


7

A 2 N weight is lifted 5 m in height. How much potential energy has the


weight gained?

(2)

Name 3 fossil fuels.

(3)

Which of the following are renewable sources of energy?


coal

solar

wind

gas

wave

petrol

(3)
10

Why is oil a non renewable fuel?

(1)

11

Draw a food chain that includes owls, worms, shrews and oak leaves.

(3)
The bar chart shown below shows the different amounts of energy
people need from their food.

Daily energy
requirements (kJ)

12

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000

Young
child

Teenage
girl

Teenage
boy

Female
office
worker

Male
computer
operator

Male
athelete

a How much energy is needed each day by the athlete?

(1)
b How much energy is needed each day by the computer operator?

(1)
c Explain why these people need different amounts of energy.

(2)
(Total marks: 25)

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Chapter 5 End of Unit test

Extension questions
13

What type of energy


a enters a television set?

(1)
b does the television produce?

(1)

14
X

This roller coaster is about to go down the track. Where does the roller
coaster have:
a the most gravitational potential energy?

b the most kinetic energy?

(1)

(1)

15

Name 2 ways in which you can make non-renewable fuels last longer.

(2)
(Total marks: 6)

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Energy resources
Text answers
1
2

3
4
5
7
9
10
11

12

13

14
15

17
18
19
20
21

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coal move trains, gas (camping ) cook food, wood heat and light,
diesel move lorries, gas (oven ) cook food, candle light (and heat)
The steam train, car and lorry change chemical potential energy into heat
and then into kinetic energy.
The camping stove, bonfire, gas cooker and match change chemical
potential energy into heat and light energy.
To make it a fair test.
a natural gas (methane)
b chemical potential heat and light energy
a millions of years
b it decays/rots
c oxygen/water
d high temperature and high pressure
a Gas and oil
b About 45
c About 2022
d (Pupils own answers)
a gravitational potential (kinetic ) electrical
b destroy habitat by flooding
a remote areas
b do not work if no wind, can spoil landscapes, can be very noisy
a Some countries are not surrounded by any seas.
b Large areas of ducks would be needed and these can be damaged by
storms.
a (natural) nuclear reactions
b for central heating
c Water is heated by the hot rocks this forms steam to turn turbines
which drive the generators to produce electricity.
a animal or plant material
b Wood and animal dung can be used to cook food, plants can be
converted into alcohol to fuel cars.
a solar cell and solar panel
b it is sunnier in some countries
hydroelectric advantage cheap electricity
disadvantage large initial cost, large effect on the
environment
wind advantage good in remote areas
disadvantage only work in certain conditions, may spoil the
environment, can be noisy
wave advantage waves carry a lot of energy so its a valuable resource
disadvantage large areas of ducks needed, can be damaged by
storms
hot rocks advantage heat up cold water
disadvantage few locations
biomass advantage easy to collect, does not rely on fossils fuels
disadvantage large quantities of bio mass are needed
from the food he eats
nutritional labels on food packets
a to make it a fair test
b chocolate
c 1105 kJ or 265 Calories
a 1600 kJ
b 740 kJ
c 1450 kJ
d (check accuracy of calculations for each meal)
a Either increase/decrease food intake to change energy values.
b He needs energy for growth and is more active.

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Chapter 5 Answers

Daily energy
requirements (kJ)

22

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000

15000
12000
10000

10000

11000

8000

Young
child

Food/sample

Teenage
girl

Teenage
boy

Female
office
worker

Male
office
worker

Male
manual
worker

Temperature rise (C)

crisp

24

snack

cat biscuits

cracker

75

potato snack

21

b cracker c same mass of food, same volume of water


a rabbit b grass
a grass
b zebra

23
24

Literacy activity answers


a i
ii
iii
iv

b
c
d
e

enthusiasm a big interest


possibility something that can happen
confirm to establish something
gravitational potential energy the energy that an object has because of
its height
v conservation to keep intact
energy transfer
He compared the temperature of water at the top and at the bottom of the
waterfall, and found that the water at the bottom was a little warmer
G.P.E. kinetic heat
the law of the conservation of energy

End of chapter questions

Energy (kJ per 100g)

1 a energy
b Bunsen burner
c fuel
d biomass
2 A petrol chemical potential
B bulb light + heat
C sign light + heat
D pendulum in middle of swing kinetic
E candle chemical potential
F cake chemical potential
G pendulum at end of swing gravitational potential
3 a joules
b one
c coal, oil, (natural) gas (any order)
d millions
e renewable f solar
g light, electrical
4 a false
b false
c true
d false
e true
f true
2500
5
Biscuits
2000

2200

1500

Pizza
1200

1000
500

Crisps

Baked
beans

Peas

500

400

300

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Chapter 5 Answers

Worksheet answers
E1 The Bunsen burner
1

flame

chimney

rubber
tubing

collar
base

2 The Bunsens flame is yellow.


3 Only when lighting the Bunsen
or when it is left unattended.
4 This flame should be used for
heating liquids.
5 The Bunsens flame is blue.
6 This flame should be used for
heating solids.

E3 Different fuels
1 Butanol
26C and 24C
2 Butanol 25C
I.P.A.
30C and 28C
I.P.A.
29C
Ethanol
43C and 43C
Ethanol
43C
Hexanol 13C and 15C
Hexanol 14C
3 Repeating an experiment allows us to calculate an average result,
minimising any errors that may have occurred.
4 No, energy is lost to the surrounding as heat and light energy. Also not all
the fuel burns completely. The soot is evidence of incomplete combustion of
the fuel.
5 More repeats, better insulation etc.

E4 Renewable sources of energy


1 Oil
5 Turbines
9 Petrol

2 Renewable
6 Storms
10 Steam

3 Sea
7 Biomass
11 Coal

4 Land
8 Cells
12 Water

E5 Investigating solar cells


1
2
3
4
5

Measuring cylinder
To make it a fair test
To make it a fair test
(Pupils own answer)
Solar cells should be made from black materials as it heats up more quickly
(black surfaces are better at absorbing heat).

E7 Energy from foods


across
3 thermometer
5 fuels
6 heat

down
1 potential
2 volume
4 energy

End of Unit test answers


1
2
3
4
5

200

joules/J (1)
stored/potential/chemical (1)
sound (1)
stored/potential/chemical (1)
a burn it (1)
b stored/potential/chemical (1)
c Sun (1)

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Chapter 5 Answers
6

a turn the collar to open the air hole (1)


b it is more easily seen/for safety reasons (1)
7 10 (1)
Joules/J (another mark is awarded if the unit is used) (1)
8 coal (1)
oil (1)
gas (1)
9 solar (1)
wind (1)
wave (1)
10 because it takes a long time to replace/it cannot be replaced once it is
used (1)
11 Oak leaves worms shrews owls (3); arrows in wrong direction (1);
any 2 in the correct order (1)
12 a 15 000 kJ (1)
b 11 000 kJ (1)
c The athlete is more active and so needs more energy from his/her food.
(2)
Total marks: 25

Extension answers
13

a electrical (1)
b light/sound/heat (1)
14 a x (1)
b z (1)
15 switch off lights/walk to school/wear warmer clothes/dont use the car so
much/use public transport/insulate our homes (2)
Total marks for Extension: 6

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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6 Simple chemical reactions

7.5

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O
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Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:

Know that there are many gases


Have explored changes in which new materials are formed and which cannot
be easily reversed
Have used the pH scale as a measure of acidity and alkalinity

Language for learning


Carbon dioxide
Chemical equation
Colour
Copper oxide

Flame
Fossil fuel
Hydrogen
Kerosine

Lime water
Magnesium oxide
Methane
Neutralise

Product
Reactant
Reactive
Word equation

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
that a chemical reaction occurs when one substance changes into another
how to make and describe observations during a chemical reaction
that acids react with metals to produce hydrogen
that acids react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
how to test for hydrogen and for carbon dioxide
that oxygen, together with nitrogen and other gases, is found in air
that some metals react with oxygen in the air to produce oxides
how to write simple word equations
that when fuels burn they combine with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide
and water

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
5C
6D

202

Title
Gases all around us
Reversible and irreversible changes

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6 Simple chemical reactions

Links with other units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7E
7I
9E
9F
9H

Title
Acids and alkalis
Energy resources
Reactions of metals and metal compounds
Patterns of reactivity
Using chemistry

Cross-curricular links
None for this chapter.
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity on page 91 of the Pupil Book on producing a rock cake,
if not enough baking powder is used.

+2 8=

Numeracy
No numeracy activities within this chapter.

ICT

ICT
Software packages can be used to create the poster required for question 6 in the
End of Chapter questions.
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolutescience

Learning Outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Obtain and present qualitative results, identifying patterns in these
Work safely with acids and when burning materials
Suggest how to test an idea about burning, obtaining results
Materials and their properties
Identify that some new materials are formed during a chemical reaction and
generalise that hydrogen is formed when acids react with metals, carbon
dioxide when acids react with carbonates, and oxides when materials burn
Describe tests for carbon dioxide and hydrogen
Describe burning as a reaction with oxygen

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Obtain and present qualitative results, describe some hazards of acids and one
of burning
Work safely with acids and when burning materials
Test an idea about burning and present results
Materials and their properties
Identify some products of chemical reactions and state that oxygen or air is
needed for burning

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Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Evaluate how well ideas about burning match the data collected
Materials and their properties
Predict that carbon dioxide and water will be made when a hydrocarbon burns
Use word equations to represent reactions in which materials burn

Topic List and Teaching Notes


What is a chemical reaction?
Pupils will have encountered chemical reactions before (in Year 6, and also in
Chapter 5, Energy resources). Here a chemical reaction is defined very simply, as a
reaction in which new substances are formed.
Being able to make and record observations accurately does not come naturally
to most pupils, and they will need to be shown what to look out for and how to
describe what they see. They should also learn to use senses other then their
eyes, but obviously great care is needed if they want to use their sense of smell.
Nothing should ever be tasted in a laboratory.
They should also learn that an observation is not the same as a conclusion. For
example, an observation that is made when an acid reacts with a metal is that
bubbles are produced; it is not that hydrogen is produced, as you cannot know
this until you have tested for the gas.
Worksheet F1, How can you tell when a chemical reaction is happening?, provides an
opportunity to do some simple practical work, make observations and record them,
and also serves to remind pupils of some of the things they have learnt about acids.

Chemical reactions involving acids


This builds on the work done in Chapter 3, Acids and alkalis.
Pupils can carry out experiments in which they react metals with acids (Worksheet
F2, Reactions between acids and metals), once again making and recording
observations as the reaction proceeds. This also introduces the test for hydrogen.
One of the questions on this worksheet begins to hint that some metals are more
reactive than others, but it is probably best not to take this idea too far at this stage.
Worksheet F3, Reactions between acids and carbonates, involves practical work on
this topic. Once again, pupils will see bubbles given off, and can carry out the test
for hydrogen again, as well as using lime water to test for carbon dioxide. It is
suggested that this test is done simply by pipetting some of the invisible gas from
the test tube in which the reaction is taking place and then bubbling it into lime
water; this avoids the need for delivery tubes. As carbon dioxide is denser than
air, it will stay in the test tube above the reactants for more than long enough for
this to work well. (Note, though, that the hydrogen produced when acids react
with metals disappears upwards into the air extremely rapidly so the hydrogen
test must be carried out while the reaction is still taking place.)

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6 Simple Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions involving oxygen


In the reactions that the pupils will carry out in this section, or that they will see
demonstrated, substances are reacting with oxygen from the air. It is important to
ensure that pupils understand that air is made up of a mixture of gases, not only
oxygen. They should be encouraged to describe the reactions in terms of
substances reacting with oxygen in the air, not reacting with air.
Worksheet F4, Burning metals in air, is a practical activity in which pupils burn a
metal in air, providing more opportunity to practise making and recording their
observations. Magnesium will burn readily, while copper does not burn at all.
Worksheet F5, Burning metals in oxygen, involves burning metals in pure oxygen
(done as a demonstration), and pupils are asked to think about why these
reactions are faster than when the metals are heated in air. This also reinforces
the idea that air is a mixture of gases.

Burning metals in air provides an excellent opportunity to write simple word


equations, as the two reactants and the product are easy to identify. (This was not
so for the reactions between acids and metals, or between acids and carbonates,
when one of the products is essentially undetectable at this stage.) Question 7
on p. 89 of the Pupil Book asks pupils to use the patterns they have seen to
predict word equations for reactions that they have not seen take place.
They can now think back to their earlier work on fuels, looking at what happens
when fuels burn as a reaction involving oxygen. Worksheet F6, What is produced
when a fuel burns?, supports a demonstration showing that water and carbon
dioxide are produced when a fuel such as kerosine burns in air. This could also be
used as an opportunity to revise what pupils know of the arrangement and
behaviour of particles in gases and liquids, as they see water condensing in the
condenser. Question 8 in the Pupil Book reinforces understanding of this
demonstration.

Check local risk assessments for burning fuels.

Practical work investigating candles burning in air is described in Worksheets F7,


What is needed for a candle to burn? (demonstration) and F8, How long can a candle
burn?, in which pupils can design and carry out a simple investigation into the
relationship between the volume of oxygen available, and the length of time for
which a candle burns. By demonstrating this first, you avoid them spending too
much time and effort thinking about the technique they will use, so that they
concentrate on controlling variables, what they will measure and when, and how to
record and interpret their results. You may want to suggest to them that they repeat
each experiment at least three times and calculate an average time for each volume.
Question 7 in the End of Unit test includes a typical set of results that might be
obtained using upturned beakers of various volumes, and a short piece of candle
approximately 20 mm in diameter floating in a small petri dish. (In reality, things
are not quite as simple as they seem here; the accumulation of carbon dioxide
around the candle also has a significant effect on how long it burns.)

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Teaching hints and tips


Worksheet F1 How can you tell when a chemical reaction is happening?
This practical work encourages pupils to look for clues that a chemical reaction is
happening, while working with every-day substances that should feel familiar to
them.

Safety points
Although there is no possible danger from any of the reactants or products, it
is suggested that you insist on the wearing of eye protection, as this should
be a general rule whenever working with chemicals. It is a good idea to
remind pupils not to use large quantities of the reagents.
Expected results

Pupils should observe bubbles. You may like to teach the term effervescence, but
there is no need for this and it is a rare pupil who can spell it correctly! They
should also observe that the sodium hydrogencarbonate disappears. Some will
also notice that there is a small rise in temperature, which can be felt by holding
the test tube in the fingers. You could also offer a thermometer to check this.

Safety point
They should not taste the substances.

There is a balance to be found between describing observations fully and


accurately, and being precise. Discourage long-winded descriptions in the style of
There were lots of little tiny bubbles that whizzed round and round on top of the
mixture and made little popping noises. The important point is that bubbles
were produced.
The final pH will depend on how much sodium hydrogencarbonate has been added
to how much lemon juice; most students should find that the pH rises. You can use
this to revise what they learned earlier in Chapter 3 about acids, alkalis and pH.

Worksheet F2 Reactions between acids and metals


The worksheet suggests using only one acid (hydrochloric). Students who are
working quickly could also try the experiment with sulfuric acid.
The metals you use should include some which react quite rapidly, and some
which do not react at all. Suitable ones to try include magnesium, iron, copper,
lead and zinc. It is suggested that you use small pieces of metal ribbon in each
case; these could be polished with emery paper beforehand, to remove any oxide
layers, which will slow or prevent reaction.
Expected results

Magnesium, zinc and iron will react; copper and lead will not. The best indication
that a reaction is taking place is the production of bubbles. Pupils will also see
the metals disappearing, and in some cases there will be a colour change as a
soluble, coloured salt is produced. They may detect a small temperature rise as
with Worksheet F1.
It is suggested that, at this stage, you concentrate only on the production of
hydrogen, and do not explain that a salt is also produced - unless your students
are inquisitive about this and you feel they are ready to deal with it.

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6 Simple Chemical Reactions


As the hydrogen produced disperses quickly into the atmosphere, pupils will need
to do the hydrogen test while the reaction is taking place. This may mean they
need to have another go, if they miss it the first time around.
You could use discussion to relate the results of this experiment to corrosion by
acids.
If appropriate, you could encourage those pupils who are working especially
quickly to arrange the metals in order of (apparent) reactivity. If they have used
two different acids, they could also compare the reaction they observed for the
same metal in different acids. However, it may be better not to push on too far
at this stage.
If time allows, you could extend this activity by asking them to try to react an
uncleaned piece of metal ribbon, and compare this with what happens with a
cleaned piece. You could perhaps relate this to what they learn later about the
production of oxides.

Safety point
As long as safety goggles are worn, there are no particular dangers associated
with this practical work.
The acid might damage clothes or skin if spilt onto them, but at the
concentration suggested the risk is minimal. Nevertheless, pupils should know
that if they do spill acid whether onto themselves, someone else or the
workbench - it should be immediately washed with plenty of water. They
could be referred to the rules of using acids they learnt in Chapter 3.

Worksheet F3 Reactions between acids and carbonates


As for Worksheet F2, only hydrochloric acid is suggested on the Worksheet. You
may also like to allow pupils to try sulfuric acid, if they have time. Suitable
carbonates include calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate and zinc carbonate.
You might also like to try crushed egg shells (which are largely calcium
carbonate).
The Worksheet does not provide any direct help with drawing a results chart.
Pupils should be able to use the one in the previous Worksheet and adapt it.
However, it may be a good idea to have one available to give to any pupils who
making less progress.
In discussion, try to encourage students to think back to what they learned earlier
about acids, and to relate their results to the effects of acid rain. You could also
make links to the literacy activity Clues from old snails in Chapter 8, Environment
and Feeding Relationships.

Safety point
As for Worksheet F2.

Worksheet F4 Burning metals in air


Not all pupils may notice the white powder that is formed when magnesium
burns, so be prepared to point this out to them.
No format for recording results is provided, as most pupils should be expected to
decide on this for themselves. However, it would be a good idea to have one
ready to give to any pupil who is struggling with this, to help them to move on.

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Safety points
Burning magnesium may cause over-excitement; pupils who do not behave
sensibly must not be allowed to continue. Very hot sparks can be produced, so
wearing goggles is essential for all students, even those not immediately
involved in practical work at any given time.
Ensure Bunsens are always left on a yellow flame when not being used for
heating.

Worksheet F5 Burning metals in oxygen


It is suggested that this is carried out in the same lesson as Worksheet F4, so that
pupils can make a direct comparison between the two sets of reactions.
Be prepared to repeat the demonstration several times, as pupils will enjoy it have several gas jars of oxygen available.
Pupils will readily recognise that the reaction is more rapid. You may also find
that the magnesium stops burning more rapidly than when burnt in air - you
could ask pupils for suggestions as to why this is so. Possible ideas are that
because it is burning more quickly it all finishes burning faster; or that perhaps it
is running out of oxygen to react with. You could get them to think about what
they might do to test these ideas.

Safety points
It is a good idea for pupils to wear eye protection, even though they may not
be close to the reaction.
There is no need to carry out this demonstration in a fume cupboard.

Worksheet F6 What is produced when a fuel burns?


There are links between this activity and Chapter 5, Energy resources. You could
encourage pupils to think about energy being released from the fuel, and what
forms the energy is in.
You may like to have the apparatus ready assembled before the class comes into
the laboratory, to save time. However, pupils may understand its various parts
better if they watch it being assembled.
Pupils often get confused between the water in the beaker and the water in the
U-tube. You could put ice into the beaker rather than cold water, which may help
to avoid this problem.

Safety point
Be sure to remove the delivery tube from the lime water before you stop
burning the fuel or before turning off the pump, to avoid any possibility of
suck-back.

Worksheet F7 What is needed for a candle to burn?


The purpose of this demonstration is to show pupils a technique for burning
candles, which they can use or modify when designing their own investigation in
Worksheet F8. Some pupils may have completed basic experiments on candle
burning at Key Stage 2.
It is suggested that you use a large glass trough of water, so that all pupils can see
through its sides. A short piece of candle is easier to balance in the petri dish,
and easier to cover with a beaker. Make sure that the petri dish and candle float
easily in the water, and that the beaker you will use goes easily over the petri

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4 Reproduction
dish. You may like to practise this beforehand don't splash water over the
candle! Make sure that the spout of the beaker is well below water level when
you are covering the burning candle.
You will almost certainly want to do this more than once. If so, then wave the
beaker around for a while to replace the used air inside it with fresh air you
could use questioning to get pupils to suggest this. If you are going to do it
several times, then use a nearby Bunsen flame, or another burning candle, to
relight the candle this is easier than matches.
The reasons for the candle going out are not simple it could be because it is
running out of oxygen, or it could be because carbon dioxide is building up
around it and stopping oxygen getting to it. You could tell pupils that carbon
dioxide is heavier (in reality denser) than air, and ask them what might be
happening.
They may be able to see that the water rises up in the beaker as the candle
burns. This is more obvious with a relatively narrow beaker. Once again, the
reasons for this are complex oxygen from the air is being used, but carbon
dioxide is being produced, so you might not expect a volume change. However,
carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen is, which explains the
discrepancy (there are also pressure changes if the water levels inside and outside
are not the same). This may be too many steps in an argument for all but the
brightest of students to cope with at this stage.

Worksheet F8 How long can a candle burn?


It is suggested that you organise your pupils into groups of 3 or 4, and that you
do this in such a way that less able students are able to work with more able ones.
You may need a run of three lessons to complete this activity. In the first one, get
the groups organised and making a start on their plan. It is a good idea if this
happens very shortly after the demonstration of Worksheet F7 perhaps even in
the same lesson. You can move around the room between the groups,
encouraging discussion and the involvement of all members of the group. They
can then write out their first efforts at a plan for homework either alone, or
with discussion between the members of the group if this is feasible.
In the next lesson, seat the pupils in the same groups and have another activity
going on (for example answering the questions on Worksheet F6) while you
move between the groups and talk briefly to each one about their plan. Point
them towards ways in which they could improve these plans. Don't necessarily
aim for perfection at this stage, or even insist on a design that will work! Pupils
often quickly see the shortcomings of a plan once they start to carry it out, and it
is good for them to have the chance to change things themselves. It is very
important that they develop the confidence to work things out for themselves,
and not rely too much on the teacher's experience and knowledge. Even the
worst design is very unlikely to be dangerous, and most of them will at least
manage to measure something.
In the next lesson, they carry out their plans. Once again, they should work in
their groups. Encourage them to make changes as they go along if they think this
will improve their design. Move between them and ask questions of each group,
as they work, that will encourage them to move on one or two steps with their
design. For example, if a group is sailing along very competently, gently nudge
them towards the idea of repeating the experiment two or three times with each
size of beaker. With a less strong group, you may find yourself having to suggest
that they need to use more than two sizes of beaker, or helping them to clarify
their ideas about what to time and how to do the timing.
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It is suggested that you allow them to continue to work in their groups as they
record their results and display them as graphs; it is good for the more able ones
to explain what they are doing, and it is good for the less able ones to learn from
others in their group. If a group has very odd results that don't show a pattern,
you might like to give them a set of results from another group to work on.
Groups that have worked effectively, have managed to control all important
variables, and have done at least three repeats and calculated means, are likely to
find that their points lie approximately on a straight line when mean time of
burning is plotted against volume of air.
If time allows, each group could give a short presentation of their method and
results to the rest of the class. Even if you cannot fit this in, it would be good to
have a class discussion about the results the groups obtained and the conclusions
they can draw.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

1b, 2a, 2f, 2j, 2k,


2m, 2n, 2o

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Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

1f, 2h, 2I, 3a, 3e


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What I have learnt


Simple chemical reactions

E C K LI ST

Checklist

CH

26/9/02

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen

Product

Chemical equation

Kerosine

Reactant

Colour

Lime water

Reactive

Copper oxide

Magnesium oxide

Word equation

Flame

Methane

Fossil fuel

Neutralise

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know that a chemical reaction


occurs when one substance changes
into another
I know how to make and describe
observations during a chemical
reaction
I know that acids react with metals
to produce hydrogen
I know that acids react with
carbonates to produce carbon
dioxide
I know how to test for hydrogen
and for carbon dioxide
I know that oxygen, together with
nitrogen and other gases, is found
in air
I know that some metals react with
oxygen in the air to produce oxides
I know how to write simple word
equations
I know that when fuels burn they
combine with oxygen and produce
carbon dioxide and water

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Chapter 6 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 8486
Introducing the term chemical reaction
Making and recording observations of a chemical reaction

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Make and record observations of a chemical reaction.


Handle apparatus and pour chemicals safely and use appropriate
quantities of reagents.

Less Able Pupils

Make visual observations of a chemical reaction. Make a record of


simple observations.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus make and record detailed observations of a


chemical reaction including various visual aspects and other
methods of observation.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet F1 How can you tell when
a chemical reaction is happening?
Per group:
Test tube rack and 3 test tubes. Small
quantity of lemon juice. Small quantity of
sodium hydrogencarbonate. Spatula, glass
rod. UI indicator paper and chart.
Access on request to:
Thermometers, 0-110C.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Hold a class discussion on: What is a chemical reaction? Refer back to
their work on acids and alkalis (Chapter 3), and on fuels (Chapter 5).
Use pp. 84-85 in the Pupil Book to support the discussion.

Less able pupils can name an example of a


chemical reaction; abler pupils can recognise
and state general features of chemical
reactions.

Pupils know that in a chemical reaction new substances


are formed.

10

Introduce Worksheet F1 How can you tell when a chemical reaction


is happening? Talk briefly through it, reminding pupils how to work
safely.

20

In groups, carry out the investigation on F1.


Organise the class into groups, with abler pupils supporting less able.

Less able pupils will be supported by more


able in the group.

Pupils know how to use their eyes and other senses to


recognise that a chemical reaction is taking place. They
describe the changes occurring, and recognise that the
appearance of bubbles indicates that a chemical
reaction is taking place.

10

As a class, discuss observations made and results recorded.

Less able pupils record observations


adequately, and link their observations to
the fact that a chemical reaction was taking
place. Abler pupils also recognise that lemon
juice contains an acid, they link a pH change
to their knowledge of acids, and use the term
neutralisation.

Homework: Answer questions on Worksheet F1; also Qs 1 and 2 from Pupil Book 1 p.86.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 8687
Investigating how metals react with acids
Testing for hydrogen
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Recognise the effects of acids on a range of metals and understand


that this is a chemical reaction. Make and record observations of
the reaction between metals and acid. Carry out the test for
hydrogen.

Less Able Pupils

Make and record observations of the reaction between an acid and


at least two different metals. Recognise that not all metals react
with acids.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus recognise patterns in the results they obtain.
Make the generalisation that hydrogen is produced when a metal
reacts with an acid.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Testing for hydrogen
Test tube containing 3 cm depth of dil.
hydrochloric acid. Strip of magnesium
ribbon. Splint and Bunsen burner.
Worksheet F2 Reactions between
acids and metals
Per group:
Small piece of ribbon of magnesium,
iron, copper, lead, zinc. Emery paper to
clean ribbon. Test tubes and rack. Spills.
Bunsen burner (access to flame).
Access on request:
1 mol dm3 HCl. For extension, dilute
sulfuric acid.
Results table for less able pupils doing
Worksheet F2
In the left column write the questions
from Step 3; on the top row write the
names of the metals to be tested (max. 5).

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Chapter 6 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

15

In and register.
Remind the class about how to make observations and record them,
and also how to work safely with acids.
Demonstration of testing for hydrogen. In front of the class, add the
magnesium ribbon to the test tube of acid. Bubbles are given off and,
when a lighted splint is put into the top of the test tube, a squeaky
pop is heard.

Pupils developed their skills of observation


while doing F1. Abler pupils recognise that
they can use these skills in this new situation.
Less able students pick this up during
discussion.

Pupils reinforce the learning outcomes from Lesson 1.

25

Then introduce Worksheet F2 Reactions between acids and metals


and ask: Is this the same as the reaction investigated before? How is it
different?
Ask pupils using the Table in the worksheet to leave plenty of space for
comments on each metal. To less able pupils, distribute the Results
table sheet with Worksheet Step 3 questions in full.
Now instruct the class to do F2.
If time, invite abler pupils to extend their investigation by using sulfuric
acid, and if there are sufficient results, ask them to record and compare
answers to Q 2 for both acids.

Abler pupils can use the Worksheet table for


recording full results; less able pupils find it
easier to record full observations by using
the Record sheet.

Pupils acquire experience in testing for hydrogen, and


work safely with acids.
They understand that when an acid reacts with a metal,
hydrogen is produced.
They know that not all metals react with acids.

10

Hold a class discussion of the findings: Which metals reacted? Which


gave the best positive results for the hydrogen test?

Homework: Complete questions on Worksheet F2. Read Pupil Book p.87 and find out how to test for carbon dioxide.

Pupils identify and describe patterns in qualitative data.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 p. 87
Investigating reactions between acids and carbonates
Testing for carbon dioxide
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Make and record accurate observations of acids reacting with


carbonates. Carry out a carbon dioxide test competently. Know that
acids and carbonates react to produce carbon dioxide, but that not
all acids and carbonates react equally quickly.

Less Able Pupils

Make and record observations of acids reacting with carbonates.


Carry out a carbon dioxide test.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus recognise patterns in data. Link their


observations with other situations, e.g. the effect of acid rain on
limestone buildings.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Testing for carbon dioxide
As Pupil Book p. 87: Test tube with 3 cm
depth of dil. hydrochloric acid. Powdered
calcium carbonate. Dropper pipette. Test
tube of lime water.
Worksheet F3 Reactions between
acids and carbonates
Per group:
Test tubes and rack. 1 mol dm3 HCl.
Small amounts of calcium carbonate,
magnesium carbonate, zinc carbonate
and crushed eggshells. Spatula. Spills.
Dropper pipette. Access to Bunsen flame
(for lighting spill). Lime water.
Access on request to:
Dilute sulfuric acid (for more able pupils).
Results table for less able pupils doing
Worksheet F3
In the left column write: Testing for
hydrogen; Testing for carbon dioxide; on
the top row write the names of the
carbonates to be tested.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Revise work so far: What is a chemical reaction? How can you tell when
one is happening? What happens when metals react with acids? How
do you test for hydrogen?

Pupils reinforce the learning outcomes from Lessons 1


and 2.

10

Introduce and carry out the demonstration on testing for carbon


dioxide. Ask for class observations and comments.
Introduce Worksheet F3 Reactions between acids and carbonates.
Start the class thinking about how to draw up their results chart.

Pupils recognise that bubbles indicate the production of


a gas, but not which gas.
They know how to test for carbon dioxide.

20

Instruct groups to do F3.

Less able pupils can be given the Results


table to fill in.
More able students can extend their
investigation by using sulfuric acid as well.

10

Hold a class discussion on pupils observations and conclusions. Then


ask pupils to start answering the F3 questions.

More able students can be given an extra


question to encourage them to think about
the wider implications about what they have
learned. This can be linked to acid rain
covered in Chapter 3.

Homework: Complete questions on Worksheet F3, plus Qs 3 and 4 on Pupil Book p.87.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils carry out the test for carbon dioxide (and add to
their experience of testing for hydrogen).
Pupils know that carbon dioxide is produced when acids
react with carbonates.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Burning metals in air and in oxygen

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 88

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Burn metals safely. Know that burning is a chemical reaction


involving oxygen. Know that oxides are produced when a metal
burns. Understand the difference between air and oxygen.

Less Able Pupils

Burn metals safely. Know that burning is a chemical reaction


involving oxygen. Know that some metals can burn in air but that
others do not.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus describe and explain the differences between
combustion in air and in oxygen.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: How to burn metals in air
Magnesium ribbon. Emery paper (to
clean metal surface). Tongs to hold
ribbon in flame. Bunsen and mat.
Goggles.
Worksheet F4 Burning metals in air
Per group:
Magnesium ribbon and copper ribbon.
Emery paper. Tongs. Bunsen and mat.
Goggles.
Demo: Worksheet F5 Burning metals
in oxygen
As above for Demonstration on burning
metals in air, plus:
Several gas jars of oxygen. Deflagrating
spoon.
Copies of Worksheet F5 to distribute to
the class.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

15

In and register.
Hold a class discussion to remind pupils what they learnt about burning
fuels in Chapter 5 Energy resources. Discuss the content of air, referring
to the pie chart on p.88 of the Pupil Book.
Demo on how to burn metals in air safely.

15

Introduce Worksheet F4 Burning metals in air. Reinforce the safety


points and then instruct groups to carry out the activity.

15

Ask pupils to predict what might happen if a metal is burnt in oxygen.


Distribute and introduce Worksheet F5 Burning metals in oxygen,
drawing pupils attention to the procedures you will carry out, the
observations they should make and note down in their workbooks,
and the questions they will be answering later. Then carry out the
demo, using magnesium and copper.

Discuss with the class the differences between burning different metals,
and burning the same metal in air and in oxygen. Ask them to record
these findings in their workbooks if they have not already done so.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils know that air contains oxygen gas and other
gases. They can interpret a pie chart. They know how to
burn metals safely.

More able pupils will include a high level of


detail in their observations, e.g. ease of
lighting, vigour of reaction, colour and
brightness of flame.
Less able pupils are likely to need help with
Steps 4 and 5.

Homework: Answer the questions on Worksheet F5. More able students can also do End of chapter Qs 1 and 2, p.93.

Pupils have experience in burning metals safely. They


know that some metals burn in air, and understand that,
when a metal burns in air, it combines with oxygen and
an oxide is formed.

Pupils reinforce knowledge of the composition of air,


and of how metals burn in air. They are able to predict
how metals may react with oxygen.
Pupils have a record of similarities and differences
between burning metals in air and in oxygen.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 p. 89
Writing simple word equations
Demonstration of candle burning in air
Starting to plan an investigation into a candle burning
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Work efficiently as part of a group and make a useful contribution


to the group discussion. Identify a variable to change, a variable to
measure, and at least one variable to keep constant. Know how to
write a simple word equation.

Less Able Pupils

Work as part of a group and make some contribution to group


discussion.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus work efficiently as part of a group and take a
leading role in group discussion.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Worksheet F7 What is needed
for a candle to burn?
One sheet per pupil.
Short and stubby piece of candle with
wick exposed. Matches or other means of
lighting candle. Large container of water,
e.g. glass trough. Petri dish or other
container in which candle can float. Large
glass beaker (e.g. 800 cm3 or 1 litre).
Worksheet F8 How long can a candle
burn?
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise in
Lesson 5 and for Homework; also used in
Lessons 6 to 8).
Optional prompt: stopwatch or stopclock.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

15

In and register.
Explain how to write a word equation, with reference to burning a
metal in air and Pupil Book p.89.

15

Distribute and introduce Worksheet F7 What is needed for a candle


to burn?, then carry it out as a demo. Ask pupils: What is happening
when something burns in air? Why do you think it goes out?

Abler pupils may suggest that the candle


goes out because of both a lack of oxygen
and an increase in carbon dioxide.

Pupils reinforce their understanding that burning


involves combining with oxygen.

15

Organise pupils into equal-sized and ability-balanced discussion groups,


and distribute Worksheet F8 How long can a candle burn? Read it
through with the class and then ask groups to begin their plan, telling
them that they will return to it in the next lesson. At this stage, pupils
should record answers and details in their workbooks. Remind pupils to
think about safety aspects.

More able pupils are likely to lead the group


discussion.
You may need to encourage less able
pupils to contribute, so that they have a
role to play.

When planning an investigation, pupils identify


variables to control, change and measure, and
appreciate that only one variable should be changed.
Pupils decide how to record and display results.

To ensure that all groups are on the right lines, briefly discuss their ideas
for plans. Emphasise the need to have a good plan for how to record
results.

Pupils know how to write a simple word equation, and


know the terms reactant and product.

Homework: Answer questions on Worksheet F7, and look over and make notes on revising the plan of Worksheet F8, to be reviewed in Lesson 6.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Burning kerosine
The products of burning fuels in air

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 9091

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that kerosine is a fuel. Remember that fuels release energy


when they burn. Appreciate that the products of burning a fuel are
invisible and that special apparatus is needed to detect them.

Less Able Pupils

Know that kerosine is a fuel. Know that kerosine produces carbon


dioxide and water when it burns.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can make generalisations about the combustion
of fuels and the products released.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Worksheet F6 What is
produced when a fuel burns?
See F6 diagram: Tripod, gauze, crucible
lid, glass funnel. Three clamp stands.
Delivery tubing and glass tubing.
Condenser: U-tube with ice, 2 bungs,
beaker to hold U-tube. Side-arm test
tube. Lime water. Suction pump.
Worksheet F8 How long can a candle
burn?
Pupils completed sheets (from Lesson 5)
and spares if pupils wish to make major
changes.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

20

In and register.
Remind the class of previous work on fuels in Chapter 5 Energy
resources. Introduce Worksheet F6 What is produced when a fuel
burns? and explain the apparatus. Ask pupils to predict what may
happen when the kerosine burns (Hint: Fuel burning equation). Then
carry out the demonstration.

More able pupils may correctly predict what


will happen in the apparatus.

Pupils know how special apparatus can be used to


detect the products of burning kerosine. They know that
burning kerosine produces water and carbon dioxide.

10

Direct pupils to answer questions on Worksheet F6, including


completing the word equation (Q 2).

Abler pupils can start answering Q 8 on


Pupil Book p.90 in their workbooks

Pupils apply knowledge of writing word equations to a


new situation.

20

Ask pupils to retrieve Worksheet F8 How long can a candle burn?


and to re-form their Lesson 5 discussion groups. Instruct them to do a
final check of their plan and to draw up a results table. Move between
groups and discuss the plans with them as they are working.

Homework: Finalise F8 plans. If time, do the Literacy activity: Rock cake, from Pupil Book p.91.

