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# EXAMPLE 1:

THREE-SPAN CONTINUOUS
STRAIGHT COMPOSITE
I GIRDER
(Third Edition -- Customary U.S. Units)
by
Michael A. Grubb, P.E.
Bridge Software Development International, Ltd.
Cranberry Township, PA

and
Robert E. Schmidt, E.I.T.
SITE-Blauvelt Engineers
Pittsburgh, PA

B S D I

DESIGN PARAMETERS
SPECIFICATIONS: LRFD Third Edition (2004)
STRUCTURAL STEEL:
- ASTM A 709 Grade HPS 70W
for flanges in negative-flexure regions
- ASTM A 709 Grade 50W
for all other girder and cross-frame steel
CONCRETE: f'c = 4.0 ksi
REINFORCING STEEL: Fy = 60 ksi
B S D I

Design Example

3-1

BRIDGE CROSS-SECTION

B S D I

CROSS-FRAMES
(Article 6.7.4.1)
The need for diaphragms or cross-frames shall be
investigated for all stages of assumed construction
procedures and the final condition. The investigation
should include, but not be limited to the following:
w Transfer of lateral wind loads from the bottom of the girder

## to the deck & from the deck to the bearings,

w Stability of the bottom flange for all loads when it is in

compression,
w Stability of the top flange in compression prior to

## curing of the deck,

w Consideration of any flange lateral bending effects, and

structure.

B S D I

Design Example

3-2

## BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
Web Depth
Span-to-Depth Ratios (Table 2.5.2.6.3-1)

## 0.032L = 0.032(175.0) = 5.6 ft = 67.2 in.

Use 69.0 in.
Web Thickness (Article 6.10.2.1.1)

(t w )min. = D = 69 = 0.46 in .
150

150

B S D I

Design Example

3-3

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)
Flange Width (Article 6.10.2.2)

(b f )min. = D / 6 = 69. 0 / 6 = 11 .5 in .
(b fc )min. = L = 100(12) = 14. 1 in.
85

85

## (t f )min = 1.1t w = 1.1(0.5625 ) = 0.62 in.

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example

3-4

CROSS-SECTION PROPORTIONS
(continued)
Flange Width-to-Thickness (Article 6.10.2.2)
bf
18
=
= 10.3 < 12 .0 ok
2t f 2(0.875 )

1(16 )
12
=
= 0 .51
3
1.375 (18 )
12
3

I yc
Iyt

## 0.1 < 0.51 < 10 ok

B S D I

(Article 3.5.1)
noncomposite section
-

Concrete deck
Overhang tapers
Deck haunches
SIP forms
Cross-frames
& details
TOTAL

## = 5.106 k/ft (incl. integral w.s.)

= 0.142 k/ft
= 0.183 k/ft
= 0.480 k/ft
= 0.120 k/ft
= 6.031 k/ft 4 girders = 1.508 k/ft +
girder weight

B S D I

Design Example

3-5

(continued)
composite section
- Barriers = 0.520/2 = 0.260 k/ft
Note: Distributed equally to exterior girder & adjacent
interior girder

- Wearing surface = [0.025 x 40.0]/4 girders = 0.250 k/ft
Note: Distributed equally to each girder
B S D I

## Basic LRFD Design Live Load

HL-93 - (Article 3.6.1.2.1)
Design Truck:
or
Design Tandem:
Pair of 25.0 KIP axles
spaced 4.0 FT apart

superimposed on
0.64 KLF uniformly

B S D I

Design Example

3-6

(Article 3.6.1.3.1)
For negative moment between points of
n Add a second design truck to the design lane
front and rear axles of the two trucks equal to
50 feet.
n Fix the rear-axle spacing of both design trucks
at 14 feet, and
n Reduce all loads by 10 percent.
B S D I

(Article 3.6.1.4.1)
Design Truck only =>
n

## w/ fixed 30-ft rearaxle spacing

placed in a single
lane

B S D I

Design Example

3-7

DEFLECTION EVALUATION
Refer to Article 3.6.1.3.2:
Deflection is taken as the larger of:
- That resulting from the design truck by
itself.
- That resulting from 25% of the design
truck together with the design lane
B S D I

(Article 3.8)
2

2
V
VDZ
PD = PB DZ = PB
10,000
VB

Eq. (3.8.1.2.1-1)

## PB = base wind pressure = 0.050 ksf for beams

V DZ = design wind velocity at elevation Z
V B = base wind velocity at 30 ft height = 100 mph
For this example, assume the bridge is 35 ft above low ground
& located in open country.

B S D I

Design Example

3-8

(continued)
V Z
VDZ = 2.5 Vo 30 ln
VB Z o

Eq. (3.8.1.1-1)

## V o = friction velocity = 8.2 mph for open country

V30 = wind velocity at 30 ft above low ground = V B = 100
mph in absence of better information
Z = height of structure above low ground (> 30 ft)
Zo = friction length of upstream fetch = 0.23 ft for open
country

B S D I

(continued)

100 35
VDZ = 2.5 (8 .20 )
= 103 .0 mph
ln
100 0.23
(103 .0 )2
PD = 0.050
= 0.053 ksf
10,000

ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-9

## Basic LRFD Design Equation

S ? i?iQi Rn = Rr Eq. (1.3.2.1-1)
where:
?i = ?D ?R ?I

## ? i 0.95 for maximum s

?i =
?i =
=
Qi =
Rn
Rr =

1
D R I 0.95 for minimum s

Resistance factor
Nominal force effect
=
Nominal resistance
Factored resistance = Rn

B S D I

DC
DD
DW
EH
EV
ES

LL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS

WA

STRENGTH-I

?p

1.75

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-II

?p

1.35

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-III

?p

1.00

1.40

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-IV
EH, EV, ES, DW
DC ONLY

?p
1.5

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-V

?p

1.35

1.00

0.40

0.40

EXTREME-I

?p

?EQ

1.00

1.00

?p

1.00

Limit State

EXTREME-II

WL

FR

TU
CR
SH

## TG SE Use One of These at a

Time
EQ

IC

CT

CV

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE

1.00 0.50/1.20

0.50

1.00

SERVICE-I

1.00 1.00

1.00

0.30

0.30

1.00 1.00/1.20

SERVICE-II

1.00 1.30

1.00

1.00 1.00/1.20

SERVICE-III

1.00 0.80

1.00

1.00 1.00/1.20

FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE
ONLY

Design Example

WS

0.75

1.00

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE
-

?TG ?SE
-

3-10

Maximum

Minimum

Attachments

1.25

0.90

DD: Downdrag

1.80

0.45

and Utilities

1.50

0.65

1.50
1.35

0.90
0.90

1.35
1.35
1.30

N/A
1.00
0.90

1.35
1.95

0.90
0.90

## EH: Horizontal Earth

Pressure
Active
At-Rest
EV: Vertical Earth
Pressure
Overall Stability
Retaining
Structure
Rigid Buried
Structure
Rigid Frames

B S D I

(continued)
STRENGTH I
- DW
STRENGTH III
- DW
STRENGTH V
- DW

## -> Load factor = 1.5

B S D I

Design Example

3-11

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Strength Limit State
Bending Moment
Shear

Interior Girder
0.807 lanes
1.082 lanes

Exterior Girder
0.950 lanes
0.950 lanes

## Fatigue Limit State

Bending Moment
Shear

Interior Girder
0.440 lanes
0.700 lanes

Exterior Girder
0.750 lanes
0.750 lanes

B S D I

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
(continued)
N
DF = m 3 L
Nb
3
= 0.85 = 0.638 lanes
4

B S D I

Design Example

3-12

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
(continued)
COMPONENT
Deck Joints All Limit States

IM
75%

15%
33%

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example

3-13

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example

3-14

B S D I

## STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued)

Design Truck + IM (SERVICE I):
(LL+IM) end span = 0.91 in. (governs)
(LL+IM) center span = 1.23 in. (governs)

## 100% Design Lane + 25% Design Truck + IM

(SERVICE I):
(LL+IM) end span
= 0.60 + 0.25(0.91) = 0.83 in.
(LL+IM) center span = 0.85 + 0.25(1.23) = 1.16 in.
B S D I

