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TUGAS MAKALAH :

MEMAHAMI PERKEMBANGAN
(MANAJEMEN) SUMBER DAYA
MANUSIA DALAM ERA
GLOBALISASI
MATA KULIAH: MANAJEMEN MUTU SDM

DISUSUN OLEH :
RAMDI BAEBAE

C 202 14
048

PROGRAM STUDI

MAGISTER MANAJEMEN

UNIVERSITAS TADULAKO

PALU
2015
Manajemen sumber daya manusia telah menjadi komponen utama dalam sekolah
bisnis dan secara cepat menjadi fokus yang dominan dalam penelitian tentang
manajemen.

Bahkan

akhir-akhir

Kanadamulaimempertanyakan

ini,

artikel

apamanajemen

dalam
sumber

jurnalInggris
daya

dan

manusiadan

apadampaknyasecara normatifterhadap serikatpekerjadanhubungan kerja(Barkin,


1989;Blyton&Turnbull, 1992;Tamu,1987;Godard, 1991;Ichniowski, Delaney,
&Lewin, 1989).

A. Definisi Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) dan Manajemen Sumber


Daya Manusia (MSDM)
a. Sumber Daya Manusia
Sumber daya manusia adalah orang-orang yang merancang dan
menghasilkan barang dan jasa, mengawasi mutu, memasarkan produk,
mengalokasikan sumber daya finansial, serta merumuskan seluruh
strategi dan tujuan organisasi. Sumber daya manusia inilah yang
membuat sumber daya lainnya dapat berjalan. Tanpa orang-orang yang
memiliki keahlian dan kompeten maka mustahil bagi organisasi untuk
mencapai tujuannya. Banyaknya keunggulan yang dimiliki organisasi
atau perusahaan, tidak dapat memaksimalkan produktivitasnya dan
laba usaha tanpa adanya komunitas karyawan yang berkeahlian,
kompeten, dan berdedikasi tinggi terhadap organisasi atau perusahaan.
b. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia
Manajemen sumber daya manusia adalah rancangan sistem-sistem
formal dalam sebuah organisasi untuk memastikan penggunaan bakat
manusia secara efektif dan efisien guna mencapai tujuan-tujuan
organisasional. Sehingga di dalamnya ada kegiatan pengelolaan yang
meliputi pendayagunaan, pengembangan, penilaian, pemberian balas
jasa bagi manusia sebagai individu anggota organisasi atau perusahaan
bisnis. Manajemen sumber daya manusia juga menyangkut cara-cara
mendesain sistem perencanaan, penyusunan karyawan, pengelolaan
karir, evaluasi kinerja, kompensasi karyawan, dan hubungan
ketenagakerjaan.

B. Perkembangan Globalisasi SDM


Dalam sebuah lingkungan di mana angkatan kerja terus berubah,
hukum berubah, dan kebutuhan-kebutuhan dari pemberi kerja juga
berubah, manajemen SDM harus terus berubah dan berkembang. Hal ini
sangat benar ketika manajemen beroperasi secara global.
Ada beberapa pengaruh yang secara bersamaan telah menyebabkan
peningkatan perdagangan dunia sebesar 60% dalam dekade terakhir.
Berikut ini adalah pembahasan mengenai beberapa pengaruh yang
dianggap paling penting.
a. Perubahan Populasi Global
Di negara-negara industrialisasi dan berkembang di seluruh dunia,
seperti Uni Eropa (UE), Jepang, Amerika Serikat, pertumbuhan
populasi menurun secara signifikan. Di area-area tersebut, populasi
yang semakin tua dan angka kelahiran yang menurun memberikan
kontribusi dalam bentuk pertumbuhan yang lebih lambat dalam jumlah
pekerja dan konsumen. Bagaimanapun juga, populasi Cina, India,
Afrika, Amerika Latin, serta negara-negara dan wilayah-wilayah lain
terus tumbuh secara signifikan.
Untuk memanfaatkan pertumbuhan ini, perusahaan-perusahaan
diseluruh dunia telah mengadakan operasi-operasi, membentuk
perusahaan-perusahaan modal ventura, atau bergabung dengan
perusahaan-perusahaan di negara-negara ini. Prospek dari bermiliarmiliar konsumen baru di negara-negara yang tumbuh lebih cepat
merangsang

investasi-investasi

Permintaan-permintaan

dan

konsumen

operasi-operasi
akan

global.

produk-produk

dari

negara-negara lain juga merangsang globalisasi. Sebagai contoh,


mobil-mobil Jerman dan Jepang, kosmetika Prancis, makanan cepat
saji AS, bir Meksiko, dan peralatan elektronik Korea semuanya
tersedia secara global dan diinginkan oleh konsumen-konsumen di
banyak negara.
b. Ketergantungan Ekonomi Global
Ahli-ahli ekonomi memperkirakan bahwa pada tahun 2020 enam
perekonomian terbesar adalah AS, Cina, Jepang, Indonesia, India, dan

