Anda di halaman 1dari 10


Critical factor that affects Indias security environment are activities of

terrorist group, the menace of drug trafficking, spread of small arms,
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and challenges to maritime
security in the immediate and extended neighborhood.

Global Security Environment

Spurt of globalization and deepening economic interdependence for peaceful

Continuing economic crisis on Europe and Western world, major cause for
global economy worry.
Technology advances in telecommunications provided boost in capabilities
and impact of terrorist activities.
Impact of piracy and terrorism on the safety of the sea lanes of
communication and on international trade remain cause for concern.
International security and peace is endangered by proliferation of nuclear
weapons and ballistic missiles. Challenge posed by Weapons of Mass
Destruction (WMD) pose a threat of nuclear terrorism.
Security situation in the Asia-Pacific region is marked by maritime disputes,
new military postures and power rivalries. India has important political,
economic, and commercial interests in the region and has a stake in ensuring
continued peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific.
Indias policy to encourage and participate in cooperative approaches to
counter traditional and non-traditional security challenges and to ensure that
critical sea lanes in the region are kept open, secure and free for navigation
and trade in accordance with international law.
The Central Asian region is important to Indias security interests due to its
geo-strategic significance and for economic reasons. India has important
stakes from energy security, countering of disruptive influences and
furtherance of strategic interests.
Due to Arab Spring in West Asia, has impacted Indias six million people living
there along with uninterrupted flow of energy imports from the region. India
pursue defence and security engagement with UAE, Oman, Qatar and with
Saudi Arabia on basis of mutuality of concerns and interests.
India-Iran share historical and cultural ties as India been supportive of Iran
right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
India-Africa forum seeks to promote bilateral socio-economic and security
cooperation with African countries.

Regional Security Environment



Page 1

Resolving issues by bilateral dialogue to get free from terrorism and

o Maintain sanctity on the LOC
o End to provoked firing which led brutal killings of 2 Indian soldiers as
both side were blaming each other. India does not accept the argument
that the transgressions across LOC or incidents of unprovoked firings
are handiwork of non-state actors.
o 2014 drawdown of international security force making India crucial
partner for help.
o Bilateral relationship in defence, security cooperation aimed at
enchaining mutual capability in the fight against terrorism
o Support in building Afghan National Security Forces to assume full
charge for the security of the country.
India- China
o Unresolved boundary issues
o Recognize principle of mutual and equal security, both has signed
Border Defence Cooperation Agreement which seeks to strengthen
measures of maintenance of peace and stability on the border.
o Unique friendship and cooperation
o Bilateral ties by open borders and deep-rooted people-to-people
contacts of kinship and culture and security and economic interests of
both countries are intertwined.
o Negotiating a peaceful democratic transition and in its economic
development efforts.
o Continued in a positive factor in the regional security.
o Share views on security matters and on managing border security
o Bilateral efforts for the issue of settlement of border issues.
o Combat terrorism
o Reinforced by cultural, historical, ethnic and religious ties.
o Trade and infra and cooperation in security matters.
o Maintains stability on the borders under umbrella of multi tiered
mechanism at the local, regional and national level.
o Assurance of no allowing territory to be used for activities inimical to
o Remain close, cooperative and constructive.
o Maritime security challenges and maintenance of peace and stability in
the common Indian Ocean region are issues.
o Trying to achieve lasting political settlement that meets the aspiration
of the Tamil community for equality, justice, peace and dignity.
o Bilateral cooperation in the range of areas, including defence and


