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READING STRATEGIES = Evaluate main ideas in academic texts quickly & efficiently.

OPEN QUESTION any answer is possible / acceptable

CLOSED QUESTION answer is usually YES or NO
STATEMENT used as questions in informal spoken language ( expect positive answer )

Question word : What, where, when, why, who, which, how

Auxiliary verb : Do, does, is, are
Modal verb : Can
Coordinator : And, or, but
Clause : Subjec t+ Verb + other elements = Object, Complement, Adverbial
Adverb :
(a) Beginning : Indeed, Arguably, Generally, Apparently, Blatantly
(b) Middle : mainly, relatively, surprisingly, certainly, possibly, perhaps,

Visual Use sight to gather information ( emphasis on giving info orally )

Auditory Spoken examination to expan on graphical information presented
Kinaesthetic Learn through the hands-on activity ( enjoy movement and space )

A paragraph can be defined as a unit of meaning which contains a statement

about the content or organization of the paragraph (a topic sentence), which may then be
followed by supporting evidence using examples and reasons.
Not necessary have to be at least 100 words per paragraph
Not necessary have background information

Academic Writing

Exhibit a formal style

Contains specialised vocabulary
Evaluates ideas of others
Makes connections between ideas
States source of ideas (citations)
Espresses new ideas with caution
Contains long noun phrases
Contains fewer verbs than nouns

DESCRIPTIVE Narrative, Description, Instruction

EXPLANATION Comparison and contrast, Cause and effect
PERSUASIVE Persuasion, Arguament, Problem and solution

Skimming : Reading quickly to get an overview of text and understand main ideas
For GENERAL information ( interesting or useful )
Scanning : Reading quickly to find key information
For SPECIFIC information ( identify Q, find the A )


It is often believed that academic writing, particularly scientific writing, is factual, simply
to convey facts and information. However it is now recognised that an important feature of
academic writing is the concept of cautious language, often called "hedging" or "vague
language". In other words, it is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a
particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making. Different subjects prefer to
do this in different ways.
Language used in hedging:
1 Introductory
. verbs:

e.g. seem, tend, look like, appear to be, think, believe, doubt, be
sure, indicate, suggest

2 Certain lexical
. verbs

e.g. believe, assume, suggest

3 Certain modal
. verbs:

e.g. will, must, would, may, might, could

4 Adverbs of
. frequency

e.g. often, sometimes, usually

Modal adverbs
Modal adjectives
Modal nouns

e.g. certainly, definitely, clearly, probably, possibly, perhaps,

e.g. certain, definite, clear, probable, possible
e.g. assumption, possibility, probability

That clauses

e.g. It could be the case that .

e.g. It might be suggested that .
e.g. There is every hope that .

8 To-clause +
. adjective

e.g. It may be possible to obtain .

e.g. It is important to develop .
e.g. It is useful to study .

Here are some examples that illustrate the importance of connecting your ideas more
effectively in writing.
The hotel is famous. It is one of the most well-known hotels in the country. The latest
international dancing competition was held at the hotel. The hotel spent a lot of money to
advertise the event. Because the hotel wanted to gain international reputation. But not
many people attended the event. (The connection of ideas is not very good.)
The hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region, wanted to promote
its image around the world by hosting the latest international dancing competition.
Although the event was widely advertised, not many people participated in the
competition. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.)
The latest international dancing competition was held at the hotel, which is one of the
most well-known hotels in this region. The hotel spent a lot of money on advertising the
event since it wanted to enhance its international reputation; however, it failed to attract
many people. (The connection of ideas is better than in the first example.)