Design Example

3-15

## LRFD LIMIT STATES

The LRFD Specifications require examination of
the following limit states:
n
n
n

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
- (CONSTRUCTIBILITY)
EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE

B S D I

SECTION PROPERTIES
Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)
Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6):
Interior Girder
L 100 .0 x 12
=
= 300 .0 in.
4
4
or
1 2.0 t s +

16 .0
b tf
= 12 .0 (9.0 ) +
= 116 .0 in. (governs)
2
2

or
average spacing of girders = 144 .0 in.
B S D I

Design Example

3-16

## SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)
Effective Flange Width (Article 4.6.2.6):
Exterior Girder
116.0 L
100 .0 x 12
+ = 58.0 +
= 208.0 in.
8
2
8
or
116.0
b
16.0
+ 6.0 t s + tf = 58.0 + 6.0(9.0 ) +
= 116.0 in.
2
4
4
or
116.0
+ width of the overhang = 58.0 + 42.0 in. = 100.0 in. (governs)
2
B S D I

## SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)
Plastic Moment (Article D6.1 -- Appendix D):
Pt + Pw + Pc = A steelFy = 75 .25(50) = 3,763 kips
Ps = 0.85 fc' beff t s = 0.85 (4.0 )(100.0 )(9 .0) = 3,060 kips
3,060 kips < 3,763 kips PNA is in the top flange,use Case II

t c Pw + Pt Ps
+ 1

2
Pc

## = 0.44 in. from the top of the top flange

P
Mp = c y 2 + ( t c y )2 + [Psd s + Pw d w + Pt dt ]
2tc
Mp = 170,382 kip - in. = 14,199 kip - ft
y=

B S D I

Design Example

3-17

## SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 1-1 (@ 0.4L1)
Yield Moment (Article D6.2.2 -- Appendix D):
Fy =

M D 1 MD 2 M AD
+
+
S NC SLT S ST

50 = 1.0
+
+
1,973
2,483
2,706

## MAD = 78,206 kip- in. = 6,517 kip-ft

My = MD1 + MD2 + MAD

## My = 1.0[1.25 (2,202 ) + 1.25(335 ) + 1.50 (322 ) + 6,517 ]

My = 10,171 kip-ft (Mp / My = 1.4)
B S D I

## SECTION PROPERTIES (continued)

Section 2-2 (@ Interior Pier)
Effective Flange Width (Art. 4.6.2.6):
Exterior Girder = 100.5 in.
Min. Concrete Deck Reinforcement (Article 6.10.1.7):
A deck =

9.0
(43 .0) + 2 1 3.0 + 0 .5 3. 5 18 2 = 33.17 ft 2 = 4,776 in.2
12
12

12 2
0.01( 4,776 ) = 47 .76 in.2
47 .76
= 1.11 in.2 ft = 0.0926 in.2 in.
43.0

## 0.0926(100.5 ) = 9.30 in.2 @ 4.63 in. from bot. of

the deck

B S D I

Design Example

3-18

Constructibility

B S D I

DECK-PLACEMENT SEQUENCE

B S D I

Design Example

3-19

## Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span -> 1
Length (ft)
12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight
143
250 341 353 352 296 206
74
21
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SIP Forms (SIP)
63
110 147
151 150 124
84
27
4
Cast
1
870 1544 2189 2306 2387 2286 1983 1484 1275
2
-168
-336 -589 -673 -786 -1010 -1179 -1347 -1403
3
14
28
50
57
67
86 101 115 120
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sum of Casts + SIP 779 1346 1797 1841 1818 1486 989 279
-4
Max. +M
933 1654 2336 2457 2537 2410 2067 1511 1279
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DC2 + DW
275
477 643 661 657 551 386 148
52
Deck, haunches + SIP 786

1360

1822

1870

1850

1528

1038

335

53

## Table 2: Vertical Deflections from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span ->1
Length (ft)
12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight
-.17
-.32 -.47 -.50 -.51 -.47 -.39 -.29 -.25
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SIP Forms (SIP)
-.07
-.14 -.20 -.21 -.21 -.20 -.16 -.12 -.10
Cast
1
-1.32 -2.50 -3.78 -4.04 -4.27 -4.30 -3.95 -3.33 -3.08
2
.27
.52
.86
.96 1.08 1.25 1.32 1.32 1.31
3
-.01
-.03 -.04 -.04 -.05 -.05 -.05 -.04 -.03
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sum of Casts + SIP -1.14 -2.14 -3.16 -3.34 -3.46 -3.30 -2.84 -2.17 -1.91
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DC2 + DW
-.17
-.32 -.46 -.48 -.49 -.45 -.38 -.28 -.24
=====================================================================
Total
-1.48 -2.78 -4.09 -4.32 -4.46 -4.22 -3.61 -2.74 -2.40
Deck, haunches + SIP-.92

Design Example

## -1.71 -2.47 -2.59 -2.64 -2.43 -2.02 -1.47 -1.27

3-20

Abut. 1

Pier 1

Pier 2

Abut. 2

Steel Weight
-13.
-53.
-53.
-13.
sum
-13.
-53.
-53.
-13.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SIP Forms (SIP)
-6.
-21.
-21.
-6.
sum
-19.
-74.
-74.
-19.
Cast 1
-80.
-55.
-55.
-80.
sum
-99.
-129.
-129.
-99.
Cast 2
13.
-75.
-75.
14.
sum
-85.
-204.
-204.
-85.
Cast 3
-1.
-110.
-110.
-1.
sum
-86.
-314.
-314.
-86.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sum of Casts + SIP -73.
-261.
-261.
-73.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DC 2 + DW
-26.
-90.
-90.
-26.
=====================================================
Total
-112.
-404.
-404.
-112.
Deck, haunches
+ SIP

-74.

-261.

-261.

-74.

DECK-PLACEMENT ANALYSIS
(continued)
Calculate fbu: (at Section 1-1 -> 56-0 from abut.)
For STRENGTH I:
1.0(1.25)(2,889)(12)
= 27.41 ksi
1,581
1.0(1.25)(2,889)(12)
= 21.96 ksi
Bot. flange: fbu =
1,973

## For STRENGTH IV:

Top flange: fbu =

1.0(1.5)(2,889)(12)
= 32.89 ksi
1,581

## Bot. flange: fbu =

1.0(1.5)(2,889)(12)
= 26.36 ksi
1,973

B S D I

Design Example

3-21

F = P tan
3. 5 ft
= tan 1
= 31 .3o
5.75 ft

B S D I

(continued)
Deck overhang weight:

P = 255 lbs/ft

Overhang deck forms:
Screed rail:
Walkway:
Railing:
Finishing machine:

P = 40 lbs/ft
P = 85 lbs/ft
P = 125 lbs/ft
P = 25 lbs/ft
P = 3000 lbs

B S D I

Design Example

3-22

(continued)
Determine if amplification of first-order
compression-flange fl is required: Lb = 24-0
If:

L b 1.2L p

Otherwise:

Or:

CbR b
fbm Fyc

then, no amplification

0. 85
fl =
f f
fbm l1 l1

1 F

cr

Eq. (6.10.1.6-4)

fl = ( AF)fl1 fl1

B S D I

(continued)
L b 1.2L p

CbR b
fbm Fyc

Eq. (6.10.1.6-2)

Rb = 1.0
Cb = 1.0
fbm = fbu = -32.89 ksi (STRENGTH IV)
L p = 1.0rt

E
Fyc

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4)

where: rt =

b fc
1 Dc t w

12 1 +

3 b fc t fc

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-9)

B S D I

Design Example

3-23

(continued)
For the steel section at Section 1-1, Dc = 38.63 in.
16
= 3.90 in .

1 38 .63(0.5 )
12 1 +

3 16(1)

rt =

Lp =
1.2(7. 83 )

## 1.0(3. 90) 29,000

= 7.83 ft
12
50

1.0(1.0 )
= 11.59 ft < Lb = 24 .0 ft
32 .89 50

B S D I

(continued)
Therefore, amplification of the first-order
compression-flange fl is required:
Calculate Fcr:

Fcr =

CbR b 2E
Lb

rt

1.0(1.0) 2 (29,000)
= 52.49 ksi
Fcr =
2
24(12 )

3 .90

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-8)
Note:
Fcr may exceed
RbRhFyc in this
calculation.

