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# Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Mathematics 17
Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines-Diliman

Lecture 5

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Outline

nth root of a
Multiplication and Division of Radical Expressions

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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nth root of a

Definition
Let a, b R and n N, n > 1. If bn = a then b is an nth root of a.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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nth root of a

Definition
Let a, b R and n N, n > 1. If bn = a then b is an nth root of a.
Examples:
Since both 32 , (3)2 are equal to 9, then 3 and -3 are second roots or
square roots of 9.
-4 is a third root or a cube root of -64 since (4)3 = 64.
2 and -2 are fourth roots of 16 since (2)4 = (2)4 = 16.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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Definition

as follows:

## If a < 0 and n is odd, then n a is the nth root of a that is negative.

If a is zero, then n 0 = 0.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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Definition

as follows:

## If a < 0 and n is odd, then n a is the nth root of a that is negative.

If a is zero, then n 0 = 0.
Note:
1. The principal nth root is unique.
2. If n is even, the nth roots of negative real numbers are not real
numbers.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## If no index is written, it is taken to be 2.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27 = 3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27 = 3

2011
0

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27 = 3

2011
0=0

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27 = 3

2011
0=0

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

6 / 23

## Principal nth root of a

Examples:
4 and 4 are
square roots of 16, but the principal square root of 16 is
4. That is, 16 = 4.
3 is the principal
cube root of 27 since (3)3 = 27 and 3 is a positive
integer. That is, 3 27 = 3.

3
27 = 3

2011
0=0

## 9 is not a real number because there is no real number b such

that b2 = 9.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## Rational Exponents for Radical Expressions

Definition
If n is a positive integer and m is an integer such that
terms, then

1
a n = n a, and
 1 m

m
= ( n a)m
a n = an

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

m
n

is in lowest

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## Rational Exponents for Radical Expressions

Definition
If n is a positive integer and m is an integer such that
terms, then

1
a n = n a, and
 1 m

m
= ( n a)m
a n = an

m
n

is in lowest

Examples:

25 = 5

2/3
3
27 = ( 27)2 = 32 = 9

(32)1/5 = 5 32 = 2

(32)1/5 = 5 32 = 2

1
43/2 = ( 4)3 = 23 =
8

1. 251/2 =
2.
3.
4.
5.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## Laws of Rational Exponents

Let a, b R; m, n, p, q Z; n, q 6= 0:
m

+p

a n aq = a n q
m
m
an
pq
n
, a 6= 0
p = a
aq
m
1
a n = m , a 6= 0
an

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

an
m

p
q

mp

= a nq

a n b n = (ab) n
m
am
an
n
, b 6= 0
=
m
b
bn

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## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3
a
a1/2 a1/3
=
+

## a2/3 a2/3 a2/3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3
a
a1/2 a1/3
=
+

## a12/3 a2/3 a2/3

/
3
= a

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3
a
a1/2 a1/3
=
+

## a12/3 a2/13 a2/3

/
6
/
3
= a +a

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3
a
a1/2 a1/3
=
+

## a12/3 a2/13 a2/31

/
6
/
3
= a +a
a /3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

9 / 23

## Radical Expression and the Rational Exponents

Examples:
1. (x1/2 + y 1/2 )(x1/2 y 1/2 )
= x1/2 x1/2 + x1/2 y 1/2 x1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2 y 1/2
= xy
2.

a + a1/2 a1/3
a2/3
a
a1/2 a1/3
=
+

## a12/3 a2/13 a2/31

/
6
/
3
= a +a
a /3
1
1
= a1/3 + 1/6 1/3
a
a

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## We use the following properties:

Theorem
Let m, n N, n > 1 for any a, b R with a, b 0 if n is even.

n
n n
a = a; ank = ak , k Z

n
ab = n a n b
r

n
a
a
n
=
, b 6= 0
n
b
b

n m
a = am/n
p

n m
a = mn a

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 2 18 = 2 18 = 36 = 6
r

3
54
54
= 3
2.
= 3 27 = 3
3
2
2

4
3. x3 = x3/4 (x 0 if the index is even.)

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 2 18 = 2 18 = 36 = 6
r

3
54
54
= 3
2.
= 3 27 = 3
3
2
2

4
3. x3 = x3/4 (x 0 if the index is even.)