Pupils produce a workable plan for F8, the burning


candle investigation.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 p. 90
Carrying out planned investigation F8:
Does the volume of air affects the length of time a candle can burn?
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Carry out an investigation in which they vary the volume of air


available and keep at least one other variable constant. Record
time of burning in different volumes of oxygen in a suitable table.
Make a conclusion appropriate to their results about the
relationship between volume of air and time of burning.

Less Able Pupils

With help, carry out an investigation in which they attempt to vary


the volume of air available. Measure time of burning in at least
three different volumes of air. Record results so that they can be
understood. Make an appropriate conclusion.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus successfully control all important variables other
than volume of air. Measure and record time of burning in
different volumes of oxygen in a very clear results chart. Make
repeat readings at each volume. Display results as a line graph,
Appreciate major sources of inaccuracy in their investigation. Make
a conclusion appropriate to their results about the relationship
between volume of air and time of burning.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet F8 How long can a candle
burn?
Per group of:
Short, stubby piece of candle with
exposed wick.
Large container of water, e.g. plastic
washing up bowl.
Small container in which the candle can
float, e.g. a small petri dish.
Matches or other means of lighting the
candle.
Range of beakers of different capacities,
e.g. 150 cm3 to 2 dm3).
Stopwatch.
Note: Some groups may ask for other
apparatus, which should be supplied if
possible.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Ask pupils to re-form their Lesson 6 groups.

35

Direct groups to use their plan to carry out Worksheet F8 How long
can a candle burn?, recording their results in the table.
Support pupils as they work, providing guidance where needed, and
asking questions about what they are doing and why.

10

Direct pupils to begin writing up their investigation, including tidying


up their table of results.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Abler pupils will work relatively quickly and


will take repeat readings at each volume of
air; they may recognise (perhaps with
prompting and questioning) that it is
important to take trouble to remove all the
stale air from the beaker each time.
Less able pupils will need help and
encouragement (either from other pupils in
their group or the teacher).

Pupils carry out an investigation that they have planned,


involving controlling, altering and measuring variables,
and record results appropriately.

Homework: Complete write-up of F8. Revise for End of Unit test. If time, do End of chapter questions 1 to 5 on Pupil Book p.93.

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Chapter 6 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 8493
Debrief of investigation F8 (burning candle)
End of Unit test
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Communicate to others what they did in their investigation. Can


describe the patterns shown by their results, and relate this to the
question posed by F8. Can draw a line graph, using a best fit line,
to display their results.

Less Able Pupils

Draw a simple conclusion from their results. Suggest at least one


improvement that they could make in the design of their
investigation. Plot a graph of their results, given help with axes,
and draw a best fit line with help.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus recognise the major sources of error in their
investigation, and relate this to the reliability of their results.
Suggest more than one explanation (less oxygen, more carbon
dioxide) for their results.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Numeracy:
Literacy:
ICT:

Drawing line graph.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


For results to Worksheet F8
Graph paper
End of Unit test
One set of sheets per pupil

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Chapter 6 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 6 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

20

In and register.
With the class, discuss results of candle experiment what did they find?
What can they conclude? What were the main problems? How reliable
do they think their results were? What could they have done to improve
them?
Ensure that pupils have a complete set of results, theirs or someone elses.
Show on the board how to draw and label axes and draw a line graph
of results (for Homework).

Abler pupils contribute readily to the


discussion; they recognise the major sources
of error and suggest ways of improving their
design.
Less able pupils need to be encouraged to
join in the discussion and to appreciate how
they might improve their investigation.

Pupils appreciate that even a well designed and well


executed investigation has sources of error, and that
these will affect the reliability of results.
They know how to draw a line graph using a best fit
line.

30

Distribute sheets for the End of Unit test and ask the class to do it.
Then collect the sheets and hand out graph paper for Homework.

Homework: Draw a graph for the results of your burning candle investigation, and write a conclusion.

For Homework, pupils draw a line graph of their (or


anothers) results. using a best fit line.

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Ab Sc InX Worksheets Ch6

R KS H EE

F1 How can you tell when a


chemical reaction is happening?
Take care! Wear safety goggles while you are doing this practical work.
1 Stand a clean test tube in a rack.
2 Put some lemon juice into the tube. (It doesnt matter exactly how much,
but if you fill the tube about one quarter full it should work well.)
3 Test the pH of the lemon juice using a piece of universal indicator paper.
4 Copy and complete these sentences:
The lemon juice looks It has a pH of which
means that it contains an .
5 Collect a small amount of bicarbonate of soda. Write down a description
of what it looks like.
Note: The proper chemical name for bicarbonate of soda is sodium
hydrogencarbonate.
6 Now add the bicarbonate of soda to the
lemon juice in the test tube. Observe
carefully what happens.
7 Write down two observations you made
that suggest that a chemical reaction
took place when the bicarbonate of soda
was added to the lemon juice.

Tip:
Observe doesnt just mean
use your eyes! You can use
other senses as well,
including the temperature
receptors in your fingers.

8 When the reaction seems to have finished, test the pH of the contents of
the tube with universal indicator again.
a How did you decide that the chemical reaction had finished?
b How does the result of the pH test confirm that a chemical reaction had
happened in the tube?

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F2 Reactions between
acids and metals
You are going to investigate what happens when different metals are added
to an acid.

Take care! Wear safety goggles while you are doing this practical work
1 Collect several clean test tubes, and stand them in a test tube rack.
2 Your teacher will give you some dilute hydrochloric acid. (Remember dont get it on your skin. If you do, then wash it off straight away with lots
of cold water.) Put about 3 cm depth of the acid into each of your tubes.
3 Collect one of the metals you are going to try. Add it to the acid, and
observe carefully what happens. Write down your observations in a results
table like this one.
metal

observations when it is added to acid

The kind of observations you might make


would answer these questions:
Did you see bubbles?
If so, were there lots of them or
only a few?
Did anything change colour?
Did the appearance of the metal
change or stay the same?
Did the test tube get hotter or colder?
Did you hear anything happening?
Did you smell anything?

Tip:
When you draw the results
table, leave plenty of room
in the second column,
because you may have
quite a lot to write for some
of the metals.

4 If you see bubbles being given off, then you can test the gas to see if it is
hydrogen.
Hold a wooden splint in a Bunsen flame until it begins to burn gently.
Hold the burning splint in the top of the test tube. If the gas is
hydrogen, youll hear a squeaky pop.

Questions

5 Repeat step 3 for at least four more metals.

1 Which metals reacted with the acid? Which metals did not react?
2 Make a list of the metals you tried, in order, starting with the
one that reacted most quickly with the acid, and ending with
the one that reacted least.
3 Name one new substance that was produced when a metal
and acid reacted.

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F3 Reactions between
acids and carbonates

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R KSHEE

You are going to investigate how acids react with several different kinds of
carbonates.

Take care! Wear safety goggles while you are doing this practical work
1 Collect several clean test tubes, and stand them in a test tube rack.
2 Pour about 3 cm depth of dilute hydrochloric acid into each tube.
3 Draw a results chart like the one you used for the reactions between acids
and metals.
4 Collect one of the carbonates your
teacher has ready for you to use.
Add one spatula of the carbonate to
the acid. Observe carefully what
happens, and record your observations.

Tip:
Look back at Worksheet F2
to remind you of the kind of
things to look out for.

Now you are going to test the gas that


is produced when the acid reacts with one of the carbonates.

Testing for hydrogen


5 Choose one of the carbonates that reacted well with the acid. Take a clean
tube, put some hydrochloric acid into it, and then add a spatula of the
carbonate.
Now light a splint, and hold it in the test tube. Record what happens.

Testing for carbon dioxide


The test for carbon dioxide is to mix it with lime water. Lime water is a clear
liquid. It goes cloudy if there is carbon dioxide present.
Carbon dioxide is much denser than air. When it bubbles out of the liquid in
your test tube, it stays in the tube for quite a long time.

Questions

6 Put some lime water in another test tube. Then suck some gas from the
tube containing acid into a dropper pippette, and then squeeze it into the
lime water.

230

1 Which carbonates reacted with the acid? Were there any that
did not react?
2 Was hydrogen given off during the reaction? Explain how you
know.
3 Was carbon dioxide given off during the reaction? Explain
how you know.

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F4 Burning metals in air

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You are going to try to burn two different metals in air.

Take care! Wear safety goggles while you are doing this practical work.
1 Set up a Bunsen burner on a heatproof mat, and light it.
2 Collect a small piece of magnesium and pair of tongs. Use a piece of emery
paper to clean the ribbon.

If you havent already put your safety goggles on, do it now!


3 Turn the collar of the Bunsen until you have a blue flame.
Hold your piece of magnesium ribbon in the tongs.
Standing well back, hold the ribbon in the flame at arms length until it
begins to burn.
Take the burning ribbon out of the flame and hold it over the heatproof
mat.

{diagram - character wearing safety goggles, holding a


piece of burning magnesium ribbon in tongs at arms
length over a heatproof mat - the ribbon is burning
fiercely and brightly}
4 Write down a list of all the observations you can make which tell you that
a chemical reaction is happening.
5 Now repeat Steps 2 and 3 using a piece of copper. Again, write down all of
your observations.
6 Copy and complete this table describing what happened when you heated
the magnesium and the copper in air.
Metal

What it looked
like to start with

What happened when


it was held in the flame

What was left


at the end

magnesium
copper

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F5 Burning metals in oxygen

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Your teacher will demonstrate these reactions for you.


First, some oxygen is made and collected
in a gas jar. It is kept inside the jar using
a glass lid.
oxygen

Questions

The metal to be burned is placed on a


little spoon with a long handle. This is
called a deflagrating spoon. The metal
is heated until it starts to burn, and is
then held inside the gas jar - with the
lid still across to stop the oxygen
from escaping.

232

1 Describe the observations you made when a piece of


magnesium was burnt in the oxygen in the gas jar.
2 How did this reaction differ from the one where you burned
magnesium in air? Suggest an explanation for the differences.
3 Describe the observations you made when a piece of copper
was burnt in the oxygen in the gas jar.
4 How did this reaction differ from the one where you heated
copper in air? Suggest an explanation for the differences.

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F6 What is produced when a


fuel burns?
This apparatus can be used to find out what is produced when a fuel burns.

delivery tubes

clamp

inverted
glass funnel

gauze

crucible
lid

bungs
side-armed
tube

tube to
suction pump

clamp
fuel

tripod

beaker

ice

clamp

lime water

Your teacher will burn some kerosine in this apparatus.

Questions

When the fuel burns, it combines with oxygen in the air. The new substances
that are formed are gases. They travel along the delivery tubes, and pass first
through the cold tube in the beaker of ice, and then through the lime water.

1 Write down what you could see happening in each of these


parts of the apparatus when the fuel was burning:
in the crucible lid

in the cold U-shaped tube

in the lime water

2 Complete this word equation showing what happens when


kerosine burns.
kerosine + = water +

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R KSH EE

F7 What is needed for a


candle to burn?
Your teacher will set up this apparatus to investigate what a candle needs to
burn.

beaker
candle
trough
water

Observe what happens when the candle burns, then answer these questions.
1 The beaker contained air. Name the two gases which make up most of the
air.
2 When the candle burned, the wax in the candle was reacting with a gas in
the air. What is this gas?
3 Explain why the candle went out after a while.
4 Did the volume of air inside the beaker get greater or smaller as the
candle burnt?
How could you tell?

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R KSH EE

F8 How long can a candle


burn?
You are going to do an experiment to try to answer this question:
Does the volume of air available affect how long a
candle burns before it goes out?
You can use apparatus like that on worksheet F7.
1 Which variable will you change?

2 Which variable will you need to measure? How will you measure it?

3 Which variables will you need to keep the same to make it a fair test?

4 What do you think will happen?

5 Why do you think this will happen?

6 How will you carry out the experiment?

7 How will you make it safe?

8 How will you record your results?

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Ab Sci InX EUT and Ans Unit 6

End of Unit test


Simple chemical reations
1 In a chemical reaction, one or more new substances are formed. Which of
these are chemical reactions and which are not? If you think it is a chemical
reaction, tick the yes box. If you think it is not, tick the no box.
Water freezing and turning into ice.

yes

no

Bubbles of carbon dioxide being released


when vinegar is added to lemon juice.

yes

no

Charcoal burning on a barbecue.

yes

no
(3)

2 Alan added a metal to a liquid in a test tube.


Bubbles were given off, and the tube got hot.
a Alan thought the liquid in the test tube must
be an acid. Suggest an easy way he could check
this, and describe what he would see when
he carried out this test.
What he should do:

What he would see:

(2)
b How did Alan know that a chemical reaction was happening in the test
tube?

(1)
c Alan thought the bubbles might be hydrogen. Complete the sentence
describing how he could find out if he was right.
Alan could hold a in the top of
the test tube. If there was a he would know that the
gas was hydrogen.
(2)

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Chapter 6 End of Unit test


3 Some oil caught fire in a pan on a cooker.
John turned the power off to the cooker, and then threw a thick cloth over
the top of the pan.
a When the oil was burning, it was reacting with a gas in the air. What was
this gas?

(1)
b Explain why the oil stopped burning when the thick cloth was thrown
over it.

(1)
4 The diagram shows a Bunsen burner with the
air hole open. The gas pipe supplies methane,
which burns and produces the flame.

Complete this equation for the reaction that


happens when the methane burns.

methane + +
(3)

a Describe two things that


Kate should do to make
sure that she works safely.

lime water

bung

D
0.1 ilute
mo HCl
ldm -3

5 Kate put some calcium carbonate


powder into a test tube. She
poured some dilute hydrochloric
acid into the tube. Then she put
the bung into the tube.

calcium carbonate

1
2
(2)
b Describe what Kate would see happening in the test tube which
contained the calcium carbonate.

(2)

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Chapter 6 End of Unit test


c Describe what Kate would see happening in the test tube which
contained lime water.

(1)
d Why would this happen?

(1)
6 Here are the names of some different substances.
oxygen
water
hydrogen
carbon dioxide
hydrochloric acid

magnesium
magnesium oxide

a Using some of the words in the list above, write a word equation to show
what happens when a metal burns in air.

(4)
b Which substance or substances in your word equation are reactants?

(1)
c Which substance or substances in your word equation are products?

(1)
(Total marks: 25)

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Chapter 6 End of Unit test

Extension question
7 Sherina did an experiment to find out how long a candle would burn in
different volumes of air. She wanted to test this idea:
The greater the volume of the air it has to burn in,
the longer a candle will burn.
This is the apparatus that she used.

Sherinas results are shown in the


results table below.
Volume of
beaker (cm3)

1st try

Time for candle to go out (s)


2nd try
3rd try

150

200

400

6.7

800

13

15

14

14.0

1000

17

16

16

16.3

2000

30

29

30

29.7

Average
3.3

a Calculate the average time taken for the candle to go out when Sherina
used the 200 cm3 beaker and write your answer in the table.
(1)
b Explain why it was a good idea to have three tries with each beaker.

(1)
c Describe two variables that Sherina needed to keep the same when she
did her experiment.
1
2
(2)

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Chapter 6 End of Unit test


Sherina drew a line graph to display her results. Here are the axes she used.
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

d Complete the labels on both axes of the graph.


(1)
e Plot Sherinas results on the graph, using a neat cross for each point. Then
draw a line between the points.
(2)
f Describe the pattern shown by Sherinas results.

(1)
g Explain the reason for this pattern.

(2)
(Total marks: 10)

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Ab Sci InX EUT and Ans Unit 6

6
A NS ER S
W

Simple chemical reactions


Text answers
1 When a chemical reaction takes place, one substance changes into a
different substance. One or more new substances are formed.
2
Sense organs

Observations you can make

eyes

bubbles
colour changes
a flame
something appears or disappears
(pupils will not know about precipitates)

ears

a noise

nose

a different smell

temperature sensors in fingers

the test tube gets warmer or colder

3
Gas being tested for

What you do

What happens if the gas is


present

hydrogen

hold a lighted splint


where you think the
gas may be

a squeaky pop

carbon dioxide

bubble the gas


through lime water

the lime water goes cloudy

4 The egg shells contain a carbonate. Karen could crush the egg shells, then
add them to the clear liquid. If bubbles are produced, she should collect
some of the gas and test it using lime water. If the lime water goes cloudy,
this shows that the gas is carbon dioxide. If this happens, the liquid probably
is an acid, because when it reacts with a carbonate it produces carbon
dioxide.
5 The reactants are magnesium and oxygen. The product is magnesium oxide.
6 a copper + oxygen copper oxide
b The reactants are copper and oxygen. The product is copper oxide.
7 calcium + oxygen calcium oxide
lithium + oxygen lithium oxide
8 a The funnel collects the gases formed when the methane burns.
The cold water cools down the gases, so that the water vapour condenses
and forms liquid water.
The lime water tests for carbon dioxide.
b Water would appear.
c It would go cloudy.
d methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

Literacy activity answers


a Carbon dioxide. Tartaric acid is reacting with a carbonate, and acid +
carbonate produces carbon dioxide. (Note: you may need to explain to
students that an acid only acts like one when in solution. So the tartaric
acid in the baking powder does not react with the bicarbonate of soda until
it is dissolved in water.)

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Chapter 6 Answers
b Bubble the gas through lime water, which will go cloudy if carbon dioxide is
present.
c The carbon dioxide makes bubbles in the dough.
d Self-raising flour might contain baking powder (tartaric acid and sodium
hydrogencarbonate).

End of chapter answers


1 a hydrogen
b oxygen
c carbonate
d hydrogen
e oxide
2 Bubble the gas through lime water, which will go cloudy.
3 magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide
methane + oxygen water + carbon dioxide
4 Oxygen makes up less than 20% of the air. So there is less oxygen for the
magnesium to react with in air than when it is pure oxygen.
5 The carbon dioxide prevents oxygen getting to the fire. When something
burns, it is combining with oxygen. If it doesnt have any oxygen, then it
cant burn.

Worksheet answers
F3 Reactions between acids and carbonates
1 It is likely that all of the acids will react with all of the carbonates.
2 Hydrogen should not be given off. There should be no pop when a lighted
splint is held in the tube.
3 Carbon dioxide is given off. Lime water goes milky when the gas is bubbled
through it.

F6 What is produced when a fuel burns?


1 The fuel in the crucible lid burns with a flame. A clear, colourless liquid
condenses in the U-shaped tube. The lime water goes cloudy.
2 kerosine + oxygen water + carbon dioxide

F7 What is needed for a candle to burn?


1 Nitrogen and oxygen.
2 Oxygen.
3 The oxygen in the air was used up. (Another factor is that the carbon
dioxide produced by burning builds up around the candle and prevents
oxygen from reaching it.)
4 Smaller. The water level rises inside the beaker.

End of Unit test answers


1 water freezing and turning into ice no
bubbles of carbon dioxide being released when vinegar is added to lemon
juice yes
charcoal burning on a barbecue yes (3)
2 a use an indicator/named indicator
appropriate colour given for that indicator (2)
b he saw bubbles and the tube got hot (both for 1 mark) (1)
c Alan could hold a burning splint in the top of the test tube.
If there was a (squeaky) pop he would know the gas was hydrogen. (2)

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Chapter 6 Answers
3 a oxygen (1)
b the cloth stopped oxygen from reaching the fire (1)
4 oxygen
water
carbon dioxide (3)
5 a wear goggles
keep hydrochloric acid away from her skin/dont spill any/put the top
back on the bottle straight away (2)
b Kate would see bubbles and the powder would, disappear/dissolve (2)
c gas would bubble through it and it would go cloudy (1)
d carbon dioxide was being produced (1)
6 a magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide (4)
b (allow error carried forward here and in c, i.e. if equation is wrong, allow
consequential answers here)
magnesium and oxygen (1)
c magnesium oxide (1)
(Total marks: 25)

Extension answers
7 a 5.0 (1)
b in case one reading was unusual (1)
c the size of the candle
the length of the wick
the way she placed the beaker over it (for example, how quickly)
how far down the edge of the beaker went into the water
(allow other suitable suggestions) (max 2)
d x axis volume of beaker in cm3 and
y axis time taken for candle to go out in seconds (1)
e all points correctly plotted on graph with suitable line drawn
(a straight line) (2)
f the larger the volume of the beaker, the longer it took for the
candle to go out (1)
g the candle needs oxygen to burn
the more air there is in the beaker, the more oxygen the candle has
once all the oxygen is used up, the candle stops burning (max 2)
(Total marks for Extension: 10)

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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P
HA TER

7 Forces and their effects

8
TI

AC

MING

HER NO

TE

HRS

Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7k

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Know that pushes and pulls change the speed, direction or shape of an object
Know how to measure distance and how to use a forcemeter to measure force
in newtons
Know that forces act in a particular direction and this can be indicated by
arrows
Have experience of the effects of a variety of forces, e.g. magnetic, gravity,
friction, air resistance

Language for learning


Air resistance
Balanced forces
Braking distance
Distance
Electrostatic forces

Friction
Gravity
Lubricant
Magnetic force
Mass

Newton (N)
Newtonmeter
Push
Pull
Speed

Streamline
Terminal velocity
Time
Upthrust
Weight

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
to identify different forces and to identify in which direction these forces are
acting
that friction opposes motion
that friction can sometimes be useful, but other times it can be a problem
to describe some ways to reduce friction
to describe what is meant by contact friction
that upthrust pushes upwards and that weight pulls downwards
to distinguish between the mass of an object and the weight of an object
that the weight of an object is caused by gravity
how and why the gravity on the Earth will be different from the gravity on the
Moon
to describe some situations in which forces are balanced
to compare the speed of different objects and define what is meant by the
term speed

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7 Forces and their effects

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
4E
6E

Title
Friction
Balanced and unbalanced forces

Links with other units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
9J
9K
9L

Title
Gravity and space
Speeding up
Pressure and moments

Cross-curricular links
Design and Technology: Using control to control a display, Exploring materials and
Selecting materials
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity included in the Pupil Book on Sky Diving.
Worksheet G6, Trying to reduce friction, involves writing out a clear set of
instructions for moving a crate into a lorry.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Many of the activities contained in both the Pupil Book and the Worksheets
require pupils to record and manipulate data as well as constructing graphs. Pupils
will be required to calculate speeds, given distances travelled and the times taken.

ICT

ICT
Spreadsheets can be used to record and manipulate data.
Dataloggers could be used to record data for Worksheet G8, Measuring Speeds.
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolute science

Learning Outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Make predictions about upthrust, test these and relate their findings to
scientific knowledge
Make suitably precise observations, including repeats to check reliability, and
use these to plot graphs
Investigate friction, identifying and controlling key factors
Physical processes
Identify directions in which forces act and describe situations in which forces
are balanced
Distinguish between mass and weight, giving examples
Describe some of the ways of reducing friction and some situations in which
friction is useful
Describe what is meant by speed

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Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Make predictions about upthrust, test these and identify patterns in their results
With help plot graphs of their results
Make relevant observations using appropriate equipment
Physical processes
Identify forces e.g. friction, upthrust and weight
Recognise that friction opposes motion, upthrust pushes upwards and weight
pulls downwards
Compare speeds quantitatively

Pupils who have progressed further


Scientific enquiry
Explain how they made a fair comparison in their investigation of friction
Interpret their results on floating, using knowledge of balanced forces to
explain conclusions
Explain how the scales they chose and lines they drew on graphs enabled them
to show data effectively
Physical processes
Show how forces can combine to give a resultant effect which depends on both
the sizes and directions of the forces
Describe how weight is caused by gravity and how gravity is different on the
Earth and on the Moon
Explain contact friction in simple terms

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Forces and their effects
Using the Pupil Book activity on p. 94, pupils can be reminded of their work on
forces at Key Stage 2 by asking them to describe the force acting upon, and the
effect of the force in each of the cartoons. This section could also be used to
remind pupils of the safe use of newtonmeters using the activity on Worksheet
G1, Measuring forces. The section on newtonmeters on Pupil Book p. 97 could be
used as a summary.

Making your own newtonmeter


Pupils could be reminded of the previous lessons activity based on the
newtonmeter together with the work they will have done at Key Stage 2 about
how materials are stretched. Through questioning, establish that the larger the
force pulling down on a material such as a spring, the more it will expand.
Pupils could then be given the opportunity to investigate this by adding weights
to a spring and measuring the extension this produces. A possible way to
introduce this is to explain that it is the basis by which newtonmeters work.
Instructions for this activity are given on Worksheet G2, Making your own
newtonmeter. A possible extension activity is given on Worksheet G3,
Newtonmeters.

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Friction
This topic could be introduced by showing an ice cube and a rough wooden
block being pulled by a string and asking the pupils why they behave in such
different ways.
From p. 94, the Pupil Book discusses frictional forces in different situations,
together with some methods of reducing friction. There may also be an
opportunity to carry out the activity on Worksheet G4, Friction: Testing different
surfaces. Pupils should be helped to identify the factors that may affect friction,
and to identify which variables they need to keep constant to make it a fair test.
Pupils can then carry out the activity on Worksheet G5, Friction: Testing blocks of
different weights. Some pupils may need help in constructing the graph of the
results.
As an extension activity pupils could be asked to predict results for a value they
have not actually measured using the graph they have drawn.

Friction can be useful


Pupils should be reminded of everyday situations where friction is useful. Pupils
could then be prompted to explain about the difficulties in stopping a bike in wet
conditions. Pupils could also be shown the stopping distances in the Highway
Code and then be helped to explain that the stopping distance of a car or a bike
depends on several factors including speed and the friction between the tyres and
the road.
Pupils could then be given the opportunity to carry out the activity on friction
and cars in the pupil book and Worksheet G6, Trying to reduce friction.
As a summary activity, pupils could be asked to compile a list of facts they have
learnt about friction in the last two lessons.

Streamlining
In this section pupils are introduced to streamlining on Pupil Book p. 103 via the
example of a dolphin. There could then be the opportunity to carry out the
activity on Worksheet G7, Streamlining. As a summary activity pupils could
answer the questions about the ski jumper in the Pupil Book.

Calculating speeds
Pupils could be reminded that the stopping distance of a car was determined not
only by friction but also by the speed that the car was travelling at. The Pupil
Book could then be used to introduce the concept of speed. P. 105 uses the
example of a sprinter and a racing car. Pupils will need help to understand the
units (m/s and km/h) used. There could also be the opportunity to carry out the
activities on Worksheet G8, Measuring speeds and Worksheet G9, Speeds and
braking distances.

Balanced forces
In this section pupils should be reminded of some of the forces which may act
upon an object, e.g. pushes, pulls, weight, upthrust and friction.
The cartoons in the Pupil Book could then be used to begin the exploration of
balanced forces. Pupils should be helped to explain that if the object is stationary,
or moving at a constant velocity, then the forces acting upon the object must be
balanced. Pupils may also be given the opportunity to carry out the activity on
Worksheet G10, Balanced and unbalanced forces.

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Floating and sinking


Pupils could be shown the picture of the floating ship in the Pupil Book and then
discuss why they think that the ship floats. They could then be asked to carry out
the activity on Worksheet G11, Floating and sinking.
Pupils should be helped to explain that objects weigh more in the air than they
do in water. They can then explain the upward force acting upon an object
(which has cancelled out some of the weight) is the upthrust of the water. They
should also be able to realise that if the upthrust of the water balances the
weight of the object, then the object will float (if preferred the density of objects
could also be used to explain floating as this has previously been developed in
Chapter 1).

Mass and weight


The idea of mass and weight is introduced using the Pupil Book. Pupils should be
reminded of the work on measuring the mass of objects that they carried out at
Key Stage 2.
The pupils could then be given the opportunity to weigh a selection of objects
that have their masses marked on them by attaching them to a newtonmeter.
They should then be helped to represent their results in the form of a graph
showing mass versus weight.
Pupils should be helped to explain the difference between the weight and the
mass of an object, and the relationship between mass and weight, so that on
Earth an object with a mass of 100 g has a weight of about 1 N.
As an extension activity, pupils could be told that the weight of an object is
caused by gravity and asked to explain how and why an object on the Moon or
on a different planet has a different weight from that on the Earth.

Teaching hints and tips


Introduction
Pupils will already have a pretty good idea of what a force is and some of the
effects it might cause from work carried out at Key Stage 2. Talking through lots of
interesting everyday examples with which they are familiar can provide the
platform on which the rest of this chapter can then build.
Confirmation of a pupils understanding can be obtained through the cartoon and
sentence exercise on p. 94 of the Pupil Book.

Forces without contact


This is a good point at which to sow seeds that can develop in readiness for
future topics eg magnetism, gravity etc. Three examples of forces without contact
are given and discussed but not in great detail (electrostatic, magnetic and
gravitational). The emphasis is the existence of forces without contact.
Each of the examples can be demonstrated in the laboratory, i.e. the attractive
forces that can be applied to materials such as iron and steel by a magnet, the
attractive forces that static electricity can apply to objects such as a slow stream of
water, and the attractive gravitational forces (often simply called gravity) which
cause objects to fall.

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Measuring forces
One of the effects of a force is to change the shape of an object. We use this idea
to measure the size of a force. the larger the force applied to a spring the more
it stretches.
This is the basic idea behind the newtonmeter. By measuring lots of different
forces with a variety of newtonmeters pupils should get a feel for the value of 1N
as well as seeing the differences between the springs of newtonmeters that
measure different ranges of forces, i.e. larger forces require thicker stronger
springs.

Worksheet G2, Making your own newtonmeter


This exercise provides good opportunities for developing a variety of
experimental skills.
Before getting pupils to make their own newtonmeter, it is important that you
make several springs from wires of different thicknesses and to test the forces that
can be applied to a spring without it becoming overstretched. A weight should be
added to a spring and then removed. If the spring returns to it original length it
has not been overstretched. The process is repeated with heavier and heavier
weights until the spring is overstretched. Now a choice can be made about the
most appropriate thickness of wire to use. Your choice is likely to be determined
by the range of weights you have available.
Be sure to tell pupils the maximum weight they are allowed to place on their
spring.
The second exercise on Worksheet G3, Newtonmeters provides pupils with the
opportunity to draw and interpret graphs containing data from an experiment
similar to the one they have just carried out on Worksheet G2. Before starting
the exercise a reminder about what constitutes a good graph may be useful, e.g.
use a sharp pencil, dont press too hard, labelled both axis, use a ruler etc.

Friction
The emphasis here is that almost every time an object moves or tries to move
there is a force we call friction trying to prevent it from moving. Lots of everyday
examples similar to those shown in the pupils book help illustrate the presence
of friction.
How large is the friction? What does it depend upon? The pupils can be asked
these questions to lead them into the exercises on Worksheet G6, Trying to
reduce friction.
From these exercises most pupils will be able to draw some conclusions with
regards to how they could decrease/increase the friction between two surfaces
(contact friction). This can be reinforced with lots of examples of each skiing,
skating, brakes, shoes with spikes or treads.

Friction and Cars


Why do tyres need treads? What happens if the road is wet or icy? What is the
braking distance of a car and why is it important that a driver knows this distance?
What factors affect the braking distance of a car? These questions can be asked as
a whole class exercise to get them thinking about and discussing this topic.
It is not important for pupils to memorize the figures given in the braking
distance chart on p. 102 but they should appreciate that the faster the car travels
the larger the braking distance and that even these values will increase if
conditions are not ideal.

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Streamlining
This topic can be introduced using a pupils own experiences. Perhaps they have
pedalled their bike into a strong headwind. How did they reduce the effect the
wind had on them? Phrases like cuts through the wind or presents least
resistance are good descriptions which allow the introduction of the word
streamlined. Pupils who are fans of Grand Prix racing, athletics, downhill skiing
etc. could contribute many examples of streamlining and how it is achieved.
Allowing objects of different shapes to fall through a column of water
(Worksheet G7, Streamlining) clearly shows the effect of streamlining. It can be a
useful exercise to ask the pupils questions as they are carrying out the experiment
e.g. What steps have they taken to ensure that it is a fair test?, Would they get
the same results if they used a different liquid or used metal objects rather than
plasticine?.
At the end of the experiment it is a good idea to tell pupils that they should be
careful not to let the pieces of plasticine go down the plug hole when they empty
the water from the acrylic tube!!

Measuring speeds
Pupils are introduced to the concept that speed can be calculated using the
equation:
speed = distance
time
using very simple examples.
Worksheet G8, Measuring speeds provides lots of opportunities to measure
speeds. A class set of calculators will be essential to avoid the maths getting in
the way of the concept.

Balanced forces
This can on occasions be a tricky concept to get across to pupils. There are some
very clear examples e.g. tug of war, two sets of rugby forwards pushing in a
scrum etc that you can use to begin illustrating the concept. The forces being
applied in each of these examples are equal, and in opposite directions, so they
balance. As a result there is no motion. From here we can lead on to the idea
that if an object is stationary, the forces acting upon it must be balanced.
A less obvious example can now be introduced, e.g. a stationary weight hanging
from a spring the weight is pulling the spring downwards, but the spring is
pulling the weight upwards with an equal force.

Floating and sinking


Upthrust will not be a word that most pupils have encountered. However, a
simple practical exercise can show exactly what it means.
Float a large low density object e.g. a polystyrene ball or a small football on the
surface of some water in a bucket. Now push the object below the surface of the
water. The force you feeling trying to push the object back to the surface is the
upthrust from the water. Notice that the size of the upthrust increases as more of
the object goes beneath the waters surface.
Note: It is a good idea to place the bucket in a washing up bowl so that any
water which overflows from the bucket does not turn the lab into a swimming
pool!

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7 Forces and their effects


Having established what upthrust is, and how it is created, it is easier for pupils
to grasp the idea that when an object floats it is experiencing balanced forces.
The weight of the object pulling it downwards, and the upthrust pushing it
upwards, balance when an object floats.
Why then do some objects sink? The activity in Worksheet G11, Floating and
sinking should help to explain this question. Dense objects have a small volume
but a lot of weight. As a result, they do not create a large enough upthrust to
balance their weight.
Why dont ships sink when they are made of iron and steel? A ship is a hollow
object and most of its volume is air. Its average density is therefore quite low.
This means that it will create a large enough upthrust in water to balance its
weight and float. A solid ship with no air inside would sink.

Mass and weight


This is not an easy concept to explain to pupils and at this stage needs to be just
touched upon. In very simple terms if we are interested in how much we have of
a particular substance or object we are interested in its mass. Mass tells us how
much stuff. If we are interested in how large a force we need to apply to an
object in order to lift it we are interested in its weight. Weight should always be
measured in newtons as it is a force. Mass should be measured in kilograms or
grams. The Pupil Book gives several examples of mass and weight to help pupils
understand the difference between them.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g,


2h, 2i, 2j, 2k, 2l,
2n, 2o, 2p

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes
2a, 2b, 2c, 2d

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What I have learnt


Forces and their effects

Checklist

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Air resistance

Lubricant

Speed

Balanced forces

Magnetic force

Streamline

Braking distance

Mass

Terminal velocity

Distance

Newton (N)

Time

Electrostatic forces

Newtonmeter

Upthrust

Friction

Push

Weight

Gravity

Pull

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to identify different


forces and can identify in which
direction these forces are acting
I know that friction opposes motion
I know that friction can sometimes
be useful, but other times it can be
a problem
I know how to describe some ways
to reduce friction
I know that upthrust pushes upwards
and that weight pulls downwards
I know how to distinguish between
the mass of an object and the
weight of an object
I know that the weight of an object
is caused by gravity
I know how and why the gravity on
the Earth will be different from the
gravity on the Moon
I know how to describe some
situations in which forces are
balanced
I know how to compare the speed
of different objects and define
what is meant by the term speed

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Absolute Science Lesson Plan

Ch

254

Chapter 7 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
What are forces?

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 9497

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand and recognise what forces are and what they can do to
objects. Know that they are measured in newtons using a
newtonmeter.

Less Able Pupils

Know that pushes and pulls are forces and that these can change
the speed, direction or shape of an object.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus are able to estimate relative sizes of forces and their
effects. Understand that we recognise forces by their effects and
that the forces may not be in contact with the objects they affect.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing words and sentences to describe forces and their effects.


Use of the unit of force, the newton, N.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Date

Class
Time 50Mixed
mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo of newtonmeters
A wide variety of newtonmeters which
will measure in the ranges 0 N1 N;
0 N5 N; 0 N10 N; 0 N25 N, and a
few which will measure up to 50 N and
100 N, etc.
Worksheet G1 Measuring forces
Per pair:
Items to pull or lift (10 required), drawer,
door, elastic bands, springs. Pupils
provide pencil case, shoe, school bag etc.
Pupils select appropriate newtonmeters.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils to write the topic title Forces and their effects', and as many
word as they can which describe forces or what forces do. (Expect them
to have a fairly good idea of forces from KS2.) Collect some of the
words they have used and invite all to copy down a definition of
What forces are and what they do.

More able pupils make more suggestions.

All pupils have a record of a definition of forces.

10

Orally take the pupils through the exercise to analyse the forces and
their effects: forces in contact, then forces at a distance. Record the
important vocabulary from their ideas, and then support them while
they record the sentences in their notes.

Less able pupils may need more support to


complete the exercises.

Pupils have written sentences about different sorts of


forces.

Through Q and A, remind the pupils of the idea of forces having size,
and that they are measured using forcemeters or newtonmeters. The
unit of force is the newton (N), named after Sir Isaac Newton.
The spring inside a newtonmeter gets longer when a force is applied.
Different springs measure different ranges of force.
Demo of newtonmeters: Demonstrate different newtonmeters and
then invite pupils to choose appropriate meters to measure forces.

Less confident pupils or those with a short


attention span can help with the demo.

All pupils have seen the effect (on objects) of forces in


contact with objects, and forces at a distance from
objects.

17

With Worksheet G1 Measuring forces, explain the instructions while


the pupils read them with you. They should draw the results table
before they start.
Ensure that the different newtonmeters are returned
to a central depot so that other pupils can also use them.

