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Australian Petroleum Production &

Exploration Association Limited

GUIDELINES FOR
LIFTING EQUIPMENT

_______________________________________________

Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Limited


Level 3, 24 Marcus Clarke St
GPO Box 2201
CANBERRA ACT 2600
CANBERRA ACT 2601
Telephone: +61 2 6247 0960
Facsimile +61 2 6247 0548
INTERNET http://www.appea.com.au
Email:
appea@appea.com.au
ACN 000 292 713

ISBN 0 908277 21 0

Issued: August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

PREFACE
Lifting operations in the offshore petroleum industry represent potentially one of the highest risk
activities in the industry. Accordingly many standards and individual company guidelines exist to
ensure that lifting operations are performed safely using appropriate equipment.
As well as offshore lifting this guideline does cover some aspects of lifting operations at onshore
sites. In particular personnel competency requirements, registers of lifting equipment and
operational aspects for lifting devices including mobile cranes are covered. During the preparation
of the guideline the technical working group recognised that onshore lifting practices were
generally well established and that a uniform standard already existed. This guideline is intended
only to supplement and does not seek to alter these well established onshore lifting practices.
APPEA has issued these guidelines to facilitate consistent lifting practices across the petroleum
industry, particularly for offshore operations. These guidelines establish appropriate design
requirements for Lifting Gear reflecting the dynamic effects of lifting operations from supply
vessels along with guidance on equipment marking, registers, inspection testing and maintenance.
They also describe the broad expectations for competencies of personnel associated with lifting
activities.
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide operators, contractors and vendors working in the
offshore petroleum industry clear and consistent guidance on the expected standards to ensure safe
lifting operations, thereby minimising risks to personnel and assets.

APPEA WORKING GROUP MEMBERS


APPEA:
AOS:
BHPP:
ESSO:
IADC:
SCHLUMBERGER:
TIDEWATER:
WOODSIDE:
NOBLES
BHP LIFTING

David Ffrench (ESSO)


Captain Bill Korevaar
Peter Rogers
Ray Lindner
Dan Ahern (ATWOOD OCEANICS)
Roberto Nazareno
Andy Green
Mike Reklitis
Peter Campbell
Andrew Jarvie

Technical Advisers:
ESSO:
TRANSFIELD/WORLEY

Doug Williams
Peter Lardi

Disclaimer
The use of these Guidelines do not affect the responsibility of individual operating companies or,
their contractors to carry out operations safely having regard to their duty of care
responsibilities, and to observe statutory requirements. APPEA cannot accept any responsibility
for any incident or consequence thereof, whether or not in violation of any law or regulation,
which arises or is alleged to have arisen from the use of these Guidelines.
____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

PURPOSE AND SCOPE .............................................................................................................................................5


LIFTING EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY......................................................................................................................6
RELATIONSHIP WITH REGULATIONS.......................................................................................................................7
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .........................................................................................................................................7

COMPETENCY STANDARDS .............................................................................................................................8


2.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES ..........................................................................................................................8
2.2 COMPETENCE OF CRANE AND FORKLIFT OPERATORS, RIGGERS AND DOGGERS ....................................................8
2.3 MAINTAINERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................................................8
2.4 INSPECTORS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT .....................................................................................................................9
2.4.1 Visual check.....................................................................................................................................................9
2.4.2 Lifting Equipment Inspection Bodies...............................................................................................................9
2.5 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) LABORATORIES ............................................................................................9
2.5.1 Proof Load Testing Laboratories ..................................................................................................................10
2.6 DESIGNERS OF LIFTING GEAR ..............................................................................................................................10

REGISTERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT.........................................................................................................11


3.1
3.2
3.3

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................11
LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGISTER............................................................................................................................11
LIFTING EQUIPMENT REGISTER CONTENTS ..........................................................................................................11

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING DEVICES ................................................................................................13


4.1 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE .................................................................................................................................13
4.2 DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND INSTALLATION (GENERAL)...................................................................................13
4.3 CRANES ...............................................................................................................................................................13
4.3.1 Crane configuration ......................................................................................................................................15
4.3.2 Performance criteria (Minimum Requirements)...........................................................................................15
4.3.3 Environmental criteria ..................................................................................................................................16
4.3.4 Utilities available ..........................................................................................................................................16
4.4 MOBILE CRANES ..................................................................................................................................................17
4.5 GANTRY CRANES, LIFTING BEAMS AND LIFTING AIDS ........................................................................................17
4.6 LIFTING POINTS ...................................................................................................................................................17
4.7 HOISTING EQUIPMENT (MANUALLY OPERATED) .................................................................................................18
4.8 MAN-RIDING EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................................................18
4.8.1 Cranes Used for Man Riding Operations ......................................................................................................18
4.8.2 Tugger and Man Riding Winches ..................................................................................................................19
4.9 SURVEYS AND INSPECTION ..................................................................................................................................19
4.10 DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................................................................................20