## Note: assumes K = 1.0 (see Appendix A of example)

B S D I

Design Example

3-24

(continued)
The amplification factor is determined as:
For STRENGTH I:

AF =

0.85
= 1.78 > 1. 0 ok
27.41

1
52.49

## For STRENGTH IV:

AF =

0.85
= 2.28 > 1. 0 ok

32.89

1
52. 49

B S D I

(continued)
For STRENGTH I:
P = 1 .0[1 .25 (255 ) + 1 .5(40 + 85 + 25 + 125 )] = 731 .3 lbs / ft
F = Fl = P tan = 731 .3 tan( 31 .3o ) = 444 .6 lbs / ft
FlL2 0.4446 (24 )2
b=
Ml =
= 21.34 kip ft
12
12
M
21 .34 (12 )
= 6 .00 ksi
Top flange: fl = l =
Sl
1(16 )2 6

Bot. flange: fl =

Ml
21 .34 (12 )
=
= 3 .45 ksi
S l 1 .375 (18 )2 6

B S D I

Design Example

3-25

(continued)
For STRENGTH I:
Finishing machine:
P = 1. 0[1. 5( 3000 ) ] = 4,500 lbs

## F = Pl = P tan = 4,500 tan( 31 .3 o ) = 2,736 lbs

PL
2.736 (24 )
Ml = l b =
= 8.21 kip ft
8
8
M
8 .21(12 )
= 2 .31 ksi
Top flange: fl = l =
Sl 1(16)2 6

M
8.21(12 )
= 1.33 ksi
Bot. flange: fl = l =
Sl 1.375 (18)2 6

B S D I

(continued)
For STRENGTH I:
Top flange: fl total = 6.00 + 2.31 = 8 .31 ksi * AF
= (8.31)(1.78) = 14.79 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi

ok

## Bot. flange: fl total = 3.45 + 1.33 = 4 .78 ksi * AF

= (4.78)(1.0) = 4.78 ksi < 0.6F yf = 30 ksi ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-26

(continued)
For STRENGTH IV:

## P = 1 . 0[1. 5 ( 255 + 40 + 85 + 25 + 125 )] = 795 lbs / ft

F = Fl = P tan = 795 tan( 31 . 3 o ) = 483 .4 lbs / ft
FlL2b 0 . 4834 (24 )2
Ml =
=
= 23 . 20 kip ft
12
12
M l 23 . 20 (12 )
=
= 6. 52 ksi
Top flange: fl =
2
Sl
1(16 ) 6
Ml
23 . 20 (12 )
=
= 3 .75 ksi
Bot. flange: fl =
S l 1 .375 (18 )2 6

B S D I

(continued)

## For STRENGTH IV:

Top flange: fl total = 6.52 ksi * AF = 6.52(2.28) = 14.87 ksi
14.87 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi ok
Bot. flange: fl total = 3.75 ksi * AF = 3.75(1.0) = 3.75 ksi
3.75 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30 ksi ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-27

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)
Determine if the section is a slender-web section:
2Dc
E
5 .7
tw
Fyc

Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)

=
= 154 .5
0. 5
tw
5 .7

E
29,000
= 5 .7
= 137 .3 < 154.5
Fyc
50

## Therefore, the section is a slender-web section.

Go to Article 6.10.8 to compute Fnc.
B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
(Article 6.10.3.2)
For discretely braced compression flanges:
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)
fbu + fl f R hFyc
1
fbu + fl f Fnc
3

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)

fbu f Fcrw

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)

## For discretely braced tension flanges:

Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1)
fbu + fl f R hFyt
B S D I

Design Example

3-28

## LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE

Top Flange (Article 6.10.8.2.2)
Determine the slenderness ratio of the top flange:
b
16
f = fc =
= 8. 0
2 t fc 2(1)
E
29,000
= 0.38
= 9 .2
Fyc
50

pf = 0.38

Fnc

FLB

## Fnc = RbR hFyc

Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-1)

B S D I

## 6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

## Basic Form of All FLB & LTB E q s

F n or M n
F m a x or
M
M maxmax

Fnc=RbRhFyc
Fnc=RbRhFyc

Fyr f pf

RbRhFyc
Fnc = 1 1
RhFyc rf pf
Anchor point 1

Fyr Lb Lp
R R F RbRhFyc

Fnc = Cb 11
RhFyc Lr Lp b h yc

Anchor point 2

## Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

Mr r
Fr or M
noncompact

CbRb2 E

(inelastic buckling)

Lb

rt

compact

nonslender

slender
(elastic buckling)

B S D IL p o r p pf

Design Example

Lr
o rr r f

L b o r b f c/ 2 t fc

3-29

## LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)
Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lr:
L r = rt

where:

E
Fyr

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-5)

Therefore: L r =

= 29. 39 ft
12
35 .0

B S D I

## LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)
Since Lp = 7.83 ft < Lb = 24.0 ft < Lr = 29.39 ft:

Fyr L b Lp

Fnc = Cb 1 1
L L RbR hFyc RbR hFyc
R
F
h
yc
r
p

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)
35.0 24.0 7.83

Fnc = 1.0 1 1

## (1.0 )(1 .0)(50) = 38.75 ksi

1
.
0(50) 29.39 7.83

< 1.0(1 .0)(50) = 50 ksi

Therefore:
B S D I

Design Example

3-30

## 6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

## Basic Form of All FLB & LTB E q s

F n or M n
F m a x or
M
M maxmax

Fnc=RbRhFyc
Fnc=RbRhFyc

Anchor point 1

Fyr f pf

R R F
Fnc = 1 1
R Fyc rf pf b h yc

h

Fyr Lb Lp

RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
Fnc = Cb 11
RhFyc Lr Lp
Anchor point 2

## Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

Fr or M
Mr r

noncompact

CbRb2 E

(inelastic buckling)

Lb

rt

compact

nonslender

slender
(elastic buckling)

B S D IL p o r p pf

Lr
o rr r f

L b o r b f c/ 2 t fc

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Top Flange
For STRENGTH I:
fbu + fl fR hFyc

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

## fbu + fl = 27 .41 ksi + 14 .79 ksi = 42 .20 ksi

fR hFyc = 1.0(1.0)(50 ) = 50 .0 ksi
42 .20 ksi < 50 .0 ksi

fbu +

ok

1
fl f Fnc
3

(Ratio = 0.844 )
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)

1
14 .79
fl = 27 .41 ksi +
ksi = 32.34 ksi
3
3
f Fnc = 1.0(38 .75) = 38 .75 ksi
fbu +

## 32.34 ksi < 38.75 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.835 )

B S D I

Design Example

3-31

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
Fcrw =

0.9Ek
D

tw

## min(R hFyc , Fyw 0.7 )

Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-1)

k=
k=

Fcrw =

(38.63 69.0 )2

0.9(29,000)(28.7)
69 .0

0.5

(D c D)2
= 28 .7

## = 39 .33 ksi < R hFyc = 1.0(50) = 50 ksi ok

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Web & Top Flange (continued)
fbu f Fcrw

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)

## fFcrw = 1.0(39.33) = 39.33 ksi

27.41 ksi < 39.33 ksi

## For STRENGTH IV:

ok

fbu + fl f R hFyc

(Ratio = 0.697)

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

## fbu + fl = 32.89 ksi + 14.87 ksi = 47.76 ksi

fRhFyc = 1.0(1.0)(50) = 50.0 ksi
47.76 ksi < 50.0 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.955)

B S D I

Design Example

3-32

CONSTRUCTIBILITY - FLEXURE
Top Flange (continued) & Web
1
fbu + fl fFnc
3

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)

14.87
1
ksi = 37.85 ksi
fbu + fl = 32.89 ksi +
3
3
fFnc = 1.0(38.75) = 38.75 ksi
37.85 ksi < 38.75 ksi ok
(Ratio = 0.977)

fbu f Fcrw

Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3)

## f Fcrw = 1.0(39.33) = 39.33 ksi

32.89 ksi < 39.33 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.836)

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Calculate fbu due to the steel weight within the
unbraced length containing Section 1-1:
For STRENGTH III:
Top Flange:
Bottom Flange:

1.0(1.25)(352 )(12)
= 3.34 ksi
1,581
1.0(1.25)(352 )(12)
=
= 2.68 ksi
1,973

fbu =
fbu

## Calculate the factored wind force on the steel

section:
1 .0(1.25 )(0.053 )(2.0 + 69.0 + 2.0)
W=
= 0.403 kips / ft
12

B S D I

Design Example

3-33

## BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Assume Span 1 of the structure resists the lateral
wind force as a propped cantilever with an
effective span length of 120-0 (i.e. assume top
lateral bracing provides an effective line of fixity
20-0 from the pier):
M11 =

9
9
WL2e =
(0.403)(120.0)2 = 408.0 kip ft
128
128

## (Note: refined 3D analysis => 405.0 kip-ft)

B S D I

Design Example

3-34

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Proportion total lateral moment to top & bottom flanges
according to relative lateral stiffness of each flange. Then,
divide total lateral moment equally to each girder:
Top Flg: Il =

1(16) 3
= 341.3 in.4
12

Bot Flg: Il =

1.375(18)3
= 668 .3 in.4
12

Top Flange: Ml =

408.0(341 .3)
= 34.48 kip ft
(341 .3 + 668 .3)4

Bottom Flange: Ml =

408.0(668 .3)
= 67.52 kip ft
(341 .3 + 668 .3)4

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Separate calculations indicate that lateral bending stresses
in the top (compression) flange may be determined from a
first-order analysis (i.e. no amplification is required).

Top Flange: fl =

Bottom Flange: fl =

34.48(12)
= 9.70 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30.0 ksi ok
1(16) 2 6
67.52(12)
= 10.91 ksi < 0.6Fyf = 30.0 ksi ok
1. 375(18 )2 6

B S D I

Design Example

3-35

## BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Calculate the shear in the propped cantilever at the assume
effective line of fixity:
Vf f =

5
5
WL e = (0.403 )(120.0 ) = 30.23 kips
8
8

## Resolve the shear into a compressive force in the diagonal

of the top bracing:
(20.0 ) + (12.0 )
P = 30.23
12.0

= 58.76 kips

B S D I

Design Example

3-36

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Separate calculations (see example) indicate a
compressive force of -19.04 kips in the diagonal
to the self-weight of the steel. Therefore, the total
compressive force in the bracing diagonal is:
(-58.76 kips) + (-19.04 kips) = -77.80 kips
(Note: refined 3D analysis => -67.0 kips)

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Wind Load - Section 1-1 (continued)
Estimate the maximum lateral deflection of Span 1 of the
structure (i.e. the propped cantilever) due to the factored
wind load using the total lateral moments of inertia of the
top & bottom flanges of all four girders at Section 1-1:
l max. =

WL4e
0.403(120.0 )4 (1,728 )
=
= 6.7 in.
185EI 185 (29,000 )(341 .3 + 668.3) 4

## (Note: refined 3D analysis => 7.0 inches)

If the top lateral bracing were not present:
Le = 140-0 => l

max. =

12.3 inches

B S D I

Design Example

3-37

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

## Constructibility (Slender-web section)

Flexure (STRENGTH I)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange
0.844
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange
0.835
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling
0.697
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange
0.535
Flexure (STRENGTH III Wind load on noncomposite structure)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange
0.261
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange
0.170
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling
0.085
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange
0.272
Flexure (STRENGTH IV)
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1) Top flange
0.955
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2) Top flange
0.977
Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-3) Web bend buckling
0.836
Eq. (6.10.3.2.2-1) Bottom flange
0.602
Shear (96-0 from the abutment) (STRENGTH IV)
0.447

B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Shear (Article 6.10.3.3)
Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy:
Vu v Vcr

Eq. (6.10.3.3-1)

## (Vu )DC1 = 1.0(1.5 )( 79) = 119 kips

at 96-0 from the abutment

Vn = Vcr = CVp

Eq. (6.10.9.3.3-1)

## C = 0.266 (for 207-inch stiffener spacing)

Vcr = 0.266(1,001) = 266 kips > Vu = 119 kips

(Ratio = 0.447)

B S D I

Design Example

3-38

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Section 2-2 (Interior Pier)
In regions of negative flexure, the constructibility checks
for flexure generally do not control because the sizes of the
flanges in these regions are normally governed by the sum
limit state. Also, the maximum accumulated negative
moments during the deck placement in these regions
typically do not differ significantly from the calculated DC1
negative moments. Deck overhang brackets and wind
loads do induce lateral bending into the flanges, which can
be considered using the flexural design equations.
Web bend-buckling and shear should always be checked in
these regions for critical stages of construction (refer to the
design example).
B S D I

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete Deck (Article 6.10.3.2.4)
Unless longitudinal reinforcement is provided
according to the provisions of Article 6.10.1.7,
fdeck fr = 0.9fr
fr = 0.24 fc' = 0.24 4.0 = 0.480 ksi

B S D I

Design Example

3-39

## Table 1: Moments from Deck-Placement Analysis

Span -> 1
Length (ft)
12.00 24.00 42.00 48.00 56.00 72.00 84.00 96.00 100.00
Steel Weight
143
250 341 353 352 296 206
74
21
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SIP Forms (SIP)
63
110 147
151 150 124
84
27
4
Cast
1
870 1544 2189 2306 2387 2286 1983 1484 1275
2
-168
-336 -589 -673 -786 -1010 -1179 -1347 -1403
3
14
28
50
57
67
86 101 115 120
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sum of Casts + SIP 779 1346 1797 1841 1818 1486 989 279
-4
Max. +M
933 1654 2336 2457 2537 2410 2067 1511 1279
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DC2 + DW
275
477 643 661 657 551 386 148
52
Deck, haunches + SIP 786

1360

1822

1870

1850

1528

1038

335

53

## M = 352 + 2,537 = 2,889 kip-ft

CONSTRUCTIBILITY
Concrete Deck (continued)
Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile
stress at the end of Cast 1 (use n = 8):
fdeck =

## 1.0(1 .5)( 1,403 )(23 .20)(12)

= 0.453 ksi > 0.432 ksi
161,518(8 )

## Therefore, provide one-percent longitudinal

reinforcement (No. 6 bars or smaller @ 12).
Extend to 95.0 feet from the abutment.
Tensile force = (0.453)(100.0)(9.0) = 408 kips
B S D I

Design Example

3-40

Service
Limit State
B S D I

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Elastic Deformations (Article 6.10.4.1)
Use suggested minimum span-to-depth ratios
(optional - Article 2.5.2.6.3)
(optional - Article 2.5.2.6.2):
End Spans: ALLOW =
Center Span: ALLOW =

140 .0(12 )
= 2.10 in. > 0 .91 in. ok
800
175 .0(12 )
= 2.63 in. > 1.23 in.
800

ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-41

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (Article 6.10.4.2)
Under the SERVICE II load combination:
1.0DC + 1.0DW + 1.3(LL+IM)
Top steel flange of composite sections:

ff 0 .95RhFyf
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1)

## Bottom steel flange of composite sections: ff

f
+ l 0.95 RhFyf
2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2)

fc Fcrw

Web bend-buckling:

Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4)

B S D I

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)
Check top flange (Section 1-1):
0.95RhFyf = 0.95(1.0)(50) = 47.50 ksi
ff 0.95RhFyf

## 1.0(2,202) 1.0(335 + 322) 1.3(3,510)

+
ff = 1.0
12 = 22.30 ksi
+
4,863
13,805
1,581
22.30 ksi < 47.50 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.469)
B S D I

Design Example

3-42

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)
Check bottom flange (Section 1-1):
f
ff + l 0. 95RhFyf
2

## 1.0(2,202) 1.0(335 + 322) 1.3(3,510)

+
+
ff = 1.0
12 = 36.80 ksi
2,483
2,706
1,973
36.80 ksi + 0 < 47.50 ksi
ok
(Ratio = 0.77 5 )
For composite sections in positive flexure with D/tw 150,
web bend-buckling need not be checked at the service limit
state.
B S D I

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)
Check Section 2-2 (interior pier):
n

## Article 6.10.4.2.1 -- for members with shear connectors

provided throughout their entire length that also satisfy
the provisions of Article 6.10.1.7 (i.e. one percent
longitudinal reinforcement is provided in the deck
wherever the tensile stress in the deck due to the
combination exceeds the modulus of rupture), flexural
stresses caused by SERVICE II loads applied to the
composite section may be computed using the shortterm or long-term composite section, as appropriate,
assuming the concrete deck is effective for both
positive and negative flexure.