Korea. Perusahaan-perusahaan yang berbasis di banyak negara


merespon peluang-peluang ini. Oleh karena itu, masa depan ekonomi
organisasi-organisasi

di

seluruh

dunia

berhubungan

dengan

pertumbuhan perekonomian dunia. Sebuah contoh menganai hubungan


adalah kerusuhan, seperti yang terjadi di Indonesia, Turki, Argentina,
dan beberapa negara lainnya. Kerusuhan in telah memengaruhi bursa
saham di seluruh dunia. Contoh ini mengindikasikan tingkat
ketergantungan yang tinggi di antara perekonomian negara-negara
individual.
c. Aliansi Daerah
Perkembangan beberapa aliansi politik dan perdagangan daerah
juga memberikan kontribusi terhadap globalisasi. Yaitu North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) dan European Union
(EU).
d. Komunikasi Global
Kontribusi utama globalisasi yang lain adalah pekembangan dan
evolusi telekomunikasi dan teknologi yang membantu pengiriman
informasi yang cepat. Teknologi satelit telah menghadirkan televisi dan
layanan telepon nirkabel ke desa-desa terpencil di afrika, India, Cina,
dan Amerika Latin. Pertumbuhan penggunaan internet di seluruh dunia
yang terjadi secara tiba-tiba ini berarti bahwa orang-orang dan
perusahaan-perusahaan dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dan
memiliki akses menuju informasi dan dalam dalam jumlah yang sangat
besar.
Sebagaian besar komunikasi di Internet menggunakan bahasa
Inggris. Sebagai bahasa bisnis global, bahasa Inggris memungkinkan
arus komunikasi dan informasi yang lebih mudah.
e. Jenis-jenis Organisasi Global
1. Impor dan Ekspor
Tahap pertama interaksi internasional terdiri atas impor
(importing) dan ekspor(exporting). Di sini, sebuah organisasi
mulai menjual dan membeli barang dan jasa dengan organisasiorganisasi di negara-negara lain. Sebagian besar hubungan
internasional dilakukan oleh staf penjualan dan pemasaran dan

sedikit eksekutif lain yang menegosiasikan perjanjian-perjanjian.


Pada umumunya, aktivitas-aktivitas SDM tidak terpengaruh
kecuali kebijakan bepergian bagi mereka yang pergi keluar negri.
2. Perusahaan Multinasional
Perusahaan multinasional (Multinational enterprise - MNE)
adalah sebuah perusahaan di mana sebuah organisasi memiliki
unit-unit operasi yang beralokasikan di negara-negara asing.
Biasanya, unit-unit ini menyediakan barang dan jasa untuk areaarea geografis yang mengelilingi negara-negara tersebut dimana
terdapat

daerah

operasional.

Posisi

manajemen

utama

di

operasional luar negeri dipenuhi oleh karyawan dari perusahaan


negara

asal.

Ketika

MNE

meluas,

perusahaan

tersebut

mempekerjakan karyawan dari negara-negara di mana perusahaan


tersebut beroperasi.
3. Organisasi Global
Organisasi global (global organization) memiliki unit-unit
perusahaan di beberapa negara yang digabungkan untuk beroperasi
sebagai satu organisasi di seluruh dunia.
Manajemen SDM dalam organisasi yang betul-betul global
menggerakkan

orang-orang,

terutama

manajer-manajer

dan

profesional-profesional utama, di seluruh dunia. Individu-individu


yang menguasai beberapa bahasa dengan baik sangat dihargai, dan
mereka bergerak di antara divisi-divisi dan negara-negara ketika
mereka

memikul

perkembangan

tanggung

karier.

Sebisa

jawab

lebih

mungkin,

dan

mengalami

manajemen

SDM

internasional harus dipandang secara strategis dalam organisasi ini.


Kebijaksanaan dan aktivitas SDM global perlu dikembangkan,
tetapi dibutuhkan adanya desentralisasi pembuatan keputusan pada
unit dan operasi tambahan di negara lain untuk melakukan
penyesuaian terhadap negara tertentu.