More able pupils make more suggestions for


why different newtonmeters need to be used.

All pupils have experience of measuring various forces.


They have a record of the size of the forces and
understand why different newtonmeters need to be
used to measure different forces.

Review the pupils' answers to Qs 1, 2 and 3, so that they can clarify


their ideas and can copy examples if they had difficulty putting their
ideas into words.

Pupils daunted by the idea of drawing the


experiment can be shown some alternative
ways of illustrating, e.g. with stick people
and labelled box shapes to represent
complex objects.
More able pupils will have less difficulty with
estimating the forces involved in the
examples in Q 2.

All pupils have a record of forces which cause objects to


move, and an idea of their relative size.

Pupils clear away the apparatus and tidy the room.


Extension: Record 5 forces you used in a day and estimate their size,
then put them in rank order.

Less able pupils may need help and


suggestions to recall forces they use.

Pupils recognise forces and where they are used in


everyday situations.

Homework: Complete Pupil Book Q 1 p.96 and Q 2 p.97. Review your definition, examples and sentences written down for What forces are and what they do.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Making a newtonmeter

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 9798

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Will be able to make and use their own newtonmeter. Understand


how to calibrate the scale. Know that the choice of stretchy
material is important for the reliability of the measurements.

Less Able Pupils

Will know that forces make stretchy substances get longer, and that
different materials behave in different ways.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus understand that the reliability of a spiral spring


newtonmeter depends on many factors, e.g. sort of material, its
thickness, the way it is made, length of spring, size of coils, etc.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet G2 Making your own
newtonmeter
Per group:
A spiral spring which will show a
measurable extension for loads of 0.1 N
up to 1.0 N or wire for the pupils to
wind their own spiral springs.
A retort stand, a hanger and 10 masses of
10 g (total mass = 100 g, so total force
= 1 N)
A 50 cm ruler, scrap paper, scissors,
Sellotape, plain paper. Small objects
weighing under 1 N that can be attached
to a spring, e.g. a compass, an eraser, etc.
Goggles.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Recording ideas about the newtonmeter, using vocabulary related to designing fair tests.
Making own scale to measure forces in newtons, N.

Cross-curricular development
Technology: Research design and use of springs

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 7 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
With Q and A, remind pupils of the measurements made in Lesson 1
using newtonmeters. What are the units for forces? What do forces do?
What do pupils think is needed to make a useful newtonmeter?
(A springy object which gets longer when forces are applied to it and
gets shorter when they are removed.) Ask them to suggest some
materials and/or objects and to think of ways to construct the meter.
They need to consider how to calibrate (put the numerical scale on)
the meter. Collect their ideas and then introduce the material you are
going to use.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

More able pupils will make more valid


suggestions for suitable materials, and may
be able to suggest how to calibrate them.

All pupils will be reminded of work they did at KS2.


Forces cause stretchy materials to extend; the bigger the
force the greater the extension.

Less able pupils will benefit from seeing the


apparatus constructed and/or set up, as they
may find it difficult to translate the
instructions into actions without support.

All pupils will see the way to set up the investigation.

Demonstration for Worksheet G2 Making your own newtonmeter:


With pupil help, demonstrate the way to follow the instructions on the
worksheet for setting up the spiral spring ready to calibrate. Then the
pupils should collect their apparatus and set up their newtonmeters in
a similar way. Goggles must be worn.

Pupils record headings in their notebooks: Aim, Diagram, (brief),


Method and Results, before carrying out the measurements.

15

Pupils carry out instructions and create a scale on their piece of paper.
Small objects e.g. a compass or an eraser, are hung from the spring, and
the force applied to the spring is read from the scale and recorded in
workbooks.

More able pupils will use their scale to


measure the force created by a small object.
Less able pupils will need help in reading
their scales.

All pupils will have recorded measurements and have a


record of their experiment.

Guide the pupils to answer Qs 1 and 2 so that they can develop a


design for the activity (Q 3).

More able pupils will be able to suggest a


greater number of valid factors.

All pupils will have ideas about how to carry out a fair
test to evaluate their ideas.

Pupils clear away the apparatus.


Extension: Pupils can research other uses, designs and materials for
springs.

Pupils have a framework into which they can


immediately stick their copy of the scale.

Homework: Complete the workbook account of Worksheet G2. Include a copy of the scale. Finish off Worksheet Q 3 (designing an experiment). Research the Extension topic.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Newtonmeters: Extension

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 9798

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Will be able to choose appropriate scales for results from an


investigation and use them to construct a straight-line graph to
show the relationship between two variables. They will recognise
anomalous results.

Less Able Pupils

Will be able to construct a straight-line (linear) graph following


detailed instructions.

More Able Pupils

The above, plus will be able to evaluate the experimental


procedure, and make suggestions to improve the accuracy and to
extend the investigation.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing an evaluation of an experiment.


Constructing a linear scale, plot and interpreting a straight-line graph.
Possibly using a program such as Excel to plot a graph.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet G3 Newtonmeters
Per pupil:
Graph paper; sharp HB pencil
An example of the Extension/Load force
graph for less able pupils to copy.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Remind pupils how in Lesson 2 they made a newtonmeter and in the
Extension suggested other designs and materials for springs.

Introduce the idea that there are other ways to make and calibrate a
newtonmeter, e.g. either a spring pupils wind themselves or a purchased
spring can be used. Then ask the pupils if all their scales from the
experiment were linear (all the divisions identical)? What could they do
with their results to overcome slight variations in length of divisions?

More able pupils may suggest: repeating


readings and taking an average, repeating
the experiment with other springs, drawing
a graph to see if there is a predictable
pattern in the results.

Pupils are aware that there is more than one way to


investigate any problem.

10

Use Worksheet G3 Newtonmeters to guide the pupils to draw a lineof-best-fit graph of Extension/Load force for a spiral spring. They should
use a sharp HB pencil.
They should consider the size of the graph paper: first count squares
along the (vertical) y-axis for extension (in cm) and calculate the best
linear scale, e.g. 4 cm on the paper = 1 cm extension; then along the
(horizontal) x-axis for load force (in N), e.g. 1 cm on the paper =
0.1 N load force.

More able pupils will find this fairly


straightforward.
Less able pupils will need considerable help
to construct the linear scales on the axes and
to plot the points.
All the pupils may want to join dot to dot
or draw a bar graph, so they may need to be
reminded several times that they are plotting
points and using a ruler to draw the line of
best fit.

Pupils can draw (possibly devise) a linear scale.

To foster good habits, emphasise that pupils must use a sharp pencil for
the graph. They should put the scale on the axes and then label the
axes with the variables and the units. An actual example would be
useful for them to copy.

Less able pupils will need more


encouragement and support.

Pupils can use a linear scale to plot points and construct


a straight line of best fit graph.

10

When they have constructed the graph accurately, take the pupils
through the answers to Qs 1 to 7, so that they have a clear idea of what
is expected. With Q 1, they identify anomalous results (which do not fit
the pattern) and can suggest reasons for this. They have used the line
of best fit to identify the relationship between the load force and the
extension of the spring. This can be recorded formally as Hookes Law:
The extension of a spiral spring is directly proportional to the load,
within the elastic limit.
With Q 8 they have identified ways to improve the accuracy, i.e. they
have started to evaluate the experimental procedure, and with Q 9 they
have suggested ways to extend the investigation.

More able pupils will be able to make more


valid suggestions and will find it easier to
suggest improvements to the procedure.
Less able pupils may find it difficult to
separate accuracy from 'mistakes'.

Pupils can extract information from a linear graph. They


can recognise the relationship between the variables to
form a conclusion. They can recognise ways to improve
the accuracy of an investigation and extend an enquiry.
They can recognise results which do not fit the pattern.

10

The pupils will complete their recording of the answers to the questions.
Extension: Those who find this very straightforward can carry on to do
the similar exercise in Pupil Book 1 pp.9798.

More able pupils can complete the Extension


exercise without support.

Review the lesson with Q and A so that the pupils realise that what they
have achieved is very highly skilled and will be very useful to them in
all future experimental work.

Pupils have more ideas about the various materials


which are stretchy and their various uses.

Homework: Complete answers to Pupil Book p.98 Q 3. Check and complete Worksheet G3, including the graph and questions.

All pupils will appreciate that they need to remember


the way to construct graphs accurately, and to use them
to recognise patterns between variables.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Friction

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 98101

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that friction is the force which slows or prevents movement.


Know that friction depends on the weight of an object and on the
nature of the surfaces in contact. Can plan and carry out a fair test
to examine their own hypothesis.

Less Able Pupils

Know that it takes more force to overcome friction for heavier


objects than for light ones, and that there is more friction between
rough than smooth surfaces. Can carry out a fair test safely.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus understand that, for a pull/thrust force to cause an


object to move, it must balance the frictional force. Understand
that when design engineers choose materials for surfaces, they take
account of the frictional forces between them.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet G4 Friction: Testing
different surfaces
Per group:
1 wooden block, string, newtonmeter in
the appropriate range. A wide variety of
materials with different surfaces, e.g.
sandpaper, carpet offcuts, foam back,
cushion floor or floor tiles, plastic carrier
bag, paper towels, rough wood etc.). For
rollers, round-cross-sectioned pencils.
Worksheet G5 Friction: Testing blocks
of different weights
Per group:
1 wooden block; at least 6 x 1 N weights
to load onto the block, string,
newtonmeters measuring in the correct
range.
Graph paper.

Explaining in own words (i) a relationship between two opposing forces, and (ii) how different surfaces affect
friction in everyday examples.
Measuring and recording forces. Rank order the forces. Construct and draw a line-of-best-fit graph.
Using a program such as Excel to plot a graph.

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 7 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Use Q and A to review the previous work on measuring forces and the
effects of forces.
Knowing that if we want an object to begin to move, or if we want to
change the way it is moving, we have to apply a force, we now consider
other forces already acting on the object, e.g. gravity. Even a fairly large
force fails to move some objects. Perhaps another force is stopping the
object from moving. We call this force friction and it must be overcome
before the object will move. Is friction always the same? Where is it
high? Where is it low? Ask for at least three examples of each.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils recall how to measure forces.

More able pupils suggest more appropriate


examples.

Pupils record a definition of friction and some everyday


examples of where it is high or low.

10

Ask for variables which might affect the size of friction, display pupils
ideas and then choose to test nature of surfaces in contact first. Using
Worksheet G4 Friction: testing different surfaces as the prompt,
take pupils through the instructions to find out how different surfaces
change the force needed to move the same object at a constant speed.
Do this as an aided demo if time is short. The pupils record all the forces
needed to move the object at a constant speed on each surface, then
put the surfaces in a rank order of friction, from most to least.

Less able pupils, or pupils who learn better


by doing the activity, can help with the demo.
More able pupils will make 'more relevant'
suggestions of variables.

Pupils observe how friction may be measured and


record values for friction in a table. They then convert
this information into a rank order for friction on the
various surfaces.

Then get the pupils to make a prediction about another variable, the
weight of the object. Do they think it will affect the friction, and how?
Will increasing the weight increase or reduce friction between surfaces?
Quickly go over planning a fair test to test their hypothesis.

More able pupils suggest more appropriate


hypotheses.

Pupils record their prediction and know how the fair


test will assess it.

15

Talk quickly through Worksheet G5 Friction: Testing blocks of


different weights, and direct pupils to test a surface you choose to
give a good range of results for the weights available. Remind pupils
that they are carrying out a fair test, so must not change any variables
other than weight.
Pupils carry out the activity and record their results.

More confident pupils may be able to test


more than one surface to extend the
investigation.
Less able pupils may need help to complete
the test within the time available.

Pupils have a record of the activity which they carried


out.

10

Pupils plot a graph of their results for G5, with Force needed to move
the object at a constant speed (N) on the x-axis and Weight (N) on the
y-axis.

Less able pupils need more support to select


appropriate scales and to plot the graph.

Pupils can construct a graph to show how friction varies


with weight on an object and use it to assess their
hypothesis.

Pupils use the graph to answer their hypothesis (see Q 1).


Then, with Q and A, help them to answer Q 2.

Less able pupils need more support to relate


their experiment to everyday situations.

Pupils have a record of how friction between materials


affects everyday situations.

Homework: Review your definition of friction. Complete the questions in Worksheets G4 and G5.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Reducing friction

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 101104

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Will understand that contact friction can be reduced by lubricating


the surfaces in contact or by making objects more streamlined. Will
be able to plan a fair test to assess a hypothesis, and will be able
to carry out a fair test to compare the speed of falling objects.

Less Able Pupils

Will recognise that lubricating moving parts allows them to move


more easily and that streamlined objects can fall through liquids
more quickly. Can recognise, help to plan and carry out a fair test
safely.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus will understand why different lubricants are used in


different situations. They will realise that design engineers put
streamlining into some parts of a design and remove it from
others, and why.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet G6 Trying to reduce friction
Per pupil: Pencil and paper
Worksheet G7 Streamlining
Per group or pupil-aided demo:
One or more long perspex or glass tubes
with a rubber bung to seal the lower end.
Retort stand to support it. Water (or more
viscous fluid) to nearly fill the tube. A
metre ruler, and tape or markers to mark
the distance the plasticine shapes will fall.
510 small equal pieces of plasticine
approx 2 g (for pupils to form into
shapes), a hand-held timer.
For the class if available: An electronic
probe timer attached to a recorder.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Describing examples of streamlining; writing instructions for a fair test.


Measuring and recording time for objects to fall through a measured distance.
Using a probe to record the time an object takes to move between two sensors.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 7 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Remind pupils with Q and A of their activities (G4 and G5) on friction.
Ask them to suggest situations where friction is useful, and situations
where friction can be a nuisance.

More able students will be able to make


more valid suggestions.

All pupils will have a record of a variety of examples


where friction is either useful or a problem.

Ask the pupils to suggest ways to reduce friction between for


(e.g.) moving parts in an engine. Record their ideas.
Then introduce the example in Worksheet G6 Trying to reduce
friction, and remind them that they found out that friction was also
dependent on the weight of an object (G5) and so would be very large
for the crate on the ramp.

More able students will be able to suggest


more examples and relate them to their
practical uses.

Pupils know that contact friction can be reduced by


lubrication.

12

Ask the pupils to plan a fair test for the workers' ideas and to write out
a list of clear instruction for them to follow. Direct them to decide on:
the apparatus needed, for each test what must be the same and what
can be changed, what should be measured and how the results will be
recorded. What criteria will they use to decide which is the
best lubricant? Record their ideas so that they can all make a relevant
list of instructions.

Less able pupils will be able to copy the


recorded ideas, but may need help to
convert them into instructions.

Pupils have written their own list of instructions for a


fair test which they have planned.

Introduce the idea that friction occurs in fluids (liquids and gases) as
well as between surfaces, e.g. as water or air resistance, drag etc. How
can we extend our enquiries to find out about this sort of friction?
What variables affect it? Ask pupils to suggest a hypothesis about shape
and friction.

More able pupils will make more valid


suggestions of variables, and most will
recognise the idea of streamlining, if not the
term itself.

Pupils know that there is friction when an object moves


within a fluid.

15

Introduce the idea of shape and streamlining with Worksheet G7


Streamlining. This is probably best done as an aided demo as it is quite
difficult to get reliable results when objects fall such a short distance.
Ask the pupils to suggest what needs to be kept constant for each test,
how the shapes are going to be different and which they expect to travel
faster (the most streamlined or those with least drag?). Invite the pupils
to make the 2 g pieces of plasticine into a variety of shapes which will fit
and fall in the tube. They mark off a start and stop on the tube with tape
so that all are timed over the same distance of fall, e.g. 50 cm. Ask
several pupils to record the time to fall and repeat each reading, if
possible, to get an average. If available, use a probe to record the speed
of the falling objects and print off the results for pupils to copy.

If an electronic probe/timer is available it


would allow less able pupils to see instantly
the actual times and/or speeds of the falling
shapes, so they would probably benefit most
if allowed to operate this timer. More able
pupils will recognise the need to repeat the
measurements and average the results.

Pupils have carried out a fair test to evaluate their


hypothesis about shape and friction. They know that
streamlined objects take less time to fall, or fall faster,
through liquids.

From the results of the activity decide which sort of shapes fall fastest
through the liquid in the tube. We call these shapes streamlined because
they have less drag. Answer Qs 1 to 4 with the pupils, then direct them
to record their own answers.

Less able pupils will need more help to


answer the questions

Pupils can identify the sorts of shapes that are


streamlined.

Review the ideas of lubrication and streamlining with Q and A.


Extension: Draw and/or describe some streamlined objects. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of their shape?

More able pupils will be able to relate shape


to function and use of objects.

263

Homework: Complete Pupil Book Qs 6 (p.102) and 7 (p.103). Write a list of examples of where friction is useful and where it is a problem. Complete instructions for Worksheet G6 and the
answers in Worksheet G7.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Movement and speed

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 102105

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can measure distance and time, and calculate average speed.


Understand that forces are needed to move objects, while other
forces oppose their movement. Can recognise the pattern of a
graph of braking distance/speed.

Less Able Pupils

Know that if objects cover more distance in the same time as


others they are travelling faster. Know that faster cars take longer
to stop, so travel further before they come to a halt.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus understand the road and tyre conditions which


contribute to make braking more or less efficient. Know that
objects do not usually travel at a constant speed for long: they
accelerate, decelerate and change direction, but the average speed
is a description of a whole journey.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Information sheet: Calculating speeds
Worksheet G8 Measuring speeds
Per group:
Hand-held timer; metric tape/trundle
wheel/metre rule; graph paper; copy of
the Highway Code; calculator; toy car,
ball, clockwork toy etc. Electronic timer
probe connected to recorder.
Worksheet G9 Speeds and braking
distances
Pre-drawn graph for Q 5 data.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Describing the relationship between speed and braking distance shown by the graph.
Measuring distance (in m or cm), measuring time (in s), calculating average speed (in m/s etc.). Constructing a
graph to show speed/braking distance.
Using an electronic timer probe.

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 7 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Remind pupils with Q and A that in G2 Streamlining, objects fell the
distance in differing times. We describe their rate of movement as
average speed. We also noted (Pupil Book 1 p.102) that faster cars need
more length of road to come to a halt. So stopping distances rely on
friction and speed.

If we know the distance an object has travelled and we know the time
it has taken to travel, then we can work out its speed using the
relationship: average speed (m/s) = distance (m)/time (s)
e.g. a teacher takes 30 min to travel the 9 km to school in the morning.
Sometimes travels quickly, sometimes slowly, so the average speed is
9 km/30 min = 18 km/h or 1800 m/1800 s = 1m/s.

More able pupils will be able to relate actual


journeys to the average speed, realising that
although we can go faster on some parts of
a journey, we can be very slow or stopped
on others.

Pupils have a record of the definition of speed and have


a worked example of a speed calculation.

15

Take the pupils through the worked examples on the Information sheet:
Calculating speeds and in Pupil Book 1 p.105. Then explain the
activities you would like the pupils to carry out from Worksheet G8
Measuring speeds.
Give them instructions and time to draw out the table for results, and
then direct them to complete the measurements to record in the table.

More competent (and enthusiastic) pupils


will probably complete more activities

Pupils have experience of objects and people moving at


different speeds. They have recorded distances travelled
and times taken.

From a few of the pupils results, calculate the average speeds for all to
see (and to copy if own measurements not completed).
Work through the examples of speed calculations in Worksheet G9
Speeds and braking distances.

Less able pupils will find the calculations


more straightforward with a calculator, and
may need more support to select the correct
units.

Pupils have used their own measurements and the


examples on the worksheet to calculate average speeds
of objects and people.

15

Relate speed to braking distance of a moving car. Braking is applying a


force to increase the friction on the wheels and so slow the car. With the
pupils, plot the worksheet graph onto squared paper. The graph should
be seen to be not a straight line. Support pupils in recognising the shape
they are expected to draw a curve! Then let them have a go at
answering 5b5e.

Less able pupils may need more help to


choose an appropriate scale for the graph
(so a pre-drawn example for them to see
and copy would help.)

Pupils have drawn a graph and used it to examine how


braking distance depends on the speed at which a car is
travelling.

Go over pupils answers to the last few questions and remind them of
the fact that forces are needed to make objects move as well as to slow
them down.
Extension: Looking back to the previous investigation, what force made
the objects move? And what was the average speed of each falling
object?

More able pupils will have been able to


explain ideal road conditions more clearly
and will have more ideas of what could
make braking more difficult.

Pupils recall that a force is needed to make an object


move (e.g. gravity made the plasticine fall), and a force
is needed to slow an object down (e.g. friction between
brakes and wheel in a car).

All pupils know what is meant by the term average


speed.

Homework: Remind yourself of the difference between the speed of an object at an instant in time, and the average speed over a period of time. Complete the speed calculations and answers to
questions in Worksheets G8 and G9.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Balanced and unbalanced forces

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 94 and 106

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Will understand that when more than one force acts on a body the
overall effect of the forces is 'no change' if they are balanced, and
a change to the movement or shape if they are unbalanced.

Less Able Pupils

Will be able identify when an object is being acted upon by several


different forces, and explain in which direction these forces are
working.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus understand that the overall effect of several forces


acting on an object depends on the sizes of the forces and the
directions.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet G10 Balanced and
unbalanced forces
One copy per pupil.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
With Q and A, remind the pupils of the forces acting on them now, and
those acting on other objects around them. What sort of effects can
forces have on objects? (Move, slow down, speed up, change direction,
stop, change shape etc.) Look back at Pupil Book 1 p.94.

More able pupils will make more suggestions.

All pupils recall previous work on forces.

10

Most objects have more than one force acting on them. Ask the pupils to
identify and write in their workbooks the forces acting on different
objects. Then ask: Which ones are causing changes to movement or
changes to shape? Can they name a pair of forces which are acting in
totally opposite directions on them (gravity/reaction from the seat)? Are
they moving up or down? What do they know about the size of the two
forces? (equal, but opposite, i.e. balanced).

20

Refer the pupils to the diagrams of balanced forces in Pupil Book 1


p.106. Through discussion draw out the ideas that if an object is being
acted upon by balanced forces it will remain stationery or move in a
straight line at a constant speed. If the forces acting upon an object are
not balanced i.e. there is a resultant force, the motion of the object or
its shape will change. The overall effect of these unbalanced forces
depends upon the directions and their sizes.The pupils can work through
the examples in Worksheet G10 Balanced and unbalanced forces.

Refer back to other forces they have studied earlier in the topic. Where
were forces balanced, where were they unbalanced? If their speed,
direction of motion or shape was changing, they were experiencing
unbalanced forces, e.g. moving cars slowing down, speeding up or
changing direction, or objects falling through fluids, etc.

With Q and A recap the ideas of balanced and unbalanced forces


especially related to objects moving through fluids. e.g. plasticine falling
through water and parachutists falling through air.

Pupils record examples of balanced forces and


unbalanced forces acting on themselves.

More able pupils recognise that there is a


resultant force on an object when forces are
not balanced, and can infer its size, direction
and probable effect on the object.

Pupils recall the ideas in the topic and relate them to


examples of balanced and unbalanced forces. Pupils
have an understanding of the phrase resultant forces
and know that forces have magnitude (size) and
direction.

Homework: Complete the list of balanced and unbalanced forces acting on you. Complete force arrows on the examples in Worksheet G10.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Floating and sinking

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 107108

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can carry out an investigation to show that upthrust pushes up and


gravity pulls down: they are opposing forces and when they are
balanced an object floats. The design of an object can make a
dense material float.

Less Able Pupils

Can appreciate that some objects float while others sink, but all
weigh less in water than out of water because the water pushes up
on the objects. This push is called upthrust.

More Able Pupils

As above plus will understand the concept of density and


appreciate that, if an object is denser than the liquid it is in, it will
sink, but if it is less dense then it will float.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Force exerted by water
Air-filled ball, deep bowl of water to
immerse ball in.
Worksheet G11 Floating and sinking
Per group:
Newtonmeter which weighs in the range
of the objects: six small objects made
from six different materials, some which
float and some which sink. String; bowl
of water.
Density exercise: Polystyrene, plasticine
and a metal object (e.g. cube), all
samples labelled with their volumes and
masses. Also, 100 cm3 sample of water.
Extension: Strong salt solution (brine).

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing own sentences to explain observations.


Weighing objects (in N), calculate upthrust on objects in water, relating density to floating.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 7 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
With Q and A, remind pupils of the various sorts of forces that they
have studied so far, and their effects.

Refer pupils to the cartoon of the girl in Pupil Book p. 107. She is trying
to push the beach ball under the water. Have you ever tried doing that,
perhaps with a lilo or a football? What does the girl in the cartoon feel?
What did you feel? What happens if a ball pushed deep below the
surface of the water is released?
The ball is pushed upwards by a force called an upthrust. When any
object is put in a fluid, it will experience an upthrust.

Less able pupils may benefit from feeling an


upthrust if a small air-filled ball and a deep
sink (that can be filled with water) are
available.

All pupils know that there are lots of forces which water
can exert, and they have experienced some of them.

15

Upthrust and its effect on the weight of objects in water is investigated


through Worksheet G11 Floating and sinking. Ask the pupils to write
the title Floating and Sinking, then to make a hypothesis about which
of the six objects will float and which will sink: step 1. Talk them through
the exercise and demonstrate how to carry out one set of weighings.
Allow 3 minutes to copy out the table, leaving the fourth column blank.
They then collect the apparatus to do the measurements themselves.
They need to do all the weighings first and record them in their table.

Less confident pupils would benefit from


helping with the demonstration.

All pupils see how to measure the forces on objects in


air and in water.

When most of the pupils have used at least four of the objects, ask them
to stop and explain how to work out the upthrust using the equation on
the worksheet. This is the value to be added to the, as yet, unlabelled
fourth column in the table. Instruct the pupils to complete the steps
for the rest of the objects and the results table; then to do Q 1.

More focussed pupils will complete more


examples in the time allotted for the first
practical.
Less able pupils will be able to use a
calculator to work out the values of upthrust.

All pupils carry out the experiment, record their results


and calculate the upthrust due to water on the objects.
All pupils understand that objects weigh less in water
because the water exerts an upthrust on them.

Density exercise. Density is needed for Q 2 so, to help the pupils


understand how density affects other properties of materials, invite them
to handle and measure the weight of different materials with the same
volume (e.g. 100 cm3 of water, of polystyrene, of plasticine and of a
metal) and various materials which have the same weight (e.g. 100 g of
water, polystyrene, clay and a metal). They can then relate density to
volume. Density is mass per unit volume. They may notice that the
water is the same in both cases: 100 cm3 water has a mass of 100 g.

More able pupils may recognise that


materials which are denser than water sink
and those which are less dense than water
float.

All pupils have a definition of density and have


experience of materials with different densities.

10

Pupils will now be able to attempt Qs 2 and 3.


Those pupils who work quickly and understand the work so far will have
time to do the Extension by repeating the measurements for the same
objects in salty water, as Q 4.

Extension: Pupils who work quickly and


understand the outcome of the first activity
can extend it to try liquids with a greater
density than pure water, such as brine.

All pupils record that the more dense materials weigh


less in water than in air, and that the less dense
materials float.

Bring the pupils together to summarise their findings with Q and A.


Allow those who extended their investigation to report to the others
what they discovered about salty water compared to pure water.

More able pupils can explain to the class


what they did and how this extended the
enquiry to show that upthrust depends on
the density of the liquid as well as the object.

All pupils can record that the density of the liquid


affects floating and sinking too.

All pupils are reminded of the various forces already


studied.

269

Homework: Review how to calculate upthrust and complete the questions in Worksheet G11. Find out about the Plimsoll Line for loading seen on the side of ships. How does the time of year
and sort of sea affect the depth to which a ship can safely be loaded.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 9

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Mass and weight

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 108109

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Will understand that mass measures the amount of matter there is,
and weight measures the force of gravity on that matter. Know that
there is a relationship between the two, and that on Earth there is
a force of approx. 1 N on every 100 g of matter.

Less Able Pupils

Will know that the force of gravity is less on the Moon than on
Earth, so objects weigh less.

More Able Pupils

As above, plus they will understand that the weight of an object


relies on the amount of matter in it and on the force of gravity
with which it is attracted.

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo/pupil activity: Finding the mass
of an object
Kitchen scales with two pans and masses
labelled in grams and kilograms. Objects
such as potatoes, bags of food etc to
measure masses.
Class investigation:
A few of each:
Top-pan balances, beam balances, twopan kitchen scales.
Per group:
Set of objects to measure, newtonmeter,
graph paper.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:

Write a conclusion for the investigation and a statement of advice for the farmer.
Measure and record the masses and the weights of objects, construct a line graph to represent the relationship
between these properties.

ICT:

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 7 Lesson 9 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 9 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
With Q and A, remind the pupils of the terms mass and weight and
relate them back to density or mass per unit volume encountered in
topic and in Worksheet G11 Floating and sinking.

Demo: to find the mass of an object using kitchen scales. Pupils can
see that no spring is involved, so they are not measuring weight. Instead,
they are balancing or comparing one mass with another labelled in g and
kg. Then refer to the problem in Pupil Book 1 p.108109. Discuss the
quantities mass and weight and ask the pupils to make a hypothesis
about the relationship between them (or if there is one!).

Those pupils who need to experience the


activity could help with the measurements,
and the apparatus could be left so that it is
available for all the pupils to use later in the
lesson.

Pupils have a definition of 'mass' and of 'weight' in


their notes.

15

To test their hypothesis, in the Class


investigation, pupils plan a fair test, decide which variables to
control, which to vary, which to measure and how to display their results
so that they can see any relationship. The plan can be designed quickly
as a class, with pupils making the suggestions and choosing the most
workable method. They then measure the mass of an object using a top
pan balance (or kitchen scales) and then measure its weights using a
newtonmeter. Their results will be recorded in a table with the headings
Weight of object (N), and Mass of object (g).

More able pupils are likely to offer more


valid suggestions in the planning process,
but all suggestions need to have equal credit
initially, then the most appropriate will be
chosen later.
Less able pupils (or those who are still at the
concrete level of understanding) may benefit
from using a beam balance or kitchen scales
rather than a digital balance, so that they
can see that one object is balanced by
another.

Pupils have a record of a range of variables which need


to be considered and have identified those which are
going to be controlled, varied and measured. They have
made a hypothesis. They have a results table in their
notes, in which they can record their own
measurements.

When the pupils have a reasonable number of results (at least 6,


preferably repeated to reduce experimental errors) they can be reminded
of the work they did at KS2 on mass. Then they can be asked how they
have learned to display their results in 'fair tests', so that they can see
easily if there is a relationship between the variables.

More able pupils will remember that a graph


is a useful way of assessing the pattern in a
relationship between variables.

Pupils have recorded their own results after taking


measurements of weight and mass.

13

Pupils should plot a graph of Weight (N) against Mass (g). Values of
weight should be plotted on the Y axis. Values of mass on the X axis.
They should choose a suitable scale for each axis to fit their
measurements and the graph paper. When points are plotted, pupils will
see that this is a straight-line graph, so they should draw the line of best
fit. With the graph, they can form a conclusion about the relationship
between mass and weight on Earth, the force due to gravity is approx.
1 N on 100 g.)

Less able pupils will probably need support


to choose the scale for the graph, to plot the
points and possibly to recognise the direct
relationship between the two variables.

Pupils have constructed a graph of weight/mass for


objects on Earth.

Point out that in everyday life we often make the mistake of saying that
we are weighing something when what we are actually doing is finding
out how much stuff there is i.e. we are measuring mass. Refer back to
the farmer and his problem on p.108 of the Pupil Book.
Finally show the important difference between weight and mass, ask
pupils to select one of the objects from their investigation and say what
they think its mass and weight would be if it is measured on the moon.

More able pupils will see that there is a


difference between mass and weight and
know the relationship between them.

Pupils will know how to measure mass and weight on


Earth and compare masses and weights of objects on
the Earth and on the moon.

Pupils recall terms they have used earlier in the topic.

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Homework: Class investigation using different measuring instruments: List those that measured mass, those that measured weight; explain why. Complete the graph.

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Chapter 7 Lesson 10

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Topic revision and Sky diving

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 110

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Sky diving: Literacy passage p. 110 of
Pupil Book

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand the passage after it has been discussed and appreciate


the use of terms in the context of the passage. Recall the key points
from the topic and apply them in the new situations possibly with
support.

Less Able Pupils

Have an idea of the meaning of the passage and are able to relate
the illustration to the narrative. Recall some of the key points from
the topic and, with support, are able to relate some of those to
new situations.

More Able Pupils

Recall all the key points from the topic and be able to relate them
to new situations. Have good comprehension and be able to
suggest how sky divers can manipulate forces to steer themselves
as they fall.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Developing comprehension of the technical prose associated with sky diving. Rearranging anagrams as aids to
memory.
Calculating speeds of moving animals and vehicles. Calculating upthrust and relating it to floating and sinking.

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 7 Lesson 10 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 7 Lesson 10 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Allow pupils to read the passage on p. 110 to themselves first, and then
some volunteers could read parts of it aloud to the class.

Pupils who find reading difficult could be


supported as they read phrases or sentences.

Pupils read the passage and/or have the passage read


to them.

15

Next, to allow all pupils achievement from this exercise, discuss the
questions one at a time, with a logical summary written or dictated for
pupils to write out for themselves in their workbooks.

Less literate pupils could be given a sheet of


incomplete statements so that by completing
them they will have a copy of the information
they need. More literate pupils will be able to
make more valid suggestions and be more
articulate in their responses.

Pupils have attempted to work out the answers to the


comprehension exercise and have a copy of the correct
meaning of the statements or phrases and correct
responses to the problems.

Topic Revision: pupils should look at the Key Ideas on p.111, and
decide for themselves which ones they know and which ones they would
like help with in order to understand them.

To help less able pupils, read the Key Ideas


for them, so that they are not disadvantaged.

Pupils are aware of the Key Ideas which were covered in


the topic.

15

Pupils can work through the End of chapter questions to revise the topic.
In each case, so that the slower pupils keep up and the faster ones do
not skip bits, it is a good idea to open each question for discussion,
collect suggestions, record important ideas and allow the pupils a short
time to record them. This adds pace to the revision and keeps them all
engaged.

More able pupils will be able to make more


accurate responses to the questions.

Pupils have a summary of the main aspects of the


topic and have related them to new situations.

With Q and A, quickly whizz through the 'Key Ideas' again, and set the
scene for pupils to prepare for the Chapter 7 End of Unit Test.

Homework: Revise for the End of Unit test.

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0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

When we push or pull an object we are applying a force to it.


If we want to open a door or lift a bag we may
have to use a large force. But when we
pull open a small drawer or
a
push a ball we may
use a small force.
We can measure
the size of a force
using an instrument
called a newtonmeter.
We measure all forces in units called newtons (N).

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

1 You will be carrying out 10 mini-tasks. Choose one from


the list below, or decide on a similar task of your own.
a Open a drawer.
b Open a door.
c Lift an object such as a pencil case, a shoe, a school bag etc.
d Pull different objects along the desk top or along the floor.
e Stretch an elastic band or spring as far as you can.
2 Copy the table below and write in the first task you have chosen.
Task
e.g. Opening the drawer of a desk

Force (N)
7

3 Choose one of the newtonmeters provided. Carry out the task and add the
value of the force on the newtonmeter to the table. If the newtonmeter
you chose is too strong or too weak, change it for a more suitable one.

Questions

4 Carry out nine more tasks and put all your results in the table.

1 Explain in your own words why sometimes you had to change


the newtonmeter you had for another one.
2 Now that you have carried out all these tasks, estimate the
force you would need to do the following.
a
Pick up one medium sized apple.
b
Pull a sledge with a small child on it.
c
Pull a plate across a table.
d
Lift a small baby.
e
Push a bicycle along a flat road.
f
Push a car along a flat road.
3 Most of the forces you used in your experiment made objects
move. In which direction did the objects move? Hint: Draw
diagrams for five of the tasks you carried out. On each
diagram draw an arrow to show the direction in which you
applied the force. Label this arrow force. Draw a second arrow
showing the direction in which the object moved. Label this
arrow direction of movement.

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G2 Making your own


newtonmeter
If we apply a force to a spring it
will stretch. How much it
stretches depends upon the size
of the force. We can use this
simple idea to measure the sizes
of different forces.
If you have been provided with
a ready-made spring, then begin
your investigation at step 4. If
you are going to make your own
spring then begin at step 1.

spring

clamp

pointer

strip of
paper

weights
ruler

stand

1 Take a length of copper wire and wrap it around a retort stand or thick
pencil. Keep the coils of the spring as close together as possible.
2 Slip your spring off the stand or pencil without disturbing the coils.
3 Bend the last coil of each end of the spring into the shape of a hook.
4 Hang your spring from one end of a clamp supported in a retort stand.
5 Clamp a half-metre rule vertically at the side of the spring.
6 Using paper, scissors and Sellotape, make a small pointer and attach it to
the lowest coil of your spring so that it points to the half-metre rule.
7 Stick a piece of plain white paper on to the half-metre rule.
8 On the plain piece of paper mark the position the pointer is indicating
and write next to this mark 0.0 N.
9 Apply a small force to the spring, e.g. 0.1 N. Mark the new position the
pointer is indicating and write at the side of this mark 0.1 N.
10 Repeat step 9 for forces of 0.2 N 0.3 N, etc. up to 1.0 N.

Questions

11 You have now made a newtonmeter that will measure forces between
0.0 N and 1.0 N. Hang a small object on the end of the spring, then read
from your scale how much force that object is applying to your spring.

276

1 Why is it important in this investigation not to apply too large


a force to the spring?
2 The amount a spring stretches when a force is applied to it
depends upon three factors. One of them is the size of the
force, but what are the other two?
3 Design an investigation to confirm that the two other factors
you have chosen do affect how much the spring stretches.
Hint: What are you going to change in the above investigation?
What are you going to keep the same? Explain your answers.

