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Use of post-tensioning technologies in modern structures

Todays building owners and designers need to provide a high level of structural flexibility
to meet changing user requirements.
Post-tensioning provides greater spans with reduced structural beam depths, resulting in larger column-free
areas. As a result, internal layouts are not dictated by tight column grids. Positive deflection and crack control
and, if necessary, joint-free slabs, free designers from the limitations of conventional reinforced
concrete structures.
Our Unbonded Slab Post-Tensioning System has been used in many buildings and structures. The system
foresees strands individually stressed and gripped by wedge action.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Supply of cut tendons with passive pre locked anchorage

Bonded and greased mono strand tendons can be supplied, rolled and equipped with pre locked
anchorage, directly from TTM.
This kind of provision reduces activities on site.

Properly cut Tendons for 1EX15 pre locked anchorage at one edge

Tendons have 1EX15 pre locked


anchorage in one edge. They have rear
protection joint which will be positioned
on site.

Tendons are strapped and protected by


slices of paper.

Cut tendons equipped with 1EX15 pre locked anchorage

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Monostrand Post-tensioning

The commercial building segment, including: hotels office towers and condominiums, benefit from a weight
reduction from thinner slabs. Furthermore, post-tensioning allows earlier stripping of formwork shortening
overall construction time.
.

For cast-in place parking structures, it is the improved ride and architectural lighting advantages that are main
benefits over precast design. Tendons for slab-on-ground provide a virtually crack-free slab for high durability
with direct exposure to expansive soils, groundwater and contaminated run-off .

Our Monostrand system uses 0.6" (15,2mm) diameter strands with compact cross area (165mm2). The strands
are given a coating of permanent corrosion-inhibiting coating and are enclosed in an extruded plastic sheath.
The grease and plastic provide double corrosion protection, as well as preventing any bonding between the
strands and the surrounding concrete.
The plastic sheath is polyethylene with approximately 50 mil wall thickness. To ensure continuous corrosion
protection in aggressive environments, special sleeves are used to join the sheaths to the anchorages and each
anchorage is provided with a protective cap.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Our Monostrand System features factory-applied corrosion protection, very low friction losses, and full
utilization of the structural depth. These light, flexible monostrands can be easily and rapidly installed, leading
to economical solutions.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

1. Introduction
1.1. General

Post-tensioning technology has for many yeas occupied a very important position in the construcion of
bridges and storage tanks. The reason lies in its decisive technical and economical advantages. The
more important advantages, offered by post-tensioning, may be briefly recalled here:

By comparison with reinforced concrete, a considerable saving in concrete and steel quantities
since, due to the working of the entire concrete cross-section more slender design are possible.

Smaller deflections than with steel and reinforced concrete.

Good crack behaviour and therefore permanent protection of the steel against corrosion.

Almost unchanged serviceability even after considerable overload, since temporary cracks close
again after the overload has disappeared.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

High fatigue strength, since the amplitude of the stress changes in the post-tensioning steel under
alternating loads

In addition to the already mentioned general features of post-tensioned construction, the following advantages
of post-tensioned slabs over reinforced concrete slabs may be listed as it follows:

More economical structures resulting from the use of post-tensioning steels with a very high tensile
strength instead of normal reinforcing steels;

Larger spans and greater slenderness. The latter results in reduced dead load, which also has a
beneficial effect upon the columns and foundation and reduces the overall height of buildings of a given
height (Fig.2);

Under permanent load, very good behaviour in respect of deflections and cracking;

Higher punching shear strength obtainable by appropriate layout of tendons.

This kind of technology is very advantageous to build rectangular slabs with sides 6 10 metres long. The
design of these slabs are foresees the use a mesh of mono-strand cables (0.6) with 165mm2 cross section area.
The shape of the cables follows the spatial funicular of semi dead load, it has held in the thickness of the
reinforced concrete slab and the anchorages at the border are placed in central position fixed to the boundary.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Semi dead load is obtained adding the whole dead load and half of live load. In these conditions the slab has
subjected to axial force without bending moment and shear force.

If the live load is lower than 30% of total load, calculus is statically determinate because the bending moment is
produced only by +/- the half of live load The compressive stress in slabs with may varies between 1,5 and 2,5

N/mm2.

The advantages obtained using this kind of technology are:


1. It isnt necessary an automatic calculus, either for complicated structures;
2. Semi dead load didnt generate bending moment on pillars and walls, therefore the bending reserve of
these elements are available to withstand the horizontal loads;
3. Slabs are perfectly plane with beams depth contained in their thickness and they maintain a plane
shape because of the absence of bending foliage;

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

4.

Floors are waterproof because cracks are absent;

5.
6.

After 2-3 day from casting it is possible stress the structure ( Rck>150 Kg/cm2 ),
By the striking of formwork real slabs and the immediate re-assembling of the formwork for the
subsequent slab the testing of the floors is easily obtained;

7.
8.
9.

The surface of the intrados may have a finish that does not need further workings.
;
It is easy to make holes while projecting; however, facility is kept after the projecting phase
also if it is not necessary to cut the strands
adopting some precautions it is possible to extend the drilling to the spaces near the pillars and
put in axis
This kind of structure is usually safer than traditional ones, The structure is less sensitive to
imprecision of construction; therefore, a qualified personnel is required only during the
stressing operations. (1 or 2 people).

10.
11.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

1.2 - Post-tensioning with or without bonding of tendons


1.2.1 - Bonded post-tensioning

As is well-known, in this method of post-tensioning, the post-tensioning steel is placed in ducts, and after
stressing is bonded to the surrounding concrete by grouting with cement suspension.
Rounded corrugated ducts are normally used.
For the relatively thin floor slabs of building, the reduction in the possible eccentricity of the post-tensioning
steel with this arrangement is, however, too large, in particular at cross-over points, and for this reason flat
ducts have become common

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

1.2.2 - Unbonded post-tensioning

In the early stages of development of post-tensioned concrete in Europe, post-tensioning without bond was also
used to some extent After a period without any substantial application, some important structures have again
been built with unbonded post-tensioning in recent years.

In the first application in USA, the post-tensioning steel was grassed and wrapped in wrapping paper,
to facilitate its longitudinal movement during stressing.
During the last few years, however the method described below for producing the sheathing has generally
become common. The strands is first given a continuous film of permanent corrosion preventing grease in a
continuous operation, either at the manufacturers works or at the post-tensioning firm.

A plastic tube of polyethylene or polypropylene of at least 1mm wall thickness is then extruded over this. The
plastic tube forms the primary and the grease the secondary corrosion protection.
Strands sheathed in this manner are known as monostrands (fig. 3). The nominal diameter of the strands used is
15mm (0.6).

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

10

1.2.3 - Bonded or unbonded ?

This question was and still is frequently the subject of serious discussion. The subject will not be discussed in
detail here, but instead only the most important arguments far and against will be listed:

Comparazione delle eccentricit che possono essere ottenute con diversi tipi di cavi

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

11

Argument in favour of post-tensioning without bonding.


-

Maximum possible tendon eccentricities, since tendon diameter are minimal; of special importance in
thin slabs (see Fig.4);
Post-tensioning steel protected against corrosion ex works;
Simple and rapid placing of tendons;
Very low losses of post-tensioning force due to friction;
Grouted operation is eliminated;
In general more economical

Arguments in favour of post-tensioning with bonding.