B S D I

Design Example

3-43

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Permanent Deformations (continued)
Check Section 2-2 (interior pier):
n

## Flange major-axis bending stresses at Section 2-2 and

at the first flange transition located 15-0 from the
interior pier are checked under the SERVICE II load
combination and do not control. Stresses acting on the
composite section are computed assuming the concrete
is effective for negative flexure, as permitted in Article
6.10.4.2.1.
Web bend-buckling must be checked for composite
sections in negative flexure under the SERVICE II load
combination:
fc Fcrw
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4)

B S D I

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
Fcrw =

0.9Ek
D

tw

where:

## min(R hFyc , Fyw 0.7 )

k=

9
(D c D )2

Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-1)

Eq. (6.10.1.9.1-2)

## According to Article D6.3.1 (Appendix D), for composite

sections in negative flexure at the service limit state where
the concrete is considered effective in tension for
computing flexural stresses on the composite section, as
permitted in Article 6.10.4.2.1, Dc is to be computed as:
fc
Eq. (D6.3.1-1)
d t fc 0
D c =
fc + f t
B S D I

Design Example

3-44

WEB BEND-BUCKLING
RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.1.9)
Check the bottom-flange transition (controls):
1 .0 ( 2,656 ) 1 .0( 373 + 358 ) 1 .3 ( 2,709 )
f f = 1 .0
+
+
12 = 38 .88 ksi
1,789
2,246
2 ,463

( 38 .88 )
71 .0 1 . 0 = 43 . 25 in . > 0
D c =

38
.
88
+
23
.
51

9
k=
= 22 .9
(43 .25 69 .0 )2
Fcrw =

0.9(29,000)(22.9)
= 39.72 ksi
2
69. 0

0.5625

ok

38 . 88 < 39 . 72 ksi
ok Ratio = (0.979)

B S D I

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

## Service Limit State

Permanent deformations (SERVICE II)
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange

0.433
0.469
0.775

## Permanent deformations (SERVICE II)

Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-1) Top flange @ Flange transition
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-2) Bottom flange @ Flange transition
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) Web bend buckling @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.4.2.2-4) Web bend buckling @ Flange transition

0.415
0.368
0.604
0.609
0.898
0.979

B S D I

Design Example

3-45

## SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Concrete Deck (Article 6.10.1.7)
Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile
stress in Span 1 at 95.0 ft from the abutment (use
n = 8):
fdeck =

1. 0 [1 . 0( 87 ) + 1 . 0( 83 ) + 1. 3 ( 1,701) ]( 23 . 20 )( 12 )
= 0 . 440 ksi
161,518 ( 8 )
> 0.90f r = 0.432 ksi

## Therefore, extend the one-percent longitudinal

reinforcement (No. 6 bars or smaller @ 12) to
94.0 feet from the abutment.
fdeck = 0.430 ksi < 0.432 ksi ok
B S D I

Fatigue &
Fracture Limit
State
B S D I

Design Example

3-46

B S D I

FATIGUE RESISTANCE
FIRST PRINCIPAL
For lower traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is
inversely proportional to the cube of the effective
stress range.

B S D I

Design Example

3-47

FATIGUE RESISTANCE
SECOND PRINCIPAL
For higher traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is
infinite if the maximum stress range is less than
the constant-amplitude fatigue threshold.

B S D I

(Article 3.6.1.4)
The specified load condition for fatigue is a single
truck; the current HS20 truck with a fixed rearaxle spacing of 30-0.
The truck occupies a single lane on the bridge -not multiple lanes.
The fatigue load produces a lower calculated
stress range than the Standard Specifications.

B S D I

Design Example

3-48

DC
DD
DW
EH
EV
ES

LL
IM
CE
BR
PL
LS

WA

STRENGTH-I

?p

1.75

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-II

?p

1.35

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-III

?p

1.00

1.40

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-IV
EH, EV, ES, DW
DC ONLY

?p
1.5

1.00

1.00 0.50/1.20

STRENGTH-V

?p

1.35

1.00

0.40

0.40

EXTREME-I

?p

?EQ

1.00

1.00

?p

1.00

Limit State

EXTREME-II

WS

WL

FR

TU
CR
SH

EQ

IC

CT

CV

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE

1.00 0.50/1.20

0.50

1.00

SERVICE-I

1.00 1.00

1.00

0.30

0.30

1.00 1.00/1.20

SERVICE-II

1.00 1.30

1.00

1.00 1.00/1.20

SERVICE-III

1.00 0.80

1.00

1.00 1.00/1.20

FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE
ONLY

Time

0.75

1.00

?TG ?SE

?TG ?SE
-

?TG ?SE
-

## 1.00 1.00 1.00

B S D I

In the LRFD Specification, 75% of the stress
range due to the fatigue load is considered to be
representative of the effective stress range; that
is, the stress range due to an HS-15 truck
weighing 54.0 kips with a fixed rear-axle spacing
= 0.75)
The maximum stress range is assumed to be
twice the effective stress range (i.e. stress range
due to a 108-kip truck)
B S D I

Design Example

3-49

## NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE

(Article 6.6.1.2.5)
In the LRFD Specifications, the nominal fatigue
resistance is specified as follows:
1

3
(F)n = A 1 (F)TH
N 2

Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)

## N = ( 365 )( 75 )n( ADTT ) SL

Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-2)

## A = detail category constant (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

n = cycles per truck passage (Table 6.6.1.2.5-2)
(F)TH = constant-amplitude fatigue threshold
(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)
B S D I

B S D I

Design Example

3-50

B S D I

## NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE

In the LRFD Specifications, the nominal fatigue
resistance is specified as follows:
1

3
(F)n = A 1 (F)TH Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)
N 2
N = ( 365 )( 75 )n( ADTT ) SL Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-2)

## A = detail category constant (Table 6.6.1.2.5-1)

n = cycles per truck passage (Table 6.6.1.2.5-2)
(F)TH = constant-amplitude fatigue threshold
(Table 6.6.1.2.5-3)
B S D I

Design Example

3-51

## NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE

(continued)
First and Second Principles of Fatigue Resistance
1
A 3

( f )e
N

( )

( )

f max F TH
----------------------------------------------------------------------

(f )max = 2.0(f )e
(f )e

1
(F)TH
2

B S D I

## NOMINAL FATIGUE RESISTANCE

(continued)
These LRFD Specification principals can be used
for design or evaluation :

B S D I

Design Example

3-52

B S D I

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Eq. (3.6.1.4.2-1)

## where ADTT = number of trucks per day in one

direction averaged over the design
life (assumed to be 2,000 for this
example)
For a 3-lane bridge: p = 0.80 (Table 3.6.1.4.2-1)
(ADTT)SL = 0.80(2,000) = 1,600 trucks/day
B S D I

Design Example

3-53

n

## Article 6.6.1.2.1 -- for flexural members with shear

connectors provided throughout their entire length, and
with concrete deck reinforcement satisfying the
provisions of Article 6.10.1.7 (i.e. one percent
longitudinal reinforcement is provided in the deck
wherever the tensile stress in the deck due to the
combination exceeds the modulus of rupture), the liveload stress range may be computed using the shortterm composite section assuming the concrete deck is
effective for both positive and negative flexure.