C. Dinamika Permasalahan SDM


Di tengah meningkatnya kebutuhan SDM dalam organisasiorganisasi dunia maupun negara individual, ternyata, ada beberapa

masalah yang harus dihadapi oleh beberapa negara besar di dunia, tidak
terkecuali, Indonesia.
Masalah pertama, adanya ketimpangan antara jumlah kesempatan
kerja dengan angkatan kerja. Jumlah angkatan kerja nasional pada krisis
ekonomi tahun pertama (1998) sekitar 92,73 juta jiwa. Sementara jumlah
kesempatan kerja yang ada hanya sekitar 87,67 juta orang dan ada sekitar
5,06 juta orang menjadi penganggur terbuka (open unemployment). Angka
ini meningkat terus selama krisis ekonomi yang kini berjumlah sekitar 8
juta.
Kedua, tingkat pendidikan angkatan kerja Indonesia relatif masih
rendah. Struktur pendidikan angkatan kerja Indonesia masih di dominasi
oleh pendidikan dasar, yaitu sekitar 63,2%. Kedua masalah tersebut
menunjukkan bahwa ada kelangkaan kesempatan kerja dan rendahnya
kualitas angkatan kerja secara nasional di berbagai bidang kehidupan. Di
samping itu, rendahnya alokasi APBN untuk sektor pendidikan-tidak lebih
dari 12%-pada pemerintahan di era reformasi menunjukkan belum adanya
perhatian serius dari pemerintah pusat terhadap perbaikan kualitas SDM.
Masalah SDM inilah yang menyebabkan proses pembangunan
yang berjalan selama ini kurang didukung oleh produktivitas tenaga kerja
yang memadai. Keterpurukan ekonomi nasional yang berkepanjangan
akibat dari rendahnya kualitas SDM dalam menghadapi persaingan
ekonomi global atau liberalisasi ekonomi.

D. Peran MSDM dalam Era Globalisasi


Tanggung Jawab dan Tantangan
a. Tanggung Jawab
1. Penyediaan Staf
Penyediaan staf (staffing)

merupakan

proses

yang

menjamin suatu organisasi untuk selalu memiliki jumlah karyawan


yang tepat dengan keahlian-keahlian yang memadai dalam
pekerjaan-pekerjaan yang tepat, pada waktu yang tepat, untuk
mencapai tujuan organisasi. Penyediaan staf mencakup analisis
pekerjaan, perencanaan SDM, perekrutan dan seleksi.
Analisis pekerjaan adalah proses sistematis penentuan
berbagai keahlian, kewajiban, dan pengetahuan yang diperlukan
untuk menjalankan pekerjaan-pekerjaan dalam suatu organisasi.

Perencanaan SDM adalah proses sistematis untuk mencocokkan


pasokan orang-orang internal dan eksternal dengan peluangpeluang pekerjaan yang diperkirakan terjadi sepanjang periode
waktu tertentu. Perekrutan adalah proses menarik para individu
pada waktu tertentu, dalam jumlah cukup, dan dengan kualifikasikualifikasi yang memadai, untuk melamar pekerjaan-pekerjaan
dalam

sebuah

organisasi.

Seleksi

adalah

proses

memilih

sekelompok pelamar individu yang paling sesuai untuk posisi


tertentu dalam organisasi.
2. Pengembangan SDM
Pengembangan SDM adalah fungsi MSDM utama yang
tidak hanya terdiri atas pelatihan dan pengembangan namun juga
aktivitas-aktivitas perencanaan dan pengembangan karier individu,
pengembangan organisasi, serta manajeman dan penilaian kinerja.
Pelatihan dirancang untuk memberi para pembelajar
sejumlah pengetahuan dan keahlian yang diperlukan untuk
pekerjaan

mereka

saat

ini.

Pengembangan

melibatkan

pembelajaran yang beranjak ke luar pekerjaan saat ini dan


memiliki fokus lebih berjangka panjang.
Perencaan karier adalah proses berkelanjutan di mana
individu menetapkan tujuan-tujuan karier dan mengidentifikasi
cara-cara untuk mencapainya.
Pengembangan karier adalah pendekatan formal yang
digunakan oleh organisasi untuk memastikan bahwa orang-orang
dengan kualifikasi-kualifikasi dan pengalaman-pengalaman yang
memadai tersedia ketika dibutuhkan.
Pengembangan organisasi

adalah

proses

perbaikan

organisasi yang terencana dengan mengembangkan strukturstruktur, sistem-sistem, dan proses-prosesnya untuk memperbaiki
efektivitas dan mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan.
Manajemen kriteria adalah proses berorientasi tujuan
yang diarahkan untuk memastikan telah berjalannya proses-proses
organisasi untuk memaksimalkan produktivitas para karyawan,
tim, dan akhirnya, organisasi.

Penilaian kinerja adalah suatu sistem formal peninjauan


dan evaluasi kinerja tugas individu atau tim. Sistem tersebut
memberi peluang kepada para karyawan untuk memanfaatkan
kelebihan-kelebihan

mereka

dan

mengatasi

kekurangan-

kekurangan yang teridentifikasi, dan dengan demikian membantu


mereka menjadi karyawan yang lebih puas dan produktif.
3. Kompensasi
Kompensasi mencakup semua imbalan total yang diberikan kepada
para karyawan sebagai timbal balik untuk jasa mereka. Suatu
sistem kompensasi yang terencana matang memberi para karyawan
imbalan-imbalan yang layak dan adil atas kontribusi mereka dalam
mencapai tujuan-tujuan organisasi. Imbalan tersebut dapat berupa
salah satu atau kombinasi dari hal-hal berikut ini:
Kompensasi Finansial Langsung: Bayaran yang diterima

seseorang dalam bentuk upah, gaji, komisi, dan bonus.