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Two pupils decided to make their own newtonmeter but, instead of writing
their own scale on a piece of paper stuck to the half-metre rule, they
recorded how much force was applied to the spring and where on the halfmetre rule the pointer now indicated. They put these results in a table. This
table is shown below.
Ruler reading (cm)

Extension of spring (cm)

0.0

25.0

0.0

0.1

25.5

0.5

0.2

26.0

1.0

0.3

26.5

0.4

27.8

0.7

28.5

0.8

29.0

Questions

Force applied to spring (N)

1 Copy out the table and fill in the gaps in the third column.
2 Plot a graph of the force applied to the spring (x-axis) against
the extension of the spring (y-axis).
3 Now draw a line of best fit through your points.
4 Are there any results which do not fit the pattern? If there
are, which are they? What have you done with these results
when you drew the line of best fit?
5 How much would the spring extend if a force of 0.5 N is
applied to the spring?
6 To what reading on the ruler would the pointer point if a
force of 0.5 N is applied to the spring?
7 What force is being applied to the spring when the pointer is
pointing to 28.0 cm on the half-metre rule?
8 Suggest one way in which these pupils could have improved
the accuracy of their investigation.
9 The two pupils then decide that they want to make a
newtonmeter that will measure much larger forces. Suggest
changes they must make to their investigation.

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G4 Friction: Testing
different surfaces
pulling
force
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

friction

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Friction is a force that opposes motion. If you want to drag an object along
the floor you will have to apply a force which is large enough to overcome
the frictional force between the floor and the bottom of the object. The
experiments described below investigate the factors that determine the size
of these frictional forces.

1 Draw a table similar to the one shown below. (Examples of the types of
surfaces you might test have been included, but you may choose your own.)
Surface

Force (N)

Sandpaper
Polished wood
Wet wood
Polythene (plastic carrier bag)
Carpet
Rollers

Questions

2 Place your wooden block on the surface to be tested.


3 Attach your newtonmeter to the wooden block as shown in the diagram
above.
4 Using the newtonmeter, try and pull the block along the surface. Note the
force needed to pull the block at a constant speed.
5 Put this value in your table.
6 Repeat steps 2 to 5 for different surfaces.

278

1 Place all your results in order. At the top of your list should be
those surfaces that provide most friction. Those that provide
least friction should be at the bottom.
2 Look carefully at your list. Write two sentences to explain
what you have discovered.
3 Use your results to explain the best braking conditions for a car.
4 Find out why rock climbers often carry a bag of chalk with them.

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G5 Friction: Testing blocks


of different weights
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1N

1 Draw a table similar to the one shown below.


Weight

Force (N)

2 Place your wooden block on the surface to be tested.


3 Attach your newtonmeter to the wooden block as shown in the diagram
above.
4 Using the newtonmeter, try and pull the block along the surface. Note the
force needed to pull the block at a constant speed.
5 Put your results in your table.
6 Repeat steps 2 to 5, placing different weights on the top of the block.

Questions

7 Draw a graph of pulling force in newtons (y-axis) against the weight


placed on the block in newtons (x-axis).

1 For different weights, you have recorded the frictional forces


that try to prevent the block from moving. Write down one
sentence to describe the effect that altering the weight on the
block has on the size of the frictional forces.
2 What variables did you need to control in this investigation so
that it was a fair test?

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G6 Trying to reduce friction

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A group of workers are loading a lorry with heavy wooden crates. The crates
are so heavy that it is impossible to lift them directly into the lorry. The
workers therefore push them up a ramp. Even so, because there is a lot of
friction between the crate and the surface of the ramp, it is very hard work.
The workers each believe they know how to make the work much easier.
Their suggestions are:
1 Wet the surface of the ramp with water.
2 Put crushed ice on the surface of the ramp
3 Put oil on the surface of the ramp.
4 Put rollers under the crate.
Write down a clear set of instructions that the workers should follow if they
are to discover in the laboratory whose suggestion is best. They can use any
apparatus they like, e.g. wooden runway, wooden block, newtonmeter etc.

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G7 Streamlining

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The diagrams shown above have one thing in


common. They all show things that are streamlined or
have a streamlined shape. As an object moves
through the air or through a liquid such as water it
experiences frictional forces which oppose its motion.
The faster the object moves, the larger the frictional
forces it experiences. For objects that move quickly it
is therefore important to try to keep these forces as
small as possible. One way of doing this is to have a
shape that cuts through the air or the liquid. Below
is a description of how you can investigate which
shapes are streamlined and which are not.
1 Draw a table similar to the one shown below.
Shape of plasticine

Time to fall through water (s)

2 Fill the tube with water and hold it vertically using a retort stand and clamp.
3 Take a piece of plasticine and mould it into the shape you want to test.
4 Hold the shape so that it is just under the surface of the water.
5 Release the plasticine and at the same time start the stopwatch.
6 When the plasticine hits the bottom of the tube, stop the stopwatch.
7 Draw the shape of your plasticine in the table and record the time it took
to travel from the top of the water to the bottom of the tube.

Questions

8 Repeat steps 3 to 7 using plasticine of different shapes.

1 Write two or three sentences to describe what you have


discovered from this investigation.
2 What steps did you take during this investigation to make
sure it was a fair test?
3 Can you suggest any way in which you could make this
investigation more accurate?
4 Why do buses in towns not have a streamlined shape?

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Information sheet
Calculating speeds
If we want to calculate the speed of an object we need two pieces of
information. We need to know
how far the object has travelled
how long it has taken to travel that distance.
To calculate the speed we now use the equation:
Speed = distance travelled
time taken
If the distance is measured in metres and the time in seconds, the speed is in
metres per second. This is usually written as m/s.
Example: A car travels 100 m in 5 s. Calculate the speed of the car.
Using

282

Speed = distance travelled


time taken
Speed = 100 m
5s
Speed = 20 m/s

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You are going to measure the speeds of a variety of objects. Your teacher
will give you details about which activities you can carry out.
1 Draw a table similar to the one shown below. Some possible activities have
been included for you.
Activity

Distance travelled

Running

100 m

Walking

10 m

Time

Speed

Dropping a coin
Rolling a ball or toy car

2 Go outside and pace out a distance of 100 m. Using a stopwatch time how
long it takes for one of your classmates to run this distance. Put your
results in your table. Make sure you include the units for the distances and
times you record. You could repeat the investigation several times with
different classmates.
3 Inside the classroom, try to find a space between the desks that will allow
you to walk 10 m. Using a metre rule, measure out a distance of 10 m.
Perhaps your teacher will let you mark this on the floor with chalk, but be
sure to ask first. Using a stopwatch, time how long it takes for a classmate
to walk the 10 m. Put your results in your table. You could repeat the
experiment several times with different classmates.
4 Hold a coin as high as you can above the floor. Perhaps your teacher will
allow you to stand on a desk or chair but be sure to ask first. Using a metre
rule, measure the distance from the coin to the floor. Using a stopwatch,
time how long it takes for the coin to fall to the floor. Put your results in
your table.
5 Measure out with a metre rule a distance of 1 or 2 m. Using a stopwatch
time how long it takes for a variety of objects, e.g. a ball, a toy car etc., to
travel this distance. Put your results in your table.

Questions

6 Using a calculator, calculate the speeds of all your objects. For some of your
activities you may want to calculate the speeds in centimetres per second
(cm/s) rather than metres per second (m/s). Put your results in your table.

1 In activities 2 and 3, who decided when the stopwatch should


start and stop? How did they decide when to start and stop the
stopwatch? Can you think of a more accurate way of doing this?
2 In activity 3, how many times did you carry out your
investigation? How could you make this investigation more
accurate? When you calculated the speed of the coin was this
its true speed as it fell? Explain your answer.
3 Calculate the average speed of a man who runs 100 m in 10 s
and then jogs 100 m in 20 s.

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G9 Speeds and braking


distances

Questions

Speed = distance travelled


time taken

1 Calculate the speed of a car that travels 200 m in 5 s.


2 Calculate the speed of a cyclist who travels 400 m in 20 s.
3 Calculate the speed of a sound wave which travels 340 m to a
wall and then is reflected back to its source. The echo is heard
after just 2.0 s.
4 The four runners in a 4 400 m relay team run the following
times.
Runner 1 80 s
Runner 2 60 s
Runner 3 70 s
Runner 4 65 s
a Calculate to one decimal place the average speed of each of
the runners.
b Calculate to one decimal place the average speed of the team
for the whole race.
5 The table below shows the braking distances for cars
travelling at different speeds.
Speed of car (metres per second) Braking distance (m)
9

13

13

24

18

37

22

65

26

75

30

98

a Draw a graph of speed of car (x-axis) against braking distance


(y-axis).
b What conclusion can you draw from the shape of your graph?
c Which set of results did not fit your pattern?
d Determine from your graph the braking distance of a car
travelling at 15 m/s.
e The table shows the braking distances for a car travelling in
ideal conditions. Explain what you understand by the phrase
ideal conditions. Describe several ways in which the
conditions might not be ideal.

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G10 Balanced and


unbalanced forces
0

7
WO

R K SH EE

The diagrams below show lots of situations where forces are being applied
to objects. Study the Example. Then copy diagrams 1 to 7 into your
workbook and add force arrows. Say whether the forces are balanced or
unbalanced.

Example

Push

Trolley accelerating

Friction

Trolley accelerating because


forces are unbalanced

Car slowing down


4

Bobsleigh accelerating

Weight stationary

Parachutist
falling at
constant speed
Box stationary
6

Tug-of-war teams
moving to the left

Car decelerating

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G11 Floating and sinking

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T1

When objects are placed in water they experience a force trying to push
them upwards. This force is called an upthrust. In this experiment, you will
be measuring the size of this force.
1 You have been given several objects by your teacher. Look at them
carefully and decide which of them you think will float in water and which
of them will sink.
2 Draw a table similar to the one shown below.
Object

Weight of object
out of water (N)

Weight of object
in water (N)

Upthrust
(N)

e.g. Pebble
e.g. Block of wood
3 Select one of the objects you have been given and measure its weight
using a newtonmeter. Put your result in your table.
4 Slowly lower your object into a beaker or tank of water. What happens to
the reading on the newtonmeter as the object enters the
weight of object
water? Why does this happen?
5 Note the weight of the object when it is totally
immersed in water. Put this result in your table.
6 Now repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 for five more objects.
7 The last column in your table is for you to
record the upthrust exerted by the water on
each of your objects.
tank of
To calculate the size of the upthrust we use the
water
upthrust
equation:
Upthrust = weight of object in air weight of object in water

Questions

As you calculate the upthrust for each of your objects put the result in your
table.
1 What is the size of the upthrust for those objects that
a float
b do not float?
2 Write a sentence using the word dense to describe the
difference between an object that floats and an object that sinks.
3 Can you explain why a ship which is made of a dense material
like steel is able to float? (If you cant, try this simple experiment.
Take two milk bottle tops. Screw one of them into a small ball.
Then place both of them on the surface of some water.)

Extension
8 Repeat steps 2 to 7. But, instead of using water, use washing up liquid or
very salty water. Can you explain what happens to the upthrusts in these
experiments compared with those in pure water? Is it easier to float in
pure water or salt water? Explain your answer.

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End of Unit test


Forces and their effects
1 A car is travelling along a level road at a constant speed.
a What produces the driving force to move the car?

(1)
b What force(s) oppose(s) the motion of the car?

(1)
c How large is the driving force compared with the opposing force in this
example?

(1)
2 The diagram below shows a train travelling along a flat track. The train is
accelerating. There are four forces A, B, C and D acting upon the train.
B
A

D
a What are the forces B and D?

(2)
b Which pair of forces are balanced?

(1)
c Which force would be decreased if the train was more streamlined?

(1)
d Name one other way in which the force you have chosen for answer c can
be decreased.

(1)

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Chapter 7 End of Unit test


3 A stone weighs 0.4 N in air but only 0.3 N when it is immersed in water.
a Explain why the stone weighs less in the water than in the air.

(1)
b Will the stone float or sink in water? Explain you answer.

(1)
c Suggest what the stone might weigh if it was immersed in salt water.

(1)
4 Calculate the speeds of the following. Show all your workings.
a A man who walks 100 m in 50 s.

(4)
b A car that travels 50 km in 2 h.

(4)
5 a Explain what is meant by the phrase the braking distance of a car.

(1)
b Why is it important that drivers know the braking distances for their
cars travelling at different speeds?

(1)
c What effect will the following have on the braking distance of a car?
i Increasing the cars speed.

(1)

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Chapter 7 End of Unit test


ii Increasing the mass of the car.

(1)
iii Replacing old tyres with new ones.

(1)
iv The road surface becoming wet.

(1)
(Total marks: 25)

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Forces and their effects


Text answers

Extension of spring (mm)

1 a One of the springs is thicker than the other.


b The thicker spring is stronger and therefore will need a larger force to
stretch it the same distance. The scale of this spring therefore covers a
larger range of forces.
2 Acceptable values for the activities mentioned in the table are:
Squeezing toothpaste from a tube: approx. 1 N
Using a bicycle pump: approx. 5 N
Turning the page of a book: approx. 0.1 N
Lifting your school bag: approx. 50200 N
Pressing the pedals on your bike: approx. 10100 N depending on the slope
of the road.
34
3 a See graph
32
b The shape of the graph should
be a straight line passing
30
through the origin.
28
c i 5N
ii 11 N
26
d i 21 mm ii 27 mm
24
4 a We can increase the friction
22
between two surfaces by
20
making the surfaces rougher
18
avoiding any lubrication,
16
e.g. keeping the surfaces dry
14
increasing the forces
12
pushing the surfaces together.
10
b We can decrease the friction
8
between two surfaces by
making the surfaces smoother
6
adding a lubricant to the surfaces,
4
e.g. water, ice, wax etc.
2
decreasing the forces pushing
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
the surfaces together.
5 For each slide, the pupil at the top
Force applied (N)
shouts Go as the slider starts down
the slide. The pupil at the bottom stops the watch as the slider passes a
certain point at the bottom of the slide. The shortest time indicates the slide
with the lowest frictional forces.
To be a fair test
all slides must be the same size and have the same finishing point
sliders should be of the same mass and wear identical clothes, i.e. of the
same material and about the same shape and size.
Reasons for choice of slide with the lowest frictional forces can include the
following: The slide with oil may have the lowest frictional forces. Reasons
include: water would soak into clothes or run off the slide. Oil and water
have a smoother surface (less friction) than banana skins. OR any suitable
explanations.
6 a 36-37 m
b 97-98 m
7 a 50 m/s
b 10 s
c 25 m/s
d The stopping distance would be larger as the drivers reactions would be
slower.
8 a Speed = distance/time = 1000 m/50 s = 20 m/s

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Chapter 7 Answers
b Speed = distance/time = 600 km/4 h = 150 km/h
9 The cartoon character is not increasing his speed because the forces resisting
(opposing) his motion, e.g. friction/air resistance are as large as/are equal to
his pedalling force that is driving him forward. Two ways in which he could
increase his speed are to
pedal harder
crouch down so that he is more streamlined.

Literacy activity answers


a The force pulling objects downwards is the force of gravity.
b Air resistance is the opposing force an object feels to its motion as it falls
through the air.
c Three things that will affect the air resistance of a sky diver are
the size of the sky diver
the shape of the sky diver
the speed at which the sky diver is falling
d When the gravitational forces pulling the diver downwards are equal to the
resistive force opposing the motion the diver will fall at a constant velocity
known as his or her terminal velocity.
e At 3000 m the air is much thinner and the air resistance here is therefore
much smaller than at 1000 m where the air is thicker.
f A sky diver reduces his/her terminal velocity before landing by opening their
parachute.
g By altering their shape skydivers can change the sizes of the resistive forces
acting upon their bodies. They can use these shape changes to manoeuvre
through the air.

End of chapter answers


1 a force
b friction
c speed
d mass
e streamlined
f upthrust
g lubricant
2 Any diagram showing an object changing speed, shape or direction of
motion.
3 Gravitational forces (gravity), magnetic forces (magnets) and electrical or
electrostatic forces.
4 Apple: 1 N, 100 g
1
Bag of sugar: 5 N, 2 kg
Sack of potatoes: 250 N, 25 kg
Small girl or boy: 500 N, 50 kg
5 a Any streamlined shape, e.g. dolphin, shark etc.
b Ship shape, i.e. pointed or rounded at the front end.
6 a Any animal with a streamlined shape, e.g. swallow, swift etc.
b A streamlined object such as an aircraft, arrow or dart.
7 The metal weighed less in the water because there was an upthrust from the
water acting on the metal. The metal will not float in water as the upthrust
is less than its weight. (The upthrust is 6 N the weight of the metal is 10 N.)
8 Things that will affect how quickly a car can stop are
the speed of the car
the mass of the car
the condition of the tyres
the condition of the road, i.e. rough or smooth
weather conditions
reaction time of driver.
9 a Cheetah 30 m/s
b tortoise 1 cm/min
c car 40 m/s
d aircraft 1500 km/h

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Chapter 7 Answers
10

mass
a force that pulls an object
downwards is:
a force which
opposes motion is:

gravity

the larger the mass of an


object, the larger its:

when objects are pulled


down by gravity, they have:

weight

the weight of an object in

friction

water is less than its


weight in air because the

FORCE

when forces acting in opposite


directions are equal, they are:
a force can change the
direction of this:
a force can change
an objects:

water creates an upward

balanced
forces

force called an:

upthrust

movement
speed

Worksheet answers
G1 Measuring forces
1 When we want to measure a larger force we must use a newtonmeter that
has a stiffer/thicker spring. If we use a weaker/thinner spring it will stretch
the full length of the scale and then halt.
2 Approximate values for the following activities:
a Picking up an apple 1 N (accept 0.53 N)
b Pulling a sledge with a small person on it. This will vary enormously
depending on where the sledge is being pulled (uphill or downhill) and
the condition of the snow or ice. Any value between 10 N and 200 N
would be acceptable.
c Pulling a plate across a table approximately 1 N.
d Lifting a small baby approximately 30 N100 N.
e Pushing a bicycle along a flat road approximately 5 N.
f Pushing a car along a flat road approximately 200 N500 N.
3 In each of the activities the object will be made to move in the direction of
the force being applied to it.

G2 Making your own newtonmeter


1 If too large a force is applied to the spring it becomes overstretched. It
becomes permanently deformed, i.e. when the weights/forces are removed it
will not return to its original length and the pointer will indicate a force is
being applied to it even when there is none.
2 The amount a spring stretches depends upon the force applied to it. But it
also depends on the material from which the spring is made (is it a stiff
material or not?) and the thickness of the spring. The thicker the wire from
which the spring is made the less it will stretch when a force is applied to it.
3 So that it is a fair test, change only one factor at a time (e.g. length of
spring, diameter of spring, etc.), and be sure to keep all others the same.

G3 Newtonmeters
1

Force applied to spring (N)

Ruler reading (cm)

Extension of spring (cm)

0.0
0.1

25.0
25.5

0.0
0.5

0.2

26.0

1.0

0.3

26.5

1.5

0.4

27.8

2.8

0.7

28.5

3.5

0.8

29.0

4.0

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Chapter 7 Answers
4.0
Extension (cm)

2 and 3

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Applied force (N)

4 The point 0.4 N and 2.8 cm does not fit the pattern. This point should be
ignored when the line of best fit is drawn.
5 If a force of 0.5 N was applied to the spring it would extend by 2.5 cm (value
obtained from graph).
6 The pointer would point to a reading of 27.5 cm if a force of 0.5 N is applied
to it (reading = 25.0 cm + 2.5 cm).
7 If the pointer is pointing to 28.0 cm it has extended by 28.0 cm 25.0 cm
= 3.0 cm. From the graph we can see that a force of 0.6 N is needed to
create this extension.
8 Possible ways in which the students could improve the accuracy of their
experiment include
a taking more readings
b taking readings whilst increasing the applied force, then taking readings
as they decrease the applied force and finally taking an average of the
two readings for any one force
c making sure that they have their eyes level with the pointer when they
take their readings etc.
9 If the two students want to make a newtonmeter which will measure much
larger forces, they could use a thicker spring or one made from a different
material so that the spring is stiffer.

G4 Friction: Testing different surfaces


2 Hopefully, from this experiment pupils should see that the frictional forces
are lowest when the surface is smooth and wet and greatest when the
surface is rough and dry.
3 The best braking conditions for a car are when the road surface and the
surface of the tyres are rough and dry. These conditions can be compared with
those that cause difficulties when braking, i.e. when the road is smooth, the
tyres are bald and the road surface is wet, greasy or covered with ice.
4 If the hands, and in particular the fingers, of rock climbers become wet with
perspiration, this will reduce the friction between their hands and the rocks.
To avoid this problem many climbers carry a bag of chalk. By dipping their
hands into the chalk they can keep them dry and grip the rocks more securely.

G5 Friction: Testing blocks of different weights


1 If the weight of the block is increased, so too are the frictional forces
between the surfaces.
2 To ensure that this is a fair test, only the weight of the block should be
changed not the nature of its surface (rough or smooth) nor its size (surface
area). Also, the surface along which the block is being dragged should be
the same for each test, as should the direction in which the block is pulled.
(Some surfaces have different frictional forces in different directions: try
stroking a cat against the direction its fur is lying.)

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Chapter 7 Answers

G6 Trying to reduce friction


An acceptable set of instructions for the workers experiment in the laboratory
should include the following.
Place an object under the wooden ramp so that it is at an angle to the
horizontal, i.e. sloping.
Place a wooden block on the bottom of the ramp and attach a
newtonmeter to it.
Gradually increase the pulling force applied to the block through the
newtonmeter.
Note down the force applied to the block when it is travelling at a constant
speed up the runway.
Repeat the experiment but include each of the suggestions in turn ie wet
the surface, add crushed ice to the surface etc.
Keep everything else about the experiment, e.g. the slope of the runway,
the size and weight of the wooden block etc., constant so that it will be a
fair test.
The conditions that allow the block to be pulled up the runway using the
smallest force is the best suggestion.

G7 Streamlining
1 Pupils should discover from this experiment that although the pieces of
plasticine are about the same size they do fall at different speeds. Those
pieces that have pointed or rounded fronts fall fastest. Large flat shapes fall
slowest. The pointed/rounded shapes are streamlined and cut through the
water. The flatter shapes are not streamlined.
2 To keep the test fair
plasticine pieces of equal mass were used
the same liquid was used each time
the same falling distance was used each time
the plasticine pieces were released in the same way each time.
3 Suggestions to improve the accuracy of the experiment might include the
following.
Repeat the experiment several times with the same piece/shape of plasticine
and then taken an average of the timings.
Use a longer tube. The further the plasticine falls the more accurate the
timing is likely to be.
4 Frictional forces increase with increasing speed, but buses in towns are
unlikely to be moving at high speeds. The frictional forces they feel due to
the air are therefore going to be small, so streamlining is not too important.

G8 Measuring speeds
1 To measure the time accurately it should be the person who is running or
walking who should tell the timer when they start and finish the activity.
This can be done more accurately using electronic clocks that start and stop
when someone crosses the start/finish line.
2 The experiment should be repeated at least 2 or 3 times so that an average
of the timings can be found. The farther the coin falls, the longer the time
measured on the stopwatch, and any inaccuracy will be a smaller proportion
of the time measured. So the experiment will be more accurate if the coin is
dropped over the largest possible distance.
As the coin falls it accelerates. The speed that is calculated is therefore the
average speed of the coin during its fall.
3 The total distance travelled by the man is 200 m and the time for his journey
is 30 s. His average speed is therefore 200/30 = 66.6 m/s.

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Chapter 7 Answers

G9 Speeds and braking distances


1
2
3
4

200 m/5 s = 40 m/s


400 m/20 s = 20 m/s
340 m 2/2.0 s = 340 m/s (The sound travels to the wall and back, i.e. 340 m 2.)
a Average speed of runner 1 = 400 m/80 s = 5.0 m/s
Average speed of runner 2 = 400 m/60 s = 6.7 m/s
Average speed of runner 3 = 400 m/70 s = 5.7 m/s
Average speed of runner 4 = 400 m/65 s = 6.2 m/s
b Average speed of team = total distance travelled/time taken
= 1600 m/275 s = 5.8 m/s
5 a
100
Braking distance (m)

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

b
c
d
e

6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Speed of car (metres per second)

The faster the car travels, the greater the braking distance it needs.
The results: 22 m/s and 65 m do not fit the pattern.
30 m (as graph)
The phrase ideal conditions refers to the braking system of the car being
efficient and the surface of the road being rough and each of the tyres not
being worn so that there is friction between them when the brakes are
applied. If the road surface is wet or icy or smooth and the tyres are bald,
i.e. they have little or no tread pattern to channel away water, the braking
forces will be much smaller and therefore braking distances will be larger.

G10 Balanced and unbalanced forces


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Forces
Forces
Forces
Forces
Forces
Forces
Forces

are
are
are
are
are
are
are

balanced as weight is stationary.


unbalanced as car is slowing down.
unbalanced as the sleigh is accelerating.
balanced and parachutist is falling at a constant speed.
balanced as box is stationary.
unbalanced and both teams will move to the left.
unbalanced as car is slowing down.

G11 Floating and sinking


1 a If an object floats this is because the upthrust from the water is equal to
its weight.
b If an object sinks this is because the upthrust is less than the weight of the
object.
2 Objects which are dense create upthrusts that are too small to support their
weight, and so the objects sink.
(Objects that have a low density create larger upthrusts and so are likely to
float. The more able student may grasp the idea that floating objects have a
density which is less than the density of the liquid in which they have been
placed.)

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Chapter 7 Answers
3 Whether an object floats or sinks is determined by its overall density. If an
object contains lots of air its density will be low and it may therefore float.
A ship contain lots of air. This is why it floats. But if the object is reshaped so
that there is no air space inside, its average density will be much larger and
it will sink. This can be demonstrated with the milk bottle top experiment.

Extension answers
Washing up liquid and very salty water are both denser liquids than pure
water. As a result they create larger upthrusts. It is therefore easier for a
swimmer to float in very salty water, e.g. the Dead Sea, than it is in pure
water.

End of Unit test answers


1 a
b
c
2 a

The cars engine. (1)


Friction/frictional forces. (1)
The driving forces and the opposing forces are equal. (1)
B is the reaction or upthrust of the ground on the train, and D is the
weight of the train. (2)
b B and D. (1)
c C/friction/frictional forces. (1)
d Reduce speed of train/drag force on train/slow it down. (1)
3 a There is an upthrust from the water/accept just the word upthrust. (1)
b The stone will sink. The upthrust is less than the weight of the stone/The
upthrust isnt big enough/The stone is too heavy. (1)
c The stone will weigh less in salt water. (1) Accept any value less than 0.3 N
but not zero.
4 a Speed = distance travelled/time taken (1), Speed = 100/50 (1) = 2 m/s (1 for
correct answer + 1 for correct units).
b Speed = distance travelled/time taken (1), Speed = 50/2 (1) = 25 km/h
(1 for correct answer + 1 for correct units).
5 a The braking distance is the distance a car will travel between the brakes
being applied and the car stopping. (1)
b So they know when to brake./So they know how much distance to leave
between them and the car in front./Any mention of safety. (1)
c i The braking distance increases. (1)
ii The braking distance increases. (1)
iii The braking distance decreases (1)
iv The braking distance increases (1)
(Total marks: 25)

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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P
HA T ER
8
8
TI

AC

MING

O
HER N

HRS

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TE

8 Environment and feeding


relationships
Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7c

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Know that different habitats support different plants and animals and have
identified ways in which plants and animals in a particular habitat depend on
each other
Have explored local habitats to establish the variety of living organisms within
them
Know that some animals feed on other animals and some feed on plants

Language for learning


Habitat
Environmental
factors
Adaptations
Diurnal

Nocturnal
Dormant
Hibernation
Migration
Photosynthesis

Producers
Consumers
Herbivores
Carnivores
Predators

Prey
Chemical potential
energy
Food chain
Food web

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
how the environmental factors in different habitats vary
that plants and animals are adapted to live in a particular habitat
how environmental factors can affect the behaviour of animals
to plan and carry out a simple investigation into the effect of an environmental
factor on the behaviour of woodlice, including choosing an appropriate sample
size, controlling variables and appreciating that not all variables can be
completely controlled
that the environmental factors in a habitat vary with time
how to measure and record changes in some environmental factors over time
some ways in which animals and plants survive the winter
how to draw food chains and food webs to show feeding relationships
to think about food chains and food webs in terms of energy transfers

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
4B
6A

298

Title
Habitats
Interdependence and Adaptation

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8 Environment and feeding relationships

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
8D
9A

Title
Ecological Relationships
Inheritance and Selection

Cross-curricular links
ICT: Presenting and Measuring Environmental Data
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity on p.124 of the Pupil Book on Clues from old snails.
Worksheet H3, Animal adaptations, involves making a short presentation.
Worksheet H6, Surviving the winter, involves writing a short, illustrated account.
Worksheet H8 (extension), A food web in a pond, involves picking out information
from a written passage and presenting it in a different form.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Worksheet H4, Measuring changes in environmental factors, involves drawing a graph.

ICT

ICT
Worksheet H3, Animal adaptations, could involve the use of word processing, image
processing and presentation software.
Worksheet H4, Measuring changes in environmental factors, could involve data-logging.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Make a series of measurements of environmental variables appropriate to the
task
Identify a question to investigate about the activity of woodlice, suggesting a
suitable approach to sample size
Use their results to relate animal or plant activity to environmental changes
Life processes and living things
Identify the differences between different habitats and relate these to the
organisms found in them
Describe ways in which organisms are adapted to daily or seasonal changes in
their environment and to their mode of feeding
Describe food chains within an environment and combine these into food webs

Pupil who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Make measurements of environmental variables appropriate to the task
Make suggestions about investigating the activity of an invertebrate
Life processes and living things
Identify differences between different habitats and describe how familiar
organisms are suited to the habitat in which they are found
Describe some simple food chains
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Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Describe, in terms of approach and sample size, how strongly any patterns or
associations identified are supported by the evidence
Life processes and living things
Explain why a variety of habitats is needed in a community
Describe how different organisms contribute to the community in which they
are found
Relate food chains to energy transfer

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Much of the material covered in this chapter will be familiar to pupils, as they will
already have learnt about habitats, adaptations and food chains. All of these concepts
are revisited, and then taken further.

How do habitats vary?


The entry activity asks pupils to think about four habitats and some animals that live
in them. Later in the chapter, they will return to this and consider some adaptations
of these animals to their habitats.
A pond is then used as an example to illustrate how environmental factors can vary
within a relatively small area. If you have access to a pond, pupils would benefit
from visiting one to help them to visualise how light, oxygen supply and temperature
are likely to vary within it. (It is probable that many pupils will have visited a pond
before.) This leads on to thinking about how an animal might find the appropriate
part of a habitat in which to live.
Pupils may find it difficult to imagine how an animal such as a woodlouse thinks,
and it is worth spending some time discussing what they believe about this. Most
invertebrates such as woodlice show little, if any, sign of intelligent behaviour, and
their actions can be explained in terms of very simple responses to stimuli. (This is
not true of all invertebrates; octopuses, for example, have a considerable ability to
learn to carry out quite complex tasks.)

Worksheet H1, How do environmental factors affect the activity of woodlice? describes
a simple investigation into the effect of one environmental factor on the behaviour of
woodlice, and pupils can think about this before planning and carrying out a similar
investigation of their own in Worksheet H2, How does light affect the activity of
woodlice? In both cases, they are asked to think about sample size and how to control
variables. Here, as in many biological investigations, it is not possible to control all
variables completely, and they should be encouraged to accept this and think about
how this affects their intepretation of their results.

How are organisms adapted to their habitat?


Having thought about habitats and environmental factors, pupils now consider
animal adaptations. (Plants are not covered, and you might like to bring these into
the picture as well.) The ideas dealt with here are likely to be familiar, and pupils
may enjoy hunting out information about one particular animal and how it is
adapted to its habitat, and then giving a short presentation about it. Working in
groups of 3 or 4 will help to spread the load of research and planning the

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presentation. The Think About question about humans could be used to start a
discussion about the way in which we alter a habitat to enable us to survive there,
and then to think about other animals which do this too for example, ants.

How do habitats vary with time?


Pupils are asked to think about how some key environmental factors - light and
temperature - are likely to change during a 24 hour period in an environment with
which they are familiar. Worksheet H4, Measuring changes in environmental factors,
asks them first to predict, and then to measure, changes in one day in one or more
environmental factors in two different areas close to their home or school.
This is an excellent opportunity to use data logging equipment if you have it; it has
the great advantage of being able to make measurements more frequently, and over
a longer period of time, than the pupils would be able to do themselves. Moreover,
using ICT here can bypass the need for pupils to spend time recording results in
tables and drawing their own graphs, so enabling them to concentrate just on their
interpretation.

Workseet H5, Daily changes in environmental factors, provides further data for
interpretation.
As well as daily changes, seasonal changes are very important in a temperate country
such as Britain. Changes which particularly affect plants and animals are day length,
light intensity and temperature. In Britain, the most difficult season for many
organisms is winter, and in Worksheet H6, Surviving the winter, pupils are asked to
find out how some animals manage to keep alive during this difficult time.

Feeding relationships
Pupils will probably already know about food chains, and some of the terminology
associated with them. They may have been taught to think of the arrows in a food
chain as meaning is eaten by, but now they can begin to understand that the arrows
are showing the direction of energy transfer. Food chains and energy transfer were
introduced in Chapter 5, Energy resources, so they should be comfortable with this
idea. The concept of a food web develops readily from food chains. Worksheet
H7, Adaptations for feeding, and Worksheet H8 (extension), A food web in a pond,
could be used here.
You may need to pay attention here to the current usage in the media of the term
food chain to mean the supply chain by which food arrives at a supermarket from a
farm. This is not at all the same as a food chain in the biological sense.
The section headed Competition begins to introduce ideas about how a rise or fall in
numbers of one organism in a food web may affect many of the others not only
the ones which it eats or is eaten by. This is not the place to go into any detail at all
about population sizes and what controls them (a much more complex topic than it is
often made out to be), but it can at least be dealt with at a very simple level.

Teaching hints and tips


Worksheet H2 How does light affect the activity of woodlice?
It is expected that pupils will tackle this investigation after Worksheet H1, How
do environmental factors affect the activity of woodlice?, in which they are given a
method and a set of results for a very similar investigation. This should make it
relatively easy for them to design their own experiment here.

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Finding woodlice
You should be able to find plenty of woodlice around the school. They tend to
hide under loose stones or under logs. If you find one, there are likely to be
many more nearby. You can collect them well before the lesson, and keep them
in a container with plenty of moist moss, wood and/or bark. It is important that
they are all kept in the same conditions before being used in the experiment
pupils may recognise that this is a variable they should keep constant.
Try to collect woodlice that all look approximately the same. In particular, it is
suggested you dont use the kind that roll up in a ball (they are darker than
ordinary woodlice, and are sometimes called pillbugs) as they not quite so
fussy about the environmental conditions they tend to remain in.
A few pupils may not be happy to handle woodlice. Try not to make much of this,
and let the ones who dont mind (probably most of them) just get on with it.
Apparatus
Choice chambers are not expensive, and it is probably worth investing in a few
rather than trying to make do with home-made versions. However, for this
dark/light investigation you could simply use containers such as semi-transparent
plastic sandwich boxes.
Pupils can easily make one side of the chamber dark by wrapping black paper
around it. Take care that this does not also cover the hole in the top. Some may
want to put drying agent into the chamber if this happens, discuss with them
why they want to do it and whether it is a good idea. Emphasise the need to
keep everything else the same, apart from the variable you want to test. So they
should either put drying agent in both sides of the chamber, or not use it at all.
Some may not see how they can count the woodlice in the dark area. Others will
immediately realise that they dont need to they can just count the ones in the
light and assume all the rest are in the dark.
Sample size
This is an opportunity to discuss sample size. In Worksheet H1, How do
environmental factors affect the activity of woodlice?, 10 woodlice were used. Let
students think about whether this seems reasonable, or whether they would like
to use fewer or more. In fact, 10 is probably about right. Fewer increases the
likelihood of a few rogue woodlice skewing the results, while more increases the
amount of interaction between them and could increase the likelihood of
huddling (see below).
Expected results
The woodlice should congregate mostly in the dark side of the apparatus. Note
that they do not simply head for the dark area they move around randomly,
but move less and turn more when in a dark area than in a light one. So the final
results should be collected at least 10 or 15 minutes after the woodlice have
been introduced. There isnt really any need to count them every minute, as was
done on Worksheet 1, but there is no harm in doing it this way, and it might help
the pupils to understand what was happening.
Woodlice, like all biological material, cannot be relied on to perform as expected!
They have a tendency to try to maintain contact with something, which could be
the side of the choice chamber (pupils will notice that they all walk round the
edges rather than across the middle) and each other. This can sometimes result in
a heap of them settling down on the wrong side of the chamber. Do make the

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point that this is not a wrong result - it just suggests that the hypothesis is not
always true, and can raise questions about further investigations that could be
carried out. If you pool the class results, you will almost certainly find that more
woodlice do end up on the dark side than in the light.

Safety points
There are no particular risk factors involved in this investigation. However,
do watch out for some pupils who may decide to conduct other less
appropriate experiments with the woodlice!

