Anda di halaman 1dari 110

PHYS 342: Electromagnetic Waves

Guillaume Gervais
2007

Contents
1

Review of Electrostatics and Magnetostatics

1.1

Coulombs Law and Gauss Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Coulomb Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

The Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.3

Gauss Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.4

Energy of the Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.5

Electrostatics and Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.1.6

Capacity

1.2

1.3

1.4
2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Electric Field in Matter and Electric Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


1.2.1

Multipole expansion (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.2.2

Energy of the electric dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.2.3

Dialectrics and Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.2.4

Electric Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Magnetostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3.1

Biot-Savart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.3.2

Vector Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.3.3

Amperes Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.3.4

Magnetic Dipole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.3.5

Magnetic Fields in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.3.6

Historical Aside: Etymology and William Gilbert (1544-1603) . . . . . . . . . 23

Maxwells Equations for Static Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Electrodynamics
2.1

25

Faraday Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1.1

Electromotive Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.1.2

Faraday Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2

2.1.3
2.2

Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2.1

2.3

2.4

Historical Aside: Michael Faraday (1791-1867) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

General Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Maxwells Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.3.1

Displacement Current (In Vacuum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2.3.2

Maxwells Equations (with dynamics) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.3.3

Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Electromagnetic Potentials

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.1

Potentials for dynamic case (


t 6= 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.2

Gauge Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.4.3

Equations of motion for electromagnetic potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

2.4.4

Energy and Momentum in EM theory: Poyntings Theorem . . . . . . . . . . 41

Electromagnetic Waves
3.1

3.2

3.3

44

Waves in Vacuum (General Case) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


3.1.1

Review of the Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3.1.2

Sinusoidal Waves in 1D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.1.3

Boundary Conditions and Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3.1.4

Polarization of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

3.1.5

Linear Combination and Power Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Electromagnetic Waves (Free Space) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


3.2.1

Wave Equation for EM field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3.2.2

Plane wave solution in free space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

3.2.3

Polarization of EM waves (for a plane wave) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

3.2.4

Energy and Momentum of EM waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

3.2.5

Electromagnetic Waves in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Reflection and Refraction at Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.4

3.3.1

Normal Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.3.2

Oblique Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

3.3.3

Brewster angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

3.3.4

Total internal reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Absorption and Dispersion in Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71


3.4.1

Dispersion of a wave packet in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

3.4.2

Drude Model of the Electric Susceptibility in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

3.4.3

Complex Refraction Index and Anamolous Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

3.4.4

Dispersion and conductivity in a conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

3.4.5

Propagation in a Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

3.4.6

Historical Aside: James Maxwell (1821-1879) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Guided Waves
4.1

Transverse Electric and Magnetic Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


4.1.1

4.2

4.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

TEM modes propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Rectangular Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.3.1

TE Modes (Ez = 0, Bz 6= 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

4.3.2

TM Modes (Ez 6= 0, Bz = 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

4.3.3

Dominant modes and velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Circular wave guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


4.4.1

4.5

Helmholtz equation for the transverses components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Electromagnetic Waves Modes


4.2.1

4.3

82

Hollow circular waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Electromagnetic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.5.1

What is an EM cavity? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

4.5.2

Quality Factor of a Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Electromagnetic Radiation

97
4

5.1

5.2

5.3

Fields of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97


5.1.1

Review of Inhomogeneous Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

5.1.2

Retarded Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

5.1.3

Lienart-Wiechert Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

5.1.4

Fields of a Moving Point Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Radiation of moving point charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


5.2.1

Radiation in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

5.2.2

Radiation and Larmor Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.2.3

Breakdown of Rutherfords picture of the atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Dipolar Radiation (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


5.3.1

Electric Dipole Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

5.3.2

Scattering by electrons: why is that sky blue? (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

1 Review of Electrostatics and Magnetostatics


1.1 Coulombs Law and Gauss Law
1.1.1

Coulomb Law

F12

F21

q1

r12

q2

Coulomb measured the electric force using a torsional pendulum. He found

F~12 =

q1 q2
r
2 12
4o r12

with
r12






= ~r1 ~r2


~r1 ~r2

r12 =

r12

where o permeativity of free space (= 8.85 1012 C 2 /N m2 )


Notes about Coulomb Law:
1. Central force potential
2. F q1 q2
3. F r(2+) where  < 5.81016
Superposition principle for ensemble of charges: the total force exerted on a charge q1 is given by
the sum of the force exerted by all the other charges qi .
N
q1 X qi
r1i
F~1,T ot =
40
r2
i=2 1i

1.1.2

The Electric Field

~ x) is the force per unit charge exerted at position ~x.


Electric field, E(~
~
~ lim F
E
q0 q
so,

~
F~ = q E

qi
ri

(ri)
ri

r-ri

r-ri

Discrete charge distribution

Continuous charge distribution

We call the variable ~x0 the field point variable, whereas ~x is the source point variable.

Discrete distribution of charges:


~ x) =
E(~

1 X
qi

3 (~x ~x0i )


4o
i ~
~0
x xi

Continuous distribution of charges:


~ x) =
E(~

1
4o

(~x0 )
~0

3 (~x ~x0 )dx


~x ~x0

.
~ d3 x dV dxdydz is the differential volume element.
Here dx
7

1.1.3

Gauss Law

Gaussian Surface

We define the electric flux E going through a surface, S, as the integral


  I
~
~ ds
E S = E
s

Gauss Law states that:

~ =
~ ds
E

where

i Qi

X Qi
i

o

QT is the total charge enclosed inside the closed surface, S.

For a continuous charge distribution, (~x), we have that since mathematically,


I

~ =
~ ds
E

~
~ E
~ dx

then
I
s

~ =
~ ds
E

Z
V

~ = 1
~ E
~ dx

o

~
dx

which therefore gives the differential form of the Gauss Law as


8

~ E
~ = (~x)

o

Notes about Gauss Law:


1. Since the electric field is an inverse square law, we can define a scalar function , or potential
~ = ,
~ where the electric potential is = q for a simple charge. Gauss
such that E
40 r
differential form can therefore be rewritten as

2 =

o

which is known as Poissons Equation. In the case of continuous distribution , the


electrostatic potential is given by
(~x0 )

d~x0


~x ~x0

Z
=

2. Electric Force is Conservative: Since the electric field derives from a gradient of a scalar
function, we must have that
~ E
~ = ~0

i.e. the curl of any gradient of a scalar function must be identically zero, or
I

~ ~l =
Ed

~ E)d~
~ s=0
(

3. Important Identity

1.1.4

1




~x ~x0

1
(~x ~x0 )
o

Energy of the Electric Field

The potential energy for a discrete charge distribution is given by:


U=

1X
1 1 X qi qj


qi (x~i ) =


2
2 40

i
i,j ~
xi x~j
9

or, for a continuous distribution:


1
U=
2
since 2 =

0 .

o
d~x(~x)(~x) =
2

d~x2

~ ()
~
~
~ as
We can rewrite using the identity 2 =
o
U=
2

~ 2 + o
d~x (E)
2

~
d~s E

Here the second term, the surface integral, as obtained using Gauss divergence theorem and does
not contribute since at infinity, the electric field is falling off as r12 , the potential as 1r and the
surface grows only as r2 . Far from the source, the resulting 1r behaviour dominates and the integral
does not contribute.
2

~
Finally, if we define an Energy Density as E = o /2 E

then we can write the potential energy as

Z
Ed~x =

U=

1.1.5

2
o ~
E d~x
2

Electrostatics and Conductors

Imagine a closed surface S in which charges are flowing in and out through it:

S
q
q
q

10

i
j
k

We define the current as


Z
I=

~ s
Jd~

~ per unit area,


where J~ is the current density, ie the total charge, Q, passing through surface S
per unit time. We can rewrite the above integral as
Z
S

~ s=
Jd~

~ J)d~
~ x=
(
t
V

~
(~x)dx

which therefore gives in the differential form

~ J~ + = 0

and is known as a continuity equation. The current density is given by J~ = ~v where ~v is


~ x) =
the velocity of the charges, and for a distribution of discrete charges can be expressed as J(~
P
vi (~x ~xi )
i qi ~
A material is said to have free charges if these charges move freely when an electric field is applied.
In a conductor, there exists a linear relation between the applied field and the resulting current
flow, and so we define the physical quantity conductivity, , as the ratio between the applied
electric field and the resulting current density, ie.
~
J~ = E
which is simply Ohms Law.

1.1.6

Capacity

Because of the principle of superposition, the potential of a conductor is proportional to the charges
in the system. If we have N charges, Qi , located on N conductors, we can define the capacity as
Qi =

Cij j

where Cij is termed the coefficient of capacity for i = j, and the coefficient of electrostatic
influence for i 6= j.
11

Note that for a simple conductor we have

Q = C

Using the definition of capacity, we can write the potential energy as

U=

1X
1X
Qi i =
Cij i j
2
2
i

i,j

or, for a simple conductor

1
U = C2
2

1.2 Electric Field in Matter and Electric Dipole


In an insulator, the electrons are not free to move as in a metal, but instead are bound to atoms
(or molecules). Therefore, If we apply an electric field there will be no current, but instead only a
distortion in the local electronic density. This gives rise to a macroscopic polarization which will
be an average over all polarized molecules. We define the polarization P~ per unit volume as
P~ = p~(~x)N
where p~(~x) is the dipole moment of the the molecule, and N is the number of molecules in the
solid per unit volume. For two simple charges +q and q located on an axis and separated by a
distance a, the dipole moment is simply given by p~ = q~a. For an arbitrary distribution of charges
, the dipole moment is given by

~ 0 (x~0 )x~0
dx

p~(~x) =
V

12

1.2.1

Multipole expansion (optional)

We can expand the electrostatic potential in a series of Legendre Polynomials

(~x) =

(2 ) (~x)

l=0
l

where (2 ) (~x) is the potential generated by a multipole, and is of the form

(2l )

1
(~x) =
4o rl+1

~ 0 (x~0 )r0l Pl (cos)


dx

where Pl (t) are the Legendre Polynomial of order l, and where we have defined r |~x| and r0 |x~0 |.
Note that the above relation results from the following mathematical expansion

X r0l
1

=
Pl (t)


rl+1
~x x~0
l=0


Monopole case, for l = 0:
(1)

1
(~x) =
4o r

d~x(x~0 ) =

q
4o r

Dipolar case, for l = 1:


(2)

1
(~x) =
4o r3

~ 0 (x~0 )r0 cos() =


dx

i.e. this gives

(2) (~x) =

1
p~ ~x
4o r3

where the dipole moment, p~, has been defined as:


13

1
p~ ~x
4o r3

~ 0 (x~0 )x~0
dx

p~(~x) =
V

For simple charges

+q

-q
a

1.2.2

Energy of the electric dipole

~ the dipole energy is given as


In the presence of an externally applied electric field, E,

~ p~
U = E

The torque, , on the dipole is

~
= p~ E

and the electric field generated by the dipole is

~ dip
~ (2) (~x)
E


1
~
Edip =
3(~p ~x)~x p~
4o r3

14

1.2.3

Dialectrics and Polarization

We call the average polarization P~ (~x) = p~(~x)N where p~(~x) is the polarization of each molecule
inside the dialectric material. The applied electric field will create an overall charge in the material
that is bound to it. We define this bound charge as

~ P~
0 =

where the we use to denote the bound charge, as oppose to which describes the free charge
inside the material.
When the polarization, P~ (~x) is discontinuous, such as at an interface between a dialectric and
vacuum, a surface charge distribution is created
Z

~ =
~ P~ dx

d~s P~ = P~ ~nA

where A is the surface area at the interface.


Therefore, at the interface, there will be a superficial density of bound charge, s , given by

0s = P~ n

1.2.4

Electric Displacement

We shall define the total charge tot inside the material as the one that includes both the contribution from free electrons, and the bound charge:
tot = + 0
where here is the free charge and 0 is the bounded charge.
Note that from Gauss law it is the total charge that must be taken into account, therefore:
1
~ E
~ = 1 (~
~ P~ )

+ ~0 ) = (
o
o

15

so that



P~
~
~
=
E+
o
o

~ as
We define the electric displacement, D

~ o E
~ + P~
D

so that we can rewrite Gauss law in a matter as:

~ D
~ =

where is the free charge that is not bound to the dialectric.


~ is a fundamental field, whereas, D
~ is a derived field that is dependent on the
Note here that E
presence of the dialectric.

1.3 Magnetostatics
In electrostatics, we were concerned by the study of stationnary charges, i.e. with constant
electric fields, and in analogy magnetostatics refers to the study of steady currents, thereby
generating constant magnetic fields.

1.3.1

Biot-Savart Law

In analogy to the Coulomb force, two constant currents flowing in wires will generate a force known
as the Biot-Savart law. For two parallel conductors, each carrying a current, I, we have

dF~12 =

o I1 I2 d~l1 (d~l2 r12 )


2
4
r12
16

such that

I
o I2 d~l2 r12
~
B(x~1 ) =
2
4 c
r12
I
~ x1 )
F~12 = I1 d~l1 B(~
c

We note that for a point charge in motion with a constant velocity ~v , the Biot-Savart law recovers
the form
~
F~mag = q~v B
known as the Lorentz magnetic force.