## Example: 43/2 = ( 4)3 = 23 = 8 and 43 = 64 = 8

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

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Examples:

1. 2 18 = 2 18 = 36 = 6
r

3
54
54
= 3
2.
= 3 27 = 3
3
2
2

4
3. x3 = x3/4 (x 0 if the index is even.)

p

## (1)6/2 = (1)3 = 1 but (1)6 = 1 = 1

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## A radical expression is in simplest form if all the following conditions

are satisfied:
The radicand has no factors which are perfect powers of the index n.
The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)
The smallest possible index is used.

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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The radicand has no factors which are perfect powers of the index n.
p
Example: 18x3 y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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The radicand has no factors which are perfect powers of the index n.
p
3 2
Example:
p 18x y
=
32 2 x2 x y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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The radicand has no factors which are perfect powers of the index n.
p
3 2
Example:
p 18x y
= 32 2 x2 x y 2 p

=
32 2 x2 x y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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The radicand has no factors which are perfect powers of the index n.
p
3 2
Example:
p 18x y
= 32 2 x2 x y 2 p

=
32 2 x2 x y 2
= 3xy 2x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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p
Example: 3 8x7 y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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p
3
Example:
8x7 y 2
p
3
=
(2)3 x6 x y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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p
3
Example:
8x7 y 2
p
3
6 x y2
= p(2)3 x

p
3
3
3
=
(2) x6 3 x 3 y 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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p
3
Example:
8x7 y 2
p
3
6 x y2
= p(2)3 x

p
3
3
3
=
(2)
x6 3 x 3 y 2
p
= 2x2 3 xy 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)

r
4
3 10y
Example:
3x2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)

r
4
3 10y
Example:
3x2
r
4 32 x
3 10y
=

3x2 32 x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)

r
4
3 10y
Example:
3x2
r
r
4 32 x
4
3 10y
3 90xy
=

=
3x2 32 x
33 x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)

r
4
3 10y
Example:
3x2
r
r
p
3
4 32 x
4
90xy y 3
3 10y
3 90xy

=
=
3
3x2 32 x
33 x3
33 x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The radicand is not a fraction. (Rationalize the denominator.)

r
4
3 10y
Example:
3x2
r
r
p
3
4 32 x
4
90xy y 3
3 10y
3 90xy

=
=
3
2
32 x
33 x3
33 x3
3x
y 3 90xy
=
3x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The smallest possible index is used.

Example: 4 9

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2 = 3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2 = 3

6
Example: 16x4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2 = 3

p
6
Example: 16x4 = 6 (2x)4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2 = 3

p
p
6
Example: 16x4 = 6 (2x)4 = 3 (2x)2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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## The smallest possible index is used.

4
Example: 4 9 = 32 = 32/4 = 31/2 = 3

p
p
6
3
Example: 16x4 = 6 (2x)4 = 3 (2x)2 = 4x2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 4 3 5 12 + 2 75

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 4 3 5(2 3) + 2(5 3)

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 43 5(2 3) + 2(5
3)
= 4 3 10 3 + 10 3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 43 5(2 3) + 2(5
3)
= 43 10 3 + 10 3
= 4 3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 43 5(2 3) + 2(5
3)
= 43 10 3 + 10 3
= 4 3

2. 5 x3 121x3 + 16x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 43 5(2 3) + 2(5
3)
= 43 10 3 + 10 3
= 4 3

2. 5 x3
121x3 + 16x
= 5x x 11x x + 4 x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

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Examples:

1. 4 3 512 + 2 75

= 43 5(2 3) + 2(5
3)
= 43 10 3 + 10 3
= 4 3

2. 5 x3
121x3 + 16x
= 5x x 11x x + 4 x

= 6x x + 4 x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

1. 3 3x2 y 3 36x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
= 3 3x2 y 36x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
6x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
3
6x
15x 2x

=
6x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
3
6x

30x2
15x 2x

=
=
6x3
6x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
3
6x
r

30x2
30x2
15x 2x

=
=
=
6x3
6x3
6x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
3
6x
r

r
30x2
30x2
5 x
15x 2x

=
=
=
=
3
6x
x x
6x3
6x3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

18 / 23

## If radicals have the same index, we use

b=

n
a
a

ab and n = n
b
b

Examples:
p

3 36x
1. 3 3x2 y p
p
= 3 3x2 y 36x = 3 33 22 x3 y

= 3x 3 4y

15x 2x

2.
3
6x
r

r
30x2
30x2
5 x
15x 2x

=
=
=
=
3
6x
x x
6x3
6x3
5x
=
x
Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