B S D I

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Check the top-flange connection-plate weld at 72-0 from
the abutment in Span 1:
1,824 (12 )(38 .63 )
= 13.49 ksi
62 ,658
281 (12 )(23 .13 )
fDC 2 =
= 0.665 ksi
117 ,341
14.16 ksi

fDC 1 =

fLL + IM =

## 2 (0 . 75 ) 496 (12 )(10 . 70 )

= 0 . 591 ksi
161 ,518
14 . 16 ksi > 0 .591 ksi

B S D I

Design Example

3-54

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Check the bottom -flange connection-plate weld at 72-0
from the abutment in Span 1 -- use the n-composite
stiffness to compute the stress range as permitted in Art.
6.6.1.2.1:

## 0 .75 (1,337 )(12 )(58 .31 ) 0 .75 496 (12 )(58 . 31 )

+
161 ,518
161 ,518
= 5 . 96 ksi

? (?f ) =

A
1
(F)n = 3 (F)TH
2
N

Eq. (6.6.1.2.5-1)

B S D I

B S D I

Design Example

3-55

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

(ADTT)SL = 1,600 > 745 trucks per day (Category C)
1

( F )n = 2 ( F )TH
For a Category C detail, (F)TH = 12.0 ksi (Table 6.6.1.2.5-3). Therefore:

2

( f ) (F )n

## 5. 96 ksi < 6. 00 ksi

Eq. (6.6.1.2.2-1)
ok

(Ratio = 0.993)

B S D I

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

## Fatigue and Fracture Limit State

Base metal at connection plate weld to bottom flange
(72-0 from the abutment)
Stud shear connector weld to top flange
(100-0 from the abutment)
Special fatigue requirement for webs
(7-3 from the abutment)

0.993
0.208
0.618

## Fatigue and Fracture Limit State

Base metal at connection plate weld to top flange
(20-0 to the left of the interior pier)
Special fatigue requirement for webs (shear at interior pier)

0.113
0.636

B S D I

Design Example

3-56

## FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

Special Fatigue Req. for Webs (Article 6.10.5.3)
Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy:
Vu Vcr

Eq. (6.10.5.3-1)

## Vu = 73 .0 + 11 + 10 + 2(0 .75 )( 47 ) = 165 kips

at 7-3 from the abutment

Vn = Vcr = CVp

Eq. (6.10.9.3.3-1)

## C = 0.267 (for 201-inch stiffener spacing)

Vcr = 0. 267 (1,001) = 267 kips > Vu = 165 . 0 kips

ok

(Ratio = 0.618)

B S D I

Strength
Limit State
B S D I

Design Example

3-57

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (@0.4L1)
Section 1-1 qualifies as a compact section
if (Art. 6.10.6.2.2):
w Fy 70 ksi
w D/tw 150
w 2Dcp
E
tw

3.76

ok
ok
ok

Fyc

## N.A. of composite section at the plastic

moment is in the top flange Dcp = 0
=> Go to Art. 6.10.7.1.1 (Compact sections)
B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
Compact composite sections in positive
flexure must satisfy the following ductility
requirement:
D p 0 . 42 D t

Eq. (6.10.7.3-1)

## Dp = distance from top of deck to N.A. at plastic moment

Dt = total depth of the composite section
Dp = 9.0 + 3.5 1.0 + 0.44 = 11.94 in.
Dt = 1.375 + 69.0 + 3.5 + 9.0 = 82.88 in.
0.42Dt = 0.42(82.88) = 34.81 in. > 11.94 in.

ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-58

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
Compact sections in positive flexure must
satisfy the following relationship at the
strength limit state (Article 6.10.7.1.1):
1
Mu + flSxt fMn
3

Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1)

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
Determine lateral bending stress,fl , in the bottom
flange due to the factored wind load:

W =

PDd
2

Eq. (C4.6.2.7.1-1)

WL2b
10

Eq. (C4.6.2.7.1-2)

Mw =

= 1.0 Lb = 24-0 WL = 0
AF = 1.0 for tension flanges
B S D I

Design Example

3-59

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
For STRENGTH I: Wind not considered
For STRENGTH III:
W=

## 1 .0(1.4 )(0.053)(1.375 + 69. 0 + 1.0) / 12

= 0.221 kips / ft
2

Mw =
fl =

0.221(24.0) 2
= 12.73 kip ft
10

Mw
12. 73(12 )
=
= 2. 06 ksi * AF = 2.06 (1 .0) = 2.06 ksi
Sl 1.375 (18 )2 6
< 0. 6Fyf = 30 .0 ksi ok

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
For STRENGTH IV: Wind not considered
For STRENGTH V:
W=

## 1. 0(0 .4)(0.053 )(1.375 + 69 .0 + 1.0) / 12

= 0.063 kips / ft
2

Mw =
fl =

0.063(24 .0)2
= 3.63 kip ft
10

Mw
3 .63(12)
=
= 0 .587 ksi * AF = 0.587 (1.0) = 0 .587 ksi
Sl 1.375(18 )2 6
< 0.6Fyf = 30 .0 ksi ok

B S D I

Design Example

3-60

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
Calculate Mu:
For STRENGTH I:
Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322) + 1.75 (3,510)] = 9,797 kip ft
For STRENGTH III:
Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322 )] = 3,654 kip ft
For STRENGTH IV:
Mu = 1. 0[1.5(2,202 + 335 + 322 )] = 4,289 kip ft
For STRENGTH V:
Mu = 1.0[1.25(2,202 + 335 ) + 1.5(322) + 1.35 (3,510)] = 8,393 kip ft
B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
Determine the nominal flexural resistance
(Article 6.10.7.1.2)
If Dp 0.1D t, then:

Otherwise:

Mn = Mp

Dp

Mn = Mp 1.07 0.7
Dt

Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-1)

Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-2)

## In a continuous span, M n is limited to:

Mn = 1.3RhMy

Eq. (6.10.7.1.2-3)

B S D I

Design Example

3-61

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
0.1D t = 0.1(82.88) = 8. 29 in. < Dp = 11.94 in.

Dp

Mn = Mp 1. 07 0.7
Dt

Eq.(6.10. 7.1.2 2 )

11.94

Mn = 14 ,199 1.07 0 .7
= 13,761 kip ft
82 .88

## In a continuous span : Mn 1.3R hM y Eq. (6.10.7. 1.2 3 )

Mn = 1.3(1.0)(1 0,171) = 13,222 kip ft (governs)
Mn = 13,222 kip ft

S xt =

Myt
Fyt

10,171(12)
= 2,441 in3
50

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
1
Mu + flSxt f Mn
3

Eq. (6 .10.7.1 .1 1)

For STRENGTH I:

1
Mu + flS xt = 9,797 kip ft + 0 = 9,797 kip ft
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
9,797 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft

ok

(Ratio = 0.741)

## For STRENGTH III:

1
1 (2.06 )(2,441)
Mu + flS xt = 3,654 kip ft +
= 3,794 kip ft
3
12
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
3,794 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft

ok

(Ratio = 0.287)

B S D I

Design Example

3-62

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 1-1 (continued)
1
Mu + flSxt f Mn
3

Eq. (6 .10.7.1 .1 1)

## For STRENGTH IV:

1
Mu + flS xt = 4,289 kip ft + 0 = 4,289 kip ft
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
4,289 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft

ok

(Ratio = 0.324)

For STRENGTH V:

1
1 (0.587 )(2,441)
Mu + flS xt = 8,393 kip ft +
= 8,433 kip ft
3
12
3
f Mn = 1.0(13,222 ) = 13,222 kip ft
8,433 kip ft < 13,222 kip ft

ok

(Ratio = 0.638)

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios
POSITIVE-MOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 1-1)

## Strength Limit State (Compact Section)

Ductility requirement
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH I)
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH III)
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH IV)
Flexure Eq. (6.10.7.1.1-1) (STRENGTH V)
Shear (End panel) (STRENGTH I)

0.343
0.741
0.287
0.324
0.638
0.995

B S D I

Design Example

3-63

SHEAR
(Article 6.10.9)
Highlights:
n

## Tension-field action extended to interior

panels of hybrid sections.
Moment-shear interaction equation is
eliminated.
No handling requirement since D/tw is limited
to 150 for transversely stiffened girders.
Shear connector design moved to separate
Article 6.10.10.