Kompensasi Finansial Tidak Langsung (Tunjangan):
Semua imbalan finansial yang tidak termasuk dalam
kompensasi langsung seperti cuti bayar, absen karena sakit,

liburan, dan asuransi pengobatan.


Kompensasi Nonfinansial: Kepuasan yang diperoleh
seseorang dari pekerjaan itu sendiri atau dari lingkungan

psikologis dan/atau fisik dimana orang tersebut bekerja.


4. Keselamatan dan Kesehatan
Keselamatan adalah perlindungan bagi para karyawan dari lukaluka yang disebabkan kecelakaan-kecelakaan yang terkait dengan
pekerjaan. Kesehatan adalah bebasnya para karyawan dari sakit
secara fisik atau emosi. Aspek-aspek dari pekerjaan tersebut
penting karena para karyawan yang bekerja dalam lingkungan yang
aman dan menikmati kesehatan yang baik akan cenderung lebih
produktif dan memberikan manfaat jangka panjang bagi organisasi.
5. Hubungan Kekaryawanan dan Perburuhan
Suatu perusahaan dituntut oleh hukum untuk mengakui serikat
pekerja dan berunding dengannya dengan itikad yang baik jika
para karyawan perusahaan yang bersangkutan menginginkan
serikat pekerja mewakili mereka.

Di masa lalu, hubungan

semacam ini adalah norma yang dapat diterima bagi banyak


pemberi kerja, namun sebagian besar perusahaan dewasa ini lebih
cenderung memiliki lingkungan yang bebas serikat pekerja. Ketika
suatu serikat pekerja mewakili para karyawan perusahaan, aktivitas
SDM seringkali disebut sebagai hubungan industrial, yang
menangani pekerjaan untuk melakukan perundingan kolektif.
b. Tantangan
1. Perhatian Terhadap Lingkungan
HRD Manager tidak hanya sekedar memperhatikan lingkungan di
departemennya, tetapi menjadi kewajibannya memperhatikan serta
membina seluruh departemen yang ada dalam struktur organisasi
perusahaan. Bahkan pendekatan terhadap hubungan eksternal atau
internal lingkungan sekitar perusahaan sangat diperlukan. Juga peran
sosialnya sehingga terjadi keharmonisan dan dukungan lingkungan
terhadap keberadaan perusahaan.
HRD Manager harus melihat seluruh individu yang ada dalam
perusahaan merupakan sumber kekuatan yang harus di pompa
semangat kerjanya dengan pendekatan-pendekatan secara profesional
melalui pelatihan, pengarahan dan harapan. Dengan demikian
karyawan merasakan bahwa dirinya merupakan bagian/aset dari
perusahaan.
Intinya, HRD Manager harus sadar, bahwa dia adalah representatif
dari management/owner, kalaupun ada kelemahan dari sistem dan
kebijakan

yang

ada,

HRD

Manager

harus

mampu

mengkomunikasikannya dengan baik kepada karyawan, karena tugas


berat itu adalah bagian dari tanggung jawabnya.
2. Pemberian Penghargaan
Pemberian penghargaan (reward) biasanya sudah menjadi tradisi
yang dilakukan oleh semua perusahaan dalam rangka memberikan
pengakuan atas karya setiap individu, selain itu dapat menjadikan
semangat karyawan untuk meraih dan berprestasi. HRD Manager
harus

sudah

bisa

memberikan

pertimbangan

kepada

manajemen/direksi/owner bentuk penghargaan apa yang dimunculkan


dan bagaimana kriterianya. Sebagai alat ukur kriteria dalah statistik
kehadiran dan kondite (performance apprasial). Dalam merumuskan