-

Larger ultimate moment;


Local failure of a tendon (due to fire, explosion, earthquakes etc.) has only limited effects.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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2 LOSSES CALCULATION ELEMENTS AND EVALUATION OF


ELONGATIONS

It is necessary to distinguish the shrinkages of tensioning as immediate shrinkages or deferred


shrinkages for the correct execution of calculations.
2.1 Immediate lossees
Eurocode 2, 5.10.3
The 5.10.3 (3) paragraph of the European norm UNI EN 1992-1-1:2005 (EC2) recommends to
consider the following immediate post-tensioning influences, if applicable, for determining the
immediate losses

1. losses due to the friction strand/sheath


losses due to the anchorage return (wedge draw-in),
lossess due to elastic deformation of piling,

2.
3.

sl
el

Immediate shrinkages appear during the post-tensioning, reducing the tension generated by the
hydraulic jack.

2.1.1 Tensioning shrinkages due to friction


Eurocode 2, 5.10.5.2
Complying with the EC2, 5.10.5.2 , tension shrinkages ( x ) in post tensioning due to the friction
can be estimated from:
( x ) = Po ,max (1 e ( + kx ) )

Where:

->It is the sum of angular displacements over a distance x (regardless of direction or sign);

It is the fiction coefficient between strand and sheath [rad-1];

- It is the distance along the strand from the point where pre-stressing force is equal to Pmax
(the force at the active end during tensioning).

It is a non intentional angular deviation for internal strands (per unit length, rad/m);

The value depends on the characteristics of the strand and the sheath, on the presence of rust, on the
elongation of the tendon and on the tendon profile. The k value for unintentional displacement depends
on the quality of workmanship, on the distance between tendons supports, on the type of sheath or duct
employed, and on the degree of vibration used in placing the concrete.

TTM recommends the following values of and k :


Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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- monostrand viplato ed ingrassato (Sheath HDPE):


0,05 rad-1 < < 0,07rad-1 e 0,004 rad/m < k < 0,008 rad/m
- bonded monostrand in galvanized sheath:

= 0,19 rad-1 e k=0,005 rad/m


2.1.2 Losses due to wedge draw-in
Eurocode 2, 5.10.5.3
During the blocking of the wedges in the anchoring, the loss of elongation of the strand is damped by
friction with the sheath; this is opposite to what happens during stressing phase. When using
parabolic cable, losses due to attrition are constant along the cable itself:

P 0,max ( + kl )
l

where:
l

is the length of strand

The reduction of stress, which reaches its higher value near the active anchorage device, progressively
and symmetrically decreases and ceases at a certain distance d from the anchorage.

Stress losses after wedges draw-in

where:
c

is the length of strand subjected to wedges draw-in

In TTM post-tensioning system, wedges draw-in, during post-tensioning application, causes a


reduction of the strand elongation of l = 5mm .

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

14

Losses at the origin (on the active anchorage) are:


sl ( x = 0) = 2

c=

l E p A p

l

where:
c

is the length of strand subjected to wedges draw-in.

Losses in section x c are:


sl ( x = 0) = 2

(c x )

2.1.3 Losses of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete


Eurocode 2, 5.10.5.1

Losses of stress due to elastic deformation of concrete are often negligible; however, in a section with
n post- tensioning strands, deformation of concrete during stressing operations causes deformation
of the element under stress and shortening of the already stressed tendons.

This shortening corresponds to a loss of post-tensioning, which may be approximately calculated by


the following expression:

el =
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

n 1 EP
cP (t ) AP
2n E cm (t )
15

where:
n
EP
Ecm
cP (t )
time t

number of strands
is the modulus of elasticity for the prestressing strand
is the modulus of elasticity for the concrete
is the variation of stress in strands the centre of gravity of the tendons of post-tension at

2.2 Evaluation of elongations during strands stressing operations


During stressing operations it is necessary to compare the actual elongations with the theoretical
expected elongation to which should be added corrections to obtain real elongations. Elongations
reported in site are the sum of the following elements:
Lo = La + Lb + Lc + Ld + Le

where:
La
Lb
Lc
Ld
Le

is the elongation of strand calculated by considering the extra-length necessary for the
hydraulic jacks seize;
is the elastic deformation of concrete. The measured elongation usually includes the
elastic shortening of concrete;
is the sum of deformations of anchorage devices and wedges draw-in;
is the wedge draw-in;
is the internal deformation of the hydraulic jack.

2.2.1 Wedges draw-in on active anchorages


Loss of elongation due to wedge draw-in occurs during the anchoring operations after tensioning In
accordance with Static Load Tests, EMPA reports, Ld is valuated in this way:
Ld
Ld = 5 mm for stressing by hydraulic jack equipped with anchors
= 10 mm for stressing by hydraulic jack non equipped with anchors

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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2.2.2 Wedges draw-in and deformation on fixed anchorage


In accordance with Static Load Tests, EMPA reports, anchorages deformations under stress
always are imitated and never exceed 1mm. Wedges draw-in on passive anchorages corresponds to
a translation of the tendon towards the hydraulic jack. The reported values are about 4-5 mm.

2.2.3 Hydraulic jacks deformation

These deformations are gathered from the elongation of strands when the evaluations are taken from
the piston of the hydraulic jack.
Internal losses of hydraulic jacks are considered:
TTM Hydraulic jack = 8 mm
Elongations directly obtained from strands should not be considered.

2.2 Stressing values of post-tensioning anchorage in strand


2.3 Ministerial decree, 14 January 2008

Technical norms for calculation, execution and test of structures made of reinforced concrete, normal
and pre-stressed and for metallic structures.
Maximum stress applicable on a strand
Maximum stressing force has to be limited at:

Pspi = 0,85 x fp(0,1)k x Ap

e Pspi = 0,75 x fptk x Ap (t=0)

sp = 0,60 x fptk

(t=)

where:
Pspi

is the maximum stress in the time t=0

fp(0,1)k
fptk
Ap

is the stress on a strand at time t=


is the characteristic 0,1% proof-stress of pre-stressing steel
is the breaking stress
is the cross-sectional area of the strand

sp

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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2.4 Stressing values on post-tensioned anchorages in strand


Eurocode 2, 5.10.3
In accordance with 5.10.3(2) of EC2, the value of the beginning pre-stressing force Pm0(x) (at time t =
t0) from the anchorage immediately applied after tensioning, is obtained subtracting from force Pmax,
at the time of stressing, the immediate losses Pi(x),
The beginning force should not exceed the hereafter value:

Pm0(x)=Ap x P ,max
P ,max = min {0,75 fpk; 0,85 fp0,1k}

where:
Pm0
P ,max
fpk
fp0,1k

is the beginning pre-stressing force (t=t0)


la tensione nellarmatura subito dopo la messa in tensione
is the breaking stress
is the stress at 0,1% residual deformation

2.5 Limitation of concrete tension


EC2, 5.10.2.2

Concrete tension, caused by stressing force and further loading forces involved in the stressing phase,
should be limited at:

c 0,6 fck(t )
Where:
fck(t)

Is concrete tension in time t when it is submitted top re-stressing force.

