Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Module 3 - Handout 4

Presentation Techniques
NAMING
The "naming" technique is used for any introduction that can be accomplished
simply by pointing to an object or an illustration (e.g. the instructor points to a
book, says a "book", and student repeats).
This technique can be used for objects, colors, numbers, countries, etc.
Visual clues provide a clear context.
CONTRAST
Contrast is most often used to introduce opposites. The term being introduced
is the opposite of a word the student already knows.
For example, to introduce "small" when the student already knows "big":
I:
Is Canada a big country?
S:
Yes, it is.
I:
Is Cuba a big country?
S:
No, it isn't
I:
(Ah!) Cuba is a small country.
If a student knows either item in the following pairs, contrast can be used to
introduce the other item: big/small, rich/poor happy/sad, short/long, up/down,
on/under, with/without, fast/slow, open/close, arrive/leave, put on/take off, in
front of/behind, etc.

Contrast can be used to introduce new nouns: for example to introduce


"department store" when "bank" is already known:
I:
Is Harrods a bank?
S:
No, it is not.
I:
Harrods is a department store.

Contrast can also be used to introduce new forms of irregular verbs: for
example, to introduce the past of "to go" when the present forms have been
previously taught:
I:
Does Mr. Morgan go to his office every Monday?
S:
Yes, he does.
I:
Last Monday Mr. Morgan went to his office.

With the contrast we draw the student's attention to the critical words or
expressions being introduced.

ELIMINATION
Using the elimination technique, the instructor asks a series of questions
bringing a negative answer, creating a situation where the new vocabulary can
be introduced logically in context.
For example, to introduce "knife":
I:
Do you cut bread with a cigarette?
S:
No, I don't.
I:
Right! You cut bread with a knife.

This technique is also used to introduce key questions, i.e.: who, which, where,
whose, what color, when, why, how, how long, etc.
Here is the elimination technique used to introduce "What...?"
I:
(pointing to a book) Is this a telephone?
S:
No, its not.
I:
Is it a newspaper?
S:
No, its not.
I:
What is it?

The repeated series of negative questions creates a tension - a need to know which is resolved in the final introduction statement.

SUBSTITUTION
The substitution technique is used to introduce words and structures
synonymous with a known word or structure.
For example:
Adjectives
I:
Is Cuba a small country?
S:
Yes, it is.
I:
Right or, Cuba is a little country.
Verb Tenses: Introducing a verb in the passive voice when the present tense is
already known.
I:
Do people speak English in England?
S:
Yes, they do.
I:
People speak English in England; OR English is spoken in England.

Substitution can be used to introduce pronouns, and synonyms: e.g. he, she,
etc.; ours, theirs, hers, etc.; big-large; can - to be able to; should - be
supposed to; etc.

BUILD-UP

With the Combination or build-up technique the student is led from known
concepts, "A" and "B," to the new concept, "C".
To introduce the relative pronoun "who":
I:
Is Ms. Smith a teacher?
S:
Yes, she is.
I:
Does she work for Berlitz?
S:
Yes, she does.
I:
Ms. Smith is a teacher who works for Berlitz.

This technique can be used to introduce: "a red book", "Mr. Morgan's house",
"we", "us", "our", "them", "their", "have something done", "neither... not ",
"but", etc.

DICTIONARY
Using questions rather than an explanation, the instructor gives the student the
key characteristics or defining qualities of the new word. This technique may be
short or long depending on the concept introduced.
To introduce hangout (i.e., a place where people gather informally to talk,
drink,
and eat):
I:
Do football fans go to Busters before and after games?
S:
Yes, they do.
I:
What do they do there?
S:
They eat, drink, and talk about the game.
I:
Do they talk to their friends and other patrons?
S;
Yes, they do.
I:
Do they enjoy going there to relax and have fun?
S:
Yes, they do.
I:
Busters is a favorite hangout for football fans, before and after games.

MIND MAPS

Mind maps are particularly useful for groups of vocabulary that are strongly
linked by a theme, and where students are likely to already know some related
vocabulary. The instructor uses the theme, and the vocabulary students
already know as a springboard to present new vocabulary. For example, if the
theme is the weather, students may already be familiar with words like warm,
cold, sunny, but are unfamiliar with humid, freezing, icy etc.
The instructor introduces the topic, e.g. What different kinds of weather do we
get through the year? As students brainstorm and discuss the topic, the
instructor begins a mind map on the white board, with the weather as the
central point, and uses questions to encourage students to talk about as many
different aspects of the topic as they can. As the students mention different
language connected to the topic, e.g. rain, storm, typhoon etc. the instructor
creates the mind map on the board.
The instructor asks questions and encourages the students to find other ways
of describing what they want to say if they are missing particular words, and
then supplies the word they are looking for, adding it to the mind map.
From presentation of key vocabulary, the instructor then leads into another
activity that will reinforce the new language, such as listening to some audio or
reading a short text on the topic, and then sets up a fluency activity where
students choose and use language they know and have just learned.