Worksheet H4 Measuring changes in environmental factors


You will need to think carefully about the management of this exercise. Although
it would be interesting to sample many different areas, you should consider
whether you are happy to have little groups of pupils wandering round in
different parts of the school without your direct supervision. It is probably best to
keep everyone close together.
What the pupils measure will depend on what measuring apparatus you have
access to. The whole exercise becomes far more interesting and easy to carry out
if you can use data logging equipment. You will find excellent advice on this on
the Becta web site, http://curriculum.becta.org.uk.
It is suggested that each group concentrates on measuring just one or two factors.
You can then pool results. It would be a good idea for each factor to be
measured by at least two groups at the same time, so that they can calculate a
mean value for each reading.
When looking at their results, encourage pupils to look for relationships between
two or more factors that have been measured. For example, they may find that
light intensity and temperature tend to follow similar patterns.

Safety points
For safety reasons, ensure that pupils are always in groups of at least
two, rather than on their own, when taking measurements. You may
prefer to ensure that the whole group works together in one area, under
your supervision.
They need to behave responsibly if they are carrying glassware such as
thermometers around with them; a fall and breakage could cause injury.
It may be best if you carry the measuring equipment to the area to be
studied.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

2a, 2b, 2c, 2f, 2g,


2I, 2j, 2k, 2o

5b, 5c, 5d, 5e

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Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

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What I have learnt


Environment and feeding relationships
CHE CK LI

ST

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!

Checklist

Habitat
Environmental
factors
Adaptations
Diurnal
Nocturnal

Consumers
Herbivores
Carnivores
Predators
Prey

Dormant
Hibernation
Migration
Photosynthesis
Producers

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how the environmental


factors in different habitats vary
I know that plants and animals are
adapted to live in a particular habitat
I know how environmental factors
can affect the behaviour of animals
I can plan and carry out a simple
investigation into the effect of an
environmental factor on the
behaviour of woodlice
I know that the environmental
factors in a habitat vary with time
I know how to measure and record
changes in some environmental
factors over time
I know some ways in which animals
and plants survive the winter
I know how to draw food chains and
food webs to show feeding
relationships

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Chapter 8 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Environmental factors in a habitat

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 114-115

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can relate the terms environment and habitat to particular


examples. Understand the main features of good experimental
design, in relation to choice chamber experiments.

Less Able Pupils

Understand the terms environment and habitat. Understand how a


choice chamber is used.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand the range of different habitats,


and how the environmental factors in each determine the kinds of
organisms that can live there.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


A variety of different habitats
Video clips, illustrations, OHTs etc
Worksheet H1 How do environmental
factors affect the activity of woodlice?
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)

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Chapter 8 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Referring to the pictures on Pupil Book p. 114, introduce the terms
environment, habitat, environmental factors, and through Q and A,
check that pupils understand them. Then ask the class to write down
definitions of these terms in their workbooks. Ask: What are habitats
A to D on p. 114?

Some pupils will already have an idea of


what is meant by these terms, and will be
able to volunteer information.

Pupils have written down the meanings of key terms:


environment, habitat, environmental factor.

Illustrate types of habitat with videos, pictures, OHTs as available.


Hold a class discussion of important environmental factors in each.

10

Direct the class to answer in their workbooks Q 1 on Pupil Book p.115.


Assist pupils who are unsure of what to fill in and where.

Invite pupils to tell the class their answers. Does everyone agree?
Discuss the different answers.

Ask pupils to read Finding the best place, p.116, and the speech bubbles
on p.117 to introduce the idea of variation within a habitat.

15

Distribute Worksheet H1 How do environmental factors affect the


activity of woodlice?, and have pupils read through it. Ask pupils to
answer the questions on Worksheet H1.

Homework: Complete Worksheet H1. Answer Pupil Book p.116 Q 2.

Pupils have written down some examples of important


environmental factors.

Pupils know that environmental factors may vary in


different parts of a habitat.
The questions are open-ended and will be
answered at different levels by different
pupils.

Pupils understand how to use a choice chamber, and


have considered good features of investigation design.
They reinforce their knowledge of the terms variable
and hypothesis.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Experimental design
Introduction to adaptation

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 116117

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Have planned and carried out their own experiment to investigate


the behaviour of woodlice. Have considered how woodlice are
adapted to their environment.

Less Able Pupils

With help in the planning, have carried out an experiment to


investigate the behaviour of woodlice.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus have considered in some detail the


behavioural and other adaptations of woodlice to their
environment.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Development of language for learning, e.g. sample size, reliable data.


Results could be presented in a simple spreadsheet.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet H2 How does light affect
the activity of woodlice?
Per group of 2:
Choice chamber, moist kitchen towel,
muslin. 1015 woodlice. Opaque card or
other blackout material.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Go over the woodlouse activity (H1) of Lesson 1, and pupils' responses
to the questions. Ask: How suitable was the sample size? Could all
variables be controlled? How far did the findings support the hypothesis?
Ask someone briefly to describe each part of the choice chamber set-up.
Introduce Worksheet H2 How does light affect the activity of
woodlice? Referring to the questions, hold a class discussion on the
design of the investigation.

Pupils consider the design of an investigation using


choice chambers, to lead into their own designs.

25

Ask groups to carry out the investigation and record their results.
Safety: Pupils should wash their hands after the experiment, and
benches should be wiped down with disinfectant.

Pupils plan and carry out an investigation, taking into


account the need to control variables and to have an
adequate sample size.

10

As a class, review the method each group used, their results and their
conclusion. Ask pupils to consider how confident they can be about
their conclusion. Were all variables but one kept constant?

Pupils consider their methods, results and conclusions,


and begin to assess their reliability.

Discuss with the class how the behaviour of woodlice helps them to
survive in their environment.

Pupils understand that behaviour can be an adaptation


to the environment.

Homework: Complete your write up of H2, describing your method, results and conclusion. Describe any improvements that could be made to your investigation design.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Adaptation (part)

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 117118

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can apply the concept of adaptation to a variety of different


animals. Research animal adaptation and present their findings to
the class.

Less Able Pupils

Understand the meaning of 'adaptation', and know some


examples. Show examples of adaptation to the class.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand and explain how habitats vary,
and how this relates to the adaptations of the organisms living
there.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Use of internet for research.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet H3 Animal adaptations
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise),
working in groups.
Suitable materials for group research, e.g.
books, illustrations, magazines, CD-ROMs,
internet access.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Remind pupils of their previous work on the behavioural adaptations
of woodlice: Which environmental factors affect their behaviour, and in
what way? Discuss adaptations other than in behaviour. By Q and A,
lead pupils to suggesting physical adaptations, and then ask them to
write down what they understand 'adaptation' to mean.

Distribute Worksheet H3 Animal adaptations. Instruct pupils to read


it through and to ask questions about any point they are unsure of.
Introduce the materials that they can research, then ask them to form
groups.

25

Groups decide on a suitable animal and carry out their research.


Guide less confident groups towards the salient points about their animal.
They should leave time to finalise what they are going to say.

10

Invite two groups (more, if time) to present their work to the class.
Explain that other groups will give their talk in the next lesson.
Ask for the subject chosen by each group before their presentation
begins.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils have a record of the meaning of the term
adaptation.

Pupils vary in their ability to identify the


interaction of animal with habitat. Less able
pupils may find it difficult to confine their
descriptions to adaptations.

Pupils consider and record in detail the adaptations of


one animal.

Pupils use new vocabulary in in written and


spoken contexts.

Homework: Pupils in groups who have not presented their talk can find out more about their animal. Answer Q 3, Pupil Book 1 p.118, in their workbooks.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 46
Adaptation (continued)
Variation in environmental factors over time (part)
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand how organisms are affected by variations in


environmental factors. Can set up equipment to monitor changes
in environmental factors with time.

Less Able Pupils

Know that environmental factors will vary with time, and that
these changes can be monitored by datalogging.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus predict how environmental factors will vary
with time.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet H4 Measuring changes in
environmental factors
Identify outdoor locations in advance.
One sheet per pupil; graph paper.
Datalogging equipment if available.
Selection of sensors for environmental
factors (one sensor per group): for
example, thermometer, (temperature),
light meter (light intensity), hygrometer
(humidity), decibel meter (noise level).

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Chapter 8 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

15

In and register.
Invite 1 or 2 groups to present their work on animal adaptations.

Pupils produce accounts of varying quality.

Pupils have considered and recorded in detail the adaptations


of one animal, and know about others.

Discuss with the class the fact that environmental factors vary with time. Ask:
Which factors will vary over a short time (day and night)? Which factors will
vary over a longer time (a year)?

Pupils begin to understand how environmental factors may


vary over time.

10

Introduce Worksheet H4 Measuring changes in environmental factors. Go


through this with the class. Form groups. Determine the areas where
measurements are to be made.
If datalogging equipment is to be used, ensure that all pupils understand how
to use it. Determine which groups will measure which factor, and in which areas.
If no datalogging is available, determine which groups will measure which factor,
and in which areas. Decide on a strategy for making regular measurements
during the next 24 hours or so.
Allocate equipment to each group.

Pupils learn how to use equipment for measuring values of


environmental factors at different times within a 24 hour
period. They plan a group strategy for collecting
measurements over time.

10

Take groups outside, and either set up datalogging equipment or take the first
set of measurements. Support groups as they work, ensuring that each member
of each group understands what they are doing, and what their responsibilities
are for continuing the measurements at set time intervals.
Return to lab.

Pupils begin to measure the values of an environmental factor


over time.

10

Referring to Worksheet H4, instruct pupils to begin writing down what they are
doing, mentioning the place and the factor they are measuring, the method
they are using and when the measurements are being taken. Answer Qs 3 and
5 on Worksheet H4.

Pupils record their method and predict what they expect their
results to be.

Homework: Complete Qs 3 and 5 from Worksheet H4. Answer Qs 4 and 5 on Pupil Book pp.119 and 120.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 118120
Variation in environmental factors (continued)
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand how organisms are affected by variations in


environmental factors. Can analyse changes in environmental
factors with time.

Less Able Pupils

Describe how environmental factors vary with time, and how these
changes can be monitored by datalogging.

More Able Pupils

Explain how environmental factors will vary with time, and the
significance of this to animals.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Handling data
Datalogging

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet H4 Measuring changes in
environmental factors
See Lesson 4 for equipment and
resources.
Worksheet H5 Daily changes in
environmental factors
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise for
Homework).

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Chapter 8 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Discuss with the class their ongoing measurements of environmental
factors. If necessary, take groups outside to make a last measurement
and/or to retrieve equipment.

10

In groups, collect and record data in workbooks.


If datalogging was used, make printouts of all data records, and supply
each group with a hard copy.
If no datalogging was used, ask each group to record their data in a
results chart. Make this available to all students via OHPs or photocopies.

15

If no datalogging was used, provide each pupil with graph paper, and
help them to draw a line graph showing how the factor varied over time.
If datalogging was used, provide each group with a printout of the
graphed data.
Ask pupils to discuss in groups how well their predictions matched their
actual findings (Q 7 on H4).

15

Discuss the findings with the class. What patterns have they found?
Can they see any links between two or more factors (e.g. light intensity
and temperature) (Q 8 on H4)?
Would they expect their results to be the same if they made the same
measurements next week?
Ask pupils to write a summary of the patterns shown by the results that
their group collected, and then to write a short paragraph about how
their results compare and link with those of other groups.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Less able pupils may need help with


designing a results chart in which to display
their results, or in understanding the data
presentation from the data loggers.

Pupils make a record of how the environmental factor


they measured varied over time. They obtain records of
variation in factors measured by other groups.

Pupils use graphs to record and see patterns in the


variation of one environmental factor over time, and
consider how well this matched their predictions.
They obtain graphs of all other data collected.

More able pupils are likely to be able to see


links between two or more factors. Less able
pupils will need help with this.

Homework: Answer questions on Worksheet H5 Daily changes in environmental factors.

Pupils look for links between variations in one factor


and variations in other factors.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 119120
The survival of organisms through the winter

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can describe how a range of familiar and unfamiliar organisms are


adapted for changes in their environments, e.g. in winter.

Less Able Pupils

Understand from given examples that some organisms change and


adapt with the seasons.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand how the general principles of


adaptation can be applied to seasonal changes.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Developing language for learning reading.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet H6 Surviving the winter
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)
Resources from which pupils can research
how animals and plants survive the
winter, e.g. books, illustrations,
CD-ROMs.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Briefly review groups data on how environmental factors vary over one
day. Ask pupils to suggest how these changes may affect animals and
plants. How could they check if their ideas are correct? Introduce the
terms diurnal and nocturnal.

10

Instruct pupils to write down the meanings of the terms diurnal and
nocturnal in their workbooks, and then to answer Q 4 on p. 119 in the
Pupil Book.
Those who finish quickly could answer Q 1 on p. 126.

Discuss with the class how environmental factors may vary over longer
periods of time, e.g. a year. Ask for oral answers to Q 5 on pp.119120
in the Pupil Book.

10

Discuss with the class how animals and plants are affected by these
seasonal changes. Introduce the terms dormancy, hibernating, migrating.
Instruct pupils to write down the meanings of these terms in their
workbooks, and then to answer Q 6 on page 120.

10

Ask one or two groups who have not yet made their presentation on
animal adaptations to do so.

Hand out and introduce Worksheet H6 Surviving the winter.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils consider how daily variations in environmental
factors may affect the activity of animals and plants.

Less able pupils may need help in writing


down definitions of these terms.
More able pupils will include other animals
in their lists.

Pupils learn and use the terms diurnal and nocturnal.

Pupils consider how environmental factors vary with the


seasons.
Less able pupils will copy definitions from
p. 120. More able pupils may extend these
definitions with their own words. More able
pupils will name more than one animal in
their answers.

Homework: Answer the questions on Worksheet H6 Surviving the winter. All pupils should answer Q 1, plus Q 2 if time.

Pupils learn and use the terms dormancy, hibernating,


migrating.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Feeding relationships
Food chains and food webs (part)

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 121123

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand food chains, and can build these up from data given to
them.

Less Able Pupils

Can describe some simple food chains.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand how energy is transferred


through a food chain.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Examples of food chains
As stimulus materials, illustrations of
animals and plants in their habitats.
Worksheet H8 (extension) A food web
in a pond
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise), and
a large sheet of paper per group for food
web.
If available:
Small aquaria stocked with pondwater
containing plants and animals.
Identification materials; information on
feeding methods. Beakers and petri
dishes; pipettes etc. for collecting small
animals.
Worksheet H7 Adaptations for feeding
Alternative Homework for less able pupils

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Chapter 8 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

15

In and register.
Remind pupils of the concept of energy flow and food chains. Through
Q and A, elicit examples of food chains and write some of them on the
board. Introduce the terms producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore,
predator and prey, in relation to the food chains on the board. Ask the
class to write down at least 3 food chains in their workbooks. Discuss
answers to Question 7 on Pupil Book p.122.

More able pupils will build up a wider range


of food chains, and understand that feeding
relationships are more complex.

Pupils record some examples of food chains. They learn


some of the terminology associated with feeding
relationships.

Introduce Worksheet H8 (extension) A food web in a pond and,


if aquaria are available, describe their inhabitants. Ask: what do you
think each organism lives on? Ask pupils to write down a list of
organisms and its food.

20

Direct pupils to form groups of 3 or 4 to read and discuss H8 and draw


up their food web on the large sheet of paper. If small animals are
available from the aquaria, pupils can collect these in water-filled
containers to examine and work out how they feed, using identification
materials and information on feeding methods. They should record their
findings and use the terms (where appropriate): predator, prey, producer,
consumer.

More able pupils will find it easier to


construct food webs as well as food chains,
and will take a leading role in constructing
the food web diagram.

Pupils construct a food web for a pond.

Ask the class to pack up. Safety! Pupils who have handled pond water
should wash their hands thoroughly.

As a class, review the food webs and, since they all look different, point
out the common elements. Discuss any links that don't match the H8
description, to clear up misunderstandings.

Homework: Answer the questions in the literacy activity Clues from old snails on Pupil Book p.124. Less able pupils can be given Worksheet H7 Adaptations for feeding as an alternative.

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Chapter 8 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Food webs (continued)
Adaptation and competition
End of Unit test

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 122123

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand a food web as a more realistic interpretation of feeding


relationships in a habitat than is a simple food chain. Understand
that organisms interact in complex ways, e.g. competition.

Less Able Pupils

Know that food chains can be combined together into a food web.
Know that two or more species may compete for the same food.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand how different organisms


contribute to a community in complex ways through their
feeding relationships, etc.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


End of Unit test
One test per pupil

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Chapter 8 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 8 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
As a class, go over the findings about food chains and food webs of
Lesson 7, looking at the food web on Pupil Book 1 p.122. Instruct pupils
to answer Q 9 Pupil Book 1 p.123 in their workbook.

Pupils reinforce their understanding of the terminology


associated with feeding relationships.

10

Introduce the idea of competition for food. Ask: In the food web on
p.122, which animals compete for the same food? With the class,
discuss possible answers to Q 10 on p. 123 in the Pupil Book. Then ask
them to write down the meaning of the term competition, giving at
least one example.

Pupils have a definition of the term competition, and


have a record fo examples.

30

Distribute and set the End of Unit test.

Homework: Answer Q 5 on Pupil Book 1 p.127.

Differentiation

More able pupils can tackle the extension


questions.

Learning Outcomes

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H1 How do environmental factors


affect the activity of woodlice?

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Jovanka decided to test one of her ideas about why the woodlice huddle
under the bark of logs. She thought it would be a good idea to test her
ideas one at a time. She began by testing this hypothesis:
Woodlice move around less when they are in more humid (damp) conditions
than when they are in dry conditions.
She used a choice chamber, like this.
woodlouse

humid air

drying agent

hole in lid

partition

lid

muslin

Jovanka couldnt test every single woodlouse, so she decided just to use a
sample of them. She collected ten woodlice and gently dropped them
through the central hole in the lid of the choice chamber. Each minute, she
recorded the number of woodlice on each side. These are her results.

Questions

Time/min
Number of woodlice
in the humid side
Number of woodlice
in the dry side

322

1
5

2
6

3
3

4
5

5
7

6
7

7
8

8
9

9
9

10
9

1 Jovanka used ten woodlice in her sample. Do you think this


was a good number, or would it have been better to use more
or less than this? Explain your answer.
2 When Jovanka set up her choice chamber, she was careful to
put it on a level surface in a part of the room where the
lighting was even. Why were these good things to do?
3 Can you think of any variables that Jovanka was not able to
control in her experiment?
4 Jovanka said, These results prove that my hypothesis was
right. The woodlice become less active when they are in
humid places. So woodlice tend to rest in humid places rather
than dry places.
Lubna said, These results do seem to support your hypothesis.
But they dont really prove it. I think we need to do some
more experiments.
Who was right? Explain your answer.

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H2 How does light affect the


activity of woodlice?
Jovankas results did support her hypothesis that woodlice move around less
when they are in more humid (damp) conditions than when they are in dry
conditions. But that does not mean that her other ideas were necessarily also
correct.
You are going to design and carry out an experiment to test another of
Jovankas ideas:

Questions

Woodlice tend to rest in dark places rather than light places.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

What are you going to vary in your experiment?


How are you going to vary it?
What are you going to keep constant?
How will you keep these things constant?
What are you going to measure?
How are you going to measure it?
How will you record your results?
How big will your sample be?

When your teacher has checked your answers, you can do your experiment.
Record your results carefully.
Then write a sentence or two, saying whether or not your results support
Jovankas idea.

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H3 Animal adaptations

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You are going to find out how an animal is adapted to its habitat, and then
present your findings to your class.
Choose an animal.
Make sure that you will be able to find plenty of information about it. (It is
no use choosing a Lesser Spotted Grampus if you cant find out anything
about it.) You could use the school library, CD Roms and the Internet.
Then write short notes in each of these boxes:
Name of animal and its habitat (where the animal lives)

Environmental factors (features of the habitat that the animal has to


cope with)

Adaptations (features of the animal that help it to cope with these


environmental factors)

Now use your notes to construct a short talk no more than 5 minutes to
give to your class. Dont include everything you have found about the animal
just concentrate on how it is adapted to its habitat.

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H4 Measuring changes in
environmental factors

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You are going to investigate how an environmental factor changes


throughout the day, in two different parts of a particular area. If different
groups in your class investigate different factors, or different areas, then you
will be able to pool and compare your results.
1 Choose the two areas you will investigate. They should be close together.
For example, you could choose:
a place very close to a wall and a place just a few metres away from it
an area of long grass and an area of short grass
a flower bed and a tarmac or stone path next to it.
2 Now choose one environmental factor to measure.
Tip:
Your teacher will tell you what apparatus you can
use. For example, you could measure:
You may be able to use a
the temperature, using a thermometer
computer and data logger to
the light intensity, using a light meter
help you to collect your data.
the humidity, using a hygrometer
the noise levels, using a decibel meter.
3 Before you begin your measurements, think about
how you would expect the factor to vary in your two areas. Copy these
axes and sketch two curves to show your predictions.

Environmental
factor:

12.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
(midnight)
a.m.
(noon)
p.m.
Time of day

Tip:
4 Decide how often you will take your measurements. Remember to take your
You should try to take at least six measurements
measurements in both
during one 24-hour period. If you can take more,
areas at the same time.
that is even better. If you can take your
measurements over several days, that is better still!
5 Draw a results chart in which to record your measurements. It will need to
have three rows, one for the time, one for the measurement in one area,
and one for the measurement in the second area. Each time you measure
your environmental factor, write it into your results chart.
6 Draw a graph to show your data clearly. It should have axes like the ones
in step 3 above.
7 Compare your actual measurements with the ones which you predicted.
Can you explain any differences between them?
8 Compare your data with the data collected by other groups. Can you see
any links between them?

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H5 Daily changes in
environmental factors
This graph shows how the temperature of the water in a pond varied during
one 24 hour period.
10

Temperature of water/C

9
8
7
6
5

4
12.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00
(midnight)
a.m.
(noon)
p.m.
(midnight)
Time of day

1 At what time is the temperature


a highest?
b lowest?
2 What is the temperature range (that is, the difference between the highest
and lowest temperature) during this 24-hour period?

Light intensity

This graph shows how the light intensity at the surface of the pond varied
during the same 24-hour period.

12.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00


(midnight)
a.m.
(noon)
p.m.
(midnight)
Time of day

3 At what time was the light intensity greatest?


4 At what time did it
a begin to get light?
b begin to get dark?
5 Using the information in the second graph, explain the pattern of
temperature change shown in the first graph.

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H6 Surviving the winter

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The pictures show how some animals and plants change their appearance or
their behaviour when winter comes.
1 For each animal or plant:

describe how it changes when winter comes

explain how this helps it to survive the winter.

Swallow
Hedgehog

Butterfly

Beech tree

2 For one other animal or plant of your choice, find out about how it uses a
different way to survive the winter. Write a short illustrated account of
how it does this. For example, in winter, some animals grow thicker fur, or
different coloured fur. Some plants spend the winter as seeds.

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H7 Adaptations for feeding

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What do each of these birds feed on? From the list below, write down
underneath each diagram which of these foods you think the bird eats, and
how its beak is adapted to help it to feed efficiently.
Sunflower seeds

328

Fish

Mouse

Worm

Eagle

Heron

Blackbird

Parrot

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H8 (extension)
A food web in a pond
Here is some information about a
community of aquatic organisms
living in a garden pond. Read all
of the information about them,
and then construct a food web
for the pond.

Tip:
Make sure that the arrows in your food
web point the right way - they should
show the direction of energy flow.

On the surface of the water, tiny leaves of duckweed capture sunlight


for photosynthesis. Larger plants, such as Canadian pondweed, grow
below the water surface. Many microscopic animals graze on these
plants. Frog tadpoles, too, eat water plants. Pond snails creep over
surfaces, scraping up microscopic plants or leaf cells with their rough
tongues. Tiny daphnia swim in the open water, filtering out any
microscopic organisms and feeding on them.
On the water surface, pond skaters patrol constantly, looking for any
small creatures which they can capture and eat. Water boatmen also
come to the water surface, but they mostly hunt their prey under
water. Deeper down, dragonfly nymphs lie in wait for any
unsuspecting small animal, such as frog tadpoles, while water
beetles swim around actively, also searching for small animals to eat.
Newts, too, will eat any other animals they can find, including young
dragonfly nymphs and small water beetles.

Duckweed

Water boatman

Pond skater

Daphnia
Frog
tadpole

Newt

Water
beetle
Canadian
pondweed

Dragonfly nymph

Pond snail

Microscopic
plants
Microscopic
animals

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End of Unit test


Environment and feeding relationships
1 Each of the following words has three descriptions following it. Draw a ring
around the letter of the best definition of each one.
habitat
A the place where an organism lives
B all the organisms in a given area
C what an organism eats
(1)
carnivore
A an animal that eats other animals and plants
B an animal that eats other animals
C an animal that eats plants
(1)
nocturnal
A being active during the day and during the night
B being active only during the day
C being active only during the night
(1)
environmental factor
A a feature of a habitat that affects living organisms
B the best place for an animal or plant to live
C a feature of a plant that helps it to live in a particular place
(1)
2 Draw a line from each information box to the animal it is describing.
(4)
It hunts prey which it kills with its sharp teeth.
It catches and eats fish in the sea.
It climbs trees and eats leaves and fruit.
It eats grass and runs fast to escape predators.
3 The drawing shows an animal which lives in water.

Describe three features of the animal which help it to live in water.


For each feature, briefly explain how it helps.
1 The animal has ................................................. which helps it to

(2)
2 The animal has ................................................. which helps it to

(2)

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Chapter 8 End of Unit test


3 The animal has ................................................. which helps it to

(2)
4 a Describe two ways in which the environment in Britain changes in winter
compared to summer.
1

(1)
2

(1)
b Choose one animal, and explain how it survives the winter.
Name of animal: ...........................
How it survives the winter:

5 The diagram shows


a food web.

(2)

stickleback

heron
tadpole

pondweed

insect larva

newt

a The food web contains many different food chains. Complete this diagram
by writing in the words of the organisms in one food chain.
pondweed (2)
b Name the producer in your food chain. (1)
c Name a predator in your food chain.

(1)

d The number of herons increases. Explain what might happen to the


number of insect larvae in the pond.

(3)

The number of insect larvae would get because

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Total: 25 marks

Extension questions
6 The arrows in a food chain or a food web represent energy transfer.
a In what form does energy enter a food chain?

(1)
b How is energy passed along a food chain?

(2)
7 a On the axes below, sketch a graph to show how light levels would change
in a grassy field during one 24-hour period.
(5)
You should
label both axes
put a scale on the axis showing the time of day.

b Using your graph, state at what times you would expect a diurnal animal
to be active.
(2)

Total: 10 marks

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8
A NS ER S
W

Environment and feeding


relationships
Text answers
1 Look out for pupils who confuse animals which live in a freshwater pond
with those that live in the sea!
pond

desert

tropical
rainforest

seashore/
rock pool

Some organisms
which live there

tadpole, newt,
pond skater,
water snail

gerbil, camel,
cactus

orang-utan,
hummingbird

limpet, crab, sea


anemone

Environmental
factors

little light
reaches the
bottom

very hot days


and very cold
nights;
high
temperatures;
very dry air and
soil; shortage
of water

heavy rainfall;
high
temperatures
(Some pupils may
also correctly
include: Little
light reaches the
bottom)

big changes in
the water level
twice a day

Habitat:

2 There is not enough light for them; like all plants, they need light for
photosynthesis.
3 Sea anemones, tadpoles, limpets, crabs, newts and water snails can live in
water/a pond/a rock pool because they are able to breathe under water.
Gerbils can live in a desert because they are able to burrow under the sand
to escape the hottest part of the day.
Pond skaters can live in a pond because they are able to walk on the surface
of water.
Tadpoles and newts can live in water/a pond because they can swim well.
Camels and gerbils can live in a desert because they are able to stop their
body drying out in the hot sun.
Orang-utans and hummingbirds can live in a tropical rainforest because they
are able to move around easily amongst the trees.
4 a Diurnal: squirrel, robin, possibly also fox (many foxes are active during the
day as well as at night)
Nocturnal: tawny owl, fox, bat, hedgehog.
Slugs, like foxes, could belong in either list.
b Tawny owls have excellent eyesight, and are able to see in very low light
levels. Bats use echo location. Hedgehogs hunt at night largely by smell.
c In hot places, it will be cooler at night. An animal may face less danger
from predators at night, as the predator may not be able to see its prey in
the dark. Predators may be able to find more prey at night for example,
slugs are more active at night when it is damper and cooler, so hedgehogs
are more likely to find them.
5 Winter snow on the ground, no plants growing on the woodland floor, no
leaves on the trees. Spring no snow, plants growing on the woodland floor,
leaves on the trees.
The trees are deciduous, which means that they drop their leaves all
together at a certain time of year in this case, winter. They do this because
they dont need leaves in winter, as it is too cold and too dark to
photosynthesise successfully. If leaves stayed on the trees, they would have
been damaged by freezing temperatures. Instead, new ones grow in spring.
Many of the plants that grow on the woodland floor die right back in the
autumn, and spend the winter as roots under the ground, safe from the cold.
6 a Being dormant: There are many different plants which do this any plant
which does not grow actively in winter can be said to be dormant.
b Hibernating: dormouse, hedgehog, bat.
c Migrating: many different birds; swallows may be the most familiar.

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Chapter 8 Answers
7

9
10

a movement energy or kinetic energy


b movement energy (the muscles the person uses), sound energy
c movement energy, gravitational potential energy
d movement energy
Pupils may think of glow-worms and fireflies or one of the many kinds of
luminescent deep-sea fish (such as the lantern fish). In fact, in almost every
case the light is produced not by the animal itself but by bacteria that live
in or on it! Nevertheless, as these bacteria are using energy from the animal,
the ultimate source of the light energy is the food that the animal has eaten.
Answers will depend on the food chains chosen.
Foxes will have less prey to eat, so their population might go down. If the
fox population goes down, then the snake population might go up, as
there will be fewer predators to eat them. Alternatively, the foxes may
eat more snakes as they have fewer bank voles to eat, in which case the
snake population might go down.

Literacy activity answers


a Discus are older, because their shells were found deeper down than the
Vallonia shells.
b Light intensity would be higher in an open grassy area, because trees would
cut out some of the light and make it shady inside a wood.
c It would be more humid in a woodland. (Pupils may know that water
evaporates from plants in transpiration. The trees would also stop water
vapour being blown away.)
d The reference books said that Vallonia is found in high light intensity and
low humidity, so it would be found in the open. Discus is found in low light
intensity and high humidity, so it would be found in woodland. So, long
ago, when Discus lived, there must have been woodland. Closer to the
present, when Vallonia lived, it was open and treeless. So the evidence did
support the archaeologists theory.
e He could look for more snail shells in other areas close by. He could see if there
are any different animal or plant remains that might help to give more clues.
f Acids react with calcium carbonate, releasing carbon dioxide. So the acid in
the soil would react with the snail shells, breaking them down. (Some pupils
may also correctly suggest that not many snails might live where there are
acidic soils, for a similar reason.)

End of chapter answers


1 In definition order: habitat, adaptation, nocturnal, hibernating, migrating
2 a For example, a gibbon has
long arms, so it can swing from tree to tree
grasping fingers and toes, for gripping branches.
b Monkey eagles have
a sharp, curved beak for killing prey and tearing off flesh to eat
sharp, curved claws for gripping prey
large wings for moving between the trees.
c predator, prey

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Environmental factor

Daytime

Night-time

temperature

higher

lower

light intensity

higher

lower

wind speed

probably the same

probably the same

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Chapter 8 Answers
3 b The arrows show the direction of energy transfer.
seagulls
oystercatchers
limpets
periwinkles
seaweed

4
5 a
b The oystercatcher population might rise, as there would be more limpets
and periwinkles to eat.
c The limpet population might increase, as they would have no predators to
eat them. However, at some point they might run out of space or food, in
which case the population would stop getting bigger.

Worksheet answers
H1 How do environmental factors affect the activity of woodlice?
1 It is impossible to know whether 10 is the right number! However, it is
clearly better than one, as one woodlouse might be unusual in some way. By
using 10, there is less chance that they will all be unusual. More than 10
might cause problems because they would begin to be crowded in the
choice chamber, which might affect their behaviour.
2 She was controlling variables. She wanted to know how the woodlice
responded to damp and dry, so she needed to keep everything else constant
(as far as possible), in this case, level position and lighting.
3 There are many uncontrolled variables, for example the age of the woodlice,
the gender of the woodlice, whether they had recently eaten or were
hungry and so on.
4 The results do support Jovankas hypothesis, because 9 of the 10 woodlice
did end up in the humid side of the chamber. However, results rarely prove
a hypothesis, and it is possible that other factors might be affecting the
behaviour of the woodlice. It is also possible that 9 of them ended up on the
humid side just by chance. So Jovanka would need to repeat her experiment
many times, and perhaps to do some different experiments as well.

H5 Daily changes in environmental factors


1
2
3
4
5

a 6 p.m.
b 5 a.m. (allow any time from 4 to 6)
4 degrees Celsius
between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. (allow range either side of this)
a 4 a.m.
b about 7 p.m.
The water temperature is lowest at the end of night-time. As day dawns and
the Sun heats the water, the water gradually warms until, by later afternoon,
it has reached its maximum and starts to cool. Then it cools more rapidly as
the light intensity reduces rapidly at dusk. The water reaches the same
temperature at midnight as it was 24 hours before.
Water warms and cools gradually, while light intensity changes rapidly at
dawn and dusk. Full darkness and maximum light take up most of the 24
hours, while water temperature changes more smoothly.

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Chapter 8 Answers

H6 Surviving the winter


1 In winter:
swallows, which cant find insects in winter, migrate to a warmer country
where they can find food.
hedgehogs, which cant find slugs (now hidden away out of the cold),
hibernate in a warm place.
twigs lose their leaves, which would freeze in winter; they have buds that
are dormant until the following spring brings warmer weather.
butterflies die in late autumn, because there is no nectar for them to feed
on; they have laid eggs that hatched into caterpillars which grew and,
before winter, changed into pupae that remain dormant during the winter.

H7 Adaptations for feeding


Hawk:

mouse. The beak is strong and curved with a pointed tip, to help it
to pierce and tear meat.
Heron:
fish. It uses its long, pointed beak to spear fish under water.
Blackbird: worms. Its short, pointed beak can push into the soil and capture
worms.
Parrot:
sunflower seeds. Its strong beak can crack open the tough seeds.

H8 A food web in a pond


This is one possible way of showing this web, but pupils may make other
possible and plausible suggestions about what does and does not eat what.
water beetles

pond skaters

newts

water boatmen

frog tadpoles

Canadian pondweed

dragonfly nymphs

daphnia

pond snails

microscopic animals

duckweed

microscopic plants

End of Unit test answers


1 In order: A, B, C, A (4)
2 Hunts prey: lion (1)
Catches fish: seal (1)
Climbs trees: monkey (1)
Eats grass: antelope (1)
3 fins or tail; help to swim or balance in the water (2)
gills; help to breathe in the water (2)
streamlined shape/backwardly overlapping scales; help to move swiftly and
easily through the water (2)
4 a Light intensity becomes less.
Days become shorter.
Temperatures drop.
It may snow. (any two for 2)
b Give 1 mark for a method appropriate to the named animal, and a second
mark either for another method for that animal, or for a more detailed
description of the first method (2)

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Chapter 8 Answers
5 a
b
c
d

1 mark for each correct organism (2)


pondweed (1)
the name of any animal which feeds on another animal (1)
The number of insect larvae would get less; because now there are fewer
herons, fewer tadpoles and newts will be eaten; so there will be more
tadpoles and newts to eat insect larvae. (3)
Total marks: 10

Extension answers
6 a sunlight/light (1)
b as chemical (potential) energy; in food (2)
7 a Time on x-axis, light on y-axis (1)
x-axis has a regular and sensible scale (1)
fully labelled and covering 24 hours (1)
y-axis is labelled Light intensity (1)
curve goes up and down, reaching highest point at or after midday and
lowest point at night (1)
b At any time during daylight as shown by the graph: 1 mark for a suitable
start time and 1 for finish time (2)
Total marks for extension: 10

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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9 Solutions

8
TI

AC

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HER NO

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HRS

Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7h

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:

Not all solids are soluble in water


Separation of mixtures of liquids and solids
Not all liquids contain water
All materials are made up of very small particles

Language for learning


Chromatography
Crystallisation
Dissolve
Distillation

Evaporation
Filtrate
Filtration
Insoluble

Mixture
Residue
Saturated solution
Soluble

Solute
Solution
Solvent

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
how to separate a mixture of an insoluble solid from water, using filtration
that solutions look clear - and that this is not the same as colourless
what is happening, in terms of particles, when a solute dissolves in a solvent,
and understand that mass is conserved
how to separate a solute from a solution by evaporating to dryness
to devise an efficient method for obtaining dry salt from a sample of rock salt
to evaluate the success of the method they have used
how to separate a solvent from a solution using distillation
how to use chromatography to separate different solutes in a solution
to interpret data from a chromatogram
how to make a saturated solution
that different substances have different solubilities
that, in general, solubility increases as temperature increases
to identify patterns in data about solubility
to use construction lines to read values from a line graph

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9 Solutions

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
4D
5C
5D
6C
6D

Title
Solids, liquids and how they can be separated
Gases all around us
Changing state
More about dissolving
Reversible and irreversible changes

Links with other units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7G

Title
Particle model of solids, liquids and gases

Cross-curricular links
None for this Chapter
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity in the Pupil Book on Dune Beetles.
Worksheet I9, Mining salt in Cheshire, is a comprehension and investigation
exercise.
Worksheet I6, Who polluted the river?, involves writing a newspaper article.

+2 8=

Numeracy
Question 4 in the Pupil Book entails using construction lines to read off values,
and then doing a simple calculation with these values.
Question 3 in the end of chapter questions also involves work with graphs.
Worksheet I3, How much salt is there in rock salt?, could be extended by asking
pupils to calculate what percentage of their original sample of rock salt they have
obtained at the end of the process.