If Tension of stressing permanently exceeds 0,45 fck(t ), the non linearity viscosity must be considered.
A gradual stressing of each single can reduce the required concrete resistance. The minimum
resistance fcm(t ) at t time must be 50% of concrete resistance required for the complete pre-stressing
phase. Between the minimum concrete resistance and the resistance required for the complete prestressing phase, there can be a value from 30% to 100% of complete pre-stressing force.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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2.6 Charateristics of strand

Strand

Diameter

Nominal
Strand type
diameter

Standard

Nominal
section

fptk

mm

mm2

N/mm2

Elastic
tension Carico di
Rilassamento
limit
fp(1)k Massa
1%
rottura
dopo 1000 h
allo 0,1%
of elong..
(Ptk)
0,7 - 0,8 fpt
Pt0,1k )
2
N/mm gr/m
KN
KN
KN
%
%

T15
T15S

EN 10138

normal
super

15.2
15.7

139
150

1860 1670 1086


1860 1670 1172

232
250

259
279

228
246

2.5
2.5

4.5
4.5

T15C

EN 10138

T15C

15.2

165

1860 1670 1289

276

307

270

2.5

4.5

Modulo delasticit = 196 +/- 10 KN / mm2

Unbonded and greased strand

Diam
eter

T15
T15S

Standard

EN
10138

T15 EN 10138
C

Elastic
Breaking
Relaxation
limit at
load
after 1000 h.
0,1% Fp(0,1)
Fm
0,7 0,8 Rm

Nominal
diameter

Greased
nominal
dimater

mm

mm

g/m

g/m

g/m

mm2

KN

KN

normal
super

15.2
15.7

18.00
18.50

40
40

75
78

121
0
129
0

139
150

259
279

228
246

2.5
2.5

4.5
4.5

T15C

15.2

18.00

35

70

140
0

165

307

270

2.5

4.5

Strand
type

Grease Mass Mass


mass HDPE

Area

Elasticity modulus = 196 +/- 10 KN / mm2

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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3 DETAIL DESIGN ASPECTS


3.1 Arrangement of tendons
Post-tensioned floors can be thinner far a given loading and deflection limitation than reinforced concrete
floors. This is primarily because of the load-balancing effect of the draped tendons. In the span, the deviation
forces caused by the curved tendons act on the concrete to oppose gravity.

Transverse components and panel forces resulting from post-tensioning

Principle of the load-balancing method

Where the tendon curvature is inverted, i.e. over the grid lines between the columns, the deviation forces act
downward, inserting concentrated loads on the "column strip" tendons, i.e. the tendons running along the grid
lines.
These concentrated forces are balanced by the upward acting deviation forces from the column strip tendons
which in turn insert a downward acting force on the columns. Thus the system shown in the figure can be
compared to a net strung between the columns. When this net is stretched from all four edges it inserts the loadbalancing forces on the concrete. The amount of post-tensioning steel can be determined by the condition that
the draped tendons provide sufficient distributed deviation force to load-balance a certain percentage of the
floor self weight. This percentage depends on the ratio of total load to permanent load and is typically between
70 and 130 %.
For typical office or residential floors with live loads of 3 to 4 kN/m2 and 1 kN/m2 additional permanent load
one would normally balance 70 to 90 % of the self weight while for floors with higher live loads more than 100
% of the self weight would be load-balanced

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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The other effect responsible for the improved deflection and cracking behaviour of post-tensioned floors is the
in-plane compression stress field in the concrete stemming from the anchorages of the post-tensioning tendons.
Provided that there are no significant restraints, these compression stresses neutralise a part of the flexural
tensile stresses caused by the portion of the loading not balanced by deviation forces from the tendon drape.
Typically the post-tensioning in floors provides an average
in-plane compression stress of 1.0 to 2.5 N/mm2.

Now let us look at typical span-to-depth ratios of post-tensioned floors. For light loading, say up to about 3.5
kN/m2 and provided that punching shear is not critical, a post-tensioned flat plate can be designed with a
thickness of about 1/40 of the larger span dimension (for interior panels), compared to about 1/30 for a flat
plate in reinforced concrete.
If drop panels are provided over the columns the span-depth ratio can be increased to about 45 and 35 for
interior panels of post-tensioned and reinforced concrete slabs, respectively. For higher superimposed loading
the span/depth ratio decreases, particularly if the super-imposed load is predominantly variable in place and
time. Then the amount of post-tensioning cannot simply be increased to load-balance the super-imposed load so
that in order to meet the deflection limitations a greater floor thickness is required.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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3.2 - Joints
The use of post-tensioned concrete and, in particular, of concrete with unbonded tendons necessitates a
rethinking of some long accepted design principles. A question that very often arises in building design is the
arrangement of joints in the slabs, in the walls and between slabs and walls.
Unfortunately, no general answer can be given to this question since there are certain factors in favour of a
certain factors against joints. Two aspects have to be considered:
-Ultimate limit state (safety)
-Horizontal displacements (serviceability limit state)

3.2.1 - Influence upon the ultimate limit state behaviour


If the failure behaviour alone is considered, it is generally better not to provide any joints. Every joint is a cut
through a load-bearing element and reduces the ultimate load strength of the structure. For a slab with
unbonded post-tensioning, the membrane action is favourably influenced by a monolithic construction. This
results in a considerable increase in the ultimate load

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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Influence of membrane action upon load-bearing capacity

3.2.2 - Influence upon the serviceability limit state


In long buildings without joints, inadmissible cracks in the load-bearing structure and damage to non loadbearing constructional elements can occur as a result of horizontal displacements. These displacements result
from the following influences:
-Shrinkage
-Temperature
-Elastic shortening due to post-tensioning
-Creep due to post-tensioning
In a concrete structure, the following average shortenings and elongations can be expected:
Shrinkage

Lcs = -0.25 mm/m

Temperature

Lct = -0.25 mm/m to +0.15 mm/m

Elastic shortening
(for an average centric post-tensioning
of 1.5 N/mm2 and Ec= 30 kN/mm2)

Lcel = -0.05 mm/m

Creep

Lcc = -0.15 mm/m

These values should be adjusted for the particular local conditions.


When the possible joint free length of a structure is being assessed, the admissible total displacements of the
slabs and walls or columns and the admissible relative displacements between slabs and walls or columns
should be taken into account.
Attention should, of course, also be paid to the foundation conditions.
The horizontal displacements can be partly reduced or prevented during the construction stage by suitable
constructional measures (such as temporary gaps etc.) without damage occurring.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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Shrinkage: Concrete always shrinks, the degree of shrinkage being highly dependent upon the water-cement
ratio in the concrete, the cross- sectional dimensions, the type of curing and the atmospheric humidity.
Shortening due to shrinkage can be reduced by up to about one-half by means of temporary shrinkage joints.
Temperature: In temperature effects, it is the temperature difference between the individual structural
components and the differing coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials that are of greatest importance.
In closed buildings, slabs and walls in the internal rooms are subject to low temperature fluctuations. External
walls and unprotected roof slabs undergo large temperature fluctuations. In open buildings, the relative
temperature difference is small. Particular considerations arise for the connection to the foundation and where
different types of construction materials are used.