Page 2

o Mutual trust and understanding
o Cooperation areas such as power, transport, communications,
infrastructure, education, IT, industry, medicine and agriculture.
o India committed to Royal Govt. of Bhutan in its socio-economic
o Strong bilateral cooperation in defence and security matters which is
based in the mutual interests of both countries.
Indian Ocean
o 2/3 of worlds oil shipments; 1/3 of bulk cargo traffic and half the world
container shipments are transported in sea lanes of the Indian Ocean.
o Major commercial routes namely Malacca Straits, Six and ten degree
channel and the Arabian Gulf.
o Security of shipping along the sea lanes of communication in the IOR is
vital interest.
o IOR bringing to build a network of multilateral cooperative structures
which would bring together all stakeholders based on mutually of
India Maritime
o Involve the safeguarding of our coastline and island territories and also
of our interest in the EEZ as well as open and secure Sea Lanes of
o Incidence of piracy, gun running and terrorism in the IOR continue to
remain an issue.
o Threats by the Somalian pirates pose a security concern.
o Indian Navy has tried to curb upto some extent, India in favour of
strengthening multilateral cooperation under the UN framework to
meet the complex challenges of maritime security.
o Indian Navy is working with Coast Guard and other Central and state
agencies to deal with challenges of threats from the sea.
o Both have enhanced coastal surveillance and patrolling and joint
exercises are also regularly conducted with each other agencies to
improve operational coordination
o India engaged in enhancing cooperative interactions and exchanges
with various countries in the IOR to tackle common security
Principal task of MoD is to frame policy directions on defence and security
related matters and communicate to the Service Headquarters, Inter-Service
Organisations, Production Establishments and R&D Organisations.
o Dept. of Defence deals with Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) and three
services and various Inter-Service Organisations. Responsible for
Defence Budget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters
relating to Parliament, defence co-operation with foreign counties and
co-ordination of all defence related activities.


Page 3

Dept. of Defence Production headed by Secretary and deal with matter

pertaining to defence production, indigenisation of imported stores,
equipment and spares, planning and control of departmental
production units of the Ordinance Factory Board and Defence PSUs.
Dept. of Defence R&D headed by Secretary, who is Scientific Adviser to
the Defence Minister. Function is to advice the Govt in scientific
aspects of military equipment and logistics and the formulation of
research, design and development plans for equipment required by the
Dept. of Ex-Servicemen Welfare headed by Secretary and deals with all
resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex-Servicemen.



Combat challenges to nations internal security in form of militancy and

Core of humanitarian and disaster relief operations, both at home and abroad
in case of tsunami, earthquakes of flood relief.
Taken afforestation and transformed large swathes of land which are ravaged
by man-made or natural disaster.
One of the largest troop contributors to UN missions.
Upgrading existing fleet of Main Battle Tank (MBT) and Infantry Combat
Vehicle (ICV)
Transforming infantryman into a technically qualified, lethal, self-contained
soldier under F-INSAS (Future Infantry Soldier As a System) project.
Enhance long range precision firepower by induct variety of 155mm guns and
howitzer for its artillery as also new air defence guns and missiles against air
Obtain informatics ascendancy development of information structure to fully
support network centric operation is also in hand.
Army Aviation is a key growth area and for first time combat helicopters and
utility lift helicopters for operations will become an integral part of the Army.
All system is updated with modern management practice and technologies.
Joint exercise, expert exchanges and army-to-army staff talks, train at Indian
Army contributes strengthening with foreign countries.
Involve in mountaineering, Olympics etc.


Indian Navy (IN) is prime enabler and guarantor of the countrys maritime
sovereignty and myriad use-of-sea activities.
IN plays 4 roles (military, diplomatic, constabulary & benign)


Page 4

Navys Miltary role is deterrence/dissuasion against any intervention or

act which is against our national interests and ability to inflict crushing
defeat on adversary in the event of hostilities.
o Operation VIJAY and PARAKRAM are key missions of IN.
o Role of constabulary is to ensure coastal security and implement antipiracy measures.
Key objective of IN is to use Indias maritime power in support of the national
foreign policy.
Role by shaping perceptions, building partnership, showing presence, building
trust with other friendly navies and participating in combined/joint
operations. Use in disaster relief operations, both within country and global
The complex maritime security environment in the IOR requires the IN to
maintain a high level of operational tempo and readiness at all times.
IN has done a commendable job in thwarting piracy attacks on Indian and
merchant ships.
Preference to build indigenous ships and submarines.


Anti-Piracy Operation- response to threat to shipping from pirates in Gulf

of Aden
Coastal Security- Setting up of Joint Operation Centre(JOCs)l induction of
Fast Interceptor Crafts( (FICs) and Immediate Support Vessels (ISVs);
setting up of Sagar Prahari Bal (SPB) for force protection duties; conduct
exercise with all stakeholders and awareness programme.