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the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

4 2
2 48 =
2 48

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

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the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

4
2 4 8 = p22 4 8
= 4 4(8)

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

19 / 23

the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

4
2 4 8 = p22 4 8
4
=
4(8)
4
=
32

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

19 / 23

the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

4
2 4 8 = p22 4 8
4
=
4(8)
4
= 32
4 5
=
2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

19 / 23

the same by

## finding the LCM of all the indices, then using n a = nm am .

Example: 2 4 8
LCM of indices: 4

4
2 4 8 = p22 4 8
4
=
4(8)
4
= 32
4
= 25
= 242

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

19 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator

## If denominator consists of one radical

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by an expression that will
make the radicand of the denominator a perfect power of the index.
r
16x4
Example:
3z

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

20 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator

## If denominator consists of one radical

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by an expression that will
make the radicand of the denominator a perfect power of the index.
r
16x4
Example:
3z
4x2
=
3z

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

20 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator

## If denominator consists of one radical

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by an expression that will
make the radicand of the denominator a perfect power of the index.
r
16x4
Example:
3z

3z
4x2
=
3z
3z

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

20 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator

## If denominator consists of one radical

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by an expression that will
make the radicand of the denominator a perfect power of the index.
r
16x4
Example:
3z

4x2 3z
3z
4x2
= =
3z
3z
32 z 2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

20 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator

## If denominator consists of one radical

Multiply both the numerator and denominator by an expression that will
make the radicand of the denominator a perfect power of the index.
r
16x4
Example:
3z

4x2 3z
3z
4x2
= =
3z
3z
32 z 2

4x2 3z
=
3z

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

20 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x
3x
3x + 2x

=
3x 2x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x
3x
3x + 2x

=
3x 2x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x

3x
3x + 2x
3x + 2x

=
3x 2x
3x + 2x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x

3x

3x + 2x
3x + 2x
( 3x + 2x)2

=
=
3x 2x
3x 2x
3x + 2x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x

3x

3x + 2x
3x + 2x
( 3x + 2x)2

=
=
3x 2x
3x 2x
3x + 2x
=

3x + 2 3x 2x + 2x
x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x

3x

3x + 2x
3x + 2x
( 3x + 2x)2

=
=
3x 2x
3x 2x
3x + 2x
=

3x + 2 3x 2x + 2x
5x + 2x 6
=
x
x

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
If denominator consists of two or more radicals
To rationalize the denominator, use the special products:
(x y)(x + y) = x2 y 2
(x y)(x2 xy + y 2 ) = x3 y 3

3x + 2x

Example:
2x

3x

3x + 2x
3x + 2x
( 3x + 2x)2

=
=
3x 2x
3x 2x
3x + 2x

3x + 2 3x 2x + 2x
5x + 2x 6
=
=
x
x

= 5+2 6
Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

21 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34
1

2 34

Example:
=

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34

3
1
4 + 2 3 4 + 42

2 3 4 4 + 2 3 4 + 3 42

Example:
=

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34

3
1
4 + 2 3 4 + 42

2 3 4 4 + 2 3 4 + 3 42

Example:
=

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
84

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34

3
1
4 + 2 3 4 + 42

2 3 4 4 + 2 3 4 + 3 42

Example:
=

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
84

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34

3
1
4 + 2 3 4 + 42

2 3 4 4 + 2 3 4 + 3 42

Example:
=

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
=
84

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
=
4

3
3
4
16
= 1+
+
2
4

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Rationalizing a Denominator
1

2 34

3
1
4 + 2 3 4 + 42

2 3 4 4 + 2 3 4 + 3 42

Example:
=

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
84

3
4 + 2 3 4 + 42
4

3
3
4
16
1+
+
2
4

3
3
4
2
1+
+
2
2

Math 17 (UP-IMath)

## Radical Expressions and Rational Exponents

Lec 5

22 / 23

Exercise:
Simplify the following. Rationalize the denominators.
24c1/2 d2/3
1
18c1/7 d3/5
2 (u1/3 + (uv)1/6 + v 1/3 )(u1/6 v 1/6 )

3
3
84

4
2
4
p9x

3
5
9a4 b2

2 5
9
6
+
3
8
16
x2 2x + 1
7

x+1
1
8

3
4 + 3 27
Math 17 (UP-IMath)

Lec 5

23 / 23