1.3.2

Vector Potential

~ x) to
We can generalize the Biot-Savart law for an arbitrary current configuration, J(~
~ x) = o
B(~
4

Z
V

~0
~ ~0
~ 0 J(x ) (~x x )
dx
|~x x~0 |3

In magnetostatics, we impose that the charge are constant in time, so that /t = 0, and hence
~ J~ = 0, so we can write

~ =
~ A
~
B

~ is the Vector Potential, given by


where A
17

~ x ) = o
A(~
4

~ ~0
~ 0 J(x )
dx
|~x x~0 |

~ F~ ) = 0 is always mathematically satisfied, so that the definition


Note that for any vector, F~ , (
~ will satisfy
for A

~ B
~ =0

;
i.e. unlike in electrostatics, there is no single magnetic monopole.

1.3.3

Amperes Law

The analogue of Gauss law in magnetostatics is given by Amperes law

~ d~l = o
B

J~ d~s =

o Ii

or, using Stokes theorem for a vector f~(~r)


I
c

f~(~r) d~l =

~ f~(~r)) d~s
(

we can rewrite Amperes Law in a differential form as

~ B)
~ = o J~
(
.

18

1.3.4

Magnetic Dipole

~ in a
Similar to the electrostatic scalar potential, we can expand the magnetic vector potential, A,
l)
(2
multipole series, A (~x)
Z

o X 1
~ 0 J(
~
~ x~0 )Pl (cos)
A(~x) =
dx
4
rl+1 V
l=0

~ (1) (~r) = 0 since


~ J~ = 0.
We can show that the first term in the series, A
The second term in the series is the dipolar term, given by

~ ~x
~ (2) (~x) = o m
A
4 r3
where we have defined r |~x| and the magnetic dipole moment m,
~ as

Z
m
~ =
V

~ =1
~ (~x)dx
M
2

~
~ x)dx
~x J(~

.
We can show that the component of the magnetic field due to the dipolar term in the vector
potential is



o 1
B (~x) =
3(m
~ ~x) m
~
4 r3
(2)

19

For a simple current loop we have that


1
m
~ =
2

Z
V

~ x J)
~ =I
dx(~
2

with

~x d~l = I Area

J~ d~s

I=
s

and so

|m|
~ = I Area
Z
m
~ = I d~s
s

~ x) = P qi~vi (~x ~xi ), we have that


For a discrete distribution J(~
i
m
~ =

X qi
1X
Li
qi (~xi ~vi ) =
2
2m
i

where Li is the angular momentum of charge i, and m is the mass of charge i, and thefore

m
~ =

q ~
L
2m

.
It is easy to show that the force and potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a constant magnetic
~ is given by
field B

~ m
~
F~ = (
~ B)

and

~
U = m
~ B

20

and finally the torque on the dipole given by

~
=m
~ B
.

1.3.5

Magnetic Fields in Matter

Electric fields applied to a material will give rise to a not overall polarization, and likewise magnetic
~ , i.e. local magnetic dipolar moments will be
fields applied in matter will create magnetization, M
~
induced by the external field. The vector potential A in matter will thus contain two contributions:
o
A(~x) =
4
|

Z
V

 ~ ~0
~ (x~0 ) (~x x~0 ) 
J(x )
M
+
|~x x~0 |
|~x x~0 |3
{z
} |
{z
}

~0
dx

F ree

Bound

The bound term can be rewritten as


Z
V

~0
~ (x~0 )
dx~0 M

1
|~x x~0 |

Z
=
V

~
~
~ M (~x)
dx
|~x x~0 |

so that we can define a density of bound current, J~0

~ M
~
J~ 0 =

and, similarly as in electrotstatics, at interfaces there will be a superficial density of bound current

~0 = M
~ n
K

Amperes law in matter should therefore be rewritten to include the sum of all currents as
~ B
~ = o J~ +
~ M
~

21

~ by the
and similarly as for the electric displacement, we define the magnetic field in a medium, H,
equation
~ =B
~ o M
~
o H
~ is the sum of the applied field, B,
~ plus the effect of the magnetization induced in the medium,
i.e. H
~
M . Amperes law in matter is therefore rewritten as

~ H
~ = J~

~
~
~ = B M
H
o

22

1.3.6 Historical Aside: Etymology and William Gilbert (1544-1603)


While the etymology of the word magnet is still disputed today (it could be from a region east
of Thessaly, or perhaps the name of a shepherd, Magnes, who noticed the iron in his shoes being
attracted to the ground on Mt. Ida), its contextual counterpart electricity has much more definite
roots.  o was the greek word for amber, a material many noticed would induce an attractive
force between other objects after some rubbing. For many centuries, these two effects were thought
to be different manifestations of the same thing (what that thing was, wasnt really clear). It wasnt
until 1600 that William Gilbert published his only book: De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus,
et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the
Earth), that the mysteries shrouding these strange effects began to be cleared. Gilbert insisted that
the two phenomena should be considered separately. Though not taken any chances on claiming
to know the cause, he, in perhaps what could be considered the first true example of experimental
physics, demonstrated many properties of the magnet, or lodestone. These included the use of a
magnetic needle in determining ones location on the earth, as well as firmly putting to rest the
popular notion that goats blood could replenish a magnets power. Many of Gilberts immediate
successors, like Galileo and Kepler, recognized the import of his work. However, he is often neglected
in modern treatments of the history of science.

Figure 1: Gilberts orb of the earth showing declinations of an iron rod

[See also: Cambridge Scientific Minds, eds. Harman and Mitton, ch 1 by Stephen Pumfrey, 2002]

23

1.4 Maxwells Equations for Static Electromagnetism


Finally, we have Maxwells Equations for static electromagnetism:
1.) Maxwells equations in matter:

~ D
~

~ E
~

~ B
~

~ H
~

=
=
=
=

0
0
J~

2.) Maxwells equations in vacuum:

o
~ E
~ = 0

~ B
~ = 0

~ B
~ = o J~

~ E
~ =

24

2 Electrodynamics
2.1 Faraday Law
2.1.1

Electromotive Force

We define the electromotive force of a closed circuit as

E =

~ d~l
E

which has the units of a potential, or volts. When charges are stationary /t = 0, as in electrostatics and magnetostatics, the circulation of the electric field over a closed loop is
E =

~ d~l =
E

~ E)
~ d~s = 0
(

~ E
~ = 0 when E
~ =
~ (Maxwells equations for static electromagnetic fields). In
since
electrodynamics, charges and current are not steady nor stationary and consequently /t 6= 0,
i.e. the charge and current are now time dependent and so will be the electric and magnetic fields.
Hence, if the electric field is allowed to vary in time, the circulation over a closed path will now
gives
~ E
~ 6= 0

i.e. a net potential difference will appear, and the electric field is not irrotational anymore.

2.1.2

Faraday Law

We define the magnetic flux, B , though a surface, S, as:


Z
B =

~ d~s =
B

~ d~l
A

~ =
~ A
~ and we have used Stokes theorem. Faraday Law, which is empirical in nature
since B
and dates from 1830, states that:

25

~ d~l E = B
E
t

A changing magnetic field in time induces an electric field


This is very important, as the seemingly disconnected electricity and magnetism are now linked
to one another through the time dependence of the magnetic flux. The induced electric field is
opposite to the variation in the magnetic field, which is also known as Lens Law.
We can rewrite
I

~ d~l =
E
t
C

~ =
~ ds
B

and so Faraday law in differential form is now:

~
~ E
~ = B

26

~ E)
~ d~s
(

2.1.3 Historical Aside: Michael Faraday (1791-1867)


Upon a first glance, the casual observer might mistake any modern Electricity and Magnetism
textbook for a solely mathematical explication. Open any page of J.D. Jacksons account of the
subject, for example, and you will most likely be confronted with at least 1 equation, if not twenty.
Given this, the achievements of Michael Faraday should be considered all the more noteworthy.
Having almost no formal training in an academic sense, and certainly no facility with algebra or
calculus, Faraday, through rigorous and brilliant experimental work, was able to lay the groundwork
of a discipline that would eventually become that hallmark of the modern age: electricity. He was
employed at age 13 by a bookbinder as an errand boy. The books that passed his way while
employed there would serve as the basis for his self-administered educational career. Through a
series of almost chance events, he secured his next position as an assistant in the lab of the chemist
Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution. Thus began a long and most fruitful career for Faraday
as a natural philosopher. (Disciplines were just forming at this point in the history of academic
science, and Faraday preferred not to be called a physicists or chemist. His work shouldnt be
confined to either department.) Just eight years after starting his scientific career, working on
recent phenomena discussed by rsted and Ampere, he recorded the first sketches for what would
become the electric motor, shown here from his journal of December 1821. 15 years later Faraday
made known his intuitions that the phenomenon of radiating light was intricately related to the
electric and magnetic fields he was so familiar with. It would however, take James Maxwell, a
younger and much more mathematically minded physicist, to fully uncover this relationship, which
he did in 1864.

Faraday (right) and Chemistry Prof, John. Daniell,


ca 1843

Faraday's original sketch for the


`electromagnetic rotation apparatus'

[For more, see: Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution, John Meurig Thomas, 1991]

27

2.2 Inductance
The Faraday law states that an electric field will be induced by a time-dependent magnetic field,
or flux, with a loop C. Such a loop, or circuit will be characterized by an inductance L which
will depend on the geometry of the loop.

2.2.1

General Case

Consider a loop C1 in which a current I1 is flowing. In such a loop, the magnetic field generated is
proportional to the current
I ~
o
dl ~r
I1
4
r2
~ 1 I1
B

~1
B

This magnetic field will extend beyond the loop, and could influence other loops located in the
vicinity of loop 1. Consider a second loop C2 adjacent to C1 . On that loop, the magnetic flux going
through the loop (generated by C1 ) is
Z
2 =

~ d~s2 I1
B

so it will be directly proportional to the current I1 . In general we can write the following linear
relation between fluxes on a loop i created by currents j as

(i)

B =

Mij Ij

where the Mij are mutual inductance coefficients.

C2

C1

B2

B1

I1

28

Lets consider the vector ~xi which is a coordinates of a point on a loop Ci . The vector potential at
~ xi ), due to a current in loop Cj is given by
position ~xi , A(~
~ xi ) = Ij o
A(~
4

dlj
|~xi ~xj |

Cj

where d~lj is the vector element on Cj at a coordinate ~xj .Since


Z
B =

~ d~s =
B

~ d~l
A

we have that the mutual inductance is given by

o
Mij =
4

I I

d~li d~lj
|xi xj |

which is known as the Neumann formula.


We can note the following properties of the mutual inductance coefficients:
1. Mij is purely geometric; Mij = Mji
2. Mii L coefficient of self inductance
In case 2, i.e. the inductance of a current loop on itself, we have the following relation between the
magnetic flux and the current:

B = LI
E

= L

dI
dt

which can be summarized by the following statement:


A changing current, dI/dt, induces an EMF in the loop itself.
This circuit, or current loop, will have energy stored, and so if we consider a circuit with an
inductance L, Ohms Law tells us that
29

 
dI
L d(I 2 )
P ower = E I V I = L
I=
dt
2 dt
so the total work stored into the circuit, or inductor, will be given by

Z
W =
0

L d(I 2 )
LI 2
dt =
2 dt
2

W =

LI 2
2

which is the energy stored inside the inductor.

2.3 Maxwells Equations


2.3.1

Displacement Current (In Vacuum)

In a static system /t = 0, and Faraday law showed us that a time-dependent magnetic field will
induce an electric field inside a circuit, or loop. In electrodynamics

6= 0
t
and so the continuity equation, which is always valid
~ J~ + = 0

t
describes that the changes in charges must be compensated by changes in current flow. Lets
consider Gauss Law
~ E
~ = /o

and so we can rewrite the continuity equation as

~ J~ + o (
~ E)
~ = 0.

t
30

We also know from Amperes Law that the magnetic field is related to the current density J by
~ B
~ = o J~

and by taking the divergence on both side, we now find the situation where
~ (
~ B)
~ = o (
~ J)
~ 6= 0.

But the divergence of a curl must always be zero. So we are now force to modify Ampere law and
make the following addition:

o J~ o J~ + o o

~
E
t

and

~
~ B
~ = o J~ + o o E .

Now we can easily verify that the divergence of the curl will indeed be zero,

~ B)
~ = o
~ J~ + o o (
~ E
~
(
t


~ ~
~
~
= o J + o ( E) .
t
|
{z
}
=0

This modification to Amperes law lead to an important consequence on the magnetic field, namely:
A changing electric field induces a magnetic field.
The term

31

~
E
J~D o
t

is sometimes called the displacement current.