Layout of the joint in WTC project

Elastic shortening and creep due to post-tensioning: Elastic shortening is relatively small. By subdividing the
slab into separate concreting stages, which are separately post-tensioned, the shortening of the complete slab is
reduced. Creep, on the other hand, acts upon the entire length of the slab. A certain reduction occurs due to
transfer of the post-tensioning to the longitudinal walls. Shortening due to post-tensioning should be kept within
limits particularly by the centric post-tensioning not being made too high. It is recommended that an average
centric post-tensioning of cpm = 1.5 N/mm2 should be selected and the value of 2.5 N/mm2 should not be
exceeded. In concrete walls, the relative shortening between slabs and walls can be reduced by approximately
uniform post-tensioning in the slabs and walls.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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4. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
4.1. General
The construction of a post-tensioned slab is broadly similar to that far an ordinarily reinforced slab.
Differences arise in the placing of the reinforcement, the stressing of the tendons and in respect of the rate of
construction. The placing work consists of three phases: first, the bottom ordinary reinforcement of the slab and
the edge reinforcement are placed. The ducts or tendons must then be positioned, fitted with supports and fixed
in place. This is followed by the placing of the top ordinary reinforcement. The stressing of the tendons and, in
the case of bonded tendons the grouting also, represent additional construction operations as compared with a
normally reinforced slab. Since, however, these operations are usually carried out by the post-tensioning firm,
the main contractor can continue his work without interruption. A feature of great importance is the short
stripping times that can be achieved with post-tensioned slabs. The minimum period between concreting and
stripping of formwork is 48 to 72 hours, depending upon concrete quality and ambient temperature. When the
required concrete strength is reached, the full (or partially) post-tensioning force can usually be applied and the
formwork stripped immediately afterwards. Depending upon the total size, the construction of the slabs is
carried out in a number of sections. The divisions are a question of the geometry of the structure, the
dimensions, the planning, the construction procedure, the utilization of formwork material etc. The construction
joints that do occur, are subsequently subjected to permanent compression by the post-tensioning, so that the
behaviour of the entire slab finally is the same throughout. The weight of a newly concreted slab must be
transmitted through the formwork to slabs beneath it. Since this weight is usually less than that of a
corresponding reinforced concrete slab, the cost of the supporting structure is also less.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

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4.2. Fabrication of the tendons


4.2.1. Bonded post-tensioning

There are two possible methods of fabricating cables:


-Fabrication at the works of the post-tensioning firm
-Fabrication by the post-tensioning firm on the site
The method chosen will depend upon the local conditions. At works, the strands are cut to the desired length,
placed in the duct and, if appropriate, equipped with dead-end anchorages. The finished cables are then coiled
up and transported to the site. In fabrication on the site, the cables can either be fabricated in exactly the same
manner as at works, or they can be assembled by pushing through. In the latter method, the ducts are initially
placed empty and the strands are pushed through them subsequently. If the cables have stressing anchorages at
both ends, this operation can even be carried out after concreting (except for the cables with flat ducts).

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

26

Slab using flat sheath; example of


bonded post-tensioning.
Strands are displayed, before casting,
respecting the following phases:
-

sheath display,
anchorage display,
vent display,
introduction of proper cut strand
into the sheath,
- strand stressing,
- grouting.

Bonded post-tensioning applications


with flat sheath, for multi strand
installation, can be executed with:
-

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Anchorage series L,
Anchorage series N

27

4.2.1.1. Bonded post-tensioning anchoring

Bonded post tensioning is used for grouted and sheathed strands. The sheath can be made of HDPE or
Steel. Sheath equipped with accessories (vent device and grouting) which guarantee proper adherence
of the strand into the sheath itself.

TTM mono strand anchorage has a bonded


version, E, connected with corrugated
sheath.
Anchorages can be active and passive. In the
passive version the anchor head is pre locked
by using proper equipment. Pre locking forbids
the wedge drown in, if cemented, guaranteeing
long lasting lockage.

1E15 bonded anchorage sheath diam. 25 mm.

HDPE sheath are supplied as 200 meters rolls


equipped with accessories for mould jointing,
venting and grouting.

1E15 anchorage is the standard version of


anchorage for mono strand. All anchorages
have forming mould jointing holes.
1E15 anchorages are made of steel C40-C45
EN 10083/1.

1E15 bonded anchorage sheath diam. 40 mm.

1E15 anchorage without wedge

1EX15 bonded anchorage sheath diam. 40 mm.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Anchorages series 4-5L15 are equipped with


flat sheath. The sheath allows grouting after
stressing. Flat sheath can be galvanized.

28

The anchorage is completely protected by a


surface of HDPE which prevents the corrosion.
The anchorage has two versions: 4 or 5 strands
T15.

5L15 bonded anchorage

Anchorages series 4N15 have flat corrugated


sheath. The sheath allows grouting after
stressing. Flat sheath can be galvanized
Anchorage is made of casting iron EN-GJS
500-7 EN-JS-1050,
The anchorage is supplied in the 4 strands
version.

4N15 bonded anchorage

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

29

4.2.1.2. Mono strand anchorage series E


( Bonded post-tensioning )

The E series mono strand anchorage is produced in full compliance with the Italian regulations in
force and according to the FIP recommendations. The E series mono strand anchorage
comprises the following parts: casting, clamps and HDPE joint for connecting the casting to the
strand coated with high density polyethylene.
Castings All the castings have holes for connection to the forming mould and set up to receive the
connection of a step which separates the anchorage from the mould. All the castings are made of
spheroid iron EN-GJS 500-7 EN-JS-1050 (Italy: UNI ISO 4544 GS 500-7, France: NF A 32-201
FGS 500-7, Germany: DIN 1693 GGG50, U.K: BS 2789 500-7, ISO R 1083 50-7, Japan: J.S.I. G
5502 FCD 50), which offers high resistance to stress and, as it can be welded, guarantees increased
safety during installation.
Wedges Anchorage of the strand is achieved using 7015-T15 type 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN 10277-4 steel
or 7017-T15 type 9SMnP28 UNI 4838 steel clamps.
Joint The connection between the anchorage and sheath is by means of a transition pipe that
guarantees correct sealing of the anchorage.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

30

Iniezione / Sfiato
Testata 1E15

Baffo di tesatura

Spirale

Trefolo
Guaina corrugata

Guarnizione

Prolunga

Scassa

Iniezione / Sfiato
Testata 1E15
Spirale

Trefolo
Guaina corrugata

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Prolunga

31

Prolunga
Cassaforma
Spirale

Trefolo

Guaina corrugata
Testata 1E15
Guarnizione

1E15 mono strand anchorage has two holes for


mould jointing. .
The use of two screws guarantees the
anchorage of the steel plate to the wooden
mould.

We can supply spirals if required.

Slab ready for stressing with 1E15 anchorages.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

32

Mono strand anchorage series E

F
1E15

B
C

Last Charge

Type
T15

per cable

1EX15

( KN )
259

T15S

T15C

per cable per cable

( KN )
279

( KN )
300

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)


59
40 130 110
6
130
85 155 35-40

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

33

T T M

4.2.1.Accessories for mono strand series E and EX

Protection cap for 1EX15 anchorages:


- Cap type DD0115E for short strand
overhang, used for passive anchorages
- Cap type DD0115F for half strand overhang
until 35 mm.
- Cap type DD0115G for long strand overhang
until 70 mm.
Short cap DD0115E

Short cap DD0115F is applied if the strand is


cut near the wedge, for passive anchoring
applications.