Under Coast Guard Act, 1978.

Acquired wide range of surface and airborne to undertake peace and war
Command and Control lies with Director General of Indian Coast Guard, at
New Delhi
Duties and functions as followso Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals
o Installations and devices in maritime zones
o Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress
o Preservation and protection of marine environment
o Prevention and control of marine pollution
o Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling
operations and enforcing of enactments being in force in the maritime
zones and other matters, including measures for safety of life and
property at sea and collection of scientific data
Addition roles
o Offshore security coordination authority


Page 5


National maritime search and recuse coordinating authority

Lead intelligence agency for coastal and sea border
Coastal security in territorial waters
Chairman, national oil spill disaster committee
Indian Governor to Regional Cooperation Agreement in Combating
Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships in Asia (ReCAAP)


Combat potential of IAF has been strengthened specifically in terms of

lethality, adaptability and reach
Strengthen Air Defence Network through modern sensors and weapons.
Emphasis on developing its electronic warfare information warfare ability and
augment its operational capability.
IAF role in Operation Rahat in recent Uttarkhand disaster.



Objective of developing a comprehensive production infra. For defence.

Production through Ordnance factories and Defence PSUs.


39 plus one in Nalanda and Korwa

5 operating groups
o Ammunition and explosives
o Weapons, vehicles and equipments
o Materials and components
o Armored vehicles
o Clothing and equipments each headed by Additional DGOF.


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

o Navratna Company
o Encompasses design production, repair, overhaul and upgrade of
aircraft, helicopters, aero-engines, accessories, avionics and
o Indian defence in aviation, spanning fighter aircraft, trainer aircraft
and light helicopters.
o Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and multi role transport
Aircraft has been taken up with Russian partners.
o Manufactured and repair overhaul of Industrial and Marine Gas
Turbine engines and manufactures of structures for aerospace


Page 6

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)(1954)


Navratna Company
Areas of Radars and fire control systems, weapon systems, sonars,
communication, network centric systems, electronic warfare
system, electro optics and tank electronics.
Non Defence- EVMs, Tablet PCs, IC, hybrid microcircuits,
semiconductor, solar cells etc.

Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd. (GRSE)


Miniratna Category-I
Expertise of building a wide array of vessels from world class
Frigates to fast interceptor boats.

Goa Shipyard Limited


Build of petrol vessels of steel and aluminum hull

Includes offshore patrol vessels (OPV), fast patrol vessels, missile
boats, survey vessels, landing craft utility vessels and other
auxiliary vessels along with building Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP)
interceptor boats.

Hindustan Shipyard Ltd


Nations premium shipbuilding and ship/submarine repair

Construction of IPVs, OPVs, LPDs, SOVs and Submarines.

Mazagon Dock Limited




Miniratna company
Specialized in construction of warships of various sizes and classes,
submarines, other technologically advanced commercial vessels
and offshore platforms/drilling rigs.
Repairing of warships, coast guards and submarines
It has Virtual Reality Centre (VRC) at Design Dept.
Shore Integration Facility (SIF) which provides complete combat
system integration feasible prior installation reducing potential time
delays and rework onboard submarines.
Training for both shipyard and naval soldiers.
Presently, constructing scorpene submarine and missile destroyers
for Navy

BEML Limited (1964)


Page 7


Miniratna Category-I
Engaged in design, manufacturing, marketing and after-sales
service of a wide range in Defence, Mining and Construction and
Rail and Metro.

Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) (1970)



Miniratna Category-I
Manufacture of Anti-Tank Guided Missiles, surface-to-air weapon
systems, strategic weapons, launchers, under water weapons,
decoy and test equipment
Producing Konkurs-M and Invar(3BK-20) ATGMs with collaboration
with Russia and Milan2T with France.
S2A Missile Aakash for Indian Armed force
C-303 (Anti torpedo counter measure system)
Production of Light weight Torpedo (TAL)
In house development CMDS(Counter Measure Dispensing System)
accepted by Indian Air Force for Jaguar and LCA.
In process in developing radio frequency controlled ATGM.

Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI)(1973)


Providing the nation self-reliance in strategic materials like light

combat aircraft, MBT Arjun, PSLV, GSLV power plants etc.
Indigenization of critical alloys and products needed in the strategic
sectors like defence, aerospace, nuclear and other sectors of Indian
Main product range include Super Alloys of iron, nickel and cobalt
base, titanium and titanium alloys , special steels, soft magnetic
materials and molybdenum in various mill forms
Diversified into manufacturing biomedical impacts, investment
castings, closed die forgings and other value added products.


Top 4 countries having multi-level strategic deterrence capabilities;
Top 5 with own Ballistic missile defence (BMD) programme;
Top 6 developed a nuclear submarine (Arihant)
Top 7 with indigenous Main Battle Tank (Arjun) & 4 th plus generation
Combat Aircraft (Tejas) and select few countries with own Electronic Warfare
and multi-range Radar Programme.
DRDO, the R&D wing of the MoD came in 1958.
DRDO is associated with armed forces, academic institutions, research
organizations and industries, with a vision to empower India with cuttingedge defence technologies.


Page 8

DRDO mission is to self-reliance in critical defence technologies and system

by indigenization and innovation, building indigenous capabilities and equip
Indias armed forces with state-of-art weapon systems and equipment.
Corporate Headquarters of DRDO is located at New Delhi. Their functions
o Budget, Finance and accounts; Civil works and estates
o Cyber security and cluster coordination; Extramural research and IPR
o Futuristic technology management; HRD; Industry interface and
technology management
o Interaction with services for business; International cooperation
o Management services; material management
o Parliamentary affairs; personnel, planning and coordination
o Public interference; quality reliability and safety
o Rajbhasha and OM and Vigilance and Security
DRDO Lab are classified into 7 clusters
o Aeronautical system
o Armaments and Combat Engineering System
o Electronics and Communication Systems
o Life Sciences
o Missiles and Strategic System
o Micro-electronic Devices and Computational System
o Naval Systems
The Centre for Personnel Talent Management (CEPTAM) is responsible for
induction and training of personnel belonging to Technical, Administrative and
Allied Cadres of the organization.
DRDO carries out
o Design and Development of state-of-art weapon systems, platforms,
sensors and allied equipment and lead to production agencies.
o Research in Life sciences to optimize combat effectiveness of soldiers
and promote their well-being especially in harsh environment,
o Development of Infra. And Trained Manpower for a strong defence
technology base
DRDO appraises the Defence Minister about emerging development in S&T
and their influence on National Security
DRDO renders advice to Raksha Mantri and to the 3 services and inter
services organisation on all scientific aspects of weapons; weapons-platforms;
military operations; surveillance and support and logistics.
It formulates programmes for scientific research, design and development in
area relevant to national security
Functions as Nodal Agency for the execution of major defence related
programmes with the national scientific institutions, PSU and private
(Skipped first paragraph as already dealt earlier with names)

Page 9

Recent additions to the long list of successes are

o Initial Operational Clearance of Tejas Light Combat Aircraft,
o Induction of Agni 4 long range ballistic missile, launch of Agni 5 (ICBM);
o Underwater launch ballistic missile (Bo5) and maiden launch of longer
range K4;
o Development of Arjun Mk-II main battle tank
o Maiden launch of Indias long range cruise missile Nirbhay
o Development of Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C)
o Development of Rustom II the Medium Altitude Long Endurance
Most significant contribution by DRDO iso Creation of an eco-system conducive to development of cutting edge
technologies by developing partnership with academic/ research
institutions and with industries;
o Creating exhaustive infra. For organization and partners
o Creating centers of excellence and establishing high quality manpower
DRDO Core competencies are
o Design and integration of complex sensors, weapon systems &
o Complex high-end software packages; Functional materials
o Test and evaluation; Technology transfer and absorption


Three armed forces defence PSU, private industries, international
collaborators and academic/ researchers.
User service through the integrated Defence Staff and Service HQs
Directorate of Interaction with Services for Business (DISB) provides an
effective single window interface to Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and
Acquisition Wing of MoD.
Working with groups are Indo-US, Indo-Russia and Indo- Israel
Bio-digesters for armed forces for use in cold regions, adapted by passenger
coaches in IR.
They are being installed in Lakshadweep islands and 2.4 lakh Gram
Panchayats in phases.


Page 10