2.3.2

Maxwells Equations (with dynamics)

In can now write the four Maxwells equations of electrodynamics:


In Free Space:

o
~
~ E
~ = B

t
~
B = 0
~ E
~ =

~
~ B
~ = o J~ + o o E

t
and similarly, we can express them in matter, recalling the definity for the electric field displacement
~ and magnetic field in matter H:
~
D

~ = o E
~ + P~
D
~ P~ = 0

~
~ = B M
~
H
o
~ M
~ = J~0

where 0 is the bound charge density, is the free charge density, such that the total charge is
tot = + 0
, and similarly is J~0 is the bound current density J~ the free current density such that the total
current is
J~tot = J~ + J~0
.
Maxwells equations in a medium becomes
32

~ D
~ =

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~
~
B = 0
~
~ H
~ = J~ + D

For the special case of a medium that is linear and isotropic, i.e that will respond linearly to fields,
and which response will not depend on orientation of the fields, we can write the polarization and
magnetization vector as:

~
P~ = o e E
~ = E
~
D
~ = m H
~
M
~
~ = B
H

where e is the electric susceptibility and m is the magnetic susceptibility. For such
medium, we can then express the the permeativity of the medium by

 = o (1 + e )
and its magnetic permeability as

= o (1 + m )

2.3.3

Boundary conditions

Let an interface be described by a surface, S, where n


is the unit vector perpendicular to the
surface.
~ D,
~ B,
~ H,
~ will be discontinuous at a boundary of two different media,
In general the fields, E,
described by 1 , 1 and 2 , 2 .
For the electric field we have the following boundary condition at the interface of two media:

33

1 1

2 2

~1 D
~ 2) n
(D
= s

(1)

~1 E
~ 2) n
(E
= s

(2)

~ (w.r.t. interface plane) is continuous and the perpendicular


i.e., the parallel component of E
~
component of D is discontinuous (here, n
is a surface vector of the interface, perpendicular to its
plane, and s is the superficial density of free charges).
We can demonstrate the first boundary condition by considering Gauss theorem:
From Gauss Law

~ = (D
~ D
~ dr
~1 D
~ 2) n

A = s A

which gives directly


~1 D
~ 2) n
(D
= s
.
Similarly, we can show the second boundary condition by considering a small amperian current
loop taken across the interface
I

~ =
~ dl
E
t
C

~ d~s
B

which, integrating the left side, gives


~1 E
~ 2 ) ~l =
(E
t
34

~ d~s
B

and in the limit of an infinitely narrow loop

lim
0 t

~ d~s 0
B

we obtain the boundary condition for the parallel component of the electric field
~1 E
~ 2) n
(E
=0
~ B
~ = 0 that at the interface between two media of different magnetic
Similarly, we can show from
properties, we have that

~1 B
~ 2) n
(B
=0

(3)

~ B
~ = 0 (no magnetic charge!)
since
~ is discontinuous by K,
~ the superficial density of free current
But, the parallel component of H

~1 H
~ 2) n
~
(H
=K

~ = E,
~ B
~ = H,
~ so the boundary conditions yield:
For linear media, D

~ 1 2 E
~ 2) n
(1 E
= s
~1 E
~ 2) n
(E
= 0
~1 B
~ 2) n
(B
= 0
~

~2
B1 B
~

n
= K
1
2

35

(4)

2.4 Electromagnetic Potentials


2.4.1

Potentials for dynamic case (


t 6= 0)

We recall that both the electric and magnetic fields derive from potentials, in one case a scalar
~ In electro-magnetostatics, when = 0 they are
potential and in the other a vector potential A.
t
related to the fields by the following relations:

~ E
~ = ~0

~ =
~
E
~ B
~ =0

~ =
~ A
~
B
and as we have seen previously, the curl of a gradient and the divergence of a curl must always be
(mathematicallly) zero.
But in electrodynamics, once we introduce time-dependent sources, we are are now confronted with
the following situation:
~
~
~
~ E
~ = B = ( A)

t
t
and thus the Faraday law reads
~
~ (E
~ + A ) = ~0

t
~
~
which is NOT zero for E = . To remedy to this, we must re-write the scalar potential, , and
~ and relate them to the fields in the following way:
vector potential, A

~
~ =
~ A
E
t
~
~
~
B =A

so that we correctly have

~ A)
~
~ E
~ = (

t


~
A
~
~
E + t = ~0

~
~

36

~
A
t

~
A
t

= ~0

since the curl of gradient scalar function is always zero. Importantly, we note that if the potential
vector A is now time-dependent, which is true for time-dependent magnetic field, it
will act as a potential source for the electric field.

2.4.2

Gauge Transformations

The correspondence between fields and potentials is not unique. In fact, we can always choose a
potential arbitrarily for as long as Maxwells equations are satisfied. We can therefore freely modify
~ or B.
~ This
the potentials by the addition of a function, , without ever modifying the fields E,
transformation to the potentials is called a Gauge Transformation.

~0 A
~ +
~
A

and we show that this transformation does not modify the fields in any way:
i) Scalar potential:

~0
~ 0 =
~ 0 A
E
t
 
 
~
A

~
~
~

+
= +
t
t
t
~
~ A
=
t
~
= E
ii) Vector potential:

~0 =
~0
~ A
B
~ (A
~ + )
~
=
:

~ A
~ +
~
~
=

~
= B

Gauge transformations are very important for other fields of physics such as for example in quantum
electrodynamics. This non-uniqueness of potentials imply that we can impose certain conditions
37

~ and B.
~ These are called gauges. There are two gauges that
on potentials without changing E
are particularly useful in classical electrodynamics, the so-called Lorentz and Coulomb (transverse)
gauge:
1.) Lorentz Gauge:
In the Lorentz gauge, we impose the following condition to the potentials:

~ A
~ + o o = 0

~ 0,
If the potentials do not satisfy this condition, we can always find a function, , so that 0 , or A
does satisfy it. Lets transform the potentials for this condition according to a gauge transformation
by the function :
2
0
~ 0 + o o =
~ A
~ + o o + 2 o o
~ A

t
t
t2

~ 0 provided
and so we see that we can always impose the Lorentz condition on the potential 0 and A
that the function satisfied the equation

2 o  o

2
~ A
~ + o o }
=
{

t2
t

i.e. all satisfying the wave equation (left hand side) with a source (right hand side) will
be a Lorentz gauge.
2.) Coulomb Gauge:
In the Coulomb, also called transverse gauge, the following condition is imposed on the potential
~
vector A:

~ A
~=0

and we can readily show that in that case, we can always make a transformation so that the
potential vector is in the transverse gauge provided that we solve the Poisson euquation for :

38

~0 =
~ A
~ A
~ + 2

R
~ ~ x)
1
(~x) = 4
dx~0 A(~
~0
|~
x x |

Remember! In electrostatic, the potential satisfies to a Poisson equation of the form


2 =

o

which has for solution


1
(~x) =
4o

dx~0

(x~0 )
|~x x~0 |

. so by analogy, we know the solution for the gauge transformation function .

2.4.3

Equations of motion for electromagnetic potentials

In electrodynamics, the introduction of the time-dependence for the sources, and hence for the
fields, has linked the electric and magnetic fields in a dynamical way, and through their dependence. We have seen that we can now induce an electric field by varying a magnetic field (Faraday)
and conversely, we can generate a magnetic field by varying an electric field. We shall now see that
~ can be treated very similarly within the Lorentz gauge and
both potential, scalar and vector A,
that in case, they will obey to the same dynamical wave equation.

Lets consider Gauss law

~ E
~ =


~
~

o

~
A
t


=

o

and so the potentials must obey to:

2 +

~ A)
~
(

=
t
o

39

(*)

If are now considering Ampere law:



~
A

~
~
~
~
~

( A) = o J + o o
t
t
and making use of the mathematical identity
~
~ (
~ A)
~ = (
~
~ A)
~
~ 2A

and so we can rewrite it in the following form:


2~
~
~ A)
~
~ 2A
~ + o o
~ + o o A = o J~
(
t
t2

.
Lets impose the Lorentz gauge
~
~ A)
~ + o o
~ 0
(
t
~ obeys to the following equation
an so, in that the case, the potential vector A

~ o  o
2 A

~
2A
= o J~
t2

which is simply a wave equation with a source. If we go back to the equation (*), and
~
~ A)
~ = o o
~ we obtain the following equation for the
replacing the Lorentz condition (
t
scalar potential

2 o  o

2
=
2
t
o

~ and scalar potential are treated on an equal footing


In the Lorentz gauge, both the potential A
and they both satisfy to a wave equation with a source. It is typical to define the wave operator,
or dAlembertian, as

2 = 2

1 2
2
2
=


o
o
t2
v2 t2
40

where v is the phase velocity of the wave, and which will be discussed in great details in chapter
~ and :
3. We can therefore re-write the following equations for A,

o
~ = o J~
2 A
2 =

i.e. the same wave equation but with a distinct source in each case.

2.4.4

Energy and Momentum in EM theory: Poyntings Theorem

We now consider moving charges in free space that would be subjected to both an electric and a
~ field with Amperes Law, with that
magnetic field. We are interested in the sum of the resulting E
~
of the B field with the Faraday law. We therefore consider the quantity:
~
~ (
~ E)
~ = B
~ B
B
t

(1)

~
~ (
~ B)
~ = o E
~ J~ + o o E
~ E
E
t

(2)

and

and if we subtract (1) (2) then we obtain

~
~ E)
~ E(
~
~ B)
~ = o E
~ J~
B(

1
o

~2
1 B
2 t

~2
o o E
2
t




2
~
1

B
2
~
~ E)
~ E(
~
~ B)
~
~
~ J~
B(
= 2 t o + o E
E

and if we make use of the following mathematical identity


~ (E
~ B)
~ =B
~ (
~ E)
~ E(
~
~ B)
~

it gives

41


 ~2
1 B
1 ~
2
~ J~
~
~
~
(E B) =
+ o E E
o
2 t o
and finally


 ~2
1 B
1 ~
2
~
~
~
~ B).
~
EJ =
+ o E
(E
2 t o
o

We already recognize on the right hand side the magnetic and electric energy density given by 12 B
o
and 2o E 2 , respectively. We are interested in the total energy stored over the whole volume, so we
can integrate both side of the equation over the whole volume, or sphere, taken at infinity
Z

~ J)d~
~ x = 1
(E
2 t
V


Z  ~2
Z
B
1
2
~
~ (E
~ B)d~
~ x.
+ o E d~x

o
o V
V

~ J~ is particularly interesting, for we can express for discrete charges as


The term given by E

~ J)d~
~ x =
(E

Ki
t

~
qi~vi E

vi F~i

i.e. it is given by the time-derivative of the kinetic energy of the charged particle, or the power.
Making use of that, and of Gauss divergence theorem, we can rewrite the volume integrals as

 Z  ~2
 
I
K
1
B
1
2
~
~ B)
~ d~s
=
+ o E d~x
(E
t
t 2
o
o S

which is known as the Poyntings Work-Energy Theorem. The first term of the equation
describes the total energy stored in the field while the second term is the energy flux that is carried
out. The Poynting theorem states that the
Work done on the charges by the electromagnetic force is equal to the decrease in energy stored in
the field less the energy that flowed out through the surface
42

We define the Poynting Vector (or Energy Flux Density) as

~ 1E
~ B
~
S
o

and the total electromagnetic field energy density is

 ~2

1 B
2
~
E=
+ o E
2 o
.
Making use of these notations, the Poynting theorem can be re-written in a more compact differential form

~ J~ = E +
~ S
~
E
t

The Poynting theorem therefore defines a rate equation for the energy stored inside the fields must
be compensated by the energy flux carried away at a sphere taken at infinity.
It is also usual to define the following quantity for the electromagnetic field
1. Density of momentum for the E-M field:
~ = o o S
~
P
i.e. the Poynting vector represents the momentum carried away by the electro-magnetic fields
and similarly, we can define
2. Angular momentum density:
~ = ~r P
~ = o (~r (E
~ B))
~

43

3 Electromagnetic Waves
3.1 Waves in Vacuum (General Case)
3.1.1

Review of the Wave Equation

A wave is simply a disturbance of a continuous medium that propagates with a fixed shape and
a constant velocity.
Let be a function, = (x, t) which depends on position, x, and time, t. In general, one can
show that will be a function which describes a wave propagation if it is a solution of the classical
wave equation:

1 2
2
=
x2
v 2 t2

where v is the velocity of propagation of the wave.


Lets introduce the variables, u1 = x vt and u2 = x + vt, then we have




1
=

u1
x v t



1
=
+
u2
x v t
and so we can write the wave equation as

2
=0
u1 u2

which has solutions of the form

= 1 (u1 ) + 2 (u2 )
or, writing in x, t coordinates

44

general = 1 (x vt) + 1 (x + vt)

This solution, known as the DAlambert Solution is the sum of right traveling and left traveling
waves, which is the most general solution of the wave equation.

3.1.2

Sinusoidal Waves in 1D

Assume a solution to the wave equation of the form

= Acos[k(xvt) + ]

where:

k wave vector = 2
v propagating speed
A amplitude
phase
y

v
A

Travelling Wave

First, verify this solution indeed satisfies the wave equation:


2
= Ak 2 cos[k(x vt) + ] = k 2
x2

45

and
2
= A(vk)2 cos[k(x vt) + ] = (vk)2
t2
Therefore we have
2
= k 2
x2
and
1 2
= k 2
v 2 t2
and so
2
1 2
=
x2
v 2 t2
which is the wave equation.
We call k the wave number (in 1D), or ~k the wave vector (in 2D), and we have

k=

since, when x x + 2/k, the cosine has executed a complete cycle, ie.