Half cap DD0115F

Long cap DD0115F is used on anchorages type


1EX15 where the strand is cut after moving the
moulds.

Long cap DD0115G

DD-7025 type Neoprene washers for sealing


against infiltrations.

Washers in Neoprene type DD-7025

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

34

Support for connecting to forming mould DD7009-B without threaded pin for connecting to
infill mould. The support can be re-used. .

Support for connecting to forming mould DD-7009-B

Support for connecting to infill mould DD7009-A with threaded pin for connecting to
infill mould. The support can be re-used.

Support for mould jointing DD-7009-A

Connection DD-0115CO can be coupled to


coated strand, guaranteeing no infiltration.

Joint DD-0115-CO in HDPE

The rear joint is coupled to the casting by


means of a push-fit device that guarantees
sealing during the jet grouting phase.
R DD-0115-CO polythene joint for 1E15-B
anchorages, can be assembled only on
anchorages machined for connecting

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

35

Nut DD-9000

1E15 plate in steel

Nut for support for connecting to infill mould


DD-9000 with threaded pin for fixing to infill
mould.

1EX15anchorage can be entirely covered


by HDPE, guaranteeing a perfect protection
from corrosion.

Connection to infill mould All heads are


equipped with two equidistant holes so as to
facilitate fixing to the infill mould by means of
two bolts.

Accessories All heads are equipped with


accessories which complete the system.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

36

4.2.1.4 Anchorage series L


( bonded post-tensioning )

Anchorage series L has been design for slabs or where the thickness of the strand cover requires
flat sheath series SL.
Anchor plate They are made of steel C40-C45 EN 10083/1 or spheroid casting steel EN-GJS 500-7
EN-JS-1050
Wedges Fixing of strand is obtained by using wedges type 7015-T15 in steel 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN
10277-4 or type 7017-T15 in steel 9SMnP28 UNI 4838,
Joint in H.D.P.E. - Il raccordo svolge una funzione di cassero ed alloggiamento per la piastra
dancoraggio che calcolata per trasferire lo sforzo direttamente sul calcestruzzo.
Il raccordo predisposto per la connessione con gli accessori, garantendo iniezione e sfiato.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

37

Anchorages series L have two holes for


grouting:
- frontal grouting joint,
- back grouting joint.
Corrugated pipe for grouting and vent:
-DD 20x25 diam. 25 mm corrugated pipe for
grouting and primary vents
-DD 15x20 diam. 20 mm corrugated pipe for
grouting and secondary vents

Joints for grouting on anchorage type 4-5L15

4-5L15 anchorage is design in the two following


versions:
-

4L15 version for compact strand T15, T15S


and T15C,
- 5L15 version for strand T15, T15S and T15C,

Metallic sheath ST for anchorage type L

4-5L15 anchorage can be used with sheath SL


Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

38

of different measures. The sheath is adapted


on site by cutting the HDPE part at the
corresponding section.

Metallic sheath introduced in the anchorage L

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

39

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

40

Anchorages series L

Type

Last charge
A
T15
T15S
T15C
259
279
300
per cable per cable per cable
( KN ) ( KN ) ( KN ) (mm)
777
837
900
350
3L15
1116
1200 350
4L15 1036
1395
1500 350
5L15 1295

(mm)
120
120
120

(mm)
360
360
360

(mm)
180
180
180

(mm)
200
200
200

(mm)
455
455
455

(mm)
78x30
78x30
96x30

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

pz. (mm) (mm) (mm)


4
30
78
10
4
30
78
12
4
30
90
12
41

Anchorage 5L15

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

42

Anchorage 5L15 back side

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

43

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

44

4.2.1.5 Anchorage series N


( bonded post-tensioning )

Anchorage series N has been design for slabs or where the thickness of the strand cover requires
flat sheath series SL.

Anchor plate They are made of steel C40-C45 EN 10083/1 or spheroid casting steel EN-GJS 500-7
EN-JS-1050
Wedges Fixing of strand is obtained by using wedges type 7015-T15 in steel 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN
10277-4 or type 7017-T15 in steel 9SMnP28 UNI 4838,
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

45

Anchorages series L have two holes for


grouting:
- frontal grouting joint,
- back grouting joint

Corrugated pipe for grouting and vent:


-DD 20x25 diam. 25 mm corrugated pipe for
grouting and primary vents
-DD 15x20 diam. 20 mm corrugated pipe for
grouting and secondary vents

Joint for grouting on 4N15 anchorage

Anchorage 4N15 is used in the following version:


- 4N15 version for strand T15, T15S e T15C.

Metallic sheath ST for anchorage series N

4N15 anchorage can be used with sheath SL of


different measures. The sheath is adapted on
site by cutting the HDPE part at the
corresponding section.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

46

4.2.1.6 Anchorage series M


( bonded post-tensioning )

Lancoraggio attivo serie M composto dalle seguenti parti: fusione, piastra ancoraggio, morsetti
e raccordo in H.D.P.E. per raccordare senza brusche deviazioni la fusione alla guaina metallica.
Anchorage- All anchorages have well rounded forming mould, jointing holes for cap and a "
grouting hole. Anchorages are made of spherical cast-iron EN-GJS 500-7 EN-JS-1050, which is
highly resistant to solicitations. Anchorage are welding, this guarantees higher security during
applications.
Anchor plate Strand blocking is obtained through: a shearing out plate, with conical holes, which is
made of steel C40-45 UNI EN 10083/1 ; wedges type 7015-T15 made of steel 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN
10277-4 or 7017-T15 in steel 9SMnP28 UNI 4838.
Connection Connection between sheath and anchorage is got through a transition pipe, which
guarantees a proper strand deviation, decreasing losses. Connectors can be supplied in steel or in
HDPE, in order to the applications.
Connection to the mould Anchorages have two equidistant holes, which facilitate the fixing by two
nuts.
Grouting Anchorages have a threaded gas hole for grouting where can be jointed the outing
accessories.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

47

Anchorages series M have two holes for


grouting:
- frontal grouting joint,
- back grouting joint

Rigid joint for grouting on anchorage 4M15

Metallic sheath ST for anchorages series M

4M15 4N15 anchorage can be used with


sheath SL of different measures. The sheath is
adapted on site by cutting the HDPE part at
the corresponding section.
Corrugated joint for groutingon anchorage type 4M15

Anchorage 4M15 is used in the following version:


- - 4M15 version for strand T15, T15S e T15C,

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

48

Anchorage series M

E
H

AxA

Type

4M15
7M15

Last charge
T15
T15S T15C
259
279
300
per cable

per cable

(KN)
1036
1813

(KN)
1116
1953

per cable

(KN) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
1200 130 105 106 300 330 220 45/50 50
12
45
2100 160 125 133 340 390 260 62/67 55
12
45

The company has the faculty to change its products and its features without any forewarn.
All anchorages are designed according to the Circular 15th October 1996 n 252 AA.GG./S.T.C. and have a ministarial deposit.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

49

4.2.2. Non bonded Post-tensioning

The fabrication of mono strand tendons is usually carried out at the works of the post-tensioning firm but can, if
required, also be carried out on site.