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING GEAR.......................................................................................................21


5.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................21
5.2 DESIGN APPROACH FOR ENGINEERED LIFTS ........................................................................................................21
5.3 OVER CHART LIFTS .............................................................................................................................................22
5.4 DESIGN OF RIGGING .............................................................................................................................................22
5.5 ACCESS TO CRANE HOOK FOR MARINE CREWS FIFTH LEG ASSEMBLIES ..........................................................25
5.6 DIAGONALLING....................................................................................................................................................25
5.7 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFSHORE USE .....................................................................................................26
5.7.1 Synthetic Slings (Refer AS 1353.17.2-1997, AS 4497.1&.2 -1997) ...............................................................26
5.7.2 Safety Shackles ..............................................................................................................................................26
5.7.3 Eyebolts .........................................................................................................................................................26
5.7.4 Chain Slings ..................................................................................................................................................26

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment
5.8 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONTAINER PADEYES & THEIR ATTACHMENT .................................................................27
5.9 DESIGN OF LIFTED EQUIPMENT (OFFSHORE CONTAINERS) ..................................................................................27
5.10 SEA (ISO) CONTAINERS.......................................................................................................................................28
5.11 DESIGN OF SUB-SEA LIFTS ...................................................................................................................................29
5.12 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................30
5.13 DOCUMENTATION NEW BUILD LIFTED EQUIPMENT..........................................................................................30
5.14 DOCUMENTATION FOR EXISTING LIFTED EQUIPMENT .........................................................................................32
5.15 INITIAL LOAD TESTS (OFFSHORE CONTAINERS INCLUDING ISO CONTAINERS) ...................................................33
5.16 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (OFFSHORE CONTAINERS INCLUDING ISO CONTAINERS).......................................33
6

DESIGN OF TANKS FOR FLUIDS ....................................................................................................................35

MARKING OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT ...........................................................................................................37


7.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................................37
7.2 MARKING OF LIFTING DEVICES ...........................................................................................................................37
7.2.1 Fixed Location Padeyes.................................................................................................................................37
7.3 MARKING OF LIFTED EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................................37
7.4 CONTAINER AND ROOF IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ...........................................................................................37
7.5 LIFTING FRAME AND BEAM MARKINGS ...............................................................................................................38
7.6 MARKING OF RIGGING .........................................................................................................................................38

PERIODIC INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE .......................................................................39


8.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................................39
8.2 LIFTING DEVICES .................................................................................................................................................40
8.2.1 Inspection Before and After Proof Loading...................................................................................................40
8.3 LIFTED EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................................................................40
8.4 RIGGING...............................................................................................................................................................42
8.4.1 Proof Loading of Rigging used for Offshore Lifting (Boat Lifts)...................................................................42
8.5 REPAIRS AND MODIFICATIONS TO LIFTING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................42

SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES..................................................................................................................43


9.1 LIFTING OPERATIONS BETWEEN PLATFORMS AND VESSELS ................................................................................43
9.1.1 Planning ........................................................................................................................................................43
9.1.2 Communications ............................................................................................................................................43
9.1.3 Lift Preparation and Handling ......................................................................................................................44
9.2 PERSONNEL TRANSFERS ......................................................................................................................................44
9.2.1 Authority........................................................................................................................................................44
9.2.2 Duties.............................................................................................................................................................44
9.2.3 Suitability of the vessel ..................................................................................................................................45
9.2.4 Weather conditions ........................................................................................................................................46
9.2.5 Communications ............................................................................................................................................46
9.2.6 Safety equipment and rescue procedures.......................................................................................................46
9.2.7 Training .........................................................................................................................................................46