 


2
2
x+
, vt = Acos k x +
vt + = (x, vt)
k
k
Similarly, for a full cycle, we define the period as

T =

2
kv

So that

(x, v(t + T )) = (x, vt)


The frequency of the wave is simply the inverse of the period, = 1/T , and so we have the relations

46

kv
v
1
=
=
T
2

Recall that for circular motion, we define the angular frequency, , as

= 2 = kv

We can therefore rewrite the wave equation in terms of wave vector, k, and angular frequency, ,
as

(x, t) = Acos(kx t + )

Note that for a right travelling wave:

R (x, t) = Acos[k(x vt) + ]


= Acos[kx t + ]
for a left travelling wave:

L (x, t) = Acos[k(x + vt) ]


= Acos[kx + t ]
where the sign convention for the term is for a delay. But, the cosine function is an even function,
ie. cos() = cos(), and so we can rewrite L as
L (x, t) = Acos[kx + t ] = Acos[kx t + ]
or, in other words

L (x, t) = [R (x, t)]kk


47

The inversion of k k transforms the wave from a right travelling to a left travelling wave and
vice-versa.
Complex Notation:
Eulers Formula states
ei = cos + isin
and so we can write the sinusoidal solution as

(x, t) = Acos(kx t + ) = Re{Aei(kxt+) } Re{}


is the real part of the complex solution
Where Re{}
Ae
i(kxt)

with complex amplitude defined by


A = Aei
Note that we use complex notation because the ei
where the phase, , is now absorbed in the A.
are easier to manipulate mathematically than sin and cos.

3.1.3

Boundary Conditions and Interfaces

v2

v1

v3

k1

k2

Wave Boundaries/Interfaces

48

I (x, t) = AI ei(k1 xt) ,

R (x, t) = AR ei(k1 xt) ,

T (x, t) = AT e

i(k2 xt)

x < 0 incident wave


x < 0 reflected wave
x < 0 transmitted wave

Note that the frequency, , will be the same for all the waves. Therefore, since = kv, kv must
be constant and so

k1 v1 = k2 v2
giving the result

k2
v1
=
k1
v2

Boundary Conditions (at x=0):

(0 , t) = (0+ , t)

(1)

ie., wave must be continuous across interface.


In general, for a string for example, the 1st derivative of must also be continuous across an
interface for, if the slope wasnt equal, it would give rise to a net force on the string. Therefore we
also have





=
x o+
x o

(2)

Applying boundary condition (1) to the wavefunctions yield (at x=0)


AI + AR = AT
and boundary condition (2) yields
49

(i)

k1 (AI AR ) = k2 AT
or
k2
(AI AR ) = Ar
k1
Subtracting (i)-(ii) gives


k2

2AR = AT 1
k1
and adding (i)+(ii) gives


k2

2AI = AT 1 +
k1
giving

AT =

2k1
AI
k1 + k2

and

2AR =



2k1
k1 k2
AI
(k1 + k2 )
k1

AR =


k1 k2
AI
k1 + k2

or, in terms of v1,2 we have

50

(ii)


v2 v1
AI
v2 + v1


2v2
AI
=
v2 + v1

AR =
AR

Which gives the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves as a function of the time incident
wave front.

3.1.4

Polarization of Waves
displacement

propagation

Wave Propagation

In general there are two types of waves:


1. If displacement is perpendicular with the direction of propagation, the wave is said to be
transverse (e.g. string)
2. If the displacement is along direction of propagation, Longitudinal (e.g. sound).
EM waves are TRANSVERSE!
Polarization:
For transverse waves, the displacement can take a different position in space with respect to direction of polarization.
We define the polarization vector, ~n, which for a wave propagating along the ~z, would be lying in
the x-y plane, i.e.

n
z = 0
and
n
= cos
x + sin
y

51

So that, in general, a transverse wave propagating along ~z-axis can be written as

i(kzt)
i(kzt)
t) = Acose

(z,
x + Asine
y

3.1.5

Linear Combination and Power Transform

The sinusoidal solution of the wave equation can be written using complex notation as
i(kxt)
= Ae
In fact, any wave can be decomposed into a linear combination of sinusoidal waves:

(x,
t) =

i(kzt)

A(k)e
dk

with = (k)

The coefficient A(k)


can be obtained from the fourier transform.

3.2 Electromagnetic Waves (Free Space)


3.2.1

Wave Equation for EM field

We consider the Maxwells Equations with no source an in free space (vacuum). Although no
charge sources are present, fields may exist in the form of EM waves, i.e. charge and /t can be
far away, and yet can propagate through the vacuum with constant energy into places where no
charges are present.
Maxwells equations tell us

~ E
~ =0

~ B
~ =0

~ E
~ = B~

~ B
~ =

t
~
o o tE

52

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

We now take the curl of (ii)

:0 ~ 2 ~
~
~
~ (
~ E)
~ =
~
(
E)
E


~
B
~
=
t
~ B
~

=
t
~
2E
= o o 2
t

which gives the result

~
2E
2~
~
E = o  o 2
t

Similarly, if we take the curl of (iv)

:0
~ (
~ B)
~ =
~
~
~

(
B)
~
~ 2B
=
~ E)
~
(
= o o
t
2
~
B
= o o 2
t

giving

~ = o  o
2 B

~
2B
t2

~ and B
~ fields that obey the
So, we have shown that Maxwells Equations in free space generate E
wave equation
2
~2 1

v 2 t2

53

such that

~ =0
E
~ =0
B
1
= o  o
v2

where v is the speed of propagation. Note that in free space

1
c
o o

ie., the speed of the wave is the speed of light.


Maxwell hence discovered that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon, and a travelling wave!
In free space and EM wave travels at the speed of light. In a medium however the speed is modified.
If the medium is linear such that, for example,

~ = E
~
D
~ = 1B
~
H

Then the wave has propagation speed defined by

v=

1


c
n


o o

where n is the index of refraction of the material.


For most materials o , and in all materials  > o and so

r =

R


o

v<c
54

3.2.2

Plane wave solution in free space

In last section, we have seen that Maxwells equations in free space provides us with a classical
wave equation for both the electric and magnetic field. The solution of the wave equation will give
us the electromagnetic field as a three-dimensional wave, propagating along a specific direction ~k,
the wave-vector for the wave, which in magnitude describe the spatial extent of the wave and its
direction will provide the direction of propagation for the wave.

An electromagnetic wave is said to be monochromatic if it has a well-defined frequency . For


all intent and purposes, in this course, the electromagnetic waves will always be monochromatic.
However, the wave vector ~k needs not be unique, since for a given , it must only obey in magnitude
|~k| = c , but obviously can point anywhere in space and still obey to that relation. We shall call a
plane wave an electromagnetic wave that has a well-defined wave vector ~k that is unique.
The plane wave solution of the wave equation of the electromagnetic field is therefore

~ x, t) = Re{E~0 ei(~k~xt) }
E(~
~ x, t) = Re{B~0 ei(~k~xt) }
B(~

where the amplitudes E~0 and B~0 are complex (they include the phase shift previously discussed),
but as usual, the solution for the fields must be real.
These amplitudes, if we write ~k = |~k|k must obey to the following relations

E~0 k = 0
|~k| ~
B~0 =
(k E0 )

~ E
~ = 0 and the second from
~ E
~ = B~ .
where the first relation can be readily derived from
t
These relations are important for if we fix the wave vector along the z-axis, i.e. ~k = k
z , then we
must have that E~0 z = 0 = B~0 z, or in another words, the z-component of the electro-magnetic
field must be zero. The second condition implies that the electric field and magnetic field must
~ B
~ and ~k
be orthogonal between them, and also mutually with the wave vector ~k. Therefore, E,
forms an oriented tryad and the electromagntic field is transverse, the fields oscillate in direction
55

perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave.

The second relation discussed above also implies that, since in free spave
the fields must related by

= c, the magnitude of

|B~0 |
1
=
~
c
|E0 |
which means that the magnetic part of the electromagnetic field will reduced in magnitude by an
amount of c compared to the electric field.

3.2.3

Polarization of EM waves (for a plane wave)

~ in space as a function of time at a given


Polarization is defined as the direction of the vector E
point.
~ and B
~ as
For a general plane wave we can write the fields, E

~ x, t) = Re{E
~ o ei(~k~xt) n
E(~
}
~ o ei(~k~xt) k n
~ x, t) = Re{ 1 E
}
B(~
c

~ o , which is complex, into a basis of 2 unit vectors, 1 and 2 which forms,


We can decompose E

along with k, an orthonormal basis. We then get


~ o = E1 1 + E2 2
E
where 1 , 2 C are complex.
Consider the following cases:
i)Relative phases between E1 and E2 differ by (or integer multiple of )

E1 = ei |E1 |
E2 = ei |E2 |
choosing 1 x
, 2 y and k z then
56

Ex = |E1 |cos(kz t + )
Ey = |E2 |cos(kz t + )

The direction of the electric field is constant in time and


|Ex |
= constant
|Ey |
The wave is said to be linearly polarized.
1

k, z

2
2

ii) Relative phases between E1 and E2 differ by odd multiple of /2

~ will, as a function of time, trace a circle in the plane perpendicular to k,


If |E1 | = |E2 |, then E
and the wave is said to have circular polarization.
~ turns clockwise when looking from ~k it is labelled right circular. If E
~ turns counter-clockwise
If E
~
when looking from k it is labelled left circular.
If |E1 | =
6 |E2 | then the wave will have elliptical polarization.
1

k, z
2

iii) Other phases will be examined as a homework exercise.


57

3.2.4

Energy and Momentum of EM waves

According to Poyntings Theorem, the energy density and energy flux density for the electromagnetic field in general is given by



1 ~ 2
1
2
~
o |E| + |B|
E =
2
o
~ B)
~
~ = 1 (E
S
o

We are now interested in calculating the energy density and Poynting vector but in the case of
monochromatic plane waves propagating in free space. Defining the directing of the electric field
along an arbitrary axis labeled n
, in this case:

~ x, t) = Re{E
~ o ei(~k~xt) n
E(~
}


1 ~ i(~k~xt)
~
B(~x, t) = Re Eo e
kn

c
~ 2
~ o |2 = |Eo |
|B
c2
which will yield the following



1
|B~0 |2
2
~
=
o |E0 | +
cos2 (kx t + )
2
o
1
=
(o |E~0 |2 + o |E~0 |2 )cos2 (kx t + )
2
= o |E~0 |2 cos2 (kx t + ).

This energy density is therefore oscillating periodically as the wave travel in space. We are interested
in the time-averaged energy density that will be stored in the fields, and for this we need to
calculate the time average over one period, so

~ o |2 cos2 (kx t + ) >


< E > = < o |E
1 ~ 2
o |Eo |
=
2
58

since the time averaging of cos2 (x) = 12 . Similarly, the Poynting vector becomes

1 ~ 2 2
|Eo | kcos (kx t + )
o c
~ o |2 cos2 (kx t + )k
= co |E

~ =
S

and its time-average is


~ >= 1 co |E
~ o |2
<S
2
which can be rewritten in term of the energy density of the electromagnetic wave

~ = cE k
S
.
The momentum density carried by the EM field is given by

~
~ = S = Ek
P
c2
c

3.2.5

Electromagnetic Waves in Matter

Lets consider a region inside matter, i.e. in a medium characterized by , but free of charges
and currents. In this case, the Maxwells equation are:

~ D
~ = 0

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~ B
~ = 0

~
~ H
~ = D

59

If in addition the medium is linear and isotropic, we can rewrite the Maxwells equations using

~ = E
~
D
~ = H
~
B
so that for a homogeneous medium, ie. , 6= f (~x), Maxwells equations reduce to

~ E
~ = 0

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~ B
~ = 0

~
~ B
~ =  E .

These are the exact same equations than in free space but with o , o ,  in the last equations.
Therefore, similarly as in free space, the Maxwells equation will obey a wave equation but with
the the speed of propagation for light in a linear and homogeneous medium given by

1
c
v =

n
r

n
 o o

where n is the index of refraction for the medium and

have usually that o n r , and in that case

|~k|

c
n .For

most magnetic materials, we


o
 o (1 + E )

r = 1 + E

where E is the electric susceptibility for the medium. Similarly, the energy density, E, and
~ will be given in the medium by
Poyntings Vector, S

60

~ =
S


~ 2
1
|B|
2
~
|E| +
2

1 ~
~
(E B)

3.3 Reflection and Refraction at Interfaces


We now have developed a framework, using plane wave, for the propagation of electromagnetic
waves in free space, but also in a medium free of charges and current. In this section, we will
explore the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the interfacial region between two media with
index of refraction n1 and n2 .

3.3.1

Normal Incidence

We consider first the case where the wave vector of the incident propagating wave k~i is normal to
an interface defined by z = 0. In that case, there will be a reflected and transmitted waves all with
a propagating wave vector perpendicular to the interface.

ki
kr

kt

n1

n2

Lets consider a plane wave going from medium 1 to medium 2 with corresponding indicies of
refraction n1 and n2 . Since there is no free charges or current at the interface, the boundary
conditions will impose that all components of electric field and displacement and magnetic field are
continuous.
Boundary Conditions

~ || ,
E
~ ,
B

~ || are continuous
H
~ are continuous
D

So that we can write by considering the z = 0 interface

61

1 Ez (0 ) = 2 Ez (0+ )
~ || (0 ) = H
~ || (0+ )
H

~ || , Bz continuous at z = 0.
E
We consider that the incident plane wave is normal to the interface, and similarly to the transmitted
and reflected wave, i.e.

~ki ~k1 = |~k1 |


z
~kr = |~k1 |
z
~kt = |~k2 |
z
We can therefore write the following fields:

~ i = Ei0 ei(k1 zt) x


E
~ r = E 0 ei(k1 zt) x
E
r
~
Et = E 0 ei(k2 zt) x
t

Ei0 , Er0 , Et0 are the amplitudes of incident, reflected and transmitted waves that are to be determined.
Note:
1. we have supposed an electric field with a polarization following x

2. the angular frequency must be the same for all waves, but, ~k is different since it depends on
the medium properties (n). The frequency is the same for all waves because the discontinuity
is in space, not in time.