The mono strands are cut to


length and, if necessary,
fitted with the dead-end
anchorages. They are then
coiled up and transported to
site.
The
stressing
anchorages are fixed to the
formwork. During placing,
the mono strands are then
threaded
through
the
anchorages.

Anchor head are fixed to


the infill mould.
During the phase of
tendon
display
mono
strands are put on the
anchorages.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

50

4.2.2.1 Mono strand anchorage series E


( Non bonded post-tensioning )

1E15 Anchorage

The E series mono strand anchorage is produced in full compliance with the Italian regulations in
force and according to the FIP recommendations. The E series mono strand anchorage
comprises the following parts: casting, clamps and HDPE joint for connecting the casting to the
strand coated with high density polyethylene.
Anchorage All anchorages have holes for casting jointing, so that they can be connected to a
wooden mould which separates the anchorage from the form mould. Anchorage are made of C40-C45
EN 10083/1,
Wedges Anchorage of the strand is achieved using 7015-T15 type 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN 10277-4 steel
or 7017-T15 type 9SMnP28 UNI 4838 steel clamps.
Joint The connection between the anchorage and sheath is by means of a transition pipe that
guarantees correct sealing of the anchorage.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

51

Testata 1E15

Baffo di tesatura

Spirale

Trefolo

Prolunga
Vipla

Guarnizione

Spirale

Trefolo

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Scassa

Testata 1E15

Vipla

Prolunga

52

Prolunga
Cassaforma
Spirale

Trefolo

Vipla
Testata 1E15
Guarnizione

1E15 anchorages after casting, ready for posttensioning operations.

Mono strand tendons with 1E15 anchorages pre


locked at one edge, ready for being displayed.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

53

F
H

Type

1E15

Last charge
A
B
T15
T15S
T15C
per cable per cable per cable
( KN ) ( KN ) ( KN ) (mm) (mm)
259
279
300
43
40

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

(mm) (mm) (mm)


130
110
6

(mm)
114

(mm)
76

(mm)
148
54

4.2.2.2. Accessories for non bonded post-tensioning

Bonded Post-tensioning uses strands which are protected from cement by grease and duct.

Mono strand anchorage has two versions: E


and EX.
Both anchorages are usable as passive and
active head. In the passive version the anchor
head is pre locked by using proper equipment.
Pre locking forbids the wedge drown in, if
cemented, guaranteeing long lasting lockage.

1E15 Anchorage

1E15 anchorage is the standard version of


anchorage for mono strand. All anchorages
have forming mould jointing holes.
1E15 anchorages are made of steel C40-C45
EN 10083/.

All mono strand anchorages have two holes for


mould jointing. .
The use of two screws guarantees the
anchorage of the steel plate to the wooden
mould.

1EX15 Anchorage

Mono strand anchorage has in the back side a


HDPE joint which forbids infiltrations during
casting phase.
In the 1EX15 version the anchorage is
completely encapsulated by a HDPE cover
which protects the anchorage from corrosion.
Caps contain the grease which protects the
wedge. .

There is also 4L15 version: an anchorage


which allows the anchoring of 4 -5 bonded
strands. The strand will be stressed by mono
strand hydraulic jack.
1LX15 Anchorage

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

55

Short cap for passive anchorage contains the


grease protecting the wedge.
Short cap is used for passive anchorages

1EX15 passive anchorage

Half cap for passive anchorage contains the


grease protecting the wedge before tampon.

1EX15 passive anchorage

Long cap for active anchorage contains the


grease protecting the wedge before tampon.

1EX15 active anchorage

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

56

All anchorages E and EX can be jointed


to the form work by two screws.

1EX15 Anchorage

1E15 Anchorage

The wooden mould, if correctly used, is


reusable.

1E15 anchorage jointed to the wooden mould

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

57

4.2.2.3. Mono strand anchorage series EX


(Encapsulated non bonded post-tensioning )

The EX series mono strand anchorage is produced in full compliance with the Italian regulations in
force and according to the FIP recommendations. The EX series mono strand anchorage
comprises the following parts: casting, clamps and HDPE joint for connecting the casting to the
strand coated with high density polyethylene.
Anchor plate All anchor plates have holes for connection to the forming mould and set up to receive
the connection of a step which separates the anchorage from the mould. All the castings are made of
spheroid iron EN-GJS 500-7 EN-JS-1050 (Italy: UNI ISO 4544 GS 500-7, France: NF A 32-201
FGS 500-7, Germany: DIN 1693 GGG50, U.K: BS 2789 500-7, ISO R 1083 50-7, Japan: J.S.I. G
5502 FCD 50), which offers high resistance to stress and, as it can be welded, guarantees increased
safety during installation.
Wedges Anchorage of the strand is achieved using 7015-T15 type 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN 10277-4 steel
or 7017-T15 type 9SMnP28 UNI 4838 steel clamps.
Joint The connection between the anchorage and sheath is by means of a transition pipe that
guarantees correct sealing of the anchorage.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

58

Testata 1EX15
Spirale

Trefolo

Baffo di tesatura

Prolunga
Vipla
Scassa

Testata 1EX15
Spirale

Trefolo

Tappo di chiusura

Prolunga
Vipla
Morsetto

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

59

Prolunga
Cassaforma
Spirale

Trefolo

Vipla
Testata 1EX15
Guarnizione

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

60

Bonded strand after the forme mould removing.


The bound is displayed on the strands for
temporary oxidation protection.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

61

Cut tendons with pre locked passive


anchorage. Tendons are uncoiled in a 2,2
meters rolls and have identification label.

Mono strand anchorage series EX


(Encapsulated non bonded post-tensioning )

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

62

Type

1EX15

Last charge
T15
T15S T15C

per cable

per cable

per cable

( KN )
259

( KN )
279

( KN ) (mm) (mm)
300
59
40

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

(mm) (mm) (mm)


130
110
6

(mm)
130

(mm)
85

(mm)
155

63

4.2.2.4. Anchorage series L


( non bonded post-tensioning )

Anchorage series L has been design for slabs or where the thickness of the strand cover requires
flat sheath series SL.
Anchor plate They are made of steel C40-C45 EN 10083/1 or spheroid casting steel EN-GJS 500-7
EN-JS-1050
Wedges Fixing of strand is obtained by using wedges type 7015-T15 in steel 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN
10277-4 or type 7017-T15 in steel 9SMnP28 UNI 4838

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

64

Joint H.D.P.E. - Il raccordo svolge una funzione di cassero ed alloggiamento per la piastra
dancoraggio che calcolata per trasferire lo sforzo direttamente sul calcestruzzo.
Il raccordo predisposto per la connessione con gli accessori, garantendo iniezione e sfiato.

Anchorages series L have two holes for


grouting:
- frontal grouting joint,
- back grouting joint.