APPENDIX A ..................................................................................................................................................................47
REFERENCE DOCUMENTS......................................................................................................................................47
APPENDIX B...................................................................................................................................................................51
DEFINITIONS .............................................................................................................................................................51
APPENDIX C ..................................................................................................................................................................57
OFFSHORE WIRE ROPE AND CHAIN SLINGS......................................................................................................57
APPENDIX D ..................................................................................................................................................................65
DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR...................................................................................................................65
APPENDIX E...................................................................................................................................................................67
CONTAINER MARKING EXAMPLE .......................................................................................................................67
APPENDIX F...................................................................................................................................................................73
INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS..........................................................................................................73
APPENDIX G ..................................................................................................................................................................77

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APPEA
Guidelines for Lifting Equipment
GUIDE TO AUSTRALIAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS......................................................................77
APPENDIX H ..................................................................................................................................................................83
GUIDELINES FOR THE PHASEOUT OF ISO SHIPPING CONTAINERS ............................................................83
APPENDIX I....................................................................................................................................................................95
GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION, TESTING AND MARKING OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERS ..............95

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1

Purpose and Scope

To provide operators, contractors and vendors working in the offshore petroleum industry clear and
consistent guidance on the expected standards for design, manufacture, supply and use of lifting
equipment. These guidelines are intended to ensure safe lifting operations, thereby minimising risks
to personnel and assets.
These guidelines apply to Lifting Equipment used on and in the following offshore exploration
and production facilities and onshore loading facilities, e.g.:
Platforms

Floating production units

Floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facilities

Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs)

Supply vessels

Construction vessels

Diving support vessels

Seismic vessels

Buoys

Onshore loading facilities and supply bases

These guidelines do not apply to:


Pipe laying activities

Specialised wireline operations (i.e.: winches, wireline units, etc)

Specialised drilling rig equipment (i.e.: draw-works assembly, travelling blocks, drilling
swivels, etc)

Heavy lift activities from construction barges

Helicopter external lifting

Most of the Lifting Equipment used in drilling related operations are addressed in relevant API
standards or IADC guidelines.

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August 1999

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APPEA

1.2

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Lifting Equipment Terminology

LIFTING EQUIPMENT

LIFTING GEAR

LIFTING DEVICES

LIFTED

RIGGING

EQUIPMENT

Cranes as per AS 1418

Bulk liquid tanks

Wire ropes

(Mobile crane, Tower crane,

Open freight containers

Wire rope slings

Overhead crane, Hoist)

Closed freight containers

Chain Slings

Chain Block

Mini containers

Cherry Picker

Pallets

Flat synthetic webbing


slings

Davit

Open top bins

Wire coil flat slings

Forklift

Skips

Polyester round slings

In-situ lifting beam

Baskets

Shackles

Jack

Gas cylinder racks

Hooks

Lever Hoist

Spreader frames

Clamps

Loading arm

Equipment skids

Rings

Monorail.

Long stock container

Swivels

Padeyes Section

Modules

Hammer locks

Trolley

Padeyes Section
Lifting points & supporting
members of subsea manifolds,
christmas trees & subsea valves
Lifting points and supporting
members of machinery
(skids, valves etc)

Sockets

Winch

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August 1999

APPEA

1.3

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Relationship with Regulations

The majority of Australian legislation covering safety critical equipment such as Lifting
Equipment is now objective based. This includes the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) (Management
of Safety on Offshore Facilities) Regulations 1996 and regulations issued under the various State
and Federal Safety and Occupational Health legislation. As such, these guidelines are structured in
such a way as to provide guidance to the offshore petroleum industry on good industry practice.
These guidelines are not to be interpreted as industry best practice or minimum standards. The
onus of demonstrating that risks have been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable remains with
the individual operator or contractor.
Offshore petroleum exploration and development in Australia comes under the jurisdiction of the
Commonwealth and State or Territory Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Acts. Depending on the lease
location, regulations under the Act may be directly administered by the State or Territory or
administered by the State or Territory on behalf of the Commonwealth (as a Designated Authority).
For offshore operations supply vessels, work boats, offtake tankers, etc, come under the Navigation
Act and the detailed Marine Orders referenced within the Act. Similarly when MODUs, FPSOs,
FPUs, construction barges enter Australian waters they fall under the Navigation Act. When they
are moored at drill site they fall under the P(SL)A in addition to the Navigation Act, but
immediately on leaving the mooring they revert back to the Navigation Act. Loading and unloading
operations at offshore facilities are governed by the P(SL)A which is administered by the relevant
state or territory department. Operators attention is also drawn to the AMSA publication
Australian Offshore Vessels Code of Safe Working Practice.
To demonstrate compliance with the P(SL) Management of Safety Regulations, operators must
ensure they have an effective integrated Safety Management System (SMS) in place that identifies,
assesses, eliminates and/or manages risk to as low as reasonably practicable.