Since (in magnitude) the magnetic fields is related to the electric field through B =
corresponding incident, reflected and transmitted magnetic fields are:

62

|~k|
E,

the

0
~ i = Ei ei(k1 zt) y
B
v1
0
~ r = Er ei(k1 zt) y
B
v1
0
~ t = Et ei(k2 zt) y
B
v2

~ =
where we have used defined the speed of propagation in the medium vi and the fact that B

vi =

1
=
=
i i
ni
|k~i |

The following boundary conditions give

~ || continuous Ei0 + Er0 = Et0


E
1
1
~ || continuous
H
(Ei0 Er0 ) =
E0
v1 1
v2 2 t
which gives:

Er0
Et0


1
=
Ei0
1+


2
Ei0
=
1+

where we have defined

1 v1
1 n2
=
2 v2
2 n1

.
If we further assume 1 2 o then they reduce to

63

|~k| ~
kE


n1 n2
Ei0
=
n2 + n1


2n1
=
Ei0
n2 + n1


Er0
Et0

Note:
1. v2 > v1 (n2 < n1 ) Reflected waves is in-phase with incident
2. v2 < v1 (n2 > n1 ) Reflected waves is out of phase with incident (Er is of opposite sign
with respect to Ei and so out of phase by ).
3. v2 = v1 (n2 = n1 ) No reflected waves, but Et = Ei .

We define the intensity of energy as


1
I = vE2
2
and we define the reflection and transmission coefficients as the ration of the intensities


R

Er0
Ei0

Ir
Ii

2

It
2 v2
T
=
Ii
1 v1
.

Et0
Ei0

n1 n2
n1 + n2

2
=

2

4n1 n2
(n1 + n2 )2

These coefficients, R and T, measure the fraction of the incident energy that is reflected and
transmitted at the interface, and we can verify that, owing to energy conversation, they obey the
relation

R+T =1
.
64

3.3.2

Oblique Incidence

In this section, we consider the case where the the wave vector for the incident wave is not normal
to the interface, i.e. there will be an angle i 6= 0 with respect to the normal of the interface.
kr
kt
r
i

ki

n1

n2

Again, we suppose a monochromatic plane wave of the form

~ i (~x, t) = E~0 ei(~ki ~xt)


E
i
~
~
~
Er (~x, t) = E 0 ei(kr ~x)t)
r

~ t (~x, t) = E~0 ei(~kt ~x)t)


E
t
and Maxwells equations impose that the magnetic field be of the form
~ i (~x, t) =
B
~ r (~x, t) =
B
~ t (~x, t) =
B

1
~i
ki E
v1
1
kr E~r
v1
1
~t .
kt E
v2

Important Notes:
1. We have now that the wave vector ~k makes an angle with the normal vector, n
, of the
interface.
2. The plane defined by ~ki , ~kr , and~kt is called the plane of incidence.
The boundary conditions must be satisfied everywhere at the interface (ie. at z = 0) and so this
~
~ i, E
~r, E
~ t at z = 0. Since all wave
imply that the phase factor ei(k ~xt) must be the same for E
vectors are lying in a same plane, and choosing the direction y perpendicular to the plane, and x

in the plane of incidence, the requirement that at z = 0 all phase must be equal is equivalent to
65

~ki x
= ~kr x
= ~kt x

which means that the x-component of the wave vector must be equal at the interface. But (k~i )x =
|k~i |sini , and similarly for the reflected and transmitted waves, so the condition above becomes:
ki sini = kr sinr = kt sint
.
We recall the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave in a medium free of charges and
current

c
(~k)
=
~
n
|k|

|~k|

=
c
n

and therefore in magnitude the incident and reflected wave vector must be equal
ki = kr

whereas the transmitted wave vector in magnitude is given by

kt
ki
=
.
n2
n1

As a consequence of the boundary condition imposed at z = 0 which requires that ki sini = kr sinr = kt sint ,
we recover the Law of Snell-Descartes:

i = r
and
n1 sin i = n2 sin t

A wave, in general, can be considered as the superposition of two polarizations: one linear polar~ i that is perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and one that is linear with E
~ i inside
ization with E
or parallel to the incident plane. So we can therefore write in general:
~ tot = E
~ + E
~ ||
E
66

.
~ i, E
~r, E
~ t for both cases, i.e with the incident electric field having a
Our goal is now to solve for E
polarization that is perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence.
i) Perpendicular Polarization
For the perpendiculat polarization, we consider the electric field to be polarized perpendicularly
with respect to the plane of incidence.
kr

Hr
kt

Er

r
i

Et
Ht

Ei
n1

Hi

ki

n2

Boundary conditions imply:


~ || :
Continuity of E
Ei0 + Er0 = Et0

(1)

1
1
(Ei0 Er0 ) cos i =
E 0 cos r
1 v1
2 v2 t

(2)

~ || :
Continuity of H

and defining

1 v1
1 n2
=
2 v2
2 n1

then from equations (1) and (2) we get the Fresnel Equations for perpendicular polarization

cos i cos t 0
E
cos i + cos t i
2 cos i
=
E0
cos i + cos t i

Er0 =
Et0

67

or, for the special case where 1 = 2

sin(t i ) 0
E
sin(t + i ) i
2 cos i sin t 0
E
'
sin(t + i ) i

Er0 '
Et0

.
(Note that the explicit algebra for Er0 , Et0 is left as an exercise)
ii) Parallel Polarization
In the case of parallel polarization, the electric field of the electromagnetic wave is lying in the
plane of incidence.
kr

Er
kt

Hr

r
i

Ht

Et

Hi
ki

Ei

n1

n2

Boundary Conditions are:


~ ||
Continuity of E
(Ei0 Er0 )cosi = Et0 cost
~ || :
Continuity of H
1
1
(E 0 + Er0 ) =
E0
1 v1 i
2 v2 t

(2)

and again, using the same definition for as above we can combine these two equations to get the
Fresnel equations for parallel polarization:

68

cos i 1 cos t 0
E
cos i + 1 cos t i
2 cos i
Ei0
=
1
cos t + cos i

Er0 =
Et0

or, for the special case where 1 = 2

tan(i t ) 0
E
tan(i + t ) i
2 cos i sin t
E0
'
sin(i + t ) cos(t i ) i

Er0 '
Et0

3.3.3

Brewster angles

Lets consider the Fresnel equations for parallel polarization and i = 2


Er0 '

tan(i t ) 0
E
tan(i + t ) i

In that case, we note that if i + t = /2 then the reflected wave amplitude goes to zero. The
incident angle which satisfies this condition is termed the Brewster Angle, or angle of total
polarization, p

tan p =
=
=
=

sin p
cos p
sin p
sin(/2 p )
n2 sint
n1 sin(/2 p )
n2
n1

tan p =

69

n2
n1

For glass, n2 1.5 and for air n2 1 giving p 56o .


~ is normal (perpendicular) to the
For p 56o , only the polarization of light where E
incidence plane will be reflected. The Brewster angle therefore provides a simple way to
polarize light.

3.3.4

Total internal reflection

Now consider a situation were n1 > n2 , i.e. as in the case where light passes from glass to air.
n1 sin i = n2 sin t
There is a critical angle, i c where the refracted wave does not seem to exist, i.e. for sin t =
sin /2 = 1:

c = sin

n2
n1

which is the critical angle for total internal reflection.


What is happening at i = c ? Lets investigate the transmitted component of the electric field:
~t = E
~ 0 ei(kt x sin t +kt z cos t t)
E
t
but owing to the trigonometric relation
cos2 t + sin2 t = 1
and the law of Snell-Descartes

n1 sin i = n2 sin t
from these two equations we get

cos2 t = 1

sin2 i
sin2 i
=
1

(n2 /n1 )2
sin2 c
70

s
1

cost =

sin2 i
sin2 c

which is Re for i < c , and C for i > c .


For i > c then we can define cos t i, =

sin2 i
sin2 c

1, and the transmitted wave becomes

~t = E
~ 0 ekt z ei(kt x sin t t)
E
t
.
An incident wave crossing the interface at an angle beyond the critical angle i > c will have its
amplitude decay along the interface over a characteristic length defined by



1
.
kt

3.4 Absorption and Dispersion in Conductors


3.4.1

Dispersion of a wave packet in general

We say that there is dispersion when the index of refraction (or ) of the medium is a function
of frequency. In general, n is always a function of (i.e. n = n()), but this dependency can be
more, or less, pronounced.
In a region of the EM spectrum where dispersion is pronounced, a wave packet formed by a
superposition of monochromatic plane waves of near-equal frequencies will have its shape distorted
in time. Because phase velocity is a function of , v = v(), the packet will be dispersed. Similarly,
a wave is more or less refracted following n, thus depending on .
Consider a wave packet, (x, t), which is a continuous superposition of plane waves with amplitudes

~ or B.
~
A(k).
We assume plan wave, and is noted here to denote either E
Z
(x, t) =

dk
~
A(k)ei(k~xt)
2

If we have no dispersion, then = kv, v is the phase velocity. Lets define


= x vt
as DAlemberts solution. Then
71

Wave Dispersion

dk
A(k)eik
2
= A()

(x, t) =

= (x vt, 0)

where A() is the Fourier transform of A.


But what if is a linear function of k? We still have v = /k for phase velocity, but the ratio /k
now depends on frequency. Lets write
1
(k)
= o + vg (k ko ) + a(k ko )2
2
where vg is the group velocity, given by

vg =

d
dk


k0

Then we have, if we ignore for now the quadratic term in (k)

Z
(x, t) =

dk
A(k)eik ei(o vg ko )t
2

= A()ei(o vg ko )t
= (x vg t, 0)ei(o vg ko )t
72

i.e., (x, t) is the product of a wave propagating with speed vg (1st term) and an oscillating function
in time (2nd term). Note that vg , the group velocity, i.e. the velocity of the wave packet as a
whole.
vg

v
Wave Packet

In general, a medium will be dispersed if the index of refraction depends on the


frequency: n = n(), i.e. when:
c

=
n
k
and we define the phase velocity v and group velocity vg for a dispersive medium as:

v =
vg =

3.4.2

k
d
dk

Drude Model of the Electric Susceptibility in Matter

We are now interested in the deriving a microscopic model for the dialectric constant in materials
which shall provide us insights as to whether or not the medium is dispersive and attenuating.
The simplest model is know as the Drude model and it gives us a general form for the frequency
dependence of the dialectric constant in a medium. The model considers the atom as a harmonic
oscillator or as an ensemble of oscillators, i.e. the electron cloud is harmonically bound to
the nucleus with a characteristic frequency .
We want to study the response of such an oscillator upon the application of an oscillating electric
field with frequency .

~ =E
~ o ei(~k~xt)
E

73

electron
cloud

Nucleus

Drude Model

~ on the electric cloud, which in turn has a restoring force


The electric field gives a force, F~ = eE
2
m
P ~ o ~x. We also add a dissipative friction force proportional to the speed of the electron cloud.
Fi = m~a gives
+ m ~x + m 2 ~x = eE
~ o eit
m~x
o
which is the equation of a forced harmonic oscillator where m is the electron mass, is the friction
coefficient/unit mass, and o is the characteristic frequency of the oscillator.
The general solution to this equation is given by
~x(t) = Transient
| {z } gstationary
neglected

The stationary solution is of the form


~x(t) = ~xo eit
Substituting into the equation of motion one gets
~o
2 m~xo im~xo + mo2 ~xo = eE
which gives

~xo =

~o
e
E
m o2 2 i

74

This equation is equivalent to an oscillating dipole p~ = p~0 eit ,


p~ = q~x = e~x(t) p~o eit
so that the dipole magnitude is given by

p~o =

~o
e2
E
.
m o2 2 i

If we now suppose a medium containing several elements with relative importance or fraction f ,
each of which with oscillators frequency and damping per unit volume, the polarization,
P~ = p~ N (~r) is simply given by

P~ =

N f e2 /m
~
E
2 2 i

~ we
and since for a linear and isotropic medium the electric susceptibility is given by P~ = 0 e E,
obtain the frequency-dependent susceptibility

e () =

N f e2 /m0
.
2 2 i

We note that the electric susceptibility is now complex, and therefore so will be in that model for
the dialectric constant r = 0 = (1 + e )

r = 1 +

f
N e2 X
.
2
m0 2 i

Note:
~ = E,
~
1. We call  the permittivity of the material. In a linear medium, we must have that D
whereas r is called the relative permittivity or dialectric constant of the material.
2. The tilde, i.e r indicates that the dialectric constant is now complex, i.e.
 Re(
) + iIm(
)
. Usually, the complex part can be neglected, but if the frequency of the electromagnetic
waves is such that ' , it will play an important role.
75

~ and E
~ since
3. There could now be an out of phase component between D
~ = E
~
D

3.4.3

Complex Refraction Index and Anamolous Dispersion

If the dialectric constant is complex, as it is the Drude model, the electromagnetic wave in the
medium will be attenuated since the wave vector, ~k will now has an imaginary component as well.
We recall that the wave equation for the electric field is