ICT

ICT
Worksheet I9, Mining salt in Cheshire, involves internet research.
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolutescience

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Make measurements of mass and volume
Describe observations and explain these
Identify patterns in data about solubility, and make predictions from these
Interpret data from chromatograms
Use scientific knowledge and understanding to plan how to separate pure salt
from rock salt

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Materials and their properties


Classify some solids as soluble or insoluble and explain the meaning of the
term saturated solution
Describe how mixtures can be separated by filtration, distillation and
chromatography and begin to use the particle model to explain what happens
when a solid dissolves in water

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Make measurements of mass and volume
Separate a sample of salt from rock salt
Materials and their properties
Name some soluble and insoluble solids
Describe how pure water can be obtained from sea water and how different
colours can be separated from some inks

Pupils who have progressed further


Scientific enquiry
Make measurements of mass and volume
Interpret and explain the significance of data from chromatograms
Evaluate their method for obtaining pure salt from rock salt
Materials and their properties
Use the particle model to explain a range of phenomena

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Starter activity
The topic is introduced with a solution familiar to most students sea water
and begins to hint at the way in which the water and the salt may become
separated from one another.

What is a solution?
An explanation of what a solution is must, of course, be dealt with very simply at
this stage. The term particles is used throughout to mean molecules or ions, as
neither of these terms has yet been introduced. Moreover, it is also used to mean
the relatively enormous particles of mud or sand that can be seen in a
suspension of these substances in water. The term suspension has not been used
in the text, but you may like to introduce this here.
Pupils will almost certainly have used filtration before, but they may not have
related this to whether or not a mixture is a solution, nor used the terms filtrate
and residue. Worksheet I1, Filtering mixtures, provides an opportunity to try
filtering several different mixtures. The inclusion of copper sulfate solution should
help to get across the idea that whereas a solution is clear it is not necessarily
colourless a common error is to use these two words interchangeably.
Worksheet I2, Where does the solute go?, should help pupils to realise that the
solute is still there, even though not visible, when it dissolves. This can lead on to
thinking about solutions in terms of particles.

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Separating solutes and solvents


Once again, the separation techniques of evaporation and distillation may be
familiar to pupils, although most will not have had the opportunity to carry out
either of these for themselves. In Question 3 in the Pupil Book, and subsequently
in Worksheet I3, How much salt is there in rock salt?, pupils are asked to use what
they have learnt about filtration and evaporation to suggest a way of obtaining
salt from rock salt, and then to carry out their suggested method. You may like to
extend this by asking them to calculate the percentage of the original mass of
rock salt that they manage to obtain as salt.
Worksheet I9, Mining salt in Cheshire, could be used at this point if desired.
Chromatography, too, is very likely to be familiar to most pupils, and they will
probably have been able to carry this out for themselves. The examples in the
text and on Worksheet I5, Separating colours in ink, all use examples where
substances of different colours are separated, and you may like to explain that
chromatography can be used for non-coloured substances as well.

What affects solubility?


The concept of a saturated solution is introduced in the Pupil Book, and Worksheet
I7, How much dissolves?, in which pupils measure the solubility of various solutes
at room temperature, could follow this. If water and another solvent for example
ethanol are used in I7, this introduces the idea that water is not the only solvent.
Different groups could investigate the solubility of a range of different solutes,
and if results are pooled then pupils could display the results as a bar chart.
It is important to make clear that solubility is about how much solute dissolves,
not how quickly it dissolves.
Data are provided which illustrate the fact that, for many water-soluble
substances, solubility increases with temperature. Pupils can use this idea to
explain why solutes form crystals when a hot, saturated solution cools, which
links back to earlier work covered in Chapter 1.

Teaching hints and tips


Worksheet I1 Filtering mixtures
Most pupils will already have experience of using filtration at Key Stage 2. You
might like to introduce the terms filtrate and residue (which many probably
will not know) to help to feel that they are moving forward from previous work.
The filtrate obtained from the muddy water will not be clear, and you may like to
discuss this with pupils. You could offer them a finer grade of filter paper, and
they could try this out to see if it makes any difference.
The term particle is being used in a very wide sense here; while the particles of
copper sulfate are copper and sulfate ions, the particles of mud are huge
aggregations of massive numbers of molecules and ions. It is probably best, at
least with most pupils at this stage, not to attempt to explain this, but just to
think in terms of relative size, in qualitative terms only.

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Worksheet I2 Where does the solute go?


Check if all pupils are familiar with the use of a top pan balance, and offer help
to those who are unsure.
The calculation involved is very simple, but nevertheless may be inscrutable to
less able pupils, who may need help with interpreting the results. More able
pupils, on the other hand, may see this so quickly and clearly that they realise
there is no need at all to measure out exactly 10 g, so long as they know what
the mass actually is. This is to be encouraged, even though on the face of it they
are going against your instructions!

Safety points
Keep water well away from the balances. Ensure that the salt is placed on
foil or some other container on the balance rather than directly onto the
surface of the balance.

Worksheet I3 How much salt is there in rock salt?


This plan involves combining knowledge of two techniques - filtration and
evaporation. Less able pupils may find this difficult to think through. On the
other hand, some pupils may already have experience of this. You may like to
organise groups containing pupils of a range of ability, so that more able ones
can support the less able.
It is suggested that two lessons are used for this. In the first, a demonstration is
used to remind pupils (many will have seen this before) that salt can be obtained
from salty water by heating. This also shows them a technique that they will need
for their plan. You can emphasise safety points while you are carrying out this
demonstration. Pupils then spend the rest of the lesson using what they have
seen to help them to solve the problem of obtaining the maximum mass of salt
from a lump of dirty rock salt.
In the next lesson, they can carry out their plan. They will need to crush their piece
of rock salt before trying to dissolve it. You may like to help them to think about
how successful their method is, as they work; this may help them with evaluating
their method later. Leave adequate time to collect results from each group.

Worksheet I4 Getting pure water from inky water (distillation)


This is likely to be a familiar technique to most pupils, but you can encourage
them to try to explain what is happening in terms of what they know about
particles. Get them to predict what will happen (Question 2 on the Worksheet)
before you do anything.
There are obvious links back to earlier work, in describing the behaviour of
liquids and gases in terms of particles, and explaining why heating and cooling
cause evaporation and condensation.
Despite what they know about particles, pupils often find it difficult to think of
the ink as a mixture of water particles and ink particles, which behave
differently when they are heated. It is a very common error, often carried right
through to beyond Key Stage 4 by less able pupils, to describe what the solution
is doing rather than the different kinds of particles in it.
Once distillation has been understood, you may like to move straight on to the
literacy activity, Dune Beetles, which asks pupils to apply this knowledge in a new
situation. You could present this as a task to be done individually, or as a class
discussion. Perhaps one pupil could read the passage aloud to the rest of the class.

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Worksheet I5 Separating the colours in ink


It is very likely that all pupils will have done some form of chromatography
before at Key Stage 2, so you may need to make this activity a little different to
maintain their interest. Water-soluble inks are suggested, but you could use
mixtures of food colourings as an alternative. There are also several different
types of chromatography kits available, so the method of running the
chromatogram that is illustrated may not match what you choose to use.
Pupils should avoid handling the paper, as greasy finger marks make for very
messy chromatograms. Loading the spots requires care; the aim is to produce an
intense but very small spot.

Worksheet I7 How much dissolves?


The number of different solutes you provide will depend on how quickly you
think the pupils are likely to work. It is probably better for them to carry out this
work carefully with just one solute and one solvent than to try to use many
solutes or many solvents and get careless.
If you allocate different combinations of solute and solvent to different groups,
then results can be pooled later.
Choose solutes that are not too
soluble in the solvents used, or you
will get through huge quantities, and
pupils will be adding and stirring
forever! The solubility in cold water
of the salts suggested in the lesson
plan are:

potassium chloride

34 g per 100 cm3

potassium bromide

53 g per 100 cm3

potassium iodide

128 g per 100cm3

sodium chloride

36 g per 100cm3

sucrose

84 g per 100cm3

It is suggested that pupils can do this activity before they are introduced to the
term saturated solution.
If time allows, you could extend this work in another lesson to investigate how
the solubility of one solute in water varies with temperature. This is quite a timeconsuming piece of practical work however, and you may prefer just to use the
data provided in the pupils book and in the questions at the end of the chapter
to help pupils to understand that - for most solutes (but not all) solubility
increases with temperature.
This also provides an opportunity to revisit and practise drawing accurate
construction lines (a ruled, straight line at right angles to each axis) to read values
from a line graph. Many pupils are very careless about this, either not taking the
trouble to use construction lines at all, or drawing them freehand, so that the
coordinates read off are far from accurate.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes and


Living Things

1c, 2c, 2j, 2l, 2p

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

1b, 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b

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What I have learnt


Solutions

Checklist

CHE CK LI

ST

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Chromatography

Filtrate

Saturated solution

Crystallisation

Filtration

Soluble

Dissolve

Insoluble

Solute

Distillation

Mixture

Solution

Evaporation

Residue

Solvent

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to separate a mixture


of an insoluble solid from water,
using filtration
I know that solutions look clear, and
that this is not the same as colourless
I know what is happening, in terms
of particles, when a solute dissolves
in a solvent
I know how to separate a solute
from a solution by evaporating to
dryness
I know how to devise an efficient
method for obtaining dry salt from
a sample of rock salt
I know how to separate a solvent
from a solution using distillation
I know how to use chromatography
to separate different solutes in a
solution
I know how to interpret data from
a chromatogram
I know how to make a saturated
solution
I know that different substances
have different solubilities
I know that, in general, solubility
increases as temperature increases
I know how to identify patterns in
data about solubility
I know how to use construction lines
to read values from a line graph

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Chapter 9 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
The idea of solutions
Filtration, the technique (revision)

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 128129

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Make and record observations of solutions and suspensions. Know


that some solids dissolve in water and others do not. Carry out
filtration efficiently. Know that some solids can be separated from
water by filtration.

Less Able Pupils

Carry out filtration on at least one mixture. Make and record some
observations.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand that solutions look clear and cannot
be separated by filtration.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet I1 Filtering mixtures
Per group:
5 mixtures (2 suspensions and 3
solutions) of water with: mud; salt; sugar;
chalk; copper sulfate. Filter funnel, at
least 5 filter papers. Beaker. Clamp stand.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Distribute and introduce Worksheet I1 Filtering mixtures. Through
Q and A, draw out pupils previous knowledge of using filtration to
separate mixtures.

More able pupils may mention particles and


their size.

Pupils understand the term mixture, and recall using


filtration to separate one kind of mixture.

15

Direct groups to carry out activity I1.


You could offer pupils querying cloudy filtrate some finer grade filter
paper and ask them to see if this makes any difference, and you may
need to help less able pupils to set up the filtration apparatus.

More able pupils may question the fact that


appearance of the filtrate is not always clear.
Less able pupils may have difficulty setting
up filtration apparatus.

Pupils have experience in the technique of filtration.


They are able to name some mixtures containing water
that can be separated by filtration and some that
cannot.

15

Hold a class discussion, asking pupils to identify patterns: Can you tell
which mixtures can be separated by filtration just by looking at them?

Pupils make the connection between the clear or cloudy


appearance of a mixture with water, and whether or not
it can be separated by filtration.

10

Explain filtration in terms of particles and encourage the class to think


back to earlier work (Chapter 1) on particles. Instruct pupils to bring
Worksheet I1 to the next lesson.

Pupils know that the particles of some substances when


mixed with water are large enough to be trapped by
filter paper; the particles of other substances are much
smaller and can pass through filter paper.

Homework: Complete the sentences in Q 3 of Worksheet I1, if not already done. Answer the question: Do all liquids contain water? Try to make a list of at least 5 liquids that do not contain
water.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 131139
Explaining dissolving in terms of particles
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand and use the terms solute, dissolve, solution, solvent.


Describe a solution in terms of solute particles and water particles.
Use a top pan balance. Carry out a simple calculation.

Less Able Pupils

Use the terms solute, dissolve, solution, solvent with reasonable


accuracy. Use a top pan balance. Carry out a simple calculation
with help.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus use the particle model to explain why the
volume of a liquid does not change when a solute dissolves in it.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Calculating masses in Worksheet I2

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet I2 Where does the solute
go?
Per group:
Glass beaker. Sodium chloride. Glass rod
(for stirring). Spatula. Access to top pan
balance. Filter paper.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

15

In and register
Go over the relevant terms: solute, solvent, solution, dissolving. Ask for
an explanation of each. Get pupils to put forward ideas on: Where does
sugar go when it dissolves in water?

Distribute and introduce Worksheet I2 Where does the solute go?

20

Direct groups to do I2. Check that pupils know how to use the top pan
balance. Assist those who are unsure of this and of measuring out 10 g
of salt, including zeroing for the filter paper. They may also need help
in interpreting the two masses they measure. If necessary, explain that
the mass of the beaker is constant, and so is the mass of the water.

10

As a class, discuss results. With Q and A, guide pupils to conclude that


the solute is still there. Using the diagram on Pupil Book p.131, explain
dissolving in terms of particles. Referring pupils back to Worksheet I1,
ask them to use this model to explain their findings with the filtration
investigation.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils understand the meaning of the terms solute,
solvent, solution, dissolving.

Less able pupils may not be sure how to use


the balance, how to measure out 10 g of salt,
and how to interpret the two masses they
have measured.
More able students may realise that it does
not matter if the mass of salt is not exactly
10 g, as long as they know what it is. They
could repeat the exercise using sugar.

Homework: Complete Worksheet I2 if not already done, then do Qs 1 and 2 on Pupil Book p.131.

Pupils gain practice in using a top pan balance. They


can carry out a simple calculation and state that the
mass of a solution is the sum of the masses of solute
and solvent

Pupils know that all of the solute is still there when it


dissolves in water. They describe a solution in terms of
the behaviour of particles of solute and solvent.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 132133
Separating a solute from a solution by evaporating to dryness

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that salt can be separated from sea water by evaporation.


Suggest a method involving two techniques which will obtain some
salt from a piece of rock salt.

Less Able Pupils

Know that salt can be separated from sea water by heating.


Suggest a method involving one technique which will begin to
separate either mud or salt from rock salt.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can explain, in terms of particles, what happens
when water evaporates from a salt solution. Suggest a method
which will obtain most of the salt present in a piece of rock salt.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Writing a description of how to obtain salt from salt water.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Introductory discussion
If available: Photos, slides or video of salt
pans.
Demonstration: Evaporation to obtain
salt from salty water
Bunsen, mat, tripod and gauze.
Evaporating dish. Water and salt. Small
lump of rock salt.
Worksheet I3 How much salt is there
in rock salt?
One sheet per pupil for group discussion
in this lesson and activity in Lesson 4.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

15

In and register.
Ask pupils: How can you get salt from salty water? In an introductory
discussion, show photos of salt pans and elicit a description of the process of
evaporation. Help the class to understand that only the water evaporates, while
the solutes remain behind.

More able pupils may be able to describe what


is happening in terms of particles.

Pupils know that evaporation from sea water involves only


water and not substances which are dissolved in it. They know
that evaporation can be used to separate a solute from a
solvent.

15

Carry out the demonstration of evaporation used to obtain salt from salty
water by following the procedure illustrated on Pupil Book p.133, drawing
attention to the safety points you employ.

Ask the class to try answering Q 3 on Pupil Book p.133 in their workbooks.

15

Show the class a lump of raw rock salt, and ask pupils to think about how they
could get some pure salt out of it.
Organise them into mixed-ability groups and give out Worksheet I3 How
much salt is there in rock salt? Direct groups to plan a method for extracting
the salt from the rock salt. Encourage abler pupils to explain their ideas in
terms of particles.

Pupils know how to heat salty water safely in an evaporating


dish.

Less able pupils find it difficult to combine their


knowledge of two different processes to suggest
a two-technique procedure.

Pupils combine knowledge of filtration and evaporation to


plan a process to obtain salt from rock salt.

Homework: In your workbook, under the heading Method for extracting salt from a sample of rock salt, write out the method you agreed on in your group for activity I3.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Getting salt from rock salt

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 132133

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Use Bunsen, tripod, gauze and evaporating dish safely and


effectively. Obtain some reasonably pure salt from rock salt.
Measure masses using a top pan balance. Suggest how their
method could be improved.

Less Able Pupils

Use Bunsen, tripod, gauze, evaporating dish safely. Obtain some


salt from rock salt.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus obtain a good sample of relatively pure salt.
Make a realistic evaluation of their method, and suggest two or
more ways in which their method could be improved.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet I3 How much salt is there
in rock salt?
(Sheet distributed in Lesson 3)
Per group:
Samples of rock salt. Pestle and mortar.
Access to top pan balance. Filter paper.
Funnel. Beaker. Bunsen, mat, tripod and
gauze. Evaporating dish.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Comparing the mass of salt obtained from rock salt; calculating as a percentage.

Cross-curricular development

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 9 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Pupils should retrieve Worksheet I3 How much salt is there in rock
salt? and the method written in their workbooks, and form the groups
they had in Lesson 3.

30

Direct groups to carry out I3, if necessary adapting their planned


method. Assist pupils who need help with dissolving the rock salt or in
the use of the apparatus.
As groups finish, talk about how they should meet the worksheet
requirement in Q 5 to evaluate the method. Ask the groups to discuss
and note down in workbooks their ideas for the evaluation.

Less able pupils may be uncertain about the


procedure to follow, and are likely to find
evaluation difficult.

Pupils use the techniques of filtration to separate mud


from a salt solution, and evaporation to obtain salt from
salty water.

15

Write on the board the results of the groups for initial mass of rock salt
and final mass of salt obtained. Encourage abler pupils to copy other
groups results, in order to work out percentages of pure salt from the
rock salt (see Homework).

More able students can be asked to use


calculation (e.g. percentages) to make a
quantitative comparison of each group's
yield of salt.

Pupils evaluate the method used for I3 and suggest


ways of improving it.

Homework: Write up the evaluation of your method for I3, and alter the method accordingly. Abler pupils: Work out your groups mass of salt as a percentage of the rock salt you used.
If time, do this for other groups results and work out an average percentage if you can.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Distillation

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp.133-134; 138

Expectations
Most Pupils

Know how distillation can be used to separate water from a


solution. Explain distillation in terms of particles.

Less Able Pupils

Know that distillation can be used to separate water from a


solution.

More Able Pupils

All the above.

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Literacy activity Pupil Book p.138: Dune beetles

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: I4 Getting pure water from
inky water
One sheet per pupil (observation and
interpretation exercise)
Distillation apparatus as shown on Pupil
Book p.134. Solution of water-soluble
ink.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Ask pupils to tell you how they could get pure water from a salt solution.
Prompt: water condensing on a cold window.

20

Hand out Worksheet I4 Getting pure water from inky water.


Explain the parts of the equipment and how they function, then
demonstrate the distillation procedure. Ask the class to describe what is
happening at different points in the apparatus.

10

Talk through the questions on I4, then ask pupils to write their answers
in their workbooks. Less able pupils will need help with this.

10

Ask pupils to read (or ask one pupil to read aloud) the Literacy activity
passage, Dune beetles, p.138. Get pupils thinking and talking about
what the Namib Desert must be like, and how strange it must be to be
so close to so much water but not have anything to drink.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

More able pupils can explain in terms of


particles what is happening when the ink is
heated and when the water vapour is cooled.

Pupils know that water can be obtained from a solution


by heating and then cooling the vapour. They know and
can use the term distillation and can explain distillation
in terms of particles.

Pupils apply knowledge of particle theory and of


distillation to a real-world situation.

Homework: Answer the questions on Dune beetles. More able pupils: Construct a flow chart to show how sea water becomes part of a beetle's body.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Separating solutes by chromatography

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 134

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Use chromatography to separate different colours from ink. Know


that different colours travel at different speeds up the filter paper.
Understand that chromatography can be used to separate different
solutes in a solution.

Less Able Pupils

Use chromatography with some success to separate different


colours in ink.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus explain chromatography in terms of particles,


and suggest why some solute particles might travel faster than
others.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet I5 Separating the colours
in ink
Per group:
4 or 5 different colours of water-soluble
inks. See diagram on I5: length of filter
paper to fit container when rolled into a
cylinder. Ruler. Paper clips. Pointed stick
(to apply ink). Beaker (in which
chromatogram can run).
Worksheet I6 Who polluted the river?
One sheet per pupil (Homework exercise)

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Chapter 9 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Draw out pupils previous experience of using chromatography to
separate solutes. Introduce Worksheet I5 Separating the colours in
ink and go through it to ensure that all pupils understand each step
and its purpose.

Pupils know that chromatography can separate colours


in ink. They understand that chromatography separates
different solutes in a solution.

20

Instruct pupils to do I5. Check that they set up the apparatus correctly.

Pupils use chromatography to separate colours in ink.

10

Discuss, in terms of particles, why chromatography works.

Ask the class to give oral answers to Qs 1 and 2 from End of chapter
questions, p.140.

Pupils revise terminology and methods of separation.

Distribute Worksheet I6 Who polluted the river? and briefly run


through it.

Pupils apply their knowledge of chromatography in a


real-world situation.

Homework: Read Worksheet I6 carefully and answer the questions in your workbook.

Differentiation

Abler pupils may suggest that bigger particles


move more slowly up the paper than smaller
ones.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils can explain chromatography in terms of particles.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Factors affecting solubility

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 135136

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know and use the terms soluble, insoluble, saturated solution. Can
name some substances that are soluble and insoluble in water.
Know that liquids other than water can be solvents. Can find the
mass of a solute that will dissolve in a given volume of a solvent.

Less Able Pupils

Know and use the terms soluble, insoluble. Can name some
substances that are soluble and insoluble in water. Find the mass of
a solute that will dissolve in a given volume of a solvent. Know
that some substances dissolve in water more easily than others.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus can compare solubilities of different solutes in a


solvent, and/or of a solute in different solvents.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Measurement of mass and volume.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet I7 How much dissolves?
Per group:
At least two solutes: e.g. sodium chloride,
potassium chloride, potassium bromide,
potassium iodide, sucrose, butter or
margarine (small quantity).
Solvents: access to water, and also to
ethanol if you plan to let some groups try
this. Measuring cylinder. 2 beakers and
stirring rods. Watch glass and top pan
balance (to weigh solute).
The teacher may wish to use ethanol in a
demo for some solutes.
Worksheet I8 Comparing solubilities
One sheet per pupil (Homework exercise)

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Chapter 9 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

10

In and register.
Introduce the terms soluble and insoluble. Ask pupils to name some
substances in each category. Are some substances more soluble than
others? How could we compare solubilities?

Pupils know and use the terms insoluble, soluble,


solubility.

Distribute Worksheet I7 How much dissolves? Check that pupils


remember the meaning of solute and solvent. Introduce the solutes
and solvents the pupils will be using.

Pupils know that ethanol can be a solvent.

10

Organise the class into groups and ask them to discuss and decide on
what they will do and measure. Check that the methods are suitable.
How will they avoid an undissolved residue in the beaker? Less able
pupils may need to be told that:
Amount dissolved = initial mass mass not dissolved.

15

Instruct groups to do I7, while thinking about what is happening in


terms of particles.

Reconvene the class and review the results. Introduce the idea of a
saturated solution. Discuss what happens in terms of particles.

Introduce Worksheet I8 Comparing solubilities and go through it


briefly.

More able pupils are likely to work more


quickly and can try a range of solutes in
both solvents.

Homework: Complete Worksheet I8 in your workbook. More able pupils can do the Extension question.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils suggest a method for finding how much solute


will dissolve in 100 cm3 of solvent. They measure the
mass of a solute that dissolves in 100 cm3 of solvent.
Pupils know and use the term saturated solution, and
have made a saturated solution. They understand that
substances that dissolve in water may not dissolve in
ethanol, and vice versa.

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Chapter 9 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 136137
How solubility varies with temperatures
End of Unit test
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that solubility tends to increase with temperature. Use


knowledge of particles to suggest an explanation for this. Describe
a trend shown by a line graph of solubility against temperature.
Use ruled construction lines to read figures accurately from a line
graph.

Less Able Pupils

Know that solubility tends to increase with temperature. Recognise


a general trend from a line graph of solubility against temperature.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus use line graphs to make a quantitative


comparison of the solubility of two solutes at different
temperatures. Express solubility in numerical terms. Relate their
work on solutions to earlier work on growing crystals.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Reading data from line graphs.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Chapter 9 End of Unit test
One set of sheets per pupil

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Chapter 9 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 9 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Ask: Do you think more solute will dissolve in a solvent when it is hot
or when it is cold? Relate this back to Worksheet A2 Growing crystals
of copper sulfate of Chapter 1 (see p. 6).

10

Look at graph on Pupil Book p.136 showing the solubility of copper


sulfate and potassium nitrate at different temperatures.
Do Q 5 orally. Encourage those not able to make a quantitative
comparison instead to make a qualitative comparison.

30

Distribute and set the End of Unit test.

Homework: Do Q 4 in End of chapter questions, p.142. Less able pupils: Do Q 3 or Q 5.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils know that solubility often increases with
temperature.

For Q 5, abler pupils may use particle theory


to make a link between earlier work on
growing crystals and the data in the graphs.
Less able pupils may not be able to make a
quantitative comparison in question 5(c).

Pupils describe the trends shown by a line graph of


solubility against temperature.
They use grid lines to help in reading off coordinates on
a graph, and can use a line graph with two curves to
make a quantitative comparison of solubility of two
solutes at a particular temperature.

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i1 Filtering mixtures

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Your teacher will give you five different mixtures. Each of them contains
water and at least one other substance.
1 Look carefully at each mixture, then complete this table.
Mixture

Appearance
Is it clear or cloudy?

What colour is it?

water and mud


water and salt
water and sugar
water and chalk
water and copper sulfate
2 Now set up this apparatus.
Pour the mixture of water and mud into
the filter funnel. Look at the liquid that
comes through the filter paper. Look at
what is left on the filter paper.
Record your results in this table.

Mixture

Result of filtering the mixture


Appearance of liquid that Appearance of anything
runs through the filter
left on the filter paper

water and mud


water and salt
water and sugar
water and chalk
water and copper sulfate
3 Complete the sentences below,
using some of these words:

could mud chalk copper sulfate


could not water nothing something

The mixtures of water with salt, sugar and looked


clear. When these mixtures were poured through filter paper,
was left on the filter paper. These mixtures
be separated by filtration. The mixtures of water
with and were both cloudy.
When these mixtures were poured through filter paper, only the
went through. The other substance was left on the
filter paper. These mixtures be separated by filtration.

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i2 Where does the

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solute go?
T

1 Partly fill a beaker with water. Use a balance to measure the mass of the
beaker plus water.
Mass of beaker with water = ................. g
2 Using the balance, measure out 10 g of salt.
3 Add the salt to the water in the beaker, and stir it until it has all dissolved.
4 Find the mass of the beaker with the salty water.

Questions

Mass of beaker with water + salt = .............. g

1 Complete the sentences below, using some of these words:


salt
water
particles
solvent
solution
solute
less than
the same as
more than
a When salt dissolves in water, the water is called the
................... and the salt is called the .........................
b Although the salt particles seem to disappear, they must still
be there. We know this because the total mass of the beaker
and the salt solution is ................................ the mass of the
beaker, water and salt before they were mixed together.

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i3 How much salt is

there in rock salt?

9
WORKSH

EE

1 First, find the mass of your piece of rock salt.


Mass of rock salt = ................. g
2 Now decide the best way to get as much salt as possible from it. On a
separate sheet write down what you are going to do under the heading:
Method for extracting salt from a sample of rock salt
You want to end up with a sample of dry salt.
3 Check your method with your teacher, then carry it out.
4 Find the mass of your sample of dry salt.
Mass of dry salt = ................. g
5 On a separate sheet write a few sentences evaluating your method (that
is, saying how good you think it was) under the heading:
Evaluation of my method for extracting salt from rock salt
Did anyone else use a method that produced more rock salt than yours? Is
there any way you could improve your method?

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i4 Getting pure water

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from inky water


T

This apparatus can be used to get water from a mixture of water and ink.

thermometer

cooling
water out

round
bottomed
flask

water and ink

condenser

cooling
water in

heat

conical
flask

Questions

The process that is used is called distillation.

1 Describe the appearance of the inky water.


2 What colour do you think the water will be when it has been
evaporated and condensed?
Explain why you think this.
3 The inky water is heated. Using what you learned about
particles from Chapter 1, explain why the water changes into
a gas when it is heated.
4 Explain how the gaseous water is cooled down, and what
happens to it when it cools.
5 What happens to the ink particles?

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i5 Separating the

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colours in ink
Ink is a solution of several different coloured substances in water. We can
separate the different solutes in ink using chromatography.
1 Your teacher will give you a piece of
filter paper. Using a pencil and ruler,
draw a straight, horizontal line near
one end of the paper, like this:

Tip:
Try to hold the filter paper only by
the edges dont touch it any
more than you have to. However
clean your fingers are, they could
leave greasy marks on the paper
that will spoil your chromatogram.
2 Find out what colours of ink you are
going to be using. Write in pencil the
names of their colours (or just a letter)
underneath the line you have drawn,
as shown on the right.
red

blue

black

3 Dip a pointed stick into one of the


inks. Carefully place a spot of ink
on the pencil line, near one end,
as right.
Do this several times, using the
same ink and putting more and more
onto the same spot.

yellow green purple orange

adding ink to
the first spot
red

blue

black

yellow green purple orange

4 Repeat step 3 with the other coloured inks.

5 Put some water into a beaker. You


want just enough so that when the
paper stands in it, the water does not
reach the pencil line and ink spots.

6 Carefully roll the paper round, and


paper-clip it together. Stand the paper
in the beaker.
Leave the paper until the colours in the inks have spread up it. The paper
with the different colours spread out on it is called a chromatogram.

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i6 Who polluted the river?

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A river runs past several factories.


Two of the factories make coloured
dyes which are used for colouring
sweets and other foods.

One day, the water in the river was red. One of the factories had polluted
the river with dye. A scientist was asked to find out which factory had
polluted the river.
He took some samples of polluted water from the river, and also some
samples of the red dyes that the factories made. He carried out
chromatography on all of these samples. This is what the chromatograms
looked like.

Samples spotted on the crosses.

Questions

R
A1
A2
B1
B2

= polluted river water


= Factory A Dye 1
= Factory A Dye 2
= Factory B Dye 1
= Factory B Dye 2

1 Which factory polluted the river? Explain how you decided


this.
2 The sample that the scientist collected from the river was a
solution.
a What is the solvent in this solution?
b According to the results from the chromatogram, how
many different solutes were in this solution?
3 The scientist made three chromatograms. Each chromatogram
had one spot for each of the five samples. Suggest why he
made more than one chromatogram.
4 Imagine you are a reporter for the local newspaper. Write an
article describing the pollution incident, and how the guilty
factory was detected.

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You are going to try to find out the answer to this question:
How much of a particular solute will dissolve in 100 cm3 of a
particular solvent?
Your teacher will give you some different solutes. Write down their names.
Your teacher will give you some different solvents. Write down their names.
Choose one of the solutes and one of the solvents. Think about how you will
find out how much of the solute will dissolve in 100 cm3 of the solvent. Write
down what you are going to do, and what you will need to measure under
the heading:
What I am going to do and what I am going to measure
Check your ideas with your teacher. Then carry out your experiment.
If you have time, you can try the same thing with a different solute or a
different solvent.

Tip:
Remember to record your
results clearly!

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i8 Comparing solubilities

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Sally measured out 100 cm3 of water into five beakers. She stirred in sodium
carbonate to the first beaker, until no more sodium carbonate would
dissolve. She recorded the mass of sodium carbonate that she had added.
Then she did the same with five other substances in the five other beakers.
Here are her results.
Substance

How many grams dissolved in 100 cm3 of water

sodium carbonate
copper sulfate

7.1
31.5
0.0

potassium nitrate

13.3

sodium chloride

35.7

Questions

calcium carbonate

1
2
3
4
5

How could Sally decide when no more solute would dissolve?


Which substance was insoluble in water?
Which substance was most soluble in water?
Explain why eventually no more solute will dissolve.
What is the name for a solution in which no more solute will
dissolve?

Extension question
6 Sally had a balance that she could use to measure masses. She
thought of two different ways she could measure the mass of
solute that would dissolve.
First way
Sally measured out 100 g of the substance she was going to
dissolve. When she had dissolved as much as she could in the
water, she measured the mass of what she had left.
Second way
Sally measured the mass of the beaker containing 100 cm3 of
water. When she had dissolved as much solute as she could in
the water, she measured the mass of the beaker and its
contents.
a Explain how Sally could use her results from the first way,
to find the mass of solute that would dissolve in the water.
b Explain how Sally could use her results from the second way,
to find the mass of solute that would dissolve in the water.
c Which method do you think is better? Explain your answer.

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i9 Mining salt in Cheshire

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Between about 255 and 190 million years ago, a huge, shallow sea covered
what is now Cheshire. Enormous deposits of salt built up. Today, they are
deep underground, between 40 m and 100 m below the surface.
Water in the ground dissolves some of the underground salt, and it comes up
to the surface as a salt solution, called brine. People have been collecting salt
from the brine for thousands of years, at least since the Iron Age. The
Romans, too, obtained salt from the Cheshire salt deposits. Containers made
of lead, called salt pans, have been found at Nantwich, a town in Cheshire.
The salt pans were filled with brine and then heated to obtain dry salt.
Salt was always a valuable substance, and Roman soldiers were paid partly
with salt. The Roman word for salt was sal, and this is where our word
salary comes from.
Salt is still mined in Cheshire in the 21st century. The earliest known mine
was dug in 1627. For centuries, dry salt was obtained by the old method of
making brine and then evaporating the water, but the last producer of salt
using this method closed down in 1986. There are now problems of land
subsidence (collapsing) in several places in Cheshire, because of the huge
caverns that have been left underground after salt was extracted.

Questions

Today, more than 4 500 000 tonnes of rock salt are dug out each year from
Britains last remaining salt mine, at Winsford in Cheshire. Most of this is used to
spread onto the roads in winter. A mixture of salt and water freezes at a lower
temperature than water alone. So spreading rock salt on the road means that,
even at temperatures below 0 C, any water on the road does not turn to ice.

370

1 The salt in the deposits now found beneath Cheshire was


once in a huge shallow sea. Suggest what happened to the
sea to allow the salt deposits to form.
2 Lead is toxic (poisonous) to humans. Explain why the Roman
method of obtaining salt could have been harmful to health.
3 The word wich, as in Nantwich, means brine spring. Use
your atlas to find some other places in Cheshire which may
have been used for obtaining salt from brine springs in the past.
4 Explain how spreading salt on roads in winter can reduce the
number of accidents.
5 Each of these words or expressions has something to do with
salt. Find out what each of them means.
not to be worth your salt
sitting below the salt
salacious
6 Use the library and the Internet to find out about one of the
following.
Salt Ways in Britain (old roads used for transporting salt)
Modern uses for salt, apart from spreading on roads.
Why we should not eat too much salt in our diet.

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End of Unit test

TI

Solutions
1

The diagrams show four different methods of separating substances.

A
B

Write the letter of the method


you would use to separate each of these substances.

sand from a mixture of sand and water

(1)

water from a sugar solution

(1)

sugar from a sugar solution

(1)

red and yellow colourings from an orange food colouring

(1)

Complete the sentences below, using some of all of these words:


clear
cloudy
colourless
distillation
insoluble
mixture
residue
soluble

filtrate
solvent

a A mixture of an substance and water can be separated


by filtration. The liquid that passes through the filter paper is called the
. The substance that is left on the filter paper is called
the .

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(3)

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b Copper sulfate solution is a of copper sulfate and
water. In copper sulfate solution, water is the and
copper sulfate is the . Like all solutions, copper sulfate
solution is .
3

(4)

The diagram shows a beaker of water on a balance.


a What is the mass of the beaker of water?

(1)
b 6.2 g of salt are added to the beaker
and stirred until the salt has all dissolved.
What will the balance reading be now?
c

(1)

Describe how you could get back all of the salt that was added to the
water in the beaker.

(2)

The diagram shows the results of a


chromatography test on some
water-soluble paints.
a Which colour ink contained only one
coloured substance?

(1)
b Which colour ink contained three different coloured substances?

(1)
c

The purple ink was made by mixing the blue and red ink. On the
chromatogram, draw the results you would expect for the purple ink.
(2)

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Chapter 9 End of Unit test


5

David wanted to make a saturated solution of potassium chloride. He


added some potassium chloride to 100 cm3 of water in a beaker until no
more potassium chloride would dissolve.
a Tick the statement which describes a saturated solution.
(1)
a solution containing as much solute as will dissolve at that
temperature
a solution containing two different solutes
a solution that has been filtered
b What could David do to make the salt dissolve more quickly?

(1)

What happens to the


solubility of potassium
chloride as the
temperature increases?

80
Solubility of potassium chloride/
g per 100 g water

The graph shows the mass


of potassium chloride that
will dissolve in 100 g of
water at different
temperatures.

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Temperature (C)

(1)
d Suggest why the temperatures on the graph do not go below 0 C or
above 100 C.