1.4

Management System

It is expected that, as a minimum, organisations using these guidelines would have in place a formal
Lifting Equipment Management System.
This management system would as a minimum demonstrate how the organisation controls:
Responsibilities for key personnel;

Registration and trace-ability of Lifting Equipment within its control or use;

Design, fabrication and supply of Lifting Equipment;

Inspection and maintenance of Lifting Equipment under its control;

Safe use of Lifting Equipment;

Training and competencies of personnel ;

Contractor or third party owned Lifting Equipment;

Auditing of this management system.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

2 COMPETENCY STANDARDS
2.1

Management Responsibilities

It is the responsibility of management to ensure that personnel operating Lifting Equipment have
the required competencies and are familiar with specific Lifting Equipment and work practices
used at each facility. This may include the following:
Awareness of relevant codes, standards and guidelines;

2.2

Awareness of relevant competency standards;

Knowledge of Lifting Equipment used on the facility;

Lift planning procedures;

Requirements for pre-use equipment checks;

Requirements for moving loads around the facility;

Routine inspection and maintenance requirements;

Procedures for loading and unloading supply vessels;

Procedures for personnel transfer operations.

Competence of Crane and Forklift Operators, Riggers and Doggers

Crane and fork lift operators, riggers and doggers working within Australia and/or Australian waters
are required to hold a certificate of competency issued by either a recognised State Authority or a
National Licence issued under the National Occupational Health and Safety Certification Standard
for Users and Operators of Industrial Equipment (Note: The referenced publication,
NOHSC:1006-1992, is available from the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission).
Such personnel shall be familiar and competent with facility specific Lifting Equipment and work
practices.

2.3

Maintainers of Lifting Equipment

Management should ensure that maintenance of Lifting Equipment is carried out by suitably
qualified and competent personnel, who have knowledge of the following areas:
Awareness of the relevant standards and regulations;

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Any site specific requirements and procedures;

Maintenance requirements on all types of Lifting Equipment to be maintained;

Inspection frequency requirements;

Detailed inspections requirements for all Lifting Equipment;


August 1999

APPEA

2.4

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Discard criteria;

Disposal processes for failed equipment.

Inspectors of Lifting Equipment

2.4.1 Visual check


Competent persons, holding a certificate of competency relevant to the type of equipment, are to
carry out a visual check each time the equipment is used.

2.4.2 Lifting Equipment Inspection Bodies


A certified visual inspection is a more detailed inspection than a visual check carried out on a
periodic frequency, the results of which are documented and recorded in the facility Lifting
Equipment Register. Certified visual inspection shall be conducted by either one of the following:

Classification Societies with industry accepted inspection standards for Lifting


Equipment. (e.g. DNV)
OR

A body holding NATA Inspection accreditation for in-service inspection of Lifting


Equipment to these guidelines.

Inspection of Lifting Equipment should be carried out against clearly documented inspection
procedures, which include equipment rejection criteria, by suitably qualified and competent
personnel as recognised by the above authorities. Refer to section 8 and Appendix I for further
details of the certified visual inspection.
All inspection reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate NDT accrediting body.
2.5

Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Laboratories

During initial fabrication, repairs and modifications as well as part of the periodic inspection
process, NDT inspection of Lifting Equipment shall be conducted by either one of the
following:

Classification Societies with industry accepted laboratory accreditation for NDT testing of
Lifting Equipment. (e.g. DNV)
OR

A body holding NATA laboratory accreditation for in-service inspection of Offshore


Lifting Equipment to these guidelines.

All NDT reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate NDT accrediting body.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

2.5.1 Proof Load Testing Laboratories


Proof load testing laboratories shall hold accreditation to these guidelines for the relevant class of
proof load testing. Proof load testing of Lifting Equipment shall be conducted by one of the
following bodies:

Classification Societies with industry accepted proof load standards for Lifting
Equipment. (eg. DNV)
OR

A body holding NATA laboratory accreditation for in-service proof loading of Lifting
Equipment to these guidelines.

All proof load testing reports should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate proof load
testing accrediting body.
Accreditation should be reviewed to ensure that it covers the equipment to be tested.

2.6

Designers of Lifting Gear

Management should ensure that the designers of Lifting Gear are qualified engineers experienced
in offshore lifting and that the design is also verified by an independent qualified engineer (i.e. an
engineer who has had no part in the original design).
It is expected that the design or verification of Lifting Gear will be conducted by either:

Classification societies with accepted design standards for Lifting Gear (eg. DNV).
OR

A body holding NATA inspection accreditation for design verification of Lifting


Gear to these guidelines.