penghargaan tersebut sebaiknya melibatkan semua departemen,


sehingga terciptalah bentuk dan kriteria yang ideal untuk diajukan ke
pimpinan puncak.
3. Peraturan Perusahaan
Sebenarnya persoalan yang dihadapi HRD Manager, tentang
hukum ketenagakerjaan lebih banyak pada persoalan implementasinya,
yaitu bagaimana agar para karyawan dapat mematuhi aturan yang
sudah dibuat. Sedangkan untuk konsep dan penafsirannya sangat jelas
dan tertuang dalam Undang-Undang Ketenagakerjaan No. 13 Tahun
2003 serta beberapa Peraturan/Keputusan Menteri Tenaga Kerja.
4. Etika Profesi
HRD Manager harus memiliki etika didalam melaksanakan fungsi
manajemennya, khususnya dalam pengadaan tenaga kerja, misalnya:
apakah yang di rekrut tersebut masih aktif atau masih terkait dalam
kontrak pada perusahaan sebelumnya, penelusuran perlu dilakukan,
minimal kalaupun harus dilakukan bukan bersifat membajak.
5. Komitmen dalam Asosiasi
Pada umunya, karyawan ahli atau spesialis yang terikat kontrak,
sebagian kecil berpindah kerja sebelum habis masa kontrak/ikatan
dinas dengan mengabaikan konsekuensi isi perjanjian, dan pihak
perusahaan tidak bisa berbuat apa-apa. Untuk mengantisipasi hal ini,
sebaiknya perlu dibangun suatu prosedur didalam asosasi. Misalnya
asosiasi membuat/merumuskan beberapa ketentuan-ketentuan tentang
etika penerimaan karyawan. Setelah itu, diminta secara sukarela
kepada perusahaan-perusahaan yang tergabung dalam asosiasi untuk
meratifikasinya, dan bagi perusahaan yang meratifikasi maka terikat
dengan ketentuan-ketentuan etika yang berlaku.
Adapun rumusan etika penerimaan karyawan atau etika profesi
tersebut perlu mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan etika itu sendiri,
atau bagaimana mengatur pengembalian uang ganti rugi (bilamana
ada), apakah dibebankan kepada perusahaan penerima atau dengan
cara lain, semua itu perlu perumusan secara komprehensif.

Journal

Abstract (summary)
Human resource management (HRM) has become a major component of business
schools and is quickly becoming a dominant focus of management research.
However, discussions of HRM's history are very limited. HRM's origins and
development are traced by examining: 1. the concepts developed by the 2 ignored
originators of HRM, Peter F. Drucker (1954) and E. Wight Bakke (1958), and 2.
the evolution of HRM's definition.

Human resource management has become a major component of business schools


and is quickly becoming a dominant focus of management research (Kaufman
1993; Lewin, 1991; Storey 1992). It has almost universally displaced personnel,
and in many schools is threatening to supplant industrial relations and
organizational behavior. Of late, articles in British and Canadian journals are
beginning to question what human resource management is and what impact its
nonnative prescriptions will have on unions, workers, and employment
relationships 0.e., Barkin, 1989; Blyton & Turnbull, 1992; Guest, 1987; Godard,
1991; Ichniowski, Delaney, & Lewin, 1989).
These articles frequently note -- few attempt to resolve -- the definitional fog that
surrounds the term "human resource management" Sadly, efforts at defining
human resource management (HRM) are grounded on current descriptions of
HRM and do not attempt b resolve the issue by tracing the term's history. There

has been little success in clarifying the definition of HRM, in identifying its
boundaries, or in distinguishing it from related disciplines. The histories of these
related disciplines have been occasionally discussed (for example, Baron, Dobbin,
and Jennings (1986) and Ling (1965) for personnel management, Jacoby (1985)
and Wren 1987) for American management theory, and Kaufman (1993) and
Adams (1993) for industrial relations), however, the history of human resource
management has not.
This paper very briefly traces the origins and development of human resource
management through a review of books and articles. It begins with a brief
exploration of the three original uses of the term "human resource management"
or i variants-two of which have been completely ignored--and then follows the
development of the main families of definitions of HRM found in the literature.
This paper observes that HRM exists in multiple versions, reflecting the
disciplinary and ideological orientations of each versions' adherents. The lack of
an effort to resolve the definitional opacity surrounding HRM may be responsible
for the strong growth of the discipline. Human resource management's lack of
specificity and its strong institutional position within business schools, a product
of its popularity as a practitioner's philosophy, may allow academics to pursue a
wide variety of research interest, while legitimating these pursuits by calling them
HRM.
COINING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Drucker and the "Human Resource"
The term "human resource" was coined by management gun Peter F. Drucker
(1954) in The Practice of Management. In this seminal work, Drucker presents
three broad managerial functions: managing the business, managing other
managers, and managing workers and work. It is in the discussion of the
management of workers and work that Drucker (1954:263) introduces the concept
of the worker as "the human resource": "comparable to all other resources but for
the fact that it is human" and, as such, having "specific properties" which must be