(2)
e When David made his saturated solution, the temperature of the water
was 20 C. He used 100 cm3 of water.
Use the graph to find out how much potassium chloride he would be
able to dissolve in the water.
g
(1)
(Total marks: 25)

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Chapter 9 End of Unit test

Extension
6

Emma had a glass jar containing sugar. She dropped the jar and it broke.
The sugar got all mixed up with the pieces of glass.
Describe what Emma could do to get some dry sugar from the mixture of
sugar and pieces of glass. For each step you describe, explain what would
happen. You may draw diagrams to help you to explain your answers.
(10)

Tip:
For question 6, think about using three of these
processes but not necessarily in this order!
filtering
dissolving
evaporating
distilling

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Text answers
1
2
3

4
5

True: A, B False: C, D
a water
b sugar
c The sugar particles fit between the water particles.
a Thoroughly mix the sample of rock salt with water. Then pour the
mixture through filter paper. The mud will stay on the filter paper (as
the residue) while the salty water will flow through (as the filtrate).
b Heat the salt solution so that it evaporates to dryness.
Soluble: sugar, salt and copper sulfate. Insoluble: chalk and mud.
a about 40
b 2 40 = 80
c Approximately right, but not quite. At 100 C, about 75 g of copper
sulfate will dissolve, while about 240 g of potassium nitrate will
dissolve. So the potassium nitrate is more than 3 times as soluble as
copper sulfate at this temperature.

Literacy activity answers


a
b
c
d
e

There is not enough water for them to drink.


The winds have blown over the sea. Water from the sea evaporates into
the air and is carried along in the wind.
When water evaporated from the sea, the salt stayed behind. So the water
in the air does not contain any salt.
The wind is more likely to blow over them up there. They would be
sheltered from the wind at the bottom of the dune.
Snakes get their water from the bodies of the animals that they eat.

End of chapter answers


1
2

a
c
a
c
e
a

residue, filtrate
b distillation, evaporation
solution, solute, solvent
evaporating to dryness
b chromatography
filtration
d filtration
distillation
Some ammonium sulfate would remain visible at the bottom of the
container, no matter how much she stirred it.
b a saturated solution
c 85 g It is important to include the unit in the answer.
d 70 C It is important to include the unit in the answer.
Note: Encourage pupils to use a ruler to draw careful and accurate
construction lines when answering questions such as c and d.
a Grease is not soluble in water, so it will stay attached to the clothes.
However, if you rub the stain with ethanol, the grease particles will
dissolve in the ethanol, and can be washed away.
b He could stir the mixture of salt and sugar into some ethanol. The sugar
would dissolve, but the salt would not. So if he filtered the mixture, the
salt would remain on the filter paper as a residue.
He could then heat the solution of sugar in ethanol until all the ethanol
had evaporated.
Note: If you decide to demonstrate this technique, then obviously great care
is needed when heating ethanol. This should only be done over a water bath.

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Chapter 9 Answers

Worksheet answers
I1

Filtering mixtures

1 Water and: mud, cloudy, mud-coloured


salt, clear, colourless
sugar, clear, colourless
chalk, cloudy, white
copper sulfate, clear, blue
2 Water and: mud, cloudy, mud particles
salt, clear, nothing
sugar, clear, nothing
chalk, clear, chalk particles
copper sulfate, clear blue, nothing/blue stain
3 copper sulfate; nothing; could not; mud, chalk; water, could
I2

Where does the solute go?

1 a solvent, solute
I4

b the same as

Getting pure water from inky water

3 Water being a liquid, the forces between water particles hold them together (but
allow them to slide over each other). Heating the water gives its particles more
energy, and the particles move more vigorously until they break away from each
other and become a gas.
4 As gaseous water cools, its particles lose the energy that made them move
vigorously, and the forces between water particles attract them together
again. Eventually, there are enough particles to form droplets of liquid.
5 Ink has a much higher boiling point than water, so when all the water is
boiled off, the ink stays behind in the distillation flask.
I6

Who polluted the river?

1 Factory B: one of the spots for Dye1 matches the positions of the spot from
the river.
2 a water
b one
3 In case an error had occurred with one of them.
I8

1
2
3
4
5
6

I9

Comparing solubilities

She should keep adding solute until some remained visible even after stirring.
calcium carbonate
sodium chloride
There is no room for the solute particles in between the solvent particles.
a saturated solution
a She would subtract the mass of what she had left from 100 g.
b She would subtract the original mass of the beaker plus water from the
final mass of the beaker plus water plus solute.
c There are difficulties with both methods; you could give credit to any
answer backed up by a reasonable explanation. In both methods, there will
be some undissolved solute in the beaker, which will not be accounted for.

Mining salt in Cheshire

1 Coastline moves; sea lake(s) left behind; water evaporates.


2 Lead from containers contaminated salt.
4 Salt on road removes ice.

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Chapter 9 Answers

End of Unit test answers


1 C (1); A (1); D (1); B (1)
2 a insoluble, filtrate, residue (3)
b mixture, solvent, solute, clear (4)
3 a 26.4 g (1)
b 32.6 g (1)
c Heat the salt solution (1); until all the water has evaporated/to dryness (1)
4 a yellow (1)
b blue (1)
c Four spots should be drawn in a vertical line (1); matching those for red
plus blue (1)
5 a a tick alongside the first statement (1)
b stir it/heat it (1)
c it increases (1)
d 0 C water would freeze/be ice (1); above 100 C water would boil/be a
gas (2)
e 35 (1)
Total marks: 25

Extension answers
6 add the mixture to water;
to make a solution/to dissolve the sugar;
stir to speed this up;
filter;
description of filtration given/apparatus drawn;
the glass will stay on the filter paper/the residue is glass;
the sugar solution will flow through/the filtrate is sugar solution;
put the filtrate/sugar solution into an evaporating dish;
heat it;
description of how this is done/apparatus drawn;
until all the water has evaporated/to dryness;
what is left is sugar
(max. 10)
Total marks for Extension: 10

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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10 Electrical circuits

HRS

AC

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Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7j

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Recall that a complete circuit is required for electrical devices to work
Can construct a circuit
Can draw and interpret standard electrical symbols for connecting wires, cell,
battery, bulb and switch

Language for learning


Ammeter
Amp
Battery
Cell

Complete circuit
Component
Conductor
Current

Fuse
Incomplete circuit
Insulator
Junction

Parallel circuit
Resistance
Series circuit

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
to recognise some of the dangers associated with electricity and how to deal
with it safely
how to plan, build and explore circuits which include cells, bulbs and switches
how to draw circuit diagrams
how to plan, build and explore series and parallel circuits and be able to give
some advantages and disadvantages of these circuits
how to measure the current in a circuit and be able to identify that the electric
current is the same at all points in a series circuit, and divides along the
branches of a parallel circuit
how the voltage of a battery or cell relates to the energy transfer in the circuit
about resistance
about the work of Galvani on nerves

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
6G
4F

378

Title
Changing circuits
Circuits and conductors

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10 Electrical circuits

Links with other units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
8J
9I

Title
Magnets and electromagnets
Energy and electricity

Cross-curricular links
None for this Chapter
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy activity within the pupil book on Luigi Galvini
Worksheet J10, Forbidden, involves re-writing definitions of electrical terms in
the pupils own words

+2 8=

Numeracy
Identify the link between the current flowing into a junction and the current
flowing out of the junction.

ICT

ICT
Website references can be found at www.collinseducation.com/absolutescience

Learning Outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Select and use appropriate equipment to investigate circuits which include cells,
bulbs and switches
Measure current
Identify patterns in their results and draw conclusions about series and parallel
circuits
Physical processes
Construct a range of working electrical circuits and represent these in circuit
diagrams
State that electric current is the same at all points in a series circuit and divides
along the branches of a parallel circuit
Use a flow model to describe resistance and to distinguish between electric
current and energy transfer in a circuit
Compare and contrast the advantages of series and parallel circuits in use e.g.
ring main circuits

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Explore circuits using appropriate equipment
Identify patterns in their results and use these to describe the behaviour of
simple circuits
Physical processes
Construct simple electrical circuits and represent these diagrammatically
Give examples of useful circuits

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Pupils who have progressed further


Scientific enquiry
Plan and carry out a systematic investigation of series and parallel circuits to
obtain sufficient evidence to draw conclusions.
Give examples of the development of scientific ideas about electricity.
Physical processes
Relate voltage of cells and batteries quantitatively to energy transfer in circuits.
Use a flow model to explain the difference between electric current and energy
transfer.

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Simple circuits
The Pupil Book introduces this topic and pupils could carry out the activity about
Bills maze. Pupils should be helped to explain that electricity will only flow if a
circuit is complete. This idea could be developed further by looking at other
circuits via Worksheet J1, Complete and incomplete circuits.
Pupils should be reminded of the dangers associated with electricity which they
will have previously studied at Key Stage 2.
This section could also be used to remind pupils of conductors and insulators
using the activity in the pupil book or Worksheet J2, Conductors and insulators.

Circuit diagrams, cells and batteries


This topic provides good introduction to circuit diagrams. The Pupil Book explains
the usefulness of using a symbol instead of a true likeness of the component,
together with an activity based on these symbols. Pupils should learn that
switches can be used to stop the flow of current in a circuit. A possible
reinforcement activity is given on Worksheet J3, Circuit components.
In the second part of this section, the concept of cells and batteries is introduced
in the Pupil Book. Pupils should be helped to explain that:
a battery is made by connecting together a number of cells
cells and batteries make electricity move around the circuit
cells and batteries store chemical energy which is changed into electrical energy
Pupils can then carry out the activity on Worksheet J4, Batteries and switches. Pupils
should be helped to relate the voltage of a cell to its energy, and to recognise the
importance of the polarity of the cells when they are joined to make a battery.

Measuring current
The first part of this section introduces pupils to the concept of current and how it
can be measured using an ammeter. The Pupil Book shows two series circuits
which the pupils could be asked to build. They should be helped to appreciate
that the number, and type, of components in a circuit affects the current that
flows within that circuit. They should be encouraged to move the ammeter
around the circuit to prove that the current does not change. Pupils should then
be able to distinguish between the current and the energy in a circuit.

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10 Electrical circuits
In the second part of this section, pupils can be introduced to the idea of fuses
using the Pupil Book. They should be helped to explain how the electrical energy
from the battery is turned to heat or thermal energy which melts the fuse if too
much current flows and so protects the circuit.

Series and parallel circuits


The cartoon character Ben is used to introduce this topic in the Pupil Book. Pupils
should be made aware that there are two types of electrical circuit, series and
parallel.
They could then carry out the activities on Worksheet J5A, Series circuits, and
Worksheet J5B, Parallel circuits. Pupils may be surprised to see that, by connecting
two bulbs in parallel, they are equally bright, whilst if the two bulbs are connected
in series they are much dimmer.
Worksheet J6, Switches would make an ideal homework activity.

Measuring the current in series and parallel circuits


Pupils should be reminded that the bulbs connected in parallel were much brighter
than those connected in series. Pupils could then be given the opportunity to
carry out the activity on Worksheet J7, Measuring currents in series and parallel
circuits. Pupils should be encouraged to identify any trends and patterns.
Although care should be taken as any anomalous results may well confuse pupils.
A summary exercise is given in the Pupil Book.

Circuit models
In this section pupils are asked to reflect on their observations of circuits using a
model. The Pupil Book uses the idea of a train collecting and dropping off coal
(energy). Other models could be substituted and work equally well. Pupils should
be asked to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the models.
There may also be time in this section to complete the literacy activity on
Galvanis work on nerves.
Pupils may also be given access to other sources of information about nerves and
should be helped to explain the effects of electrical currents on the body.

Resistance
The concept of resistance could be introduced by asking pupils about what
resistance means in everyday life. They could also be reminded of dimmer
switches which they may have some experience of from home. Pupils should be
helped to define resistance as the opposition to the flow of electricity.
Pupils may also be given the opportunity to use a variable resistor. Instructions
are given on Worksheet J8, Resistance. A summary of this section is given in the
Pupil Book.
If time allows, the activity on Worksheet J9, Forbidden could be used as a
reinforcement/literacy exercise.

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Teaching hints and tips


Introduction
This topic contains many important concepts. Fortunately, it is also a very
practical section and pupils can carry out lots of activities to both introduce
themselves to new concepts and reinforce others that they have already met.
Provided there is lots of practical work most pupils enjoy this topic.
It is important that teachers familiarise themselves with the electrical equipment
that is available in their schools and are able to modify where necessary any
instructions/descriptions given in the pupils book and on the worksheets. For
example, will you use a cell/battery or labpack for your supply? Are pupils
familiar with how connections are made and the settings for these power
supplies? Should part of the first lesson in this section be used to demonstrate
how they should be used?

Circuit diagrams
Throughout this chapter pupils should be encouraged to draw all circuits they
build and use as circuit diagrams. There is a list of the most common components
and their symbols on page 144 in Pupil Book 1.

Complete circuits
Most pupils have already met the idea that circuits will only work if the circuit is
complete. Useful phrases here include The circuit has no gaps and The
electricity can leave the cell/battery, go all the way around the circuit and back
again to the cell/battery. Building the circuits suggested in Worksheet J1 should
help to reinforce this idea. Be aware of the misconception that if the gap is after
the bulb the electricity can still reach it and therefore it should glow. Making and
then breaking the circuit in lots of different places should confirm to pupils that
the position of the gap in a series circuit is unimportant.

Conductors and insulators


Few pupils have problems with this concept. Some materials allow electricity to
flow through them. These are called conductors. Some materials do not allow
electricity to flow through them. These are called insulators. The activity
described in Worksheet J2 confirms these ideas and should lead to the idea that
all metals are good conductors and all non-metals are insulators. There is one
exception to this, which is graphite. This can be demonstrated to the pupils by
sharpening both ends of a pencil and then connecting wires to the exposed
graphite at each end. The topic can be rounded off by pointing out that we use
conductors to carry electricity to where it is wanted e.g. the wires/cables stretched
between pylons/the metal pins on a plug etc. We use insulators to stop electricity
from flowing in a particular direction e.g. the plastic case of a plug, the plastic
coating of electrical wires and cables.

Batteries and switches


A battery is several cells connected together. We usually connect them together to
pump a larger current around a circuit so a bulb for example will glow more
brightly (see Worksheet J4). Care needs to be taken when a battery is
constructed that all the cells are pumping in the same direction. This point can
be emphasised by looking inside the back of a radio where cells are inserted. To
ensure that they are all pumping in the same direction there are usually markings

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10 Electrical circuits
indicating which way around they should be placed. In everyday life we often
refer to cells and batteries as batteries but in science we must be more precise. It
is cells that are put into a radio and together they make a battery.
Whilst these simple circuits are being constructed we can at the same time
introduce the idea that a switch turns a circuit on and off by making it complete
and incomplete i.e. when the switch is in the off position there is a gap in the
circuit. When the switch is in the on position there is no longer a gap. Sometimes
the analogy of a switch to a drawbridge helps pupils to visualise what is
happening.

Series and parallel circuits


By building the circuits described in Worksheet J5, pupils can explore the idea
that there are two different types of circuit. Those that have just one path along
which electricity can flow, these are called series circuits and those that have
more than one path to follow, these are called parallel circuits. The different
properties of the different circuits can be discovered by following Worksheets J6
and J7. But before pupils are asked to measure currents in their circuits using an
ammeter, it would be advisable to demonstrate its use to the whole class.
Different ammeters will need different instructions so it is essential to know the
type of ammeter available for these investigations. Check to see if the direction of
the current through the meter is important (will the needle move the wrong way
if connections are incorrect?). Check to see if the size of the current through the
meter is important and if so make sure the correct shunt has already been fitted
to the ammeter before the lesson.
The important points from these investigations are:
That the currents that flow in a series circuit have the same value
everywhere.
It is not possible to turn part of a series circuit on or off. It is ALL on or ALL
off.
That the currents that flow in a parallel circuit can be different in different
parts.
It is possible to turn part of a parallel circuit on or off.

Electrical energy
One of the outcomes of investigating the sizes of currents in different parts of all
circuits is that pupils should notice that the current leaving a cell or battery is
equal to the current that returns. Current is not used up as it travels around a
circuit. The current is in fact the carrier of energy. It receives this energy from a
cell or battery and then carries it to various parts of the circuit where it is
changed into other forms e.g. When current passes through a light bulb some of
the energy it is carrying (electrical energy) is changed into heat and light energy.
There is a description of a railway circuit on page 151 of Pupil Book 1 which may
help pupils grasp the concept.

Resistance
Using Worksheet J8, pupils should notice that as they increase the number of
bulbs they have in a simple series circuit the current flowing decreases. This can be
explained by using the idea that the electricity has to struggle to get through the
bulbs i.e. the bulbs are hindering the flow of current. We say that the bulbs offer
resistance to the flow of current. All components in a circuit offer some resistance
to the flow of current. Sometimes this resistance is very low for example in
connecting wires. Sometimes as in the case of a bulb it is much higher.

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The idea that we can use resistance to control the size of a current can then be
introduced. For example if too large a current flows through a bulb it will break.
To stop this from happening we can connect a component into the circuit called a
resistor. This reduces the current flowing in the circuit and so prevents the bulb
from breaking. We can go one step further by introducing into the circuit a
component called a variable resistor by twisting a knob or pushing a sliding
contact we can alter how much the variable resistor opposes the flow of current.
This in turn alters the brightness of the bulb, i.e. the variable resistor is being
used as a dimmer switch. As an extension pupils could be asked What do you
think is happening when you alter the loudness or brightness of your TV sets?
The answer is of course they are changing the currents that are flowing by
altering the resistance in the circuit using a variable resistor.

Programme of Study References


Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes and


Living Things

1a, 1b, 1e, 2c, 2f,


2j, 2k, 2l, 2m

384

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Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes
1a, 1b, 1c, 5a

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A PT ER

10

Checklist

CH E C KLIS

4 Reproduction

What I have learnt


T

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Ammeter

Component

Insulator

Amp

Conductor

Junction

Battery

Current

Parallel circuit

Cell

Fuse

Resistance

Complete circuit

Incomplete circuit

Series circuit

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know how to recognise some of


the dangers associated with
electricity and how to deal with
them safely
I know how to plan, build and
explore circuits which include cells,
bulbs and switches
I know how to draw circuit
diagrams
I know how to plan, build and
explore series and parallel circuits
and be able to give some
advantages and disadvantages of
these circuits
I know how to measure the current
in a circuit and be able to identify
that the electric current is the same
at all points in a series circuit, and
divides along the branches of a
parallel circuit
I know how the voltage of a
battery or cell relates to the energy
transfer in a circuit
I know what resistance in a circuit
means
I know about the work of Galvani
on nerves

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ap

0
ter 1

Absolute Science Lesson Plan

Ch

386

Chapter 10 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Simple circuits

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 142143

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that a cell or powerpack will pump electricity around


a complete circuit.

Less Able Pupils

Recognise that electricity will not flow around an incomplete


circuit.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus know that there may be degrees of


conductivity.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

The concept of the word circuit as meaning a complete loop.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet J1 Complete and
incomplete circuits
Per group:
Cell (or power pack), bulb, connecting
wires.
Worksheet J2 Conductors and
insulators
Per group:
As for J1, plus 2 crocodile clips.
Samples of conducting and insulating
materials (total 10), e.g. tin foil, plastic
rod, drinking can, coins, paper, wool etc.
(If short, groups can collect them in turn
from a central point.)

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Chapter 10 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Ask pupils to write a list of as many electrical devices as posssible.
This can be made into a competition.

Faster working pupils will compile longer lists.

Pupils recognise a range of devices, and ideas are drawn


from their own experience at home and at school.

Explain that all these devices contain electrical circuits. Ask pupils for
their ideas on what the word circuit means.
Draw a simple pictorial representation of a cell and a single bulb on the
board, and ask a volunteer to add in the connecting wires to complete
the circuit. Draw attention to the fact that these things are termed
components.

Pupils compare their ideas about a circuit with those of


others.
Pupils understand that a connection must be made
between components in order for a circuit to work.

Distribute Worksheet J1 Complete and incomplete circuits. Organise


pupils into mixed ability groups and ask one member of each group to
collect a cell (or power pack), bulb and connecting wires, while the
others read Pupil Book p.144 as an introduction to the activity.

Pupils understand the idea of a complete and an


incomplete circuit.

The component collectors should now read p.144 and the others
acquaint themselves with the components. If groups are using a power
pack, they should spend some time becoming familiar with the basic
controls.

Pupils gain a practical understanding of how to use a


power pack.

10

Direct groups to carry out the steps in J1, noting down findings in their
workbooks.

Pupils consolidate the work done at Key Stage 2, now


gaining concrete experience of complete and incomplete
circuits.

15

Introduce the idea of conductors and insulators, then hand out


Worksheet J2 Conductors and insulators. Instruct pupils to copy into
their workbooks the circuit diagram and the table for results and then
to carry out the investigation.
Invite pupils completing this work quickly to answer Q 1 p.142 and Q 2
p.143.

Direct groups to tidy away the equipment and then hold a class
discussion of results, recapping the main principles of circuits.

More able pupils may recognise that some


materials can be better conductors than
others.

Homework: Complete the questions in Worksheets J1 and J2. Answer Qs 1 and 2, Pupil Book pp.142 and 143.

Pupils understand that the type of materials used in a


circuit are important: that not all allow electricity to
flow through them.

Pupils vocalise ideas on circuits, components,


conductors and insulators.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Circuit diagrams, cells and batteries

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 142145

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Learn to represent electrical components as symbols. Understand


the role of cells and switches in circuits. Understand the effect of
adding more cells into a circuit.

Less Able Pupils

Recognise and use circuit symbols. Know that switches can be used
to can stop electricity flowing around a circuit.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus make predictions about the effect of additional
cells on the brightness of bulbs, and consider links to the energy in
the circuit.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Display of components
Cells/batteries, bulbs, switches,
connecting wires.
Worksheet J3 Circuit components
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise)
Worksheet J4 Batteries and switches
Per group:
3 cells, 1 bulb, 1 switch, connecting
wires.
For faster pupils: more cells.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Display components and ask one pupil to draw on the board a simple
(series) circuit including a battery, bulb and switch. Evaluate the
drawing, then explain how the circuit could be represented much more
quickly and simply using symbols. Draw the circuit diagram.

Pupils recognise the usefulness and simplicity of using


symbols.

Ask pupils for their ideas for circuit symbols for basic components,
such as bulbs, switches, cells etc. There are no 'right' answers; all ideas
for circuit symbols are valid.
Hand out Worksheet J3 Circuit components and ask the class to begin
doing it.

Pupils consider: What makes a good symbol?, and learn


the standard circuit symbols.

Introduce the idea that more than a single cell constitutes a battery, and
remind the class that a current is electricity flowing. (No comprehensive
understanding is required at this stage.)

Pupils understand in simple terms the basic principle


behind voltage and current .

Distribute Worksheet J4 Batteries and switches. Refer to the analogy


of a cell acting like a water pump (see Q 1). Arrange mixed-ability
groups and direct them to collect the components: you can number
group members and have different numbered pupils collect different
components, reminding them to refer to the circuit diagrams on J4.

Pupils have practice in matching components to their


names.

15

Direct groups to carry out J4. Visit each group in turn, asking for ideas
and explanations for the number of cells and, for step 5, the effect of
the switch.
Abler pupils can be asked to make and test predictions about the effect
of adding more cells.

Pupils gain practical experience of building circuits, and


learn that adding more cells makes bulbs glow brighter
and that switches can be used to stop and start the
electricity flowing.

10

Direct groups to clear away the equipment. Pupils could either complete
the questions in J4 or, if time is short, do Q 5 on Pupil Book p.145.

In a short class discussion, revisit the main teaching objectives of this


lesson, with groups sharing their findings, ideas and opinions.
Address misconceptions.

Homework: Complete your answers to the questions on Worksheets J3 and J4.

Differentiation

Fast working pupils can complete both sets


of questions.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils demonstrate an understanding of J4 activities


through answering the questions and formulating their
ideas into comprehensive statements.
Pupils confirm and consolidate concepts of electrical
components and circuits through teacher and peer
discussion.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Measuring current
Fuses

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 146147

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Know that an ammeter is used to measure current, in amps (A).


Can state that current remains the same in all parts of a series
circuit. Understands that fuses melt when too much current passes
through them.

Less Able Pupils

Can measure the current in a circuit, using an ammeter. Know that


fuses are used for safety reasons.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus understand the relationship between the


number of components in the circuit and the current. Know that
different devices need different amounts of current, requiring
different fuses.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Reading ammeters accurately.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Circuits on Pupil Book p. 146
Per group:
2 cells, 3 bulbs, 2 switches, connecting
wires, crocodile clips, ammeter.
Demo: Effect on bulb brightness of
adding cells
The above, plus further cells.
Demo: Fuse melts when too much
current flows
Thin wire, connecting wires, power
supply.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Direct pupils to begin reading Pupil Book p.146.
As a short recap, ask pupils for their ideas about switches, and remind
them of the circuit model involving water being pumped around pipes.

Pupils are familiar with the words ammeter and amps.


and pupils reinforce work on circuit diagrams in Lesson 2.

With reference to p.146, ask pupils: What is needed to measure the


current in a circuit? and What are the units that current is measured in?
Pupils can tell each other their answers before sharing their ideas with
the whole class. Direct them to write the answers as notes in their
workbooks.

Pupils understand that ammeters measure current in


amps (A).

Organise the class in groups, then instruct a member of each to collect


components and an ammeter for the circuits on p.146 and to build the
circuits. The rest of the pupils should copy both circuit diagrams into
their workbooks.

The pupils who set up the circuits now copy the circuit diagrams. If time,
those who have completed their diagrams can dismantle and then
rebuild the same circuits.

10

Direct pupils to change the position of their ammeter and record the
current at different points in the same circuit.
Then ask pupils to consider the brightness of the bulb if the single bulb
is replaced by several bulbs. Ask them to share ideas with the class, then
demonstrate the effect on bulb brightness of adding more bulbs,
with the ammeter showing a smaller current.

Ask one pupil from each group to return apparatus and the others to
read Fuses on p.147.

10

Demonstrate that a fuse melts when too much current flows by


using a thin wire in a circuit with a power supply. With Q and A, elicit
that the thin wire (in a fuse) melts because of excessive current, and
that a fuse is used as a safety switch, breaking the circuit.

Pupils understand the safety principle behind the


working of a fuse.

Use Q and A to check pupils' understanding of the principles of current


in a series circuit, how, and in what units it is measured, and the idea
behind using fuses. Less able pupils can be paired with a friend who
can give them clues.

Pupils consolidate their understanding of different


currents in a circuit, and of the role of fuses.

Homework: Answer Q 6 on Pupil Book p.147.

Differentiation

Faster working pupils could concentrate on


builing the circuits, to allow slower workers
an opportunity to complete the circuit
diagrams.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils can interpret circuit diagrams, decide on


components and equipment needed, and build the
circuits.

Pupils have experience of the fact that current is the


same at all points of a series circuit, and that increasing
the number of components in a circuit affects the
current flowing through the circuit.

Less able pupils may benefit from the support


of more able pupils in understanding this
passage.

Pupils know that fuses are safety devices, and that fuse
wire will melt when too much current passes along it.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Series and parallel circuits

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 148149

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Make predictions about series and parallel circuits, before going on


to establish the most important features of each. Understand the
placement of switches to control branches of a parallel circuit.

Less Able Pupils

Recognise that series and parallel circuits behave differently.


Understand that, in parallel circuits, there is more than one path
for the current to travel along.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus can give examples of the usefulness of series
and parallel circuits in different devices.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo: Connecting a simple parallel
circuit
Cells, connecting wires, bulbs, crocodile
clips, switches.
Worksheet J5A Series circuits
Per group:
Battery with 2 cells, 3 bulbs, connecting
wires. (Leave out the components for
groups to choose from.)
Worksheet J5B Parallel circuits
As for J5 plus more connecting wires.
Worksheet J6 Switches
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise,
optionally for Homework)

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Chapter 10 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

In and register.
Direct pupils to read Pupil Book p.148 and decide what they would
say to Bill.
Draw a simple series circuit and parallel circuit on the board. Ask for
two volunteers to come and trace their finger around the circuit, showing
the path that the electricity would take.

Pupils make a prediction about the effect of switches in


series and parallel circuits. Pupils understand that in
parallel circuits there are branches or junctions,
allowing more than one path for the electricity to
follow.

Instruct pupils to draw a simple series circuit and parallel circuit in their
workbooks, indicating clearly in the parallel circuit that there are
branches.

Pupils understand the main difference (in number of


routes) between series and parallel circuits.

Carrry out the demonstration of connecting a simple parallel circuit,


to clear up difficulties pupils may have with this. If time is short, this can
cover the circuit shown in Worksheet J5B (see below).

Distribute Worksheet J5A Series circuits and Worksheet J5B Parallel


circuits.
Organise pupils into mixed ability groups. Instruct groups to decide on
the components needed to construct the circuit shown in J5A, and then
to collect the components.

Pupils observe how to construct a parallel


circuit.

Pupils identify component requirements from a circuit


diagram.

20

Direct groups to do the activity on Worksheet J5A and to agree on


answers to Qs 1 to 3. If they have time, they should also do Worksheet
J5B, and work out answers to Qs 1 to 3.

Fast working pupils will have time to think


of answers to Qs 1 to 3 on both worksheets.

Pupils understand that removing one bulb in a series


circuit has an effect on the other bulbs, but that in a
parallel circuit, bulbs in different branches are
unaffected..

After equipment is cleared away, hold a class discussion based on group


answers to the J5A and J5B questions. Encourage pupils from every
group to express ideas about the brightness of bulbs in parallel,
compared to series.

Pupils understand that in parallel circuits, the bulbs


remain bright.

Instruct the class to read through the information on p.149 about


switches in series and parallel circuits, and then to answer Q 9. Hand
out and introduce Worksheet J6 Switches.

Pupils understand that combinations of switches can be


used to control the current flowing in a parallel circuit.

Go throught the answers to Q 9. Draw a parallel circuit diagram on the


board and invite pupils to indicate the position of a switch that will turn
off a bulb in one branch of the circuit. Summarise the main points from
the lesson.

Pupils reinforce their understanding of the differences


between series and parallel circuits.

Homework: Write down answers to Qs 1 to 3 on Worksheets J5A and J5B, and think about Q 4 on each. If time, complete Worksheet J6.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 p.150
Measuring current in series and parallel circuits

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can measure and state the main differences between current in


series and in parallel circuits.

Less Able Pupils

Can measure current in series and parallel circuits. Know that there
is a difference in how current behaves in each.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus begin to understand the relationship between


currents in different parts of the circuit.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Comparing ammeter readings. Measuring currents in a circuit.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet J7 Measuring currents in
series and parallel circuits
Per group:
Powerpack, switch, ammeter, 3 bulbs,
crocodile clips, connecting wires.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
In advance, draw on the board a simple series circuit containg a cell,
two bulbs, and three ammeters placed before (A), between (B) and
after (C) the bulbs. Ask pupils to copy this diagram in their workbooks.

Pupils encounter the situation of several ammeters


placed in series.

Say that ammeter B reads 2 amps and ask the class to write in their
books what the reading should be on ammeters A and C. Pupils can
discuss their ideas amongst themselves before making a prediction.

Pupils reinforce their knowledge of current in a series


circuit.

Distribute Worksheet J7 Measuring currents in series and parallel


circuits, and ask pupils, organised in mixed ability groups, to collect the
appropriate apparatus. This exercise allows pupils to test their
predictions.

18

Direct pupils to carry out the work of J7, spending between 5 and 10
minutes on each type of circuit and on working out answers to the
questions. Point out that pupils should pay particular attention to
measuring current in the branches of a parallel circuit, as mistakes can
easily be made. Then instruct groups to clear away the apparatus.

10

Use group answers to the J7 questions as the basis for a class discussion
on patterns found in the current. Guide pupils to formulate ideas on
trends and patterns in the current of series and parallel circuits and,
after discussion, instruct them to write these ideas in their workbooks.

With reference to Electrical energy, p.150, ask pupils to offer an


expanation of why bulbs that are connected in parallel glow more
brightly. This may form the basis for an introduction to models for
electrical circuits.

Hold a brief review of the main findings, including the fact that current
is not used up in a circuit. As an introduction to models for electrical
circuits, the analogy of water being pumped round a loop can be
introduced.

Homework: Write up answers to the questions in Worksheet J7.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Pupils understand that currents in the different parts of


a parallel circuit are not the same. The sum of the
currents flowing into a branch or junction is equal to
that flowing out.
More able pupils have more ideas for bulbs
in parallel glowing more brightly.

Pupils reinforce ideas about current in parallel.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Circuit models

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 151152

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Role play: Circuit model
Energy Tokens to be handed by the cell
to the current and then dropped off at
the bulb.

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can explain a model for electrical circuits and demonstrate simple


circuit principles through that model. Understand energy transfers
and can give specific examples.

Less Able Pupils

Know a model for electrical circuits. Know that components can


change electrical enegy into other forms of energy.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus can evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of
circuit models.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

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Chapter 10 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Revisiting the model introduced at the end of Lesson 5, ask pupils to
reflect on the idea of a circuit as a loop of water, being pumped around.
As a class, discuss this model and suggest others such as the lorries/trains
dropping off coal (as Pupil Book p.151). Ask pupils to identify the
strengths and weaknesses of these models.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

More able pupils will develop understanding


of parallel concepts, such as water pressure
and resistance.

10

Direct pupils to make a simplified copy of the circuit model on p.151


(centre part only) and to write a short explanation, in their own words,
to accompany the diagram. For less able pupils, provide this explanation.

Pupils develop their understanding of the circuit model.

Set up a role play to simulate the circuit model. Clear an area to


allow enough space to allow the pupils to form a circle (this activity
works well outside). Inform the pupils that they are modelling a circuit:
when they move, the electricity is flowing.

Pupils appreciate that a complete circuit is required for


current to flow.

In order to get the electricity moving, direct two pupils to model the
cell (or battery or powerpack). They stand one in, and one outside the
circle, giving a gentle push to the others as they pass between them.
The teacher should activate the cell and pupils should practise moving
around the circuit at a steady pace.

Pupils understand that a cell, battery or powerpack


provides the energy to make a current flow.

Ask pupils how they can tell that a current is flowing in a real circuit
(ammeter, bulb, other component). Ask a pair of pupils to model a bulb.
They stand like the cell. When the pupils move between them, they flap
their arms to indicate that a current is going through the bulb, lighting
it up. Some pupils may find the idea of energy transfer more tangible if
the cell hands the pupils forming the current some Energy Tokens, to be
dropped off at the bulb.

Pupils understand that components change electrical


energy into other forms of energy, and that the current
is not used up.

10

Pupils then return to their seats and use the role play as a stimulus for
discussing energy transfers in the circuit. Instruct pupils to make brief
notes in their workbooks on energy transfers from the information on
p.152.

Pupils have a record of specific examples of energy


transfers.

10

Through Q and A, ask pupils to explain the key features of the role play:
the function of the cell, the current at different points in the circuit,and
energy transfers

Pupils consolidate key ideas of the lesson.

Homework: Complete notes on the drawing of the circuit model.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 7

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Electrical resistance

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 152153

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can make predictions about the effect of adding components in


series and parallel. Will develop a concept of resistance, through
modelling a circuit. Can state what a variable resistor does.

Less Able Pupils

Know that resistance has an effect on the electricity in a circuit.


Different materials have different resistances.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus: Can make predictions about the relationship
between resistance and current in series and parallel circuits.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Demo on resistance: Adding bulbs to a
series circuit, then a parallel circuit
Cells, bulbs, connecting wires, crocodile
clips.
To investigate the effect of a variable
resistor on the current in a circuit
Cells, bulbs, connecting wires, variable
resistor, crocodile clips.
Worksheet J8 Resistance
One sheet per pupil. This can be an
Extension activity, or the questions can be
answered as a Homework exercise.
Circuits A, B and C: Cell, ammeter, 3
bulbs, connecting wires, crocodile clips.l
Circuit D: Cell, bulb, variable resistor

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Chapter 10 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 7 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
Direct pupils to read Electrical resistance on Pupil Book pp.152153
as an introduction to the demonstration to follow.

Set up a demonstration on resistance, adding bulbs to a series


circuit, then a parallel circuit, as follows. Assemble a circuit with a cell
and one bulb. Ask pupils to discuss with a neighbour and then predict
what will happen to the brightness of the bulb if another bulb is placed
in series. Test their predictions by adding another bulb.

Pupils experience a hypothesis tested and confirmed.

Ask pupils to explain why the bulbs get dimmer, as more are added in
series. Introduce the concept of resistance and discuss it. Use the
analogy of pupils running (current) along a corridor (wire), and being
slowed down by teachers (resistance). Through Q and A, get the class to
define resistance, e.g. as opposition to the flow of electricity, and ask
pupils to write it in their workbooks.

Pupils develop the concept of resistance and record a


definition.

Ask pupils (discussing in pairs) to predict what the effect of adding more
bulbs in parallel would be. Test these ideas by adding bulbs, one at a
time, to the demonstration circuit.

Pupils incorporate the concept of resistance into their


interpretation of what happens in parallel circults.

Use further analogies to explain no alteration in the brightness of bulbs


when added in parallel, e.g. more lanes on the motorway or many
corridors in the school.

Note that not all pupils find analogies helpful. Pupils reinforce understanding of the concept of
resistance through analogy.

Organise a resistance roleplay: Clear space in the lab and ask about
20 pupils to form two lines facing each other, two arms lengths apart.
These pupils represent the wire through which the remainer of the pupils
(the current will flow).

Pupils with strong spatial imagery will benefit


from this activity

10

Ask the current to flow down the wire, with different amounts of
resistance in each turn. Resistance in the wire is modelled by pupils
holding their arms out into the space between the two lines, thus
making it harder for the current to flow. Switch pupils around to give
them a different perspective. Revisit the idea of conductors and
insulators to remind pupils of different materials having different
conducting ability.

Pupils revisit the idea that different materials have


different resistance.

15

Depending on time, either discuss, demonstrate or ask pupils to


investigate the effect of a variable resistor on the current in a
circuit. A simple series circuit is built containig a cell, a bulb and a
variable resistor. Ask: Where is a variable resistor useful at home?
(dimmer switch)

Pupils understand that variable resistors can be used to


control the amount of current flowing in a circuit.