All design documentation should bear the endorsement stamp of the appropriate design verification
accrediting body.
Refers to Sections 5.1, 5.3, 5.7.3, 5.8, 5.9 and 5.14.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

3 REGISTERS OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT


3.1

Introduction

Each facility shall maintain a register or registers of all types of Lifting Equipment used on site
and owned by the operator. Likewise, contractors should maintain a register of their Lifting
Equipment on each facility. This is a statutory requirement for vessels operating under the
Navigation Act.
All suppliers of Lifting Equipment that is leased to offshore operators and/or contractors shall
also maintain a register of all such equipment.

3.2

Lifting Equipment Register

A register, as a minimum, shall contain an inventory of all Lifting Equipment present on or at the
facility (this is equipment that effectively belongs to the facility).
The register of Lifting Equipment may be in an electronic format or in the form of a card or other
paper register system. Register systems should identify the location of all hard copy records of
design verifications, inspection certificates, maintenance records, test certificates, etc.
Because of differing recording requirements the register should be split into equipment types or
Classes, e.g. Lifting Devices (cranes, padeyes, etc), Lifted Equipment (containers, baskets, etc)
and Rigging (slings, shackles, etc).

3.3

Lifting Equipment Register Contents

The register is expected to contain the following entries as applicable for each item of equipment:
A full description of the equipment;

The safe working load (SWL) of the item or maximum gross weight (MGW) as
applicable;

The unique identification or tag number for the item;

Manufacturers serial numbers;

Batch number of the item if applicable;

The location (or reference to the drawing showing the location - particularly for padeyes)
of the item. The usage of the item (e.g. stores unloading, engine room general lifting etc);

Date of entry onto the register;

Whether a Certificate of Conformity is required for the item;

A copy of the Certificate of Conformity, or number of, approval bodies and date of issue;

The location of the design verification certificate and documentation;

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Whether a certificate of inspection is required;

The inspection certificate number, issuing body and date of issue;

For cranes, winches, containers, special Lifting Equipment, padeyes etc, the design and
fabrication codes and the location of the manufacturer data report;

For Lifting Gear, the national standard to which the item was purchased;

Re-inspection interval;

Reference to the approved maintenance and operating manual for the item.

These entries shall be supported (as applicable) with the following traceable hard copy records as
issued by a body holding accreditation to these guidelines with NATA or a Classification Society
with industry accepted design and inspection standards for Lifting Equipment:
Certificate of design verification;

Current certificate of inspection;

Type test certificate;

Manufacturers test certificate/s (for Lifted Equipment);

The maintenance and inspection records (including the past inspection reports for visual
inspections, calibrations, adjustments, change out of equipment etc);

Proof load test and NDT reports.

Where applicable, these entries shall be supported with traceable hard copy records of the
following:
Original manufacturers data report;

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Original design calculations.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

4 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING DEVICES


4.1

Introduction and Scope

This section provides guidance on Lifting Devices, as defined in Section 1.2, and their associated
equipment installed or erected on offshore facilities. These guidelines do not apply to cranes with a
maximum Safe Working Load over 200 tonnes.
4.2

Design, Manufacture and Installation (General)

Lifting Devices should be suitable for their intended purpose and should be of sound
construction, suitable material, of adequate strength and free from patent defects.
Equipment should be designed with due regard to the intended use with or near other equipment and
for safe use under known operating conditions, including any overload conditions which may be
anticipated, (i.e. proof load testing, etc.). Where relevant, the equipment should have efficient
control systems, guards, fences and shields. Particular consideration should be given to the
effectiveness of mountings on all Lifting Devices.
The design of Lifting Devices should be consistent in its approach with that used to design the
Lifted Equipment and Rigging, (i.e. a device designed to API codes, with rigging to DNV codes
and equipment to AS codes, may provide an inconsistent application of factors of safety and failure
load paths through the lift).
An independent competent person, as recognised by NATA, or a Classification Society, with
industry accepted design, testing and inspection standards for Lifting Equipment, should be
involved when any of the following actions are being considered:
Initial design;

4.3

Modifications to any Lifting Equipment;

Repairs to safety-critical elements of Lifting equipment;

Testing or overload testing of Lifting Equipment after repair or modification.