considered by managers. Drucker argues that the human resource possesses a


quality that is not present in other resources: "the ability to coordinate, to
integrate, to judge and to imagine." Unlike other resources utilized by managers,
the human resource can only utilize itself. "The human being ... has absolute
control over whether he works at all" (Drucker, 1954:264).
Drucker calls on managers to consider the moral and social needs of human
beings in the design of work. He calls on managers to take positive actions to
encourage worker motivation, and to create jobs that challenge and develop
workers. In the process, Drucker (1954: 273-289) disparages the personnel
management discipline of his day, detailing its three basic misconceptions: (1) it
assumes people do not want to work; (2) it looks upon the management of work
and the worker as a specialist's job rather than a key part of any manager's job;
and (3) its tendency to be a "fire fighting" and "trouble-shooting" activity, rather
than focusing on the positive and building harmony. However, Drucker
(1954:287) expresses a hope for the improvement of the managing of workers. He
answers his own rhetorical question "Is personnel management bankrupt?" with a
no, choosing rather to see personnel management as temporarily insolvent.
According to Drucker, the personnel management of his day was not meeting its
promises of effectively managing workers; it had the necessary expertise and was
aware of the right approaches; but had yet to apply them.
Bakke and "The Human Resources Function"
E. Wight Bakke (1958), a sociologist by training and a multidisciplinary industrial
relations scholar in his research choices, elaborated a more detailed discussion of
the managing of human resources as a function of general management. In a
poorly circulated monograph, Bakke (1958) describes an ignored managerial
function, the human resources function, which he describes as being as important
to business success as accounting, production, financing, marketing and the other
managerial functions. According to Bakke, the human resources function
subsumes all of personnel administration, industrial and labor relations, human
relations, human engineering, executive development and the like.

Bakke (1958) details how the human resource function of management is but a
part of the general management function, and then sets out principles for a
thoughtful and deliberate approach to this function. He views the general job of
management as the effective use of resources (money, materials, market, ideas,
nature, and people) to achieve organizational objectives. Bakke argues that poor
management of any one of these resources weakens the effectiveness of the whole
organization. Thus, he argues that "attention to the human resource is required not
because managers are humanitarian, but because they are managers" (1958:198).
Bakke (1958:200) lays out seven points that detail why the human resources
function goes beyond the work of the personnel or industrial relations manager:
(1) The human resource function is not a special function, it must meet the
standards that Bakke (1958) sets out for all the other functions of management:
"[t]o understand, to maintain, to develop, to employ or utilize effectively, and to
integrate these resources into a working whole ... ".
(2) The levers of the human resource function are not new gadgets or tools to be
afforded when the "really important" functions, such as production and finance, a
running smoothly and profitably. Rather, the management of human resources
must be done from the startup of any organization.
(3) The objective of the human resource function "is not personal happiness but
productive work and the maximum opportunity for all the company's people to
utilize to the fullest possible extent all the skills they have relevant to making that
work more productive."
(4) The human resource function includes not only the welfare and compensation
activities associated with personnel and labor relations, "but the human resources
aspect of every working relationship [italics in original] between people in the
company." It should improve the "work process, work associations and work
opportunities" of employees so as to reduce the need for rewards which
compensate for boredom and hardship.

(5) The human resource function is not solely concerned with employees but with
every person "at all levels" of the organization, including the chief executive
officer.
6) The human resource function is necessarily performed by every person in the
organization who is responsible for supervising others. This includes managers in
a unionized environment. In such cases, "line management carries out its basic
human resource functions within a framework of expectancies, controls, and other
activities of the union."
(7) "The focus of concern for all human resources effect must be the simultaneous
achievement of the central and essential interests of the company and its people."
The interests need not be the same, but they must not be incompatible.
Surprisingly, Bakke's detailed discussion seems to have had little implict. Even
though it appears in Unions, Management and the Public (1960) (1967), an
influential text and book of readings, his human resources function has been
completely ignored in academic circles.(1)
These two original perspectives on HRM emphasize the management actions that
come from viewing all individuals within the enterprise as valuable resources that
must be thoughtfully managed. This view appears to have made an initial impact
on the business world and academia: the term "human resources" begins appear
very occasionally, though it is not described in depth. In 1964, Pigors, Myers and
Malm edited a book of readings called Management of Human Resources:
Readings in Personnel Administration.(2) This work, partly based on an earlier set
of readings by Pigors and Myers (1952) called Readings in Personnel
Administration, takes a tone reminiscent of Drucker's (1954). Pigors et al. (1964)
strive to emphasize that the management of people is central to management and
not a secondary issue. They view "the management of human resources" as being
a broader and more inclusive term than personnel administration (Pigors et al.,
1964:vii).
Miles and the "Human Resource Model"