~ = o
2 E

~
2E
t2

and so the plane wave solution will admit the following dispersion relation

k =

p
o

and so the wave vector will now be complex, which we can define as k = k + i and the electromagnetic wave will be attenuated according to

~ t) = E~0 (z, t)ez ei(kzt)


E(z,
.
It is usual to define the absorption coefficient for the intensity of the electromagnetic wave which
varies as the square of the electric field amplitudes, E 2 , and hence as e2z . We shall denote by
2 the attenuation coefficient. Conversely, we can define an attenuation length , or in a
conductor a penetration depth for the electromagnetic wave as which is the characteristic
length over which the wave will be attenuated by 1/e. The electromagnetic wave will propagate
Similarly, we can
will propagate with the dispersion relation k = nc , where k is the real part of k.

define the complex index of refraction n


r so that k = c n
.
We are now interested
in calculating the frequency dependence of k and , and to achieve this
we need to calculate r . For a dilute gases of oscillators, the frequency-dependent term in the
dialectric constant
model is usually much smaller than 1, so we can approximate the
of the Drude
x
square root as 1 + x ' 1 + 2 , for x  1. And so we obtain for the dispersion in general:

76


N e2 X
f

r ' (1 +
).
k =
2
c
c
2m0 2 i

and it can be easily shown that, separating the real and imaginary part of k that we obtain the
following relation for n, the real part of n
, and the attenuation coefficient :

ck
N e2 X
f (2 2 )
'1+

2m0 (2 2 )2 + 2 2
f
N e2 2 X
.
= 2 '
2
m0 c ( 2 )2 + 2 2

n=

Lets examine the above relations for a single type of elements, near a mode frequency and
attenuation . We can see that the index of refraction n goes to a finite value with 0. It
dn
will then increase up to = 1 < , frequencies at which d
= 0. In that region, the dispersion
dn
is said to be normal, since d > 0. In that regime, blue light is more refracted than red light and
the attenuation of light is relatively small. The attenuation is always positive and will increase
from zero to a maximum at = , and will drop for > . The index of refraction will be
exactly n = 1 at = and will then drop to values less than 1. In that regime, where n < 1,
the phase velocity of the electromagnetic wave will be greater than the speed of light
c. It will then be at a minimum at = 2 > and then goes towards n = 1. In the range of
dn
frequencies 1 < < 2 , the dispersion is said to be anomalous, for d
< 0. The attenuation in
this regime is very large, and the medium is relatively opaque.

3.4.4

Dispersion and conductivity in a conductor

In a conductor, there is a density of free electrons that are not bound to the atoms (or lattice)
and so we can model it using the Drude model and setting the resonant frequency = 0. Now,
N is the density of free electrons (#/unit volume). The complex conductivity in a conductor is
therefore

r = 1

N e2 /M 0
2 + i

77

where now the sum over all elements is gone since we are now considering only the conduction
electrons. Starting from the Drude model, we can write the equation of motion for the free
electrons as
+ m ~x = eE
~ o eit
m~x
which has for solution

~x =

~
+(e/M )E
2 +i

~v ~x =

~
(e/M )E
i.

From the definition of the current density J~ = N e~v , we can therefore write
~
N (e2 /M )E
J~ = N e~v =
i
and we define the complex conductivity
as

N (e2 /M )
i

such that we have

~
J~ =
E.

We shall refer to
as the AC-conductivity of a conductor.
Note:
1. In the DC limit, we put = 0, we therefore we obtain the DC conductivity
dc =

N e2
m

~ since
~ That implies that current and
2. J~ is not necessarily in phase with E
C and J~ =
E.
the electric field are not necessarily in phase.
78

3.4.5

Propagation in a Conductor

In free space, we have derived the propagation of electromagnetic waves assuming that the density
of electrons and current density J~ was zero. In a conductor, however, there is always a finite
density of free electrons which, if an electric field is applied, will generates a current density
J~ = ~v where is the density free electrons. This latter is dictated in most cases by Ohms law
~
which states that current density of free electrons must be proportional to the electric field, J~ = E.
The Maxwells equation in that case must be modified to account for these free electrons in the
following way:

~ E
~ = /

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~ B
~ =0

~
~ B
~ =  E + E.
~

~ J~ = , which upon replacing Ohms law gives


and the continuity equation must satisfy
t

~ E
~ = . Solving this 1st order differential equation for gives
=

t


(t) = e(  )t (0)
or, in other words, the free density of charges will dissipate in a characteristic time  and
thus is very short for a good conductor  1/ and very long for a poor conductor
 1/. This defines a transient time for the charges to flow to the edge, and so we are interested
in the solution of Maxwells equations at a time t  which will be given by

~ E
~ =0

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~ B
~ =0

~
~ B
~ =  E + E.
~

and it is easy to show that they lead to the following wave equation for the electromagnetic fields:
79

2~
~
~ 2E
~ =  E + E

t2
t
2~
~
~ 2B
~ =  B + B

2
t
t

~ t) = E~0 ei(kzt)
and assuming a plane wave solution as usual of the form E(z,
, with k complex, we
obtain the following dispersion relation:



i
k2 = 2  +

where as perviously we have defined k k + i. The electromagnetic field will then be attenuated
as

~ t) = E~0 ez ei(kzt)
E(z,

and so the electromagnetic field will penetrate the conductor over a distance, called skin depth,
corresponding to a decrease in amplitude by 1/e, or
1
.

with respect to the dispersion relation given


The explicit form of the real and imaginary part of k,
above, will be left as an exercise.

80

3.4.6 Historical Aside: James Maxwell (1821-1879)


James Clerk Maxwell needs little introduction. His contributions to physics are amongst the most
notable in the entire discipline. What perhaps is less known about the man, was his activities and
interests outside the gridiron of analytic derivations and physical formulae. Shown here is the first
page from one of his many poems composed throughout his life. This one from childhood, in 1845.

This poem recounts a knights seduction by a vampire. Other titles include: To the Chief Musician
Upon Nabla, an ode to one Professor Tait, who first discussed Hamiltons del operator, (then
known as nabla), and also A Problem in Dynamics, which begins:
An inextensible heavy chain
Lies on a smooth horizontal plane,
An impulsive force is applied at A,
Required the initial motion of K...
[see The Life of James Clerk Maxwell, by Lewis Campbell and William Garnett, 1882, for more]

81

4 Guided Waves
4.1 Transverse Electric and Magnetic Modes
In free space we have shown that Maxwells equations obey a wave equation where the electric,
magnetic and k-vector are forming an orthogonal tryad. We will now consider the guided transmission of EM waves in the interior of a hollow pipe. Here, we are interested in a hollow conductor
with walls that are perfectly conducting so that both the electric and magnetic fields must vanish at the material surface. The waves that will propagate inside the hollow pipe will be confined,
and in general such waves will not be transverse, so a component of the electric or magnetic field
along the propagation axis may exist.

4.1.1

Helmholtz equation for the transverses components

We assume a structure with a translational symmetry following the z axis and an arbritary crosssection
z

Hollow Conductor

and we are assuming that the wave is a monochromatic plane wave which propagates along the
z-direction, i.e. ~k = k
z.

~ x, t) = E
~ o (x, y)ei(kzt)
E(~
~ x, t) = B
~ o (x, y)ei(kzt)
B(~

~ o, B
~ o are not a function of z per symmetry argument. Their explicit form is thus E
~o =
i.e. E
o
~ = Bx (x, y)
Ex (x, y)
x + Ey (x, y)
y + Ez (x, y)
z and B
x + By (x, y)
y + Bz (x, y)
z.
~ and B
~ must satisfy the following Maxwells equations
As always, E

82

~ E
~ = 0

~
~ E
~ = B

t
~
~
B = 0
~
~ B
~ = 1 E

c2 t

~ o, B
~ o which only depends on transverse
and the problem is now to solve Maxwells equations for E
variables (x,y).
~ o, B
~ o must satisfy the boundary conditions at the inner wall
We also note that E

~ || = 0
E
~ = 0
B

where we have assumed the material to be a perfect conductor.


In general, a guided wave will not be transverse, i.e. we must include the Ez and Bz components
so we write

~ o = Ex x
E
+ Ey y + Ez z
o
~
B = Bx x
+ By y + Bz z

and so the goal is to show that if Ez and Bz are known, that the transverse components are
determined too. If that is the case, the problem is reduced to solve for the ttransverse component
only.
From Maxwells equations we have
~
~ E
~ + B = 0

t
~
~ B
~ 1 E = 0

2
c t
Examining the vector components of equation (i) component by component yields
83

(i)
(ii)

~ E)
~ z =
(
~ E)
~ x =
(
~ E)
~ y =
(
and since the partial derivation

Ey
z

Ey
Ex

= iBz
x
y
Ey
Ez

= iBx
y
z
Ex Ez

= iBy
z
x

= ikEy and

Ex
z

= ikEx

Ey Ex

= iBz
x
y
EZ
ikEy = iBx
x :
y
EZ
y :
+ ikEx = iBy
x
z :

and, similarly, from (ii) we have

z :
x :
y :

By
x
B
= i
Ez
x
y
c2
BZ
ikBy = i
Ex
y
c2
Z
B
+ ikBx = i
By
x
c2

Our goal is now to solve for the transverse components (Ex , Ey ) and (Bx , By ) as a function of
longitudinal components Ez , Bz . From the relations above, we can easily show that they result into

Ex =
Ey =

Bx =
By =



i
Ez
Bz
+
k
(/c)2 k 2
x
y


i
Ez
Bz
k

(/c)2 k 2
y
x



i
Bz
Ez
k
2
(/c)2 k 2
x
c y


i
Bz
Ez
+ 2
k
(/c)2 k 2
y
c x
84

~ E
~ =
~ B
~ = 0, so
But every components of the fields must satisfy to
~ E
~ = Ex + Ey + Ez = 0

x
y
z
Which gives, using the equations for Ex and Ey , and with

Ez
z

= ikEz

 2

Ez
i
2 Ez
2
E
2
E
z
z
k
+ ikEz = 0
+k
+

(/c2 ) k 2
x2
y 2
xy xy
and therefore we obtain the following equation for Ez


2
2
2 2
2
+
+ (/c ) k Ez = 0
x2 y 2

or, as it more usually written

2
x2

2
y 2


+ Ez = 0
2

2 (/c)2 k 2

known as the Helmholtz equation. Similarly, its can easily be shown that



2
2
2
+
+ Bz = 0
x2 y 2

The wave guide problem is now reduced to solving the Helmholtz equation for Ez and Bz with
the appropriate boundary condition coming from the in x-y plane, and with the conducting (or
dialectric) surface separating the two media. Once the Ez or Bz components are known, all others
are easily determined with the equations above.
Helmholtz euqation + Boundary Conditions Ez , Bz (Ex , Ey ), (Bx , By )

85

4.2 Electromagnetic Waves Modes


~ and
In free space, as we have seen before, electromagnetic waves are always transverse i.e. the E
~ fields are mutually perpendicular with ~k. For a guided wave, this no longer true and we must
B
consider different propagating modes (for a given frequency ). We shall consider several modes of
propagation, some where Ez = 0 that we call transverse electric (TE), some with Bz = 0 known as
transverse magnetic (TM) and the case where Ez , Bz = 0 known as TEM.
~ and B
~ are perpendicular to ~k, as in
1.) TEM mode (Transverse electric and magnetic) Here, E
free space. We shall see that this is impossible in a closed waveguide.
~ is perpendicular to the direction of propa2.) TM mode (Transverse magnetic) In this case, B
2
2
2
gation, but Ez 6= 0. We must solve [x + y + ]Ez = 0
~ is perpendicular to the direction of propagation,
3.) TE mode (Transverse Electric) In this case, E
2
2
2
but Bz 6= 0. We must solve [x + y + ]Bz = 0
4.2.1

TEM modes propagation

In the case of TEM modes, we have Ez = Bz = 0. The Maxwells equation will impose that
~ E
~ = 0 Ex + Ey = 0

x
y
~ E
~ = Bz = 0 Ex Ey = 0

t
y
x
~ o = Ex x
E
+ Ey y has zero divergence and zero curl. It can therefore
~ o =
~
E
where is a scalar potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; 2 = 0. However, the boundary
conditions at surface requires that it is an equipotential and since the Laplace equation 2
admits no local minima or maxima, must be defined constant throughout the hollow conductor
and therefore no wave propagation occurs (the electric field inside! is zero everwhere!).
However, note that TEM modes can exist outside of a hollow conductor. For example, propagating
modes surrounding a conducting wire which would propagate at speed c = /|~k|

4.3 Rectangular Waveguide


We are now considering the case where the boundary is given by a hollow pipe, with walls perfectly
conducting, with a square cross section. The dimension of cross section are denotes by a and b
in the x and y direction, respectively.
86

Outside: TEM mode is possible

Inside: E=0, no TEM mode

TEM modes cant exist inside a hollow conductgor

y
Rectangular Wave Guide

Boundary conditions at the surface are:


~ || = 0 at surface
E
~ = 0 at surface
B

4.3.1

TE Modes (Ez = 0, Bz 6= 0)

We first consider the TE modes (Ez = 0, Bz 6= 0) where we must solve the Helmholtz equation for
the magnetic field along z:

2
x2


Bzo = 0

2
y 2

2 =

2
c2

k2

Since the boundary condition can easily be expressed in cartesian coordinates, we can solce the
Helmholtz equation in these coordinates by separating the variables. We write

87

Bz (x, y) = X(x)Y (y)


so that, substituting back into the Helmholtz equation gives

d2 X
d2 Y
+
X
+ 2 XY = 0
dx2
dy 2
1 d2 X
1 d2 Y
+
+ 2 = 0
2
2
X
dx
Y
dy
| {z } | {z }
=kx2

=ky2

kx2 + ky2 + 2 = 0
where kx and ky are constant. So the general solution is of the form
X(x) = Asin(kx x) + Bcos(kx x)
for which we must apply the boundary conditions : first, Bx must vanish at the surface i.e. at
x = 0, a. Recalling that
0 for TE mode


7
1
Bz
E
z
Bx =
k


(/c)2 k 2
x
c y
it implies that at the boundary
Bz
X
=0
= 0 X 0 = Akx coskx x Bkx sinkx x = 0
x
x
The boundary condition at x = 0, since cos(0) 6= 0, implies that
A0
and the the boundary condition at x = a imposes that
kx a = m
kx =

m
a

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3 . . ..