B S D I

SHEAR
End Panels (Article 6.10.9.3.3)
End panels must satisfy:
Vu vVn

Eq. (6.10.9.1-1)

Vn = Vcr = CVp

## int . girder at the abutment

V p = 0 . 58 F yw Dt

Eq. (6.10.9.3.3-1)

= 1,001 kips

## C = 0.390 (for 87-inch stiffener spacing < 1.5D = 103.5 in.)

Vcr = 0.390(1,001) = 390 kips > Vu = 388 kips
(Ratio = 0.995)

B S D I

Design Example

3-64

SHEAR
Interior Panels (Article 6.10.9.3.2)
For interior panels of hybrid & nonhybrid
members with the section along the entire panel
proportioned such that:
2Dt w
2.5
(b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-1)

## the nominal shear resistance is to be taken as:

0.87(1 C)
Vn = Vp C +
2

1 + o

Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-2)

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)
For interior panels of hybrid and nonhybrid
members with the panel proportioned such that:
2Dt w

(b fc t fc + b ft t ft )

> 2.5

Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-1)

## the nominal shear resistance is to be taken as:

0.87(1 C)
Vn = Vp C +

1 + do + do

D
D

Eq. (6.10.9.3.2-8)

B S D I

Design Example

3-65

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)
do = 16.75 ft = 201.0 in. < 3D = 207.0 in.
Vu = 1. 0[1 .25 (74 + 11) + 1.5 (11) + 1. 75 (127 )] = 345 kips
int . girder at 87 in. from abutment

## For an unstiffened web:

Vn = Vcr = CVp

Eq. (6.10.9.2-1)

C = 0.239 (calculated w/ k = 5)
Vp = 0. 58(50)(69.0)(0.5 ) = 1,001 kips
Vn = Vcr = 0.239(1,001) = 239 kips
v Vn = 1.0(239) = 239 kips < 345 kips stiffeners are required
B S D I

Design Example

3-66

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)
Calculate Vn for the stiffened panel:
2(69.0)(0.5 )

[16(1.0) + 18(0.875 )]
k =5+

1 .40

5
201 .0

69.0

## = 2.17 < 2.5

= 5.59

Ek
29,000(5.59)
D 69 .0
= 1.40
= 79 .7 <
=
= 138 .0
Fyw
50
tw
0. 5

B S D I

SHEAR
Interior Panels (continued)
Calculate Vn for the stiffened panel (contd):
C=

1.57 Ek
2
D Fyw

tw

1.57 29,000(5.59)
= 0.267
=> C = (138 .0 )2
50

Vp = 0. 58(50)(69.0)(0.5) = 1,001kips

0.87(1 0.267 )
Vn = 1,0010.267 +
= 475 kips
2

201 .0

1+

69 .0

B S D I

Design Example

3-67

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (Interior Pier)
Determine if the section is a slender-web section
(Article 6.10.6.2.3):
2Dc
E
Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)
5 .7
tw
Fyc
5.7

29,000
= 116.0
70

2(36.55)
= 130.0 > 116.0
0.5625

## Note: Use D c of the steel

section + long.
reinforcement (D6.3.1)

## Therefore, the section is a slender-web section.

=> Go to Article 6.10.8
B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Use the provisions of Article 6.10.8.
For discretely braced compression flanges:
1
fbu + fl fFnc
3

Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1)

## For continuously braced flanges:

fbu f R hFyf

Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1)

B S D I

Design Example

3-68

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Calculate the maximum flange major-axis flexural
stresses at Section 2-2 due to the factored loads
under the STRENGTH I load combination:
Top flange:

f = 1 .0
+
+
+
12 = 54 .57 ksi
2,942
3,194
3,194
3,703

Bottom flange:

f = 1 .0
+
+
+
12 = 55. 64 ksi
3,149
3,208
3,208
3,310

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Calculate the hybrid factor, Rh (Article 6.10.1.10.1):
Rh =

12 + 3 3
12+ 2

=
=

2Dnt w
Afn

Fyw
fn

Eq. (6.10.1.10.1-1)

Eq. (6.10.1.10.1-2)

1.0

B S D I

Design Example

3-69

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Calculate =

2(36.55 )(0.5625 )
2Dnt w
= 1. 028
=> =
40 .0
Afn

## Dn = larger of the distances from the elastic N.A. of the

cross-section to the inside face of either flange
At Section 2-2: Dn = Dc = 36.55 in. (steel + reinf.)
Afn = sum of the flange area & the area of any cover
plates on the side of the neutral axis corresponding
to Dn. For the top flange, can include reinforcement.
At Section 2-2: Afn = Abot flg. = 20(2) = 40.0 in2
B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Calculate =

Fyw
fn

1.0 =>

50 .0
= 0.714
70 .0

## fn = for sections where yielding occurs first in the flange,

a cover plate or the longitudinal reinforcement on
the side of the N.A. corresponding to Dn, the largest
of the specified minimum yield strengths of each
component included in the calculation of Afn.

## At Section 2-2: fn = Fyc = 70.0 ksi

Otherwise, fn is equal to the largest elastic stress in the
component on the side of the N.A. corresponding to Dn at
first yield on the opposite side of the N.A.

B S D I

Design Example

3-70

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
Calculate Rh:
Rh =

Rh =

12 + 3 3
12+ 2

= 0 .984
12 + 2(1.028 )

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 (continued)
(Article 6.10.1.10.2):
2Dc
E
= 130 .0 > rw = 5 .7
= 116 .0
tw
Fyc
a wc

2D c

R b = 1
rw 1 .0
1200
300
a
t
+

wc w

a wc =

Eq. (6.10.1.10.2-3)

2D c t w 2(36.55 )(0.5625 )
=
= 1.028
20(2)
b fc t fc

1 .028
Rb = 1
(130.0 116.0 ) = 0.990
+
1200
300
(
1
.
028
)

B S D I

Design Example

3-71

## LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE

Bottom Flange - Section 2-2 (Article 6.10.8.2.2)
Determine the slenderness ratio of the bottom
flange:
b
20
f = fc =
= 5.0
2t fc 2(2)
pf = 0.38

Fnc

FLB

E
29,000
= 0 .38
= 7.73
Fyc
70

## Fnc = RbR hFyc

Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-1)

B S D I

## 6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

## Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

F n or M n
F m a x or
M
M maxmax

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Anchor point 1

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Fyr f pf

RbRhFyc
Fnc = 1 1
RhFyc rf pf

Fyr Lb Lp
R R F RbRhFyc

Fnc = Cb 11
RhFyc Lr Lp b h yc

Anchor point 2

Mr r
Fr or M

## Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

compact

noncompact

CbRb2 E

(inelastic buckling)

Lb

rt

nonslender

slender

(elastic buckling)

B S D IL p o r p pf

Design Example

Lr
o rr r f

L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

3-72

B S D I

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (Article 6.10.8.2.3)
From Article 6.10.8.2.3:
For unbraced lengths containing a transition to a
smaller section at a distance less than or equal to
20 percent of the unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment, the lateral
torsional buckling resistance may be determined
assuming the transition to the smaller section
does not exist.
Assume Lb = 17-0

17.0

B S D I

Design Example

3-73

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lp:
L p = 1.0rt

E
Fyc

where:

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4)

rt =

Therefore:

rt =

b fc

1 Dc t w

12 1 +
3 b fc t fc

20
= 5.33 in.
1 36.55(0. 5625 )

12 1 +

20 (2 )
3

Lp =

1.0(5.33 ) 29,000
= 9.04 ft
12
70

B S D I

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Determine the limiting unbraced length, Lr:
L r = rt

where:

E
Fyr

## Fyr = 0.7(70) = 49.0 ksi < 50 ksi

Therefore:

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-5)

Lr =

(5.33) 29,000
= 33.95 ft
12
49.0

B S D I

Design Example

3-74

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Determine the moment gradient modifier, Cb:
For unbraced cantilevers & members where fmid/f2 > 1.0 or
f2 = 0:
Cb = 1.0

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-6)

Otherwise:

f
f
Cb = 1.75 1.05 1 + 0.3 1 2 .3
f
2
f2

f1 = 2fmid f2 fo

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-7)

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-10)

B S D I

Examples:

f1 = 2fmid f2 fo

f1

f0

f mid

f2

f 1/f 2 = 0.75
Cb = 1.13

Lb

## When fmid < (fo+f2 )/2,

f1 = fo

f mid /f 2 = 0.875

f1 /f 2 = 0.375
f1 = f0

f0

fm i d

fmid
f0

f2

f2

C b = 1.40

fmid > f 2
Cb = 1

f2 = 0

f mid

Cb = 1

f0 < 0

f mid

f1

f2

f1 /f 2 = 0.5
C b = 1.3

B S D I

Design Example

f0 = 0

3-75

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Since the moment diagram in this region is
concave in shape, f1 = fo (therefore, do not need to
compute f mid). For STRENGTH I:
Bottom flange:

## 1 .25 ( 2,390 ) 1 . 25 ( 334 ) 1. 5( 321) 1 .75 ( 2,615 )

+
+
+
f1 = fo = 1. 0
12 = 31 . 34 ksi
3,149
3,208
3,208
3,310

31.34
31.34
Cb = 1. 75 1.05
+ 0 .3
= 1.25 < 2. 3
55
.
64

55.64
Note: fo is positive for compression. f2 is always positive.

B S D I

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Since Lp = 9.04 ft < Lb = 17.0 ft < Lr = 33.95 ft:

Fyr L b Lp

## RbR hFyc RbR hFyc

Fnc = Cb 1 1

R hFyc L r L p
Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)
49.0 17.0 9.04

Fnc = 1.25 1 1

## (0.990 )(0.984 )(70) = 77 .38 ksi

0
.
984
(70 ) 33.95 9.04

> 0.990(0.984 )(70) = 68 .19 ksi

Therefore:
B S D I

Design Example

Fnc = 68.19 ksi

3-76

## 6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

## Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

F n or M n
F m a x or
M
M maxmax

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Anchor point 1

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Fyr f pf

R R F
Fnc = 1 1
R Fyc rf pf b h yc

h

Fyr Lb Lp

RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
Fnc = Cb 11
RhFyc Lr Lp

Anchor point 2
Fr or M
Mr r

## Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

compact

noncompact

CbRb2 E

(inelastic buckling)

Lb

rt

nonslender

slender

(elastic buckling)

B S D IL p o r p pf

Lr
o rr r f

L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Assume Lb = 20-0
From Article C6.10.8.2.3:

20.0

## For unbraced lengths containing a transition to a smaller

section at a distance greater than 20 percent of the
unbraced length from the brace point with the smaller
moment, the lateral torsional buckling resistance should be
taken as the smallest resistance, Fnc, within the unbraced
length under consideration. This resistance is to be
compared to the largest value of the compressive stress,
fbu, throughout the unbraced length calculated using the
actual properties of the section. The moment gradient
modifier, Cb, should be taken equal to 1.0 in this case...
B S D I

Design Example

3-77

B S D I

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
For the smaller section at the flange transition in
the first unbraced length adjacent to the interior
pier:
rt = 4.95 in.
Lp = 8.40 ft
Lr = 31.53 ft
Rh = 0.971
Rb = 0.977
Set Cb = 1.0.
B S D I

Design Example

3-78

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
Since Lp = 8.40 ft < Lb = 20.0 ft < Lr = 31.53 ft:

Fyr L b Lp

Fnc = Cb 1 1
L L RbR hFyc RbR hFyc
R
F
h yc r
p

Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-2)
49 .0 20.0 8. 40

Fnc = 1.0 1 1

## (0. 977 )(0 .971)(70) = 57 .11 ksi

0.971(70 ) 31.53 8 .40

< 0.977(0.971)(70 ) = 66.41 ksi

Therefore:

B S D I

## LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

RESISTANCE (continued)
For Lb = 17-0:
Flange transition < 20% of unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment
FncLTB = 68.19 ksi
For Lb = 20-0:
Flange transition > 20% of unbraced length from the brace
point with the smaller moment
FncLTB = 57.11 ksi
From Appendix C to the Design Example:
FncLTB

2-2

= 61.14 ksi

tr

B S D I

Design Example

3-79

## LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE

Bottom-Flange Transition (Article 6.10.8.2.2)
Determine the slenderness ratio of the bottom
flange:
f =

b fc
20
E
=
= 10. 0 > pf = 0.38
= 7.73
2t fc 2(1)
Fyc
rf = 0.56

E
Fyr

Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-5)

## Fyr = 0 . 7Fyc Fyw

Fyr = 0.7(70) = 49.0 ksi < 50 ksi

Therefore:

rf = 0.56

29 ,000
= 13.62
49 .0

B S D I

## LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE

Bottom-Flange Transition (continued)
Since pf = 7.73 < f = 10.0 < rf = 13.62:

Fyr f pf

R bRhFyc
Fnc = 1 1
R hFyc rf pf
Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-2)
49 .0

10.0 7 .73
Fnc = 1 1

0
.
971
(
70
.
0
)
13.62 7 .73

Therefore:
B S D I

Design Example

## FncFLB = 59.26 ksi (> FncLTB = 57.11 ksi)

Fnc = FncLTB = 57.11 ksi

3-80

## 6.10.8 Flexural Resistance - Composite Sections in

Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections

## Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs

F n or M n
F m a x or
M
M maxmax

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Fyr f pf

R R F
Fnc = 1 1
R Fyc rf pf b h yc

Anchor point 1

Fnc=RbRhFyc

Fyr Lb Lp

RbRhFyc RbRhFyc
Fnc = Cb 11
RhFyc Lr Lp

Anchor point 2
Fr or M
Mr r

## Fnc = Fcr RbRhFyc

compact

noncompact

CbRb2 E

(inelastic buckling)

Lb

rt

nonslender

slender

(elastic buckling)

Lr
o rr r f

B S D IL p o r p pf

L b or b f c/ 2 t fc

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 - (continued)
For STRENGTH I:
Section 2-2:

Top Flange:
Bottom Flange:

f = -55.64 ksi

## Flange Transition (Span 1):

Top Flange:
1 . 25 ( 2 ,656 ) 1 . 25 ( 373 ) 1 . 5 ( 358 ) 1 . 75 ( 2 ,709 )
+
+
+
fbu = 1 . 0
12 = 52 . 86 ksi
1,700
1,945
1,945
2 , 448

Bottom Flange:
1 . 25 ( 2 ,656 ) 1 . 25 ( 373 ) 1 . 5 ( 358 ) 1 . 75 ( 2 ,709 )
+
+
+
f = 1 .0
12 = 57 . 54 ksi
1,789
1,862
1, 862
1,975

B S D I

Design Example

3-81

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 - Bottom Flange
For STRENGTH I:
1
fbu + fl fFnc
3

Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1)

1
fbu + fl = - 57.54 ksi + 0 = 57.54ksi
3
fFnc = 1.0(57.11)= 57.11ksi
57.54 ksi > 57.11ksi say ok

(Ratio = 1.008)

B S D I

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Section 2-2 - Top Flange
For STRENGTH I:

fbu fRhFyf
Section 2-2:

Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1)

## fbu = 54.57 ksi

fR hFyf = 1.0(0.984 )(70.00 ) = 68.88 ksi
54.57 ksi < 68.88 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.792)

Flange transition:
fbu = 52.86 ksi
fR hFyf = 1.0(0.971)(70 .00) = 67. 97 ksi
52.86 ksi < 67.97 ksi

ok

(Ratio = 0.778)

B S D I

Design Example

3-82

## STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Performance Ratios (continued)
INTERIOR-PIER SECTION (Section 2-2)

## Strength Limit State (Slender-web section)

Flexure (STRENGTH I)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition
Flexure (STRENGTH III)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition
Flexure (STRENGTH IV)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition
Flexure (STRENGTH V)
Eq. (6.10.8.1.1-1) Bottom flange
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Section 2-2
Eq. (6.10.8.1.3-1) Top flange @ Flange transition

1.008
0.792
0.778
0.536
0.460
0.445
0.617
0.541
0.524
0.896
0.716
0.700

B S D I

## OTHER TOPICS COVERED

Spacing of Transverse Stiffeners
Shear Connector Design
Transverse Intermediate Stiffener Design
Bearing Stiffener Design
Appendix A - Elastic Effective Length Factor for
Lateral Torsional Bucking
Appendix B - Moment Gradient Modifier, Cb
(Example cases)
Appendix C - Lateral Torsional Buckling
Resistance of Stepped Flanges
B S D I

Design Example

3-83

QUESTIONS
Michael A. Grubb, P.E.
BSDI, Ltd.
724-709-8349
m.grubb@comcast.net
B S D I

Design Example

3-84