The next appearance of the term "human resources" to attract serious academic
and managerial attention was Raymond E. Miles' (1965) article in Harvard
Business Review.(3) Miles' survey research on managerial attitudes showed that
most managers preferred using a human relations model of management on their
subordinates, but preferred that their superiors apply what Miles termed a human
resource model to them.
The human relations model, instructs managers to fulfil more than workers
economic needs. Managers should view workers as individuals and demonstrate
an interest in their welfare and happiness. In short, the worker is made to feel
useful and important to the organizations through constant communication and
reassurance from his supervisor. On the other hand, Miles' (1965) human
resources model--a composite which he attributes to McGregor (1960), Likert
(1961) and others--(4) suggests that the experience and knowledge of workers is
of great value to the organization. Worker participation, the full use of their
resources, can lead to improved decisions and self-control, which in turn improves
worker productivity and satisfaction.
Miles (1965) advocated that management view its employees as "human
resources", with all the attendant implications, arguing that the almost universal
desire of managers to be treated this way by their own bosses, spoke to the
effectiveness of the approach in raising morale and performance.
From 1965 until 1970, the terms "human resources" or "human resource
management" do not appear to have been much used in academic writings.
However, the concept of human resources seems to have been well received in
management circles, no doubt due to the prominence of Miles' (1965) article. For
example, Pyle (1970:19) starts a discussion of human resource accounting(5) by
stating: "The importance of human resources to the success of an enterprise is
widely acclaimed in corporate pronouncements..." Unfortunately, he does not
provide any examples.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF HRM

The early 1970's saw a few developments which popularized HRM in


management circles. In 1972, the American Management Association (AMA), an
educational organization for managers, published Innovative Human Resource
Management by R. L. Datnick. This how-to-manual for senior managers and
"employee relations" executives (1) emphasizes the harmonization of employee
needs, interests, and desires with corporate objectives and (2) begins with "The
human beings in an organization are its most important resource"(Desatnick,
1972:i). The AMA began its existence as a personnel managers' association, and
has worked ever since to promote the role and importance of the personnel
manager (Ling, 1964). This book was part of the AMA's efforts to capitalize on
the attention given to Miles' (1965) article in North American business increase
the profile of personnel managers.
Purloined by Personnel Management
During the middle to late 1970's the definition of HRM changes. As the term
"human resource management" became more welt known and widespread in the
business world, the dominant definition of HRM in most textbooks becomes very
closely linked to the work being done in personnel management. A series of
authors, generally scholars with a background in traditional personnel
management or human relations, put out a series of textbooks which equate HRM
with personnel management. For example, Robbins (1978:4), in Personnel: The
Management of Human Resources, states that:
Today the academic discipline described as "personnel" represents the study of an
organization's human resources and how their contribution to the organization's
goals can be most effectively attained.
Peterson and Tracy (1979:3), in The Systematic Management of Human
Resources, go even further:
Human resource management, or personnel and industrial relations [italics added],
consists of the activities within a given firm that deal with the recruiting,

selecting, appraising, rewarding, and developing of employees (including


managers) as well as negotiating with labor unions.
Henneman, Schwab, Fossum and Dyer 1980) deal with the issue choosing for a
title the composite term Personnel/Human Resource Management and using it or
the abbreviation P/HRM throughout their textbook.
This equation of human resource management with personnel management and
the traditional functions of the personnel department becomes the one of the
dominant perspectives on HRM. It still appears in survey textbooks, for example,
Werther, Davis, Schwind, and Das (1990:9) state that:
Human Resource Management also called personnel management...[italics in
original] ...focuses on what managers--especially human resource specialists-[italics added] do and what they should do.
Human Resource Management Re-Theorized in the 1980's
Drucker's (1954) and Bakke's (1958) broader perspective on HRM resurfaces in
the early 1980's. During this period, HRM underwent some intense scrutiny as
many scholars attempted to produce a general theory of HRM which could be
used for explanation and prediction, and to direct practitioners and researchers
towards understudied or overlooked aspects of the employment relationship. Most
of these efforts at theory-building focused on integrating HRM with strategic
planning, with a view to making HRM a planned central component of an
organization's efforts at effectiveness. In many ways, this reflects a full turn back
to Bakke (1958) with its emphasis on HRM being a general management function
of importance equal to accounting, production, and the others.
The first such work was by Tichy, Fombrun, and Devanna (1982), though there
were a rapid succession of others (i.e., Baird, Meshoulam & DeGive, 1983;
Burack, 1985; Dyer, 1993, 1984; Golden & Ramanujam, 1985; Odiome, 1984;
Smith, 1982). All of these works emphasised the need for a fuller theory of
strategic human resource management (SHRM) and suggested approaches to take.

The term appears to have been coined to distinguish it from the purloined HRM,
by then often equated with personnel management. This SHRM differed from
personnel because of its focus on planned proactive measures which are linked to
the organization's overall strategic plan, opposing personnel's reactive "firefighting" approach.
Probably the most influential effort at HRM theorizing is the model of Beer,
Spector, Lawrence, Mills and Walton (1984) work on integrating the various
aspects of managing individuals within the organization. Beer et al. (1984:ix)
define human resource management as the synthesis of perspectives from
organizational