Cranes

The detailed design of offshore cranes is beyond the scope of this document and is normally
completed by the specialist crane supplier. Common acceptable standards specified for offshore
cranes are:
API Spec 2C Specification for Offshore Cranes;

Lloyds Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment, together with BS2573
Rules for the Design of Cranes;

AS1418 Crane Code.

In order to minimise risk, an operational risk assessment should be conducted based on an analysis
of failure modes and their consequences. The safety of lifting operations, with regard to personnel
on or near the facility, must be considered.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Additional requirements to be considered for the crane specification, depending on the principal
guidance used may, include:
Crane Operating Limitations;

Controls and Instrumentation;

Power;

Primary Structural Components and Maintenance Access ;

Slewing Rings;

Kingpost Cranes;

Operators' Compartments;

Winding Gear;

Rope Anchorage and Terminations;

Wire Rope (hoisting and booming);

Wire Rope Grips and Clamps;

Wire Rope Examination and Discard;

Hooks;

Crane Hook Blocks;

Ram Luff Cranes;

Slew ring failure;

Fatigue requirements;

Documentation.

The following tables give an example of minimum requirements for the specification of cranes to a
supplier.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

4.3.1 Crane configuration


Table 4.3.1.
Crane Configuration Specification
Crane type
A-frame / ram luffing / telescopic / king post
Boom type
closed box / lattice boom
Boom length
m
Auxiliary hoist required
Yes/No
Prime mover
diesel / electric motor
Preferred suppliers:
Transmission
Hydraulic
Rotation
continuous 360
Machinery house
Yes/No weather / sound proof enclosure
Control cabin / location
Yes/No crane / remote
If crane :
left / right side
(looking towards boom tip)
Floodlights (Total number, location)
Gas / smoke detector fixing
arrangements required

Yes/No

Power outlet sockets


Collector rings Total number
(for status lights, telephone etc.)

type:

spec:

Anti-condensation heaters required

Yes / No / Manufacturer to propose

4.3.2 Performance criteria (Minimum Requirements)


Table 4.3.2.
Crane Performance Criteria Specification
Max. dynamic lift
kg at
(at conditions given in Appendix 2
section 3)
Max. static lift
kg at
Max. auxiliary lift
Main hook speed (minimum)
Auxiliary hook speed (minimum)
Personnel lift required

kg at
m/min
m/min
Yes/No

Installed platform design life

Years

Total duty cycles


Surface temperature limitation

m. minimum
working radius
m. minimum
working radius
m. minimum
working radius

kg

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

4.3.3 Environmental criteria


Table 4.3.3.
Environmental Criteria Specification
Ambient temperature max./min.
C/
C
Design temperature max./min.
C/
C
Humidity
%
relative/absolute
Atmosphere
Saline /
Location
Surface wind
m/s
maximum instantaneous gust
m/s
Wave height (significant)
Wave period
Excessive temperature exposure

Snow and ice conditions


Operating thickness
Stowed thickness
Hazardous area classification
As per IP Model Code of Safe
Practice, Part 15
Diesel exhaust emission control
standard

m
seconds
flue gas exhaust
C
flare
C
boom
C
upper structure
C
Yes/No
mm
mm
boom:
power unit:

cab:
crane:

4.3.4 Utilities available


Table 4.3.4. Utilities Specification
Diesel fuel
Yes/No
Electricity

AC (power)
AC (control)
DC
Emergency / uninterrupted

Air supply (instrument quality)


Air supply (plant quality)
Potable water (limited to top-up use
only)

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Grade:
V
V
V
Yes/No
V

Hz
Hz
A
AC/DC

bar (ga) m3/min


bar (ga) m3/min
Yes/No

Hz

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4.4

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Mobile Cranes

Mobile cranes offshore should be classed as temporary mobile equipment and should only be used
for the purpose agreed by the operating company, the owner and a competent person.
Where mobile cranes are used for operations subject to sea-state induced dynamics, they should
generally comply with the recommendations of Section 3 and the following items should also be
considered:
Permissible locations (i.e. area of safe operation) including adequacy of supporting
structure;

4.5

Barriers to prevent the crane colliding with other parts of the installation, or toppling
overboard;

Safe limits of operation on floating installations and any associated means of stowing or
securing the crane in adverse weather conditions;

Means of securing while lifting from supply vessels or any other sea-state operation;

Dynamic effects and de-rating for sea state operations;

Inspection of safety-critical structural and mechanical components.