And similarly for Y (y), and the boundary conditions at y = 0, b where

88

By
y

=0

ky =

n
n = 0, 1, 2 . . .
b

We now notice that the k vectors along x and y are now discrete, and are labeled according to
the m, n indices. The complete solution for Bz (x, y) is therefore

 

ny
mx
cos
m, n N
Bz = B0 cos
a
b


where we define B0 the amplitude of the mode. Finally, to obey the Helmholtz equation, the kx
and ky must obey

m2 n2
+ 2
a2
b

= 2 /c2 k 2

and so the wavevector will be discretized according to

s 
 2

2
m

n2
2

k=
+ 2 .
c
a2
b

We will define the mode frequencies mn as


r
mn c

m2 n2
+ 2
a2
b

so that

k=

1p 2
2 .
mn
c

c
c
We immediately see that there is a frequency cutoff mn
for which if < mn
kCk=
Re{k} + i. That means that the wave will not propagate below that frequency cutoff, and instead
c
c , the EM wave and does not
be exponentially damped i.e if mn
the cutoff, then when < mn
propagate.

89

If a > b, the cutoff is for the T E modes is the T E10 mode associated wth the 10 frequency

10 =

c
a

NOTE: Given Bz , we can easily obtain Ex , Ey , Bx , By using the equations given above. We call
this solution the T Emn solution.

4.3.2

TM Modes (Ez 6= 0, Bz = 0)

The approach to finding the TM solutions is the same as for TE modes, but here we set Bz = 0
and we are solving for Ez with the conditions that Ez must vanish at the surfaces. By solving the
Helmholtz equation in a similar way by separation of variables, the solution is


Ez = E0 sin
mn

mx
a

ny
b

sin
q
2
2
= c m
+ nb2
a2

but we must note that here both indices m AND n must be non-zero for waves to propagate.
The lowest frequency of the TM mode will therefore be the T M11 mode.

4.3.3

Dominant modes and velocities


r
mn = c

m2 n2
+ 2
a2
b

Assuming that a > b, then the lowest cutoff frequency is 10 = c/b. The T E10 is therefore the
dominant mode. We typically design waveguides such that only the dominant mode propagates,
and we set its frequencies at the propagating frequencies of the waves that we want to propagate.
A hollow waveguide cane be considered as propagating electromagnetic waves dispersively. Lets
calculate the phase and group velocity for the rectangular wave guide:
Phase velocity:
v

c
=p
>c
2
k
1 ( mn
)

90

c . The phase velocity inside a wave guide is there fore greater than the speed
assuming that > mn
of light.

Group velocity:
r
1
mn 2
vg =
=c 1(
)
dk/d

velocity

The group velocity can be expressed as a simple ratio of the speed of light and the phase velocity,
and we for the rectangular wave guide with perfectly conducting walls, the following relation holds
vg v2 = c2 .

v
c
vg

mn

Group Velocity

We note that v always > c, whereas vg always < c.

4.4 Circular wave guides


4.4.1

Hollow circular waveguide

Consider the TM modes and set  = = 1. We must solve the Helmholtz equation

~ 2 + 2 ]E o = 0
[
z

in cylindrical coordinates. We must therefore solve




1
Ez
1 2 Ez
r
+ 2
+ 2 Ez = 0
r r
r
r 2
91

(*)

with the boundary condition Ez (r = a, ) = 0.


The solution of (*) is the bessel function Jm (r).
Ez (r, ) Jm (r)cos(m + ) m = 0, 1, 2 . . .
where is a meaningless phase. The boundary conditions imply
Jm (a) = 0 =

xmn
a

where J(xmn ) = 0. ie., xmn are the Bessel function zeros, or the nth roots of the order m Bessel
function. The dispersion relation becomes

2
+ c2 k 2
2 = mn
mn = cxamn

where m 0, n 1.
The general solution for the TM modes can therefore be written as

Ez (r, ) =

o
Emn
Jm


xmn r
cos(m + mn )
a

For a mn mode, m indicates the order of the Bessel function, n are the roots of mth order Bessel
function.
TE modes: Similarly, the TE modes are given with boundary conditions that
and so
0
Jm
(a) = 0 =

ymn
a

where J 0 (ymn ) = 0 and ymn are the nth roots of the derivative of Jm .

92

Bz
x,y

= 0 at r = a,

Bz (r, ) =

o
Bmn
Jm

ymn r
a


cos(m + mn )

2
2 = Nmn
+ c2 k 2
mn = cyamn

Once the Ez (or Bz ) components are known, we can calculate the transverse components of the
field by using ( = = 1)

Er =
E =
Br =
B =



Ez
1 i 1 Bz
+ ik
2 c r
r


1
i Bz
1 Ez

ik
2
c
r


1
i 1 Ez
Bz

+ ik
2
c r
r


1 i Ez
1 Bz
+ ik
2 c
r

4.5 Electromagnetic Cavity


4.5.1

What is an EM cavity?

An electromagnetic cavity is simply a conductor closed on all sides, and for which the EM field can
oscillate at some frequencies. No monochromatic wave can travel in it, but, we can have standing
waves at discrete frequencies mnr , forming inside it.
~ B
~
The problem is to find the natural frequencies of the cavity, as well as the configuration of the E,
fields for each oscillating mode.
We consider a rectangular waveguide to which we add two surfaces, one at each end at distance
z = 0, d. Since, we know the solution for an unbounded conductor waveguide, we can consider the
solution as the sum (along z) of an incident plus reflected wave in z direction which interfere with
each other and that of the wave-guide along the x and y directions. The interference along z will
create standing waves.
Consider TE modes, ie Ez = 0. In the z-direction, at the new interfaces, the Bz component must
obey to the new boundary conditions along z

93

y
Finite Rectangular Wave Guide

Bz = 0 at z = 0, d

1
(Bz eikz Bz eikz ) = Bz sinkz
2i

Applying the boundary conditions: z = 0 gives simply Bz sinkz = 0 (i.e. this boundary conditions
gives no new information) but at z = d, it gives Bz sinkd = 0, which will be true only when
kd = r, r N
The dispersion relation is, for the wave guide
2
2 = mn
+ c2 k 2

where we now have c2 k 2 to be discrete, i.e. according to




k =

r
d

2

which gives finally

s
mnr =


2
mn

And the solution for Bz is

94

rc
d

2

 
 

mx
ny
rz
Bz = Bmnr cos
cos
sin
a
b
d

Similarly, it is easy to show that for TM modes, the solution is:


 
 

ny
rz
mx
sin
cos
Ez = Emnr sin
a
b
d


4.5.2

Quality Factor of a Cavity


r
2
mn

= c

r2
m2 n2
+
+
a2
b2
d2

A priori it seems impossible to excite an EM cavity unless the excitation frequency is exactly that
of the cavity resonance, given by the frequencies mnr . In practice, however, there will be some
energy losses which will make the spectrum of the cavity going from a theoretical delta function
( mnr ) to that of a spectrum of peaks with finite widths owing to the finite conductivity of
the walls.
We define the quality factor, Q of a cavity as

o Energy
Power Loss

where o is the frequency of the mode considered.


Let < U > be the time-averaged energy of the cavity, then its time derivative is simply the power
loss at the walls, and from the definition of the Q f actor is given by (where the minus sign is
reminiscent to that it is an energy loss)

d<U >
dt

>
= o <U
Q

< U (t) >= Uo eo t/Q


or in other words, the energy decreases exponentially in time due to losses. We recall that for an
EM field, the energy stored is
 ~ 2

1 |B|
2
~
+ o |E|
=
2 o
95

so that

~ B|
~ 2
< U > |E,
E(t) = Eo eo t/2Q

i.e. electric and magnetic fields damped exponentially in time as well. We are interested in whats
happening in the spectrum of frequencies mnr , and to gain that information, we shall Fourier
transform the time-dependent field
Z

E() =

dtEo eo t/2Q ei(o )t

Which has for solution the following spectrum in frequencies:

|E()|2

( o

)2

1
+ (/2Q)2

where w0 is the frequency of a given mode under cosideration. This functional form is known as a
Lorentzian curve which is characterized by its width, , at half height, given here by

o
Q

and therefore the larger the quality factor Q is, the more closely will the frequency spectrum around
o resemble a -function. To calculate the Q-factor of the cavity, one typically consider the energy
loss for a given mode by the ohmic loss from

1
U=
2



1 ~ 2
2
~
d~x o E| + |B|
o

~ B
~ fields are being damped by the conductors having a finite conductivity at the
where the E,
walls.

96

5 Electromagnetic Radiation
5.1 Fields of Moving Charges
5.1.1

Review of Inhomogeneous Wave Equation

We recall that scalar and vector potentials for electrodynamics are given by

~
~ =
~ A
E
t
~
~
~
B = A

And we have shown previously that they obey a wave equation with a source (In the Lorentz gauge):

o
2~
 A = o J~
2 =

with
~ 2 o o
2
Our goal is now to solve these equations when

5.1.2

2
t2

6= 0.

Retarded Potentials

When charges are static, such as when


t = 0, we have seen that the equation of motion for
electromagnetic potentials reduces to the Poisson equation i.e.

2 = o
and
~
2 A

= o J~

which have the following corresponding solutions

97

(~x) =
~ x) =
A(~

1
4o
o
4

x)
d~x0 |~x(~
~
x0 |
~

x
d~x0 |~xJ~
~
x0 |

Imagine now that the charges arent static anymore, i.e. so there will be a time lag between
propagation of information which travels at speed of light to the observe. The delay for the
information to travel from the source location (variable x0 ) to the observer (variable x) location
~ and B
~ is known as the retarded time, and is defined as
where we wish to calculate the fields E

tr t

r
c

where
r |~x ~x0 |
So for moving charges, the potentials should be generalized as

Z
1
(x~0 , tr ) ~0
(~x, t) =
dx
4o
r
Z ~ ~0
J(x , tr ) ~0
o
~
dx
A(~x, t) =
4
r

where (~x, tr ) is the charge density that prevailed at x~0 and retarded time, tr . These are known as
the retarted potentials, and are reminiscent from the fact that fields are not instantaneous.
Similarly, we can define an advanced time, ta as

ta t +

r
c

and it follows that we can define advanced potentials


98

(~x, t) =
~ x, t) =
A(~

5.1.3

Z
1
(x~0 , tr ) ~0
dx
4o
|~x x~0 |
Z ~ ~0
o
J(x , tr ) ~0
dx
4
|~x x~0 |

Lienart-Wiechert Potentials

We shall now consider the potentials of a point charge moving on a specific trajectory. By point
charge we mean that the charge has no distribution, no size. We define its path or trajectory at a
time, t, by the vector

~ (t) = position of q at time t


so that the retarded time is determined from the equation
|~x
~ (tr )| = c(t tr )
where |~x
~ (tr )| is the distance over which the field effect propagates, and c(t tr ) is the time
for the field effect to travel.
~ the vector from retarded position to the field observer at ~x.
So, we shall define (~x
~ (tr )) = R
It can be shown that this retarded position will induces a charge

(x~0 , tr )dx~0 =

q
~v /c
1R

~ is the vector from the


where, ~v is the velocity of the point charge at retarded time tr , and R
~ which are known
retarded position to field point ~x.This in turn will modify the potentials, and A
as the Lienart-Wiechert potentials for a moving point charge:

(~x, t) =
~ x, t) =
A(~

qc
1
~ v)
4o (RcR~

o
qc~v
~ v)
4 (RcR~

99

~v
(~x, t).
c2

5.1.4

Fields of a Moving Point Charge

~ x, t) for a moving point chargem, the electromagnetic


From the retarded potentials (~x, t) and A(~
fields created by a moving charge can be calculated from the field equations
~
~ =
~ A , B
~ =
~ A
~
E
t
.
~ = ~x
We recall that we had defined the vector R
~ (tr ) and so we can defined the velocity as

~v =~(tr ) where as usual ~x is the posiiton of the field observer, (tr ) is the position at time tr . The
r ) must be taken at retarded time t r determined by |~x
~ and~(t
R
~ (tr )| = c(t tr ) = f (~x, t) and
the calculations of the gradient operator is rather cumbersome, so we shall only give the results
here for the fields, and not the derivation. Making use of the notation
~v
~u cR
the fields due to a moving charge are given by

q
R
~ (~u ~a))]
[(c2 v 2 )~u + (R
3
~
4o (R ~u)
~ mpc (~x, t) = 1 R
~ E
~ mpc (~x, t)
B
c
~ mpc (~x, t) =
E

~
where ~a dv/dt
is the acceleration of the point charge at retarded time, tr . We note that
~
~ and to the R
~ (vector to retarded position).
B is perpendicular to E

Note that in the special case where if ~v = 0 = ~a, i.e. when charges are not moving, then ~u cR
and so the electric field is

~ mpc (~x, t)
E
=
=

q Rc3 R
~ ~u)3
4o (R
~ 3
q Rc
4o R3 c3

q R
4o R2

and so
lim

~
u0,~a0

~ mpc (~x, t) =
E
100

qR
.
4o R2

The electric field hat is recovered in the limit of no velocity and no acceleration is that of static
charges, as it should.
~ mpc , given by
The electric field of moving charge E
~ mpc (~x, t) =
E

q
R
~ (~u ~a))]
[(c2 v 2 )~u + (R
~ ~u)3
4o (R

~v , where
effectively contains two terms, one that depends on the velocity of the charges ~u cR
2
2
~v d~
(tr )/dt, and which gives the field in (c v )~u. This term is the generalized Coulomb
field, and is also termed the velocity field Ev 1/R2 . The second term depending on the
~ (~u ~a) is termed the acceleration field
acceleration of the moving charges ~a, and given by R
, Ea 1/R. The fact that the velocity field falls much faster than the acceleration field will have
important consequences on the radiation of moving charges, as we shall see in the next section.
~ mpc since it is given by
Finally, we note that similar results are obtained for the magnetic field B

~ mpc = R E(~
~ x, t).
B
c

5.2 Radiation of moving point charges


5.2.1

Radiation in general

Radiation of moving charge is a consequence of electrodynamics and is a classical phenomenon.