4-5L15 anchorage has two versions:


- 4L15 version used with compact strand T15,
T15S and T15C,
- 5L15 version used with strands T15, T15S and
T15C.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

65

Bonded and greased strands into the


anchorage

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

66

Anchorage series L
( non bonded post-tensioning )

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

67

Type

Last Charge
T15
T15S T15C
259
279
300

(mm)
360
360
360

(mm)
180
180
180

(mm)
200
200
200

(mm)
455
455
455

(mm)
78x30
78x30
96x30

per cable per cable per cableo

( KN ) ( KN )
837
3L15 777
4L15 1036 1116
5L15 1295 1395

( KN ) (mm) (mm)
900
350 120
1200 350 120
1500 350 120

pz. (mm) (mm) (mm)


4
30
78
10
4
30
78
12
4
30
90
12

The company has the faculty to change its products and its features without any forewarn.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

68

4.2.2.5. Anchorage series M


( non bonded post-tensioning anchorage )

Active Anchorage type M is composed by: anchorage, anchor plate, wedges and H.D.P.E.
connector.
Anchorage- All anchorages have well rounded forming mould, jointing holes for cap and a "
grouting hole. Anchorages are made of spherical cast-iron EN-GJS 500-7 EN-JS-1050, which is
highly resistant to solicitations. Anchorage are welding, this guarantees higher security during
applications.
Anchor plate Strand blocking is obtained through: a shearing out plate, with conical holes, which is
made of steel C40-45 UNI EN 10083/1 ; wedges type 7015-T15 made of steel 16NiCr4Pb UNI EN
10277-4 or 7017-T15 in steel 9SMnP28 UNI 4838.
Connection Connection between sheath and anchorage is got trough a transition pipe, which
guarantees a proper strand deviation, decreasing losses. Connectors can be supplied in steel or in
HDPE, in order to the applications.
Connection to the mould Anchorages have two equidistant holes, which facilitate the fixing by two
nuts.
Grouting Anchorages have a threaded gas hole for grouting where can be jointed the outing
accessories.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

69

M anchorages are made for the hereunder


grouting:
-

frontal grouting connector,


back grouting connector

Rigid grouting joint on anchorage M

Galvanized sheath type ST for M anchorages

M anchorage can be jointed to ST sheaths having


different measures. Sheath can be adapted directly
on site, by cutting the H.D.P.E. part according to
the galvanized sheath section.

Corrugated joint for grouting on 19M15 anchorage

19M15 anchorage is used with strand type:


T15, T15S and T15C,

The rubber tampon confines the grouting into the


anchorage, creating a recess which contains the
protecting grease for strand and wedge.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

70

Anchorage series M
( non bonded post-tensioning )

E
H

AxA

Type

Last charge
T15
T15S
T15C
259
279
300

per cable per cable per cable


(kN)
(kN)
(kN)
1116
1200
4M15 1036
1953
2100
7M15 1813
2511
2700
9M15 2331
3348
3600
12M15 3108
4185
4500
15M15 3885
5301
5700
19M15 4921
6138
6600
22M15 5698
7533
8100
27M15 6993
8649
9300
31M15 8029
9583
10323
11100
37M15

(mm)
130
160
195
225
235
265
310
330
355
375

(mm)
105
125
146
160
176
200
230
250
270
280

(mm)
106
133
163
185
197
215
260
277
297
314

(mm)
300
340
360
385
430
430
490
500
525
590

(mm)
330
390
400
430
450
500
570
650
700
730

(mm)
220
260
270
320
360
400
430
470
535
560

(mm) (mm) (mm)


45/50
50
12
62/67
55
12
72/77
60
14
80/85
65
14
85/90
70
16
95/100 75
16
100/105 80
20
110/115 90
20
115/120 90
20
130/135 90
20

(mm)
45
45
45
45
45
56
61
70
86
86

The company has the faculty to change its products and its features without any forewarn.
All anchorages are designed according to the Circular 15th October 1996 n 252 AA.GG./S.T.C. and have a ministarial deposit.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

71

Piastra ancoraggio

Fusione

Tubo iniezione

Guaina corrugata

Raccordo

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

72

Cementing after positioning the vent and the HDPE conical reduction.

Insert of bonded strands into the anchorage. Cutting of HDPE protection in order to facilitate the
removing after grouting.
Iniezione / Sfiato
Dispositivo ad espansione

Fixing of confining tampon, protecting the integrity of bonded and greased strands.
Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

73

Grouting from corrugated pipes, remove of confining tampon.

Removing of pre marked bond, display of plates and docking wedges.

Display of wedges on the strands.


Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

74

Pushing of wedges into the conical holes.


Martinetto

Anchorage stressing by M hydraulic jack, at the value indicated in the project.

Insert of grease into the hole of anchorage and filling of recess in the back side of anchor plate. This
filling can also be executed before installing the anchor plate; however, the first solution is better as it
is safer and it allows the complete eject of air.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

75

Grasso

Iniezione grasso

700

Grouting is completed by positioning the cap filled with grease. The cap measure should contain the
elongation of strand for future de-stressing.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

76

5. EQUIPMENTS FOR STRESSING OPERATIONS


5.1 Hydraulic pump TTM 450-A
( mono strand anchorages stressing )

Hydraulic pump TTM450-A and TTM250-A

Six types of hydraulic pump are available for carrying out the stressing operations. This type of hydraulic pump
is arranged with a two pipes, for operating TTM stressing jacks.
All the machines are provided with three control circuits: stressing, looking and return..
All the circuits are provided with regulation valves and safety valves for overpressure.
The control gauges are serially analogical, but they can be paired to a digital gauge with 1 bar precision.
The pushing machines type: 450, 550 and 600 were realised to be employed with mono-strand jacks and for
simultaneous uses from 1 to 12 TTM250KN jacks.
All the machines are provided with a L=10 button strip, which allows to check all the operative phases of the
machine. Suitable regulation valves allow the operator to change manually the pressure in the two circuits of the
machine with high precision and ease.

Type
TTM450-A

Weight

max. pressure

Power

( Kg. )

bar.

KW

170

450-500

4.5

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Voltage/Ampere

Use

380/16

TTM
77

5.2 Stressing Hydraulic Pump TTM 650-E


( Stressing of multi strand anchorages )

TTM 650-E hydraulic pump

This type of hydraulic pump is arranged with a two pipes, for operating TTM stressing jacks.
All the machines are provided with three control circuits: stressing, looking and return..

Type
TTM 650-E

Weight

Max pressure.

Power

( Kg. )

bar.

KW

290

600

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Ampere

use

380/16

TTM

78

5.3 ManifoldDD-MF
( stressing of mono strand anchorages by multi jacks)

All the machines give, by a manifold, the possibility to be connected with multiple stressing jacks. In order to do
this they are provided with a manifold which allows the distribution of the pressure generated on multiple
outlets.

Manifold DD-MF offers 4, 6 or 10 hydraulic exits in iso pressure, it is made of zinc iron and it is
completely jointed.

manifold DD06MF

Manifold DD-MF can be connected to a manometer for pressure verifying during stressing activities.
It can resist to 700 bar pressure.
There are several type of manifold where the number indicate the number of exits for jacks
connections:
-

DD04-MF,
DD06-MF,
DD10-MF,

Different compositions are obtained jointing manifolds.

Weight

Pressuremax.

High from the


ground

Dim. AxB

( Kg.)

( bar.)

( mm.)

( mm.)