Details should be included in an appropriate manual addressing the use of the mobile
crane in offshore operations.

Gantry Cranes, Lifting Beams and Lifting Aids

Gantry cranes, lifting beams, lifting frames, spreaders, etc. should be designed, constructed and
tested in accordance with a recognised standard, supplemented with any specific conditions of use
(such as operational sea-state and/or maximum list/trim and roll/pitch). Any such conditions of use
should be made clearly visible to the operator of the crane and also be stated in an appropriate
manual for the equipment.
Gantry cranes should be fitted with end limit switches and mechanical stops for all travel motions.
If travel speeds are sufficiently low to warrant over-travel being arrested by mechanical end stops
only, then approval for this mode of operation should be obtained from a competent person.

4.6

Lifting Points

Permanently attached lifting points should be designed to a recognised standard (Appendix G) and
be subject to examination and testing in accordance with these guidelines.
The design of lifting points such as padeyes, pad-ears, lifting lugs, etc. should incorporate the
magnitude, direction and effects of load distribution.
The design of the surrounding structure to which lifting points are affixed should allow
transmission of the load from the lifting point to the surrounding structure.
Adequate clearances should be provided between the lifting point and the connecting device. Lifting
points should be free from any detrimental defects caused by oxy-cutting, arc welding, etc.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Testing of pad eyes, lifting lugs etc. should be agreed with a competent person and carried out to
comply with the current requirements.

4.7

Hoisting Equipment (Manually Operated)

Manually operated hoisting equipment should be designed, manufactured, tested and marked in
accordance with recognised codes and standards (Appendix G).
Pawls for the ratchet mechanism should either be spring-loaded or engagement with the ratchet
ensured by other positive means. Engagement should not depend solely on gravity or a tension
spring alone.
Hand chains should be smooth and free from rough areas. The effort required to operate manual
hoisting equipment should not exceed that which one person can comfortably exert from a standing
position.
If manually operated hoisting equipment is to be continually used in an area where a flammable gas
could be present, the equipment should be made spark proof and be so stated on the identification
plate.
Under no circumstances should powered means be used to raise loads with a manually operated
hoist. A restriction to this effect should be displayed on the hoist or, if this is not practicable, a
suitable notice should be contained in the operation/instruction manual for the equipment.

4.8

Man-Riding Equipment

4.8.1 Cranes Used for Man Riding Operations


The following guidance applies to cranes used for personnel lifting. Outline guidance on procedures
for transfer of personnel by basket is provided in Section 9.2.
Free fall operations of the hoist or boom motion are not permitted. Winding gear should be
equipped with a brake, mechanically operable under all load conditions. The design braking force
should be at least 120% of the braking force required to support the stipulated test overload.
Dynamic braking effects due to hydraulic transmission systems should not be considered as a
mechanical brake when using cranes for man-riding operations.
The brake should be automatically applied when the drive is in the "off" or the "neutral" position.
Any change-speed gearbox should be of constant mesh type whereby it should not be possible to
change the gear ratio while there is any load on the winch. Clutches or other means of disengaging
the drive train are prohibited for this type of operation. Brake action should be progressive in order
to avoid sudden dynamic shock.
The brake should be applied automatically upon failure of the power supply to the motor and/or
control device.
A secondary brake should be fitted and be operable by the driver in an emergency situation
involving man-riding operations and arrest all crane motions. The secondary brake should be
applied directly at the drum and not through gear boxes, gear trains etc. The brake need only be of a
size sufficient for arresting the loading of persons and the basket, together with some dynamic
allowance.
An emergency stop should be fitted that can be operated by the driver in an emergency situation.
Operation of the emergency stop should arrest all crane motions by the actuation of the motion
brakes. In the event of failure of the prime mover to re-start, it should be possible to recover the
load by manual means.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Cranes which are suitable for man-riding duties should be clearly marked "SUITABLE FOR MANRIDING DUTIES" at the crane operator's control location.

4.8.2 Tugger and Man Riding Winches


All tugger and man riding winches should be designed:
with a winch operating lever which should automatically return to neutral on release in
any operating position;

with automatic brakes which will apply whenever the operating lever is returned to neutral
or on loss of power;

without a clutch capable of disengaging the drive.