Homework: Answer Qs 12 and 13 on Pupil Book p.153.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

These new ideas are reinforced through the practical


activity.

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Chapter 10 Lesson 8

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Revision of electrical circuits topic

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 142157

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Have established a sound understanding of the key concepts of


simple electrical circuits.

Less Able Pupils

Pick up on areas of the topic not previously accessed.

More Able Pupils

All of the above, plus consolidate understanding of key concepts


related to electrical circuits, and learn more subject-specific
vocabulary.

Room

Equipment & resources needed


Circus of tasks
Activity 1 Reading comprehension:
Luigi Galvani
Dictionaries.
Activity 3 Mind map
Large sheets of paper (A3). Markers.
Worksheet J9 Forbidden!
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise, for
Homework)

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Extended comprehension task (Luigi Galvani), identification and definition of key words.

Cross-curricular development
Historical aspect of Luigi Galvani's work.

Time 50 mins

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Chapter 10 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 10 Lesson 8 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

In and register.
This lesson can be run as a circus of four tasks, each of which can be
attempted by a quarter of the class in a given time period (10 mins)
before moving on to the next activity. Explain this to the pupils and
briefly describe the activities. Tell the class that all activities are limited
by time and therefore completion in full of each task is not essential.

10

Activity 1 Reading comprehension: Luigi Galvani. Direct pupils to


read the text on Pupil Book p.154, then answer the questions a to e in
their workbooks, using dictionaries if required.

Pupils gain practice in subject-specific vocabulary and


learn about the work of one famous scientist.

10

Activity 2 Odd-numbered End of chapter questions. Pupils should


answer as many of these questions from pp.156157 as they have time
for: since work is set according to time, not number of quesitons,
pupils work at their own pace.

Pupils have practice using principles and facts related to


simple electrical circuits.

10

Activity 3: Mind map. Ask pupils in pairs (more able and less able
paired) to use the Key ideas and Key words on p.155 to construct a
mind map of the topic on large sheets of paper.

10

Activity 4 Even-numbered End of chapter questions. Pupils should


answer as many of these questions from pp.156157 as they have
time for.

Direct the class to clear away, then discuss any major points raised
during the activities.

Homework: Do Worksheet J9 Forbidden!

Differentiation

The complexity of links within the mind map


varies according to level of understanding.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils construct links between ideas on electrical


circuits.

Pupils have a thorough grounding in the facts and


principles of simple electrical circuits in series and in
parallel.

401

HA

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J1 Complete and
incomplete circuits

1 Build the circuit shown above. What happens to the bulb when the circuit
is complete?
2 Starting from the positive side of the cell, trace with your finger the path
followed by the electricity as it flows around the circuit.
3 Now remove one of the wires to the left of the bulb. What happens to the
bulb?
4 Again, starting from the positive side of the cell, try to trace the path the
electricity should follow around the circuit.
5 Reconnect this wire and disconnect a wire which is to the right of the bulb.
What happens?

Questions

6 Repeat instruction 4.

402

1 What is a complete circuit?


2 What is an incomplete circuit?
3 What happens to the bulb when the circuit is complete?
Explain why this happens.
4 What happens to the bulb when the circuit is incomplete?
Explain why this happens.

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J2 Conductors and
insulators

1 Build the circuit shown above. What happens to the bulb? Explain your
answer.
2 Place a piece of metal foil between the crocodile clips. What happens to
the bulb? Explain what happens.
3 Remove the piece of metal foil and instead place a piece of paper between
the crocodile clips. What happens to the bulb? Explain your answer.
4 Draw a table similar to that shown below.
5 Select 10 objects and use your circuit to see if the materials from which
these objects are made are conductors or insulators.
Conductor

Insulator

Questions

Comb made of plastic

1 You are given 5 bulbs one of


which is broken. Explain how
you would discover which
bulb is faulty. Include a circuit
diagram with your answer.

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Below you can see the symbols for several circuit components, together with
their names and a short description of what they do. Unfortunately the
names and descriptions have become muddled. Only the ammeter symbol, its
name and description are correct.
In your book, draw each of the other symbols. Then write beneath each
symbol what it represents, and what that component does in a circuit.

404

Ammeter

Connecting wire

Fuse

Switch

Instrument used to
measure the size of
a current.

Turns the circuit off


if too much current
flows.

Changes electrical
energy into heat
and light energy.

Several cells
connected
together.

Battery

Cell

Bulb

Opening or closing
makes circuits
complete or
incomplete.

A very good
conductor.

Gives current
energy.

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J4 Batteries and switches

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If we want to increase the electricity flowing in a circuit we can connect


several cells together. Several cells connected together are called a battery.

Circuit A

Circuit B

Circuit C

Circuit D

1 Build circuit A shown above. Look carefully at the bulb.


2 Build circuit B. What do you notice about the bulb? Explain any difference
you can see.
3 Build circuit C. What do you notice about the bulb? Explain any differences
you can see.
4 Build circuit D. What do you notice about the bulb? Explain any differences
you can see.

Questions

5 Build the circuit shown above. Open and close the switch. Explain what
happens to the bulb.

1 Imagine that a cell is an electricity pump. It pumps electricity


around a circuit in the same way that water-pumps pump
water through pipes. Using this idea explain what you have
discovered from these experiments.
2 Imagine that a switch is a drawbridge. Explain how opening
and closing a switch turns a circuit off and on. Draw a pair of
cartoon diagrams to illustrate your answer.

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A

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1 Build the circuit shown above.


2 Unscrew and remove the bulb nearest to the positive side of the battery.
What happens?
3 Replace the bulb you have just removed and unscrew the middle bulb.
What happens?
4 Replace the middle bulb and remove the third bulb. What happens?

Questions

5 Lastly, place one of your fingers on the positive side of the cell, then trace
the path followed by the electricity as it flows around the circuit.

406

1 How many different paths can electricity follow in a series


circuit?
2 What happens to the bulbs in a series circuit if one of them
breaks?
3 How many switches are needed to control the electricity in a
series circuit?
4 Look around your house. Can you see any circuits there that
are series circuits? Explain why you think they are series
circuits.

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J5B Parallel circuits


B

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(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(c)

1 Build the circuit shown above.


2 Unscrew and remove the bulb (a). What happens?
3 Replace the bulb (a) and unscrew the bulb (b). What happens?
4 Replace the bulb (b) and remove the bulb (c). What happens?

Questions

5 Lastly, place one of your fingers on the positive side of the cell, then trace
the different paths the electricity can follow.

1 How many different paths can electricity follow in this parallel


circuit?
2 What happens to the bulbs in a parallel circuit if one of them
breaks?
3 How many switches are needed to control the electricity in all
parts of this parallel circuit? Draw a circuit diagram showing
where you would put these switches.
4 Look around your house. Can you see any circuits there that
are parallel circuits? Explain why you think they are parallel
circuits.

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J6 Switches

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You are given 8 bulbs, one switch, a cell and some connecting wires.
1 Draw a circuit diagram showing how the switch could be used to turn all 8
bulbs on and off.
2 Draw a circuit diagram to show how the switch could be used to turn 7
bulbs on and off. Bulb 8 is included in the circuit and remains on the
whole time.
3 Draw a circuit diagram to show how the switch could be used to turn 6
bulbs on and off. The other two bulbs are included in the circuit and
remain on the whole time.
4 Draw a circuit diagram to show how the switch could be used to turn 5
bulbs on and off. The other three bulbs are included in the circuit and
remain on the whole time.

Extension questions
There are probably lots of switches in your home, but if you have a staircase
there may be two special ones to control the lights on the stairs. The circuit
diagram below shows how these switches might be connected.

2-way switch
power
supply

2-way switch

5 Why are the switches that control the lighting on stairs different from
most of the other switches in the house?
6 Copy the circuit diagram shown above. Explain how this arrangement of
switches works.

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J7 Measuring currents in
series and parallel circuits
Series circuits

Circuit A

Questions

1 Build circuit A. Write down


the current shown on the
ammeter. This is the current
1
2
3
leaving the cell.
2 Now change the circuit so
that the ammeter is
measuring the current flowing between bulbs 1 and 2. Write down the
value of the current.
3 Change the circuit again so that this time the ammeter is measuring the
current flowing between bulbs 2 and 3. Write down the value of this
current.
4 Change the circuit a final time so that the ammeter measures the current
flowing back to the cell.

1 What do you notice about the current flowing in each part of


the series circuit?
2 How much current is used up as electricity flows around the
circuit?

Parallel circuits

Circuit B

Questions

5 Build circuit B. Write down the current


shown on the ammeter. This is the current
1
leaving the cell.
6 Now change the circuit so that the
2
3
ammeter is measuring the current flowing
through bulb 1. Write down the value of
the current.
7 Change the circuit again so that the ammeter this time is measuring the
current flowing through bulb 2. Write down the value of this current.
8 Change the circuit a final time so that the ammeter measures the current
flowing back to the cell.

3 Can you see any connection between the current flowing in


each part of the parallel circuit?
4 How much current is used up as electricity flows around the
circuit?

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J8 Resistance

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Circuit A

Circuit B

Circuit C

1 Build circuit A. Note down the size of the current flowing.


2 Build circuit B. Note down the size of the current flowing.

Questions

3 Build circuit C. Note down the size of the current flowing.

1 What happens to the current flowing in the circuit as more


bulbs are added?
2 Can you explain what is happening? Use the word resistance
in your explanation.
3 What happens to the brightness of each bulb as more are
added?

Circuit D

4 Build circuit D. Alter the


value of the variable resistor
by turning the little knob.

Questions

variable resistor

410

4 What happens to the


brightness of the bulb? Explain
why the brightness of the bulb
changes. Use the word
resistance in your explanation.

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J9 Forbidden!

T9

Below are four cards.


On the left-hand side of each card is a word to do with electricity, while on
the right-hand side are four words that could be used as explanations.

Conductor

Cell

metal
copper
easily
current

Series

Insulator
pump
electricity
move
circuit

path
junctions
one
current

current
plastic
non-conductor
allow

1 Write an explanation of each word, including all of the explaining words


on the right-hand side of the card.
2 Write another explanation, but this time you are forbidden to use any of
the explaining words.

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End of Unit test


Electrical circuits
1 Which of the circuits below is incomplete?

(1)
2 a What do we call a material that allows electricity to flow through it
easily?

(1)
b Give one example of a material that allows electricity to flow through it
easily.

(1)
3 In which circuit will the bulbs glow brightest?

(1)
4

reading
0.2 A
ammeter B
a What is the reading on ammeter B?

(1)

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Chapter 10 End of Unit test


b Explain your answer to part a.

(1)
5 Explain why the bulb in the circuit shown below is not glowing.

(1)
6

reading
0.5 A

ammeter C

reading
0.4 A
a What is the reading on ammeter C?

(2)
b Explain your answer to part a.

(2)
7 The diagram shows a simple cartridge fuse.
a Explain what happens if too much current passes through the fuse.

(2)
b Why is it a good idea to have a fuse in a circuit?

(1)

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Chapter 10 End of Unit test


8 a Draw a series circuit containing two bulbs and a cell.

(2)
b Draw a parallel circuit containing two bulbs and a cell.

(1)
c Write an X on your diagram for answer b to indicate where you would
put a switch to turn just one of the bulbs on and off.

(1)
9 Electric current carries energy around a circuit.

buzzer

motor
a What happens to some of this energy when current passes through the
buzzer?

(1)
b What happens to some of this energy when current passes through the
electric motor?

(1)
c What happens to some of this energy when current passes through the
bulb?

(2)

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Chapter 10 End of Unit test


10

a What happens to the bulb when the knob of the variable resistor is
turned?

(2)
b Give one example of a circuit where a variable resistor might be used.

(1)
(Total marks: 25)

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IN

10

Electrical circuits

TI

ANS

WERS

Text answers
1

a A complete circuit is one which has no gaps. Current can flow all the
way around it.
b An incomplete circuit is one which has a gap. Current cannot flow.
a An electrical conductor is a material that allows electric currents to
flow through it.
b An insulator is a material that does not allow electric currents to flow
through it.
c Materials that are good conductors are all metals and graphite.
d Materials that are insulators include all plastics, wood, paper, rubber
and ceramics such as glass and pottery etc.

4
5
6

The bulb in circuit C will glow the brightest.


a pumps
b circuit
c battery
a prevents components in circuits from being damaged by large currents.
b The wire becomes hot and melts.
c The largest current that can pass through a 13 A fuse without it
melting is 13 A.
8

9
10
11
12
13

a series
b stops
c parallel
d circuit
a Ammeters A2 and A3 will read 0.3 A.
b The currents flowing in all parts of a series circuit are the same size.
a Ammeter A3 will read 0.2 A.
b A current of 0.6 A returns to the battery.
An electric current carries energy around a circuit.
a resist
b wires; small/low
c resistance; current
d voltage

Literacy activity answers


a Italian
b the study of the bodies of animals
c Nerves carry messages. d The frogs legs twitched and contracted.
e He touched the frogs legs with charged plates.

End of chapter answers


1
2
3
4

current, resistance, battery, fuse


Symbols for cell, switch open, switch closed, battery, wire and bulb.
a true
b false c false
d true e true f true
a complete
b series
c same
d parallel
e same
f ammeter
g electrical
h battery
5 a Circuit A does not work because it is incomplete.
b Circuit B does not work because the cells are connected incorrectly and
are working against each other.
c Circuit C does not work because there is a short circuit, i.e. the current
flows along the connecting wire and not through the bulb.
d Circuit D does not work because the ammeter has been connected in
parallel with the bulb. It should be connected in series.

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Chapter 10 Answers

Worksheet answers
J1 Complete and incomplete circuits
1 A complete circuit is one which has no gaps.
2 An incomplete circuit is one which has a gap.
3 If the circuit is complete, the bulb will glow as current is able to flow all the
way around the circuit.
4 If the circuit is incomplete, the bulb will not glow. Current will not flow if
there are gaps in the circuit.

J2 Conductors and insulators


1 You should build a test circuit similar to that used to test for conductors and
insulators. Then, one at a time, place each bulb across the gap. Four of the
bulbs will complete the circuit and therefore will glow. The faulty bulb will
not complete the circuit and therefore will not glow.

J3 Circuit components

Ammeter
Instrument used to
measure the size of
a current.

Cell
Gives current energy.

Bulb
Changes electrical
energy into heat and
light energy.

Switch
Closing or opening
makes circuits complete
or incomplete.

Battery
Several cells connected
together.

Fuse
Turns the circuit off if
too much current
flows.

Connecting wire
A very good conductor.

J4 Batteries and switches


1 If we connect two or three cells (electricity pumps) so that they are pumping
in the same direction, we can increase the size of the electrical current that
flows. We recognise this is happening because the bulb glows more brightly.
If the cells are connected so that they are pumping in opposite directions, no
current flows and the bulb does not glow.
2 When the switch is open, the circuit is incomplete and so no current flows,
i.e. the circuit is turned off. When the switch is closed, the circuit is complete
and current flows, i.e. the circuit is turned on.

J5A Series circuits


1 There is only one path electricity can follow in a series circuit.
2 If one of the bulbs in a series circuit breaks, the circuit becomes incomplete,
current no longer flows and all remaining bulbs will stop glowing.
3 Only one switch is needed to control the current in a series circuit.

J5B Parallel circuits


1 In this example, there are three different paths the electricity can follow. The
general answer is: More than one.
2 If a bulb in a parallel circuit breaks, only part of
the circuit becomes incomplete, so the other
bulbs still glow.
3 Three switches are needed to control the
electricity in all parts of this circuit

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Chapter 10 Answers

J6 Switches
1

There are many other possible answers/circuits, but the one shown is the
most straightforward solution for each of them.

Extension answers
5 The switches on stairs allow you to turn the stair lighting on and off using
the switch either at the top or at the bottom of the stairs.
6 If the switches begin in the position shown on the worksheet, the circuit is
complete and the light is turned on. Moving either of the switches will make
the circuit incomplete and the light is turned off. But if one switch is moved
and then the other also moved, the light is turned off and then back on again.

J7 Measuring currents in series and parallel circuits


Series circuits
1 The same current flows in all parts of a series circuit.
2 No current is used up as electricity flows around the circuit.
Parallel circuits
3 The currents in different parts of a parallel circuit are not the same (but the
currents flowing into a junction are equal to the currents flowing out of the
junction).
4 No current is used up as electricity flows around the circuit.

J8 Resistance
1 As more bulbs are added to the circuit the size of the current flowing
decreases.
2 As more bulbs are added the resistance to the flow of current increases.
3 As more bulbs are added, the current flowing decreases and the bulbs glow
less brightly.
4 The brightness of the bulb changes. When the resistance of the variable
resistor increases the current decreases and the bulb glows less brightly.
When the resistance decreases the current increases and the bulb glows
more brightly.

J9 Forbidden!
1 Conductor: A metal such as copper is a good conductor because it allows
current to flow through it easily.
Series: In a series circuit, there is only one path for the current to follow.
There are no junctions.
Cell: A cell is a kind of pump which is used to move electricity around a circuit.

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Chapter 10 Answers
Insulator: A material such as plastic which does not allow current to flow
through it is called a non-conductor or insulator.
2 Conductor: A material which has a low resistance is a good conductor.
Series: A series circuit has no branches. The electricity flows around a single
loop.
Cell: A cell gives energy to charges as they pass through it.
Insulator: An insulator is a material which does not let electricity pass
through it.

Answers to End of Unit test


1
2
3
4
5
6

Circuit C (1)
a A conductor (1)
b Any metal or graphite (1)
Circuit B (1)
a 0.2 A (2) (1 for quantity, 1 for unit)
b The current in a series circuit is the same everywhere. (1)
The cells are connected the wrong way round/pushing against each other. (1)
a 0.1 A (2) (1 for quantity, 1 for unit)
b The current entering a junction must equal the current leaving the
junction/0.5 A 0.4 A = 0.1 A (2)
a The fuse will become too hot/melt/break the circuit/make the circuit
incomplete; the bulb will go out (any 2).
b To protect the components in a circuit/to protect against fire (1)
a
b

(2)

10

c
a
b
c
a
b

(2)

X at any point on either of the parallel parts of the circuit. (1)


Changes into sound energy. (1)
Changes into kinetic or movement energy. (1)
Changes into heat and light energy. (2)
The bulb will go dimmer/brighter. (1)
Dimmer switch/volume control/brightness control/etc. (1)
Total marks: 25

Suggested levels for marks gained


8 12 working towards level 4
13 19 working towards level 5
20+
working towards level 6

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11 Variation and classification

7.5

HRS

AC

MING

TI

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O
HER N

Starting points

QCA Scheme of Work Reference: Unit 7d

Pupils should be familiar with the following ideas:


Know how to identify living things
Naming the parts of living things
Know how to use a key to identify an unknown living thing

Language for learning


Animal kingdom
Classification
Environment

Fossil
Gene
Invertebrate

Kingdom
Plant kingdom
Primate

Species
Variation
Vertebrate

Learning checklist
In this topic, pupils should learn:
that individual members of a species vary in many different ways
more about collecting data about variation, handling it, displaying it and
looking for patterns in it
that variation is caused partly by genes, and partly by environment
that living things are sorted into groups according to how closely related we
think they are
about Carl Linnaeus and the beginning of the modern classification system
the major differences between the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom
how vertebrates are classified
how some invertebrates are classified

Links
Links with the Key Stage 2 Scheme of Work
Unit
5B
6A

Title
Life Cycles
Interdependence and Adaptation

Links with other Units in the Key Stage 3 Scheme of Work


Unit
7A
8D
9A

420

Title
Cells
Ecological Relationships
Inheritance and Selection

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11 Variation and classification

Cross-curricular links
PSHE & Sex Education: Physical and Emotional Changes at Puberty
acb?

Literacy
There is a literacy exercise within the pupil book entitled The fieldmouse
Worksheet K4, Carl Linnaeus, is an extension literacy-type activity

+2 8=

Numeracy
Worksheet K2, Variation in leaves involves calculating averages.
Worksheet K3, Is black hair thicker than blonde hair, is an extension activity which
involves converting from one unit to another, calculating averages and drawing a
bar chart.

ICT

ICT
Worksheet K1, Variation within my class, can involve the use of spreadsheets for
displaying data and looking for correlations.

Learning outcomes
Most pupils
Scientific enquiry
Use observation to identify questions to investigate about variation between
individuals
Suggest data to collect to answer the questions
Present and analyse the data
Identify associations or correlations in their data
Life processes and living things
Identify similarities and differences in organisms of the same species and begin
to attribute these to environmental or inherited factors
Explain the importance of classifying living things
Identify some of the main taxonomic groups of animals and describe some
features of these

Pupils who have not made so much progress


Scientific enquiry
Make suggestions about data to be collected to answer questions about variation
With help, present data using ICT and identify patterns or associations
Life processes and living things
Identify similarities and differences between organisms of the same species
Classify organisms into plants and animals
Identify a few taxonomic groups of animals

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Pupils who have made further progress


Scientific enquiry
Evaluate graphs and tables of data in relation to sample size and describe how
strongly any association or correlation is supported
Life processes and living things
Recognise that inherited and environmental causes of variation cannot be
completely separated

Topic List and Teaching Notes


Variation
The topic is introduced with a familiar idea that of variation in dogs. As in
many domesticated animals, there is much more visible variation within the
species than there is in wild species a result of selective breeding for many
different purposes over a long period of time but the principle is still the same.
Pupils should find it relatively easy to pick out ways in which the different breeds
vary, but it is surprisingly difficult to find features that all dogs have in common
and which distinguish them from other species. This question may be best dealt
with as a class discussion you may find that you have to rely on pupils who
know about dogs and cats from first-hand experience, and that they can tell you,
for example, that cats can sheathe their claws and purr whereas dogs cannot.
No attempt is made to define the term species; it is probably best simply to use
this term in a general sense at this stage.
The practical exercise on Worksheet K1, Variation within my class, builds on work
which may have been done within the Reproduction topic. If pupils have already
collected data on heights of individuals in the class, they can now add to this.
Different groups could collect different data, which can then be pooled. If IT
facilities are available, it is strongly recommended that the data are entered into a
spreadsheet, which then makes it much easier to identify any correlations that
there may be. You could keep these data to add to data collected by other
classes, or in future years.
Numerical data can be displayed graphically, for example as frequency
histograms for data such as finger length. Scattergrams could be used to plot one
variable against another, for example length of foot against arm span, to look for
possible correlations.
Worksheet K2, Variation in leaves, involves the collection and analysis of data to
attempt to answer a specific question. This reinforces the concepts of choosing a
suitable sample size, and attempting to control variables.
Pupils will probably be quite happy to accept that the variation between them is
partly caused by genes inherited from their parents, and partly by their
environment. At this stage, it is suggested that you do not attempt to introduce
the concept of continuous and discontinuous variation, which is a frequent source
of confusion for many pupils even at Key Stage 4.

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Sorting Living Things into Groups


There are many possible ways in which living organisms could be classified, and
it is unreasonable to expect pupils to come up with the idea that the best way to
do this is to look for shared structures which might indicate close evolutionary
relationships (which is the principle on which biological classification depends).
Indeed, there are many good arguments for using other methods of classification.
For example, for identification purposes, it might be more useful to classify all
plants by what colour their flowers are, or what time of year they flower both
of which are used in several excellent identification books.
The topic is therefore introduced by outlining the theory that species may evolve
into other species, and that each species is therefore related to others. This is
probably not the time or place to go into details about the evidence for this, but
all pupils will be familiar with fossils, and these provide very strong evidence
indeed that evolution has taken place.
As we cannot travel in a time machine into the past to watch such evolution
happening, we have to rely on detective work using clues we can find today.
Current research into evolutionary relationships relies more and more on DNA
analysis, but there are also many clues to be found in similarities and differences
in structures, such as those that can be seen in the wing structures of birds, bats
and insects.
So, biological classification, which attempts to group closely-related organisms
together, puts organisms with many shared structural features into the same group.
This is the principle on which all the groups described in this Chapter are determined.
Worksheet K4, Carl Linnaeus, challenges pupils who are progressing relatively
quickly to appreciate what Linnaeus was attempting to do when he introduced
his classification system one which is remarkably similar to the one which we
use today. This worksheet requires the confidence to tackle difficult and
unfamiliar language.
Only a few familiar groups of animals are dealt with here the five groups of
vertebrates, and also a few of the more familiar invertebrates. If at all possible,
try to show pupils live animals; as a second best, use preserved specimens, videos
or still photographs (the internet is an excellent source for these). This is also a
good opportunity to reinforce the correct usage of the term animal, which many
people use to mean mammal.
The literacy activity is intended to be used as a class discussion, apart from
question 5 which could be done as a homework project.

Teaching hints and tips


Worksheet K1 Variation within my class
If pupils have already collected information about variation in height
(Worksheet 8, Reproduction) then they could add this to the information
collected here.
If at all possible, set up a database in Excel and allow students to enter their
information into it. The Becta web site gives guidance on how to do this, and how
to analyse the data http://curriculum.becta.org.uk/docserver.php?docid=948

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Safety! Points to take care with


Watch carefully for, and stop, teasing or other unpleasant behaviour for
example, towards someone who has huge feet or unusual hair especially if
this is bothering the pupil. Careful choice of the information to be collected
can avoid obvious difficulties.

Worksheet K2 Variation in leaves


Choice of site and timing
Make sure that the tree you are going to collect leaves from has plenty of
branches within easy reach of pupils. Check that the leaves are in good condition
and fully formed.
If you dont have access to such a tree, you could substitute a different source of
investigation - for example nettle leaves growing in sun and shade (youll
probably need to provide gloves for this one!).
Planning
Consider getting pupils to plan their investigation before collecting the leaves.
You could talk this through as a class discussion.
Size of sample
This is another opportunity to consider sample size. Here, a suitable number is
about 30 leaves from the sunny side of the tree, and 30 from the shady side.
Whether or not you decide to do this as a class exercise, rather than allowing
each group to do their own thing, you can pool the results.
Handling results
If possible, get pupils to construct tally charts and draw histograms. It would be
helpful to check with the Maths department beforehand, to find out whether
most pupils should be able to do this, and - if so - how they have been taught to
do it.

Safety! Points to watch out for


For safety reasons, ensure that pupils are always in groups of at least
two, rather than on their own, when collecting leaves. You may prefer to
ensure that the whole group works together in one area, under your
supervision.

Programme of Study References

424

Sc1

Sc2

Scientific Enquiry

Life Processes
and Living Things

1a, 1c, 2a, 2b, 2e,


2g, 2i, 2j, 2k, 2o

4a, 4b, 4c

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Sc3
Materials and
Their Properties

Sc4
Physical Processes

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P
HA T ER

What I have learnt

11

Variation and classification

Checklist

CHE CK LI

ST

When you know what these words mean, tick the box!
Animal kingdom

Gene

Primate

Classification

Invertebrate

Species

Environment

Kingdom

Variation

Fossil

Plant kingdom

Vertebrate

Tick the one you feel happiest with!

I know this
topic very
well

I may need
some
revision on
this topic

I need some
more help
on this topic

I know that individual members of


a species vary in many different
ways
I know about collecting data about
variation, handling it, displaying it
and looking for patterns in it
I know that variation is caused
partly by genes, and partly by
environment
I know that living things are sorted
into groups according to how
closely related we think they are
I know about Carl Linnaeus and the
beginning of the modern
classification system
I know the major differences
between the plant kingdom and
the animal kingdom
I know how vertebrates are
classified
I know how some invertebrates are
classified

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Chapter 11 Lesson 1

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Variation within a species

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 p. 159

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that members of the same species show variation in


many ways. Collect data and construct graphs showing this
variation.

Less Able Pupils

Know that individuals of the same species show variation. Collect


data and charts to illustrate this variation.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus use data to identify correlations between two
features.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Use of spreadsheets.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet K1 Variation within my
class
Per group:
Computer and software for spreadsheets.
Tape measure or metre rule for measuring
height and arm length.
Results table for distribution as
appropriate.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 1 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

10

In and register.
Introduce the idea of variation within a species, e.g.dog breeds,
different plants of one species, humans. Invite ideas of features which
vary in each of these groups. Which characteristics vary amongst
members of the class?

Distribute Worksheet K1 Variation within my class. Organise pupils


into groups. Ask them to take it in turn to measure and record.

15

Instruct groups to plan and carry out the activity. Check that they can
measure correctly, so that results are comparable between groups. If
available, a computer spreadsheet can be used to record data. Ask
groups to note and discuss trends and patterns.

Less able pupils may benefit from having a


results table already made up.

20

Reassemble the class to share results. Some can be written on the


board to identify patterns: ask the class to suggest these. Pose Q 3:
Do features go together? Explain the term positive correlation. If time,
explain how group and class data can be used to draw graphs or bar
charts. Point out that the more data collected for a feature, the easier it
is to see a trend (see also Lesson 2).

Less able pupils can represent their data in


charts/diagrams. Abler pupils can look at
correlations between different characteristics.

Homework: Complete the answers to Worksheet K1. Abler pupils can draw bar charts for class measurements of height and arm length.

Learning Outcomes

Pupils have a record of ways in which members of the


class vary. Some pupils have drawn graphs/charts from
their data.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 2

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 159160
Genetic and environmental causes of variation
Planning an investigation; sample size; reliability

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Decide on a suitable sample size for their investigation. Make


accurately and record clearly measurements of length. Analyse
their data, and form a conclusion as to the influence of light/dark
on leaf size.

Less Able Pupils

Describe how leaf size varies.

More Able Pupils

Understand the problems of obtaining reliable data in


investigations of this type. Interpret their data and understand the
importance of sample size in determining a correlation.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning: correlation, confidence.


Analysis of numerical data.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet K2 Variation in leaves
Per group:
Access to a tree with leaves in sun and
shade. Two plastic bags marked: Shady;
Sunny.
Ruler.
Results tables as appropriate.
Graph paper (for Homework).

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Chapter 11 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 2 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Remind the class of the previous lesson's work on variation. Using Q
and A, discuss the fact that both genes and environment can cause
variation. Ask: which features that you recorded last lesson showed
variation that may be caused by genes? by environment? by both?

Distribute Worksheet K2, Variation in leaves. As a class, read through


to step 1 and discuss sample size and a fair test. Organise pupils into
mixed-ability groups. Remind the class how to record in a tally chart.

Less able pupils will need help in determining


what is a suitable sample size, and what
other factors need to be kept constant.

Pupils understand the importance of sample size and


the need to control variables in their investigation.

25

Direct groups to move outside, collect leaves; return to the laboratory to


measure them. They can then discuss in groups the answers to the
questions, each writing them down in workbooks.

Provide less able pupils with results tables


already made up. More able pupils may work
quickly enough to have time to construct
tally charts.

Pupils collect and record data.

15

Display one groups results on an OHT, or the board. As a class, discuss


these results. What evidence is there to support the question in K2
about leaf length on sunny/shady side of a tree? Calculate averages.
Explain to pupils how to construct tally charts and histograms.
Invite ideas on Q 5.

Pupils analyse the data in different ways


according to their ability.

Pupils analyse and interpret numerical data.

Pupils understand that variation may have genetic


and/or environmental causes.

Homework: Write up answers to questions in Worksheet K2. If time, do the Extension: tally chart and histogram.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 3

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 159160
Genes and environment
Correlation between different characteristics
Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that variation arises from the interaction of genes and


environment. Collect, present and analyse data, and identify any
correlations that exist.

Less Able Pupils

Know that variation depends on both genes and environment.


With help, present data given to them, and identify patterns in it.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand that genes and environment interact
in complex ways to create variation. Analyse their data in some
detail, and suggest how strong is any correlation.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Measuring; constructing graphs.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Worksheet K3 (extension) Is black hair
thicker than blonde hair?
One sheet per pupil (paper exercise).
Graph paper. OHT to show how to draw
a bar chart.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 3 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

15

In and register.
Remind the class of findings in Lesson 2 on variation in leaf size, and revisit the
ideas on the effects of genes and environment on variation.Then ask pupils to
answer Pupil Book Qs 2, 3 and 4 on p.160. They should write answers in their
workbooks.

Distribute Worksheet K3: Is black hair thicker than blonde hair?, and go
through it with the class. Explain the term micrometre, and how to write this
unit. Remind pupils of positive correlation in K1. In the first paragraph of K3,
what positive correlation is Kim looking for? Demonstrate on an OHT how the
bar chart is drawn.

1520

Instruct pupils to work through K3, assisting those unsure about averaging (Q 2).

510

Display a completed bar chart as an OHT, and then discuss the answers to the
questions on K3.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils record that variation has genetic and environmental
causes (with examples).

Less able pupils will need further help with the


bar chart.
Abler pupils can write detailed answers to the
open-ended Qs 4 and 5.

Homework: Complete your write-up of answers to questions in K3. Then answer Q2 on p.168 in the Pupil Book.

Pupils draw a bar chart and derive appropriate conclusions


from it.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 4

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
Inherited variation

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 159162

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Identify characteristics that are inherited, and investigate some


patterns of inheritance.

Less Able Pupils

Understand that some human variation is inherited.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus suggest reasons why similarities and differences
occur within families. Consider early attempts to classify living
organisms.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Fictional family tree
of 3 generations, giving characteristics for
members, drawn or in words.
Pupils family trees
Large sheet of paper per pupil. Coloured
pens.
Worksheet K4 (extension) Carl
Linnaeus
One sheet per pupil as appropriate.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 4 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
With Q and A, remind pupils of the idea that variation depends on both
genes and environment. Link genes to inheritance and how
characteristics run in families.

10

Invite pupils to make their own family trees (23 generations), noting
down in words characteristics (eye colour, height, etc.) of individuals.
The example of a fictional family can be displayed.

Ask pupils to describe similar and differing characteristics in their family,


and the influence of genes and/or the environment on the characteristics.
How do they vary?

25

When the class is clear about inherited characteristics, instruct pupils to


use their family tree to make an illustrated chart showing the inheritance
of certain characteristics: assist them in choosing these. Give pupils who
finish early Worksheet K4 (extension) Carl Linnaeus.

Homework: Faster pupils can complete K4. All pupils: Read p.162 in the Pupil Book.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

Less able pupils or those unwilling/


uncomfortable to record their family tree
can be provided with fictional information
about a family with obvious family traits.
Pupils apply their knowledge of the genetic basis of
variation to particular examples.
Some pupils find it easier than others to
draw the family tree. Abler pupils understand
the problems faced by early taxonomists.

Pupils understand human characteristics that are


inherited.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 5

Date

Class

Lesson Focus
The variety of life different species
Introduction to classification

Mixed Ability/Set

Pupil Book 1 pp. 162164

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Understand that, although living things show great variation, they


can be classified according to shared characteristics.

Less Able Pupils

Understand the range of variation in living things.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus understand that a good classification system is


based on groups of shared characteristics.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning, e.g. classify, segment, limb and leg.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Identifying characteristics in organisms
A range of living or non-living animals
and plants with noticeably different
characteristics.
Photographs, etc. of animals and plants
(see Pupil Book pp.164165 illustrations
for ideas).
Table (to distribute as appropriate) of
organisms and characteristics (e.g. colour,
number of legs/wings, segmentation,
arrangement of leaves, shape of stem,
etc.).

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Chapter 11 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 5 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

10

In and register.
Remind the class of earlier work on variation and the concept of a
species.
Introduce the idea of differences between species, and the need for
classification. Why is it useful to classify organisms? What information is
used?
Ask pupils to write down what they understand by classification.

Introduce the practical activity of observing and identifying


characteristics in a range of different organisms. NB. remind pupils
of the need to treat living animals safely and with care. Ask pupils to
look for features that they think are characteristic of each organism and
make it different from others. They should list these alongside the
organisms name. Form groups to work together.

15

Instruct groups to record their observations of the different animals and


plants. Provide less able pupils with a table to fill in.

Clear away. Safety! Ensure that pupils wash their hands after handling
animal and plant materials.

15

Hold a class review of findings. Do groups agree on characteristics for


each organism? Do these characteristics distinguish it from all the other
organisms they observed? (Are they useful to classify the organism?)
Ask pupils to name organisms similar to those they observed. What
characteristics do they share? How do they differ?

Homework: Answer Q 5 in Pupil Book p.163, and Qs 6 and 7 on p.164.

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes
Pupils have written down the meaning of the term
classification, and understand the need to classify
organisms.

Less able pupils benefit from a table to guide


them towards a suitable method of grouping
their organisms.

Pupils record the characteristic features of a range of


different organisms.

Pupils sort organisms into groups, based on physical


characteristics.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 6

Date

Class

Mixed Ability/Set

Lesson Focus
Pupil Book 1 pp. 163164
Classifying vertebrates and invertebrates

Expectations

HarperCollins Publishers Ltd 2002

Most Pupils

Can classify animals into invertebrates and vertebrates, and


vertebrates into five classes.

Less Able Pupils

Can classify most animals into invertebrates and vertebrates, and


most vertebrates into their class.

More Able Pupils

All the above, plus are able to list characteristic features of each
group.

Development of Key Skills (Literacy, Numeracy, ICT)


Literacy:
Numeracy:
ICT:

Language for learning: taxonomic group.

Cross-curricular development

Room

Time 50 mins

Equipment & resources needed


Classifying animals as vertebrates or
invertebrates
Range of samples (living, preserved,
photographs) of vertebrates and
invertebrates.

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Chapter 11 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan

Chapter 11 Lesson 6 Detailed Lesson Plan


Timing

Teaching and Learning Activities

Differentiation

Learning Outcomes

10

In and register.
Briefly review last lessons work on putting animals and plants into
groups. Ask pupils: what are the important characteristics that distinguish
all plants from all animals?
Discuss with the class what does the word animal mean? Would