We shall see that only charges that are undergoing acceleration can radiate, or lose energy in by
emitting electromagnetic waves. To see this, we revisit the Poynting theorem that stated that
 Z
 ~ 2

I
i
1
|B|
1
2
~
~ B
~ d~s
=
d~x
+ o |E|

E
t
t 2
o
o
so electromagnetic waves in vacuum propagates out to infinity carrying energy with them.
INSERT FIGURE RadiationWaves
The radiation of charges will be described
 ower radiated, or energy loss per unit time,
H in term of p
~ d~s, but the charges will carry some energy with them.
and is given by the Poynting vector P = S
~ ,
To obtain the total power radiated, one must integrate over a sphere at infinity, so that R
and so
I
Prad = lim

~ R)
~ d~s
S(

We have seen that the electric field for moving point charges can be separated into a velocity
~ v and an acceleration field E
~ a . Lets consider first the dependence with respect to the field
field E
observer distance. We note that
101

~ = E
~ +E
~
E
v  a  
1
1

+
2
r v
r ~a
so that the power radiated at infinity which is the Poynting vector times the surface of a sphere at
infinity with surface S r2 ), which is given by the square of the field will go as

~
S

=
Prad

~v + S
~~a
S
 
*0  1 
1 
r2 +
r2

4
2

r
r

~v
~v

So only the acceleration field will radiate at infinity and hence we need only to consider the term
~a =
E

q
R
~ (~u ~a)]
[R
~ ~u)3
4o (R

~ and the corresponding Poynting vector is


which is perpendicular to the vector R,
~ 2
*0

1 ~ 2


~
~ a ] = |Ea | R
~

R Ea )E
[|Ea | R (
Sa =
o c
o c.
~v = c(R
~v /c). For a non-relativistic moving charge with |~v /c| << 1,
Recall that ~u = cR
we can make the approximation

~u cR
or, in other words at a time tr , the charge is almost at rest so that
~ ~u)3 c3 R3
(R
which gives for the acceleration field

~a =
E
=

q
R ~
~a)]
[R (cR
4o c3 R3
q
(R
~a)]
[R
4o c2 R
102

but c2 = 1/o o and so we get

~a)R
~a].
~ a = o q [(R
E
4R

So, in the far field limi, at infinity, the power radiated is


Prad [S(r)][4r2 ]
and for a moving point charge, Sv 1/R4 , Sa 1/R2 , so there will be no radiation if a charge is
moving with a uniform velocity, however, radiation will occur if ~a 6= 0.

5.2.2

Radiation and Larmor Formula

To calculate the total power radiated by a particale at time tr , we need to consider a sphere of
radius R centered at position of the particle at time tr , keeping in mind that the radiation will take
a time (t tr ) = R/c to reach the sphere.
So,
2
~a = |Ea | R
S
o c

|Ea |2 =
=
=
=
=

2o q 2
~a)R
~a)((R
~a)R
~a)
((R
(4R)2
2o q 2
2 + (R
a)2 )
(|~a|2 2(~a R)
(4R)2
2o q 2
a)2 )
(|~a|2 (R
(4R)2
2o q 2 2
a (1 cos2 )
(4R)2
2o q 2 2 2
a sin
(4R)2

And therefore
2
~a = o q a2 sin2 R

S
c(4R)2

103

sin
R

2

The total Power is given by

I
P

=
=
=
=
=

~sa d~s
Z
2
o q 2 a2
sin2 2
R sindd
(4)2 c
R
Z
Z 2
o q 2 a2
3
sin d
d
(4)2 c 0
0
o q 2 a2 4
2
(4)2 c 3
o q 2 a2
6c

P =

o q 2 a2
6c

which is the Larmor Formula for a moving point charge (v/c << 1)
The Larmour formula is only valid if v/c << 1. As the velocity of the moving charge increases,
~v = c(R
~v /c).
one needs to take into account the v/c that we neglected in ~u = cR
We can show that in this case, the Larmour formula will be generalized by

2 


o q 2 6 2 ~v ~a
P =
a
6c
c
1
= p
1 v 2 /c2

known as Lieards generalization of Larmour Formula Note that as 1, P Plarmor .


Special case 1: Brehmsstrahlung: If ~v is colinear to ~a, |~v ~a| = va sin 0 then:

P =

0 q 2 6 2
a
6c

INSERT FIGURE bremsstrahlung

104

Emitted radiation is known as bremsstrahlung (braking radiation).


Special case 2: synchrotron radiation: When ~v ~a, |~v ~a| = va sin = va. This gives rise to
a circular orbit.
INSERT FIGURE Sychrotron

P =

0 q 2 6 a2
0 q 2 6 a2 1
[1 v 2 /c2 ] =
6c
6c 2

P =

0 q 2 4 a2
6c

Which goes as 4 . This is called sychrotron radiation.

5.2.3

Breakdown of Rutherfords picture of the atom

In Ritherfords picture of the atom, the electron orbit is in a classical orbit around the nucelas.
Lets consider the simplest possible case, the hydrodgen atom:
INSERT FIGURE: hydrogen
Assuming that the e is orbiting classically, i.e. according to Newtonian mechanics and classical
electromagnetic theory, how long would the e remain on a stable orbit? We have shown that since
|~a| =
6 = 0 there will be power radiated equal to:

P =

0 q 2 4 a2
6c

if non-relativistic, i.e. v/c  1 and = 1/

P =

1
v 2 /c2

for ~v ~a
' 1, we get:

0 e2 a2
dE
=
6c
dt

Remembering that radiated power is energy lost by the system. Further, we assume that the
energy loss per revolutio nis small compared with the total energy of the atom. In the field, which
is generated by the Coulomb potential of the hydrogen nucleus, the total energy and acceleration
of the electron are:

E=

mv 2
e2

2
40 r
105

a=

v2
r

Recall the virial theorem: 2hT i = nhV i where n = 1 is the power of the potentials r-dependence.
Therefore:
hV i
2
hV i
hEi =
2

hT i =

hV i
e2
=
2
80 r

hEi =

e2
40 rm

v2 =

mv 2
e2
e2

=
2
40 r
80 r

and

a=
So that

e2
40 r2 m

e2 dr
0 e2 a2
0 e2
dhEi dr
=
=

dt dt
80 r2 dt
6c
6c
dr
dt

e2
40 r2 m

2


2
o e2
e2
4o r2
=
6c 4o r2 m
e2


o e2
e2
o e4
=
=
2
3c 4o r m
3c(4o )r2 m2

or

3c(4o )m2 2
r dr
o e4
So that the total time the electron will spend in orbit will be:
dt =

Z
=
0

3c(4o )m2
dt =
o e4

r2 dr

a0

Where a0 is the Bohr radius. Were integrating over the radial distance as the electron falls from
its initial radius into the nucleus (r = 0). This gives:

c(4o )m2 3
a0
o e4

106

Numerically, this gives:


'

4 2 1011 1060 108 a30


a30

' 1010 s
4 107 5 1076
1020

,
a very short lifespan indeed!

5.3 Dipolar Radiation (optional)


5.3.1

Electric Dipole Radiation

INSERT FIGURE electric dipole


Imagine an (oscillating) dipole with a time-varying charge according to q(t) = q0 eit (the physical
charge being given by the real part) with a dipolar moment p~(t) = p~0 eit .
We make the following approximations:
i) d  r : the observer sees a dipole, not the individual charges;
ii) d  c/ (d  ) : distance much smaller than the wavelength of of the oscillating dipole;
iii) r  c/ (r  ) : we observe the fields far from the source. We call this the radiation zone.
Approximations i) and ii) are the perfect dipole approximation. When apply all of these approximations to retadrded potientials, the retarded potentials for oscillating dipole:



p0 cos
sin[(t r/c)]
(r, , t) =
4o c
r
~ , t) = o p0 sin[(t r/c)]
A(r,
z
4r
~ =
~ A,
~ the electric and magnetic fields for
~ =
~ A~ and B
Using the field equations E
t
an oscillating electric dipole become:

~ = o p0 cos[(t r/c)]
E
4
2

~ = o p0 cos[(t r/c)]
B
4c
~=
As usual, the power radiated is obtained by integrating the Poynting vector S
Hence:
107

1 ~
~
o E B

at infinity.




2
o p0 2 sin
~
S=
cos[(t r/c)] r
c
4
r
and if we average it in time (remember hcos2 ti = 1/2i),

~ =
hSi

o p20 4 sin2
r
32 2 c r2

Such that the differential radiated power for an electric dipole is:

Note:
 
i) dP
d

dP
d


=
e.dip.

o p20 4
sin2
32 2 c

sin2 i.e. no radiation for = 0.


e.dip.

INSERT FIGURE radiation, theta, zero, blah


 
ii) dP
4 ...the fourth power of omega!
d
e.dip.

5.3.2

Scattering by electrons: why is that sky blue? (optional)

We want to study the scattering of EM waves (light!) by free (Thomson) or bound (Rayleigh)
electrons. Picture this process:
INSERT FIGURE scattering
Lets assume the incident wave is linearly polarized with an electric field of the form:
~ =E
~ 0 ei(~k~xt)
E
Recall the Drude model in section 3.3.2: we had developed a theory of the electron gas and found
that the electrons form an oscillating dipole in response to the driving electric field:

p~0 =

~0
E
2
m 02 2 i

p~ = p~0 eit

The oscillating dipole will radiate EM waves according to:


108

dP
d


e.dip.

o p20 4
=
sin2 =
32 2 c

dP
d


=
e.dip.

~2
|E
o 4
0
sin2
32 2 c (02 2 )2 + 2 2

A fraction of the incident EM wave energy is absorbed by the motion of the electrons and given
back in the form of radiation. We define the differential cross section as the power emitted in a
given direction per unit solid angle per unit of incident energy flux:


d
d


=
e.dip.

(dP/d)
~ i
hSi

with:
~ =
hSi

1 ~
~ = 1 |E
~ 0 |2 = co |E
~ 0 |2
hE Bi
o
o c

so,

d
d

~ 2 sin2
|E|
~ 2 (02 2 )2 + 2 2
32 2 m2 c2 o |E|
o c2 r02 4 sin2
o 32 2 [(02 2 )2 + 2 2 ]
o e4 4


=
e.dip.

Where we have used e2 /mc2 r0 , the classical radius of the electron ' 3 1013 cm.

d
d


=
e.dip.

o c 2 2 2
4
r
sin

o 32 2 0
(02 2 )2 + 2 2

The total cross-section is given by:

Z 
tot =


d
d
d

o c2 2
4
r0 2
o 12 (0 2 )2 + 2 2

Case i) Free electrons = 0; = 0:

109

tot =

o c2 2
r 6= f ()
o 12 0

This is Thomson scattering.


Case ii) Bound electrons, but with  0 :

tot

 
o c2 2 4
r
=
o 12 0 0

This is Rayleigh scattering. Note the 4 dependence!


So why is that sky blue?
Well, scattering of light in the atmosphere is well approximated by scattering off bound electrons
in atmospheric molecules.
4 (1/)4
short wavelength (blue) light is therefore scattered to a much higher degree than the longer
(red) wavelengths. Remember, the light coming from the sun contains a very broad spectrum, but
on earth we see the light that is scattered by the atmosphere in addition to the direct rays of the
sun (otherwise the rest of the sky would be pitch black!).
INSERT FIGURE sun
At sunrise and sunset, as seen from sea level, the sunlight will travel a longer distance through the
atmosphere to reach your eyes. The blue components have mostly been scattered away, leaving the
characteristic sunset reds, oranges and pinks.

110