DD 04-MF

20

450-500

40

500x500

DD 06-MF

28

450-500

40

900x500

DD 10-MF

35

450-500

40

1200x500

10

Type

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Number of
exits

79

5.4 Hydraulic jack TTM 250KN


( mono strand anchorage stressing )

Hydraulic jack TTM 250KN

TTM jacks are available in three models. All the jacks are preset with an automatic wedging circuit and 4
meters flexible pipes
The principal use of this jack is in stressing TTR and E heads.
TTM250 KN jacks are provided together with the following equipment:
-

TTM 450 KN hydraulic pump


DD-MF manifold

The main use of TTM250KN jacks are for tensioning on TTR heads or as single strand jacks on TTM
anchorings.
TTM250KN jacks have the following strokes: 400 mm., 200 mm., 100 mm. and 60 mm.
Tipo
TTM250KN

Peso

Corsa

Diam. max. Lunghezza

Presa

Sezione
2

Capacit

( Kg. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( cm )

( KN )

25

200

100

930

300

47,2

250

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

80

5.5 Hydraulic Jack type TTM 280KN


( mono strand anchorrings stressing )

Hydraulic jack type TTM280KN

There are three different models of Hydraulic jacks. All the jacks are preset with an automatic wedging
circuit and 4 meters flexible pipes

TTM280KN jacks are used for mono strand anchorings stressing.

Type

TTM280KN

Weight

Stroke

Diam.
max.

Dimensions

( Kg. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

28

200

100

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Section

Capacity

( mm. )

( cm2 )

( KN )

270x500x220

51.3

250

81

5.6 Hydraulic jack typeTTM 300KN


( Mono strand anchoring stressing )

Hydraulic jack TTM 300KN

There are three different models of Hydraulic jacks. All the jacks are preset with an automatic wedging
circuit and 4 meters flexible pipes

TTM300KN hydraulic jack is mainly used for stressing on mono strand anchoring or even used as
hydraulic jack on TTM anchorages.

Type
TTM300KN

Weight

Stroke Diam. max.

Lenght

Section

Capacity

( Kg. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( cm2 )

( KN )

30

200

110

930

68.80

300

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

82

5.7 Wedging jack type B300KN


( Wedging jack for anchorages type 1E15 and 1EX15 )

Jack B300KN has been designed to enable mechanical wedging of clamp on series 1E15 anchorages
and the use of the anchorage itself as passive anchoring completely buried in the concrete.
The principle of mechanically controlled wedging, is to eliminate drown-in of the clamps in the
anchoring cones. The elimination of drown-in of the clamps is achieved using the B300KN jack which
presses the clamp at such a thrust force that further loads applied after anchoring do not cause
additional entry and the anchoring of the wire strand remains stable, guaranteeing the holding
capacity of the passive anchoring.

Type
B300KN

Weight

Push value

Section

Dimensions

( Kg. )

( bar. )

( cm2 )

( mm. )

60

450

54.75

760x260x200

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

83

5.8 Untwister jack type S250KN


( unwister jack for strand opening)

S 250KN Jack opens the strands and forms passive anchorages series S.
In this type of anchoring, the wire strand, in correspondence with the passive end, is opened in order
to improve adherence to the concrete
Using many tendons, strands are displayed in alternative sense in order to equally distribute the
fatigue on the concrete. .
The jack has been produced to open the wire strand at one end, allowing the strand itself, if correctly
covered in the concrete, to have sufficient adherence to allow the anchorage of the tie-rod and thus
eliminating the requirement for passive anchoring.

Type

S 250 KN

Weight

Push value

Hydraulic
pump

Dimensions

Pressure at
work

( Kg. )

( bar. )

Tipo

( mm. )

( bar. )

30

250

TTM

700x300x250

180

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

84

5.9 Wrapping device F2300-E


( Device for wrapping of mono strand )

The wrapping device for cable wrapping is used for mono strand wrapping. Strand are cut and
engraved on the HDPE protection. F2300-E device wraps the strands creating rolls of diameter 2,2
m, which are easily moveable on site.

Type
F2300-E

Weight

Max. Diameter

Height

Dimensions AxB

max. load

( Kg. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( mm. )

( Kg. )

250

2200

1250

1500x1500

160

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

85

5.10 Dynamometer S 1000


( Manometro digitale per verifica pressione )
The dynamometer S 1000 is composed by master gauge S1000 and hydraulic transducer.

.
Manometro campione S1000

The master gauge S1000 can carry out calibrations to compare the hydraulic system in use by means
of connections upstream and downstream of the circuit.
It is supplied in a suitable insulated aluminium box inside which is enclosed a digital gauge with four
digit read-out and 1 bar minimum read-out.
The read-out takes place by means of hydraulic insertion of a digital transducer with 1-1.000 bar.
scansion which enables viewing of the pressure at the point of application.
The instrument can be supplied on request with different certifications:
-

internal calibration, comparator gauge


official calibration through authorised laboratory

The master gauges are set for an operating pressure of 1.000 bar. They are supplied with CE
markings, completely protected and equipped with identification serial number for periodical controls
carried out by our technical service.

Type
S1000

Weight

Pression max.

Power

Dimensions

( Kg. )

bar.

Volt.

mm.

15

1.000

220

320x430x250

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Use
TTM

86

5.11 Grouting pump series T


( Pump for grouting of cables )
The T type grouting pump is designed to guarantee maximum versatility with regard to site
requirements and use in severe conditions. It is supplied on wheels with robust tyres, it can be towed
on-site and is equipped with all the safety devices necessary for use. The machine has two tanks: one
for mixing the colloidal mix and one as a tank for the mix. The turbo mixer has a turbine capable of
mixing material at 1500 rpm/min.
All the grouting pumps are fitted as standard with a gauge, gauge saving device and push-button pad
with a 10 metre extension.
The fast-on fittings, litre-counters, plastic accessories, grouting tubes of various lengths, syringe
and the Saunders flow closing valve are considered to be accessories

Pump T 500

Characteristics

Model T500

ModelT400

Weight

( Kg. )

900

900

Dimensions

( mm. )

1900x1500x1900 mm

1900x1500x1900 mm

Mixing capacity

( litre)

190 litre

190 litre

40

40

Mixing time ( sec. )


Shacking capacity

( litre )

200 litre

200 litre

Max. grouting pressure

( bar. )

10-20 bar.

10-20 bar.

25-40 litre/minut

15-25 litre/minut

10 KW

10 KW

7,5 KW

7,5 KW

Max. grouting capacity


Shaker power
Potenza pompa

( Kw )
( Kw )

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

87

5.12 Uncoiler type B1500

The B1500 Uncoiler has been designed to make the threading operations of the strand into the sheaths
easier.
It is usually used in combination with a strand pusher and guarantees unwinding of the strand without
tangling at a high unwinding speed. It is set up to host coils of different dimensions and by connecting
the two shoulders it can adapt to coils of different diameters.

The B1500 Uncoiler does not require special anchoring to the ground, its own weight is sufficient to
guarantee its stability when being used.
The coil of strand is inserted between the two shoulders, before cutting the metal band straps, the
correct tightening of the closing tie-rods, which guarantee correct blocking and safety of the
operations, must be checked.
On cutting the band straps the unwinding direction shown on the coil must be complied with to
guarantee the strand will unwind smoothly.

Type

B1500

Weight

max. capacity

Weight with
load

Dimensions

( Kg. )

( mm. )

( Kg. )

mm.

180

1.000

220

2500x2500

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

88

6.

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

Sites

89

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

90

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91

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92

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93

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94

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95

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96

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97

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

98

Slab, Bonded and unbonded Post-Tensioning System Rev. B

99

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100

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101

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102

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103

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104

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105

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106

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107

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108