behavior/development,

labor

relations,

and

personnel

administration. As a field of study, Beer et al. (1984:1) view HRM as "the study of
all management decisions and actions which affect the nature of the relationship
between the organization and employees." Their application of the definition is
broader, as they also discuss work system design as an important function in
HRM.(6)
Interestingly, Beer et al. (1984) does not explicitly mention strategy. Rather they
focused on four areas of HRM policy choices: (1) choices regarding employee
influence mechanisms, (2) choice regarding human resource flows in, through,
and out of the organization, (3) choices regarding reward systems, and (4) choices
regarding the work systems employed. Specific choices are made within the
constraints of shareholder interests and situational factors, with a view to
achieving four HRM outcomes: commitment, competence, congruence, and cost
effectiveness. It is the focus on commitment and congruence which brings in
strategic planning and the linking of different policies to make a cohesive unit.
This is in contrast to the traditional personnel management perspective which
focused on the cost effectiveness and competitiveness outcomes almost
exclusively.
The British Experience in the Late 1980's
The late 1980's saw an interesting development in the definition of HRM. as a
management philosophy using the name "human resource management" made a

bold appearance in Thatcher's Britain (Storey, 1989). Unlike other management


fads or movements which occasionally gain brief popularity in the business
community, British researchers encountered a profound acceptance of the
management philosophy and vocabulary of HRM at all levels of management
within British enterprises (Blyton & Turnbull, 1992; Storey, 1989). However,
unlike North America where HRM had sprung from, and was encouraged, by
academic perspectives, in Britain the importation of HRM was management led,
and most academics remain sceptical, if not critical, of its view points (Legge,
1989; Storey, 1989, 1992; Blyton & Turnbull, 1992). British scholars appear to be
more sensitive to the opacity and lack of agreement in definitions about HRM
(Blyton & Turnbull, 1992; Guest, 1987; Legge, 1989; Noon, 1992; Storey, 1989;
Storey & Sisson, 1989).
British academics have focused their criticism on the unitarist/managerialist
perspective of HRM (Guest, 1987; Keenoy & Anthony, 1992; Legge, 1989).
British research into work and workers has generally been pluralist in its
orientation, refusing generally to accept that workers and capitalists/managers
have the same interests or even common interests (Keenoy & Anthony, 1992).
British managerialist researchers have generally followed the definitions of Beer
et al. (1984) and Tichy et al. (1982) and are now creating HRM journals and
occupying HRM chairs. Others chose to view and define HRM as a sophisticated
set of union-avoidance practices and as a mechanism designed to erode pluralist
industrial relations in Britain. Keenoy and Anthony (1992:235), for example, call
HRM
a meta-narrative locating, informing and legitimizing managerial practice in a
time of rapid economic restructuring: the 'messages' carried by HRM are far more
important than the devices employed.
A milder form of this critical perspective has also appeared in the journal
Relations Industrielles (Barkin, 1989; Godard, 1991; Ichniowski, Delaney, &
Lewin, 1989; Wells, 1993).

THREE FAMILIES OF DEFINITIONS


From this review, emerge three general families of HRM definitions. The first,
laid out by Drucker (1954), Bakke (1958) and reiterated by Beer et al. (1984) and
others (Lewin, 1991; Schuler, 1990), holds that HRM is a broad general managers'
function which deals with the proper management -understanding, maintenance,
development, utilization, and integration -- of individuals in the work place. It
implies a management philosophy consistent with the view that employees, all
employees, are valuable organizational resources, rather than expenses which the
personnel department should assist in minimizing.
The second family of definitions -- Henneman et al. (1980), Peterson and Tracy
(1979), Robbins (1978), Strauss and Sayles (1980), Werther et al. and others -holds that HRM is a new synonym for personnel management, the management of
employees by specialist staff. It assumes the existence of a set of best or
acceptable practices for making effective use of workers and attempts to detail
these.
The third family of definitions results from the managerialist/unitarist resurgence
in Britain during the Thatcher years. Many scholars with workerist/pluralist
orientations hold that HRM is essentially a sophisticated form of union avoidance,
and a camouflaged method of managerial control. They focus not on the tools or
levers which HRM encourages or uses but rather on the different way that HRM
conveys managerial legitimacy.
CONCLUSION
Human resource management is, and was, an attempt to resolve the failures of
personnel management, human relations, and industrial relations to provide
direction as to how organizations should handle people so that organizational
effectiveness and individual satisfaction would be maximized. The resulting
discussion and conception of humans as valuable resources had a broad appeal
which attracted many proponents of personnel management, human relations, and

industrial relations. In the exchange, the meaning of HRM became so diffuse and
uncertain that it is now idiomatic.
Human resource management now exists in several versions, each tied to the
philosophical and institutional position of its adherents. Human resource
management continues to enjoy managerial support and attract managerial
attention. Conducting HRM research is a more legitimate and socially desirable
endeavour than conducting research on industrial relations, with its pro-union
slant, or conducting research on organizational behavior with it ethereal findings.
This broad acceptance of the goals and purposes of human resource management
may result in its imperialization of the study of work and employment within
business schools.

Daftar Pustaka

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