Winches to be used for man-riding duties should additionally be designed:


with a secondary brake to prevent the load from falling in the event of failure of the
automatic brake;

with devices to prevent the winch rope from over- riding or under-riding;

with provision for spooling the wire on the drum to prevent wear or entanglement;

to be capable of lowering the load in the event of an emergency, such as loss of power;

with a brake holding which is less than the minimum breaking load of the rope and more
than the maximum line pull of the winch in the man-riding mode of operation; if a high
load is applied to the winch, the brake must render before the breaking load of the rope is
reached:

with a suitable guard over the drum to provide protection to the operator in the event of
rope breakage. Such a guard should not inhibit the ability of the operator to see the
spooling action of the rope on the drum.

All man-riding winches shall be clearly labeled "SUITABLE FOR MAN -RIDING".

4.9

Surveys and Inspection

In determining the scope and extent of surveys, due account should be taken of applicable
legislative requirements and the various recommendations on examinations or tests given in this
section, together with the results of any such examinations or tests previously carried out.
For cranes, at least one full load test should be witnessed by a competent person.
Where examinations or tests are proposed for the purpose of or consideration with regard to crane
certification, the competent person should be consulted in advance with a view to agreeing the basis
for their acceptance and that the results of the examinations or tests are recorded and reported in a
manner that meets this purpose.
Surveys may need to be brought forward if the competent person is of the opinion that a crane has
experienced excessive loading or overloading.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

4.10 Documentation
An appropriate operations manual should contain particulars of the relevant Lifting Devices. As a
minimum, the contents should include general arrangements for the machinery and equipment,
wiring and piping diagrams where appropriate, and instructions for the operation of the devices. The
manual should contain operating limits, checks and test procedures, which are required to be carried
out to ensure safe operation of the equipment.
Any special instruction for safe operation of appliances, such as those for man-riding winches in
section 4.8, should be noted.
All Lifting Devices should have an appropriate maintenance manual which gives details of
servicing, repair, essential spares holdings and any special tools required for maintenance purposes.
All Lifting Devices should be provided with a test certificate containing the following
information:
Type description;

Model description;

Serial number;

Description;

Classification of mechanism (where powered);

Rated capacity of hoisting or hauling;

Test load applied;

Name and address of manufacturer;

Name and status of signatory;

Date of issue of certificate.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

5 DESIGN OF OFFSHORE LIFTING GEAR


5.1

Introduction

This section of the guidelines covers the general requirements for the design of Lifting Gear as
distinct from Lifting Devices such as cranes, winches, etc. Guidelines for the design of Lifting
Devices for offshore use are presented in Section 4.
Rigging can be selected by equipment users from manufacturers handbooks provided the factors of
safety given in section 5.4 below are met and the load does not exceed approximately 25 tonnes (the
arbitrarily selected limit for Engineering Lifts). It is anticipated that in due course rigging suppliers
will have catalogues available of Lifting Gear suitable for offshore lifting.
Where offshore loads exceed 25 tonnes an engineered lift should be considered [refer to AS 1666.2
(1995), section 9c]. In these cases design of all Lifting Gear is expected to be performed by
qualified engineers experienced in offshore lifting.
With respect to the design of Lifted Equipment regardless of the lifted load, it is expected that the
design will be performed by qualified engineers experienced in offshore lifting. Refer to clause
2.6 for competency requirements.
5.2

Design Approach for Engineered Lifts

For the design of Lifting Gear to be used for an engineered lift the design engineers tasks should
include but not be limited to:
Ensuring that design criteria are acceptable to the user of the Lifting Equipment;
Addressing all relevant design conditions including transport, installation, loading &
unloading, operation, temperature and fatigue considerations.
The design should consider but not be limited to:
Weight uncertainty;
Weight growth potential;
Uncertainty in COG;
Dynamic amplification (DAF) ;
Diagonalling effects;
Local eccentricities arising from padeye connection details;
Drag loads on equipment to be lifted in water;
Load Radius Chart for the Lifting Device (Crane);
Wave height and period.
For engineered lifts where the rigging for a particular load has been specifically designed the
rigging requirements shall be noted in a work order or preferably attached to the load (eg, a plate
which reads "For Rigging requirement refer to Drg. No. ... ").

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5.3

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Over Chart Lifts

For "over chart" lifts (i.e. for lifts that exceed the load radius curves for the crane in question) a lift
analysis shall be carried out in close liaison with the Lifting Equipment manufacturer, the
installation contractor and the operator. The Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) may be reduced
by limiting the sea state in which the lift can be carried out. In the case of deck or onshore lifts the
hoisting speed can be reduced to limit the dynamic effects.
These limitations shall be clearly shown on the design drawings, which are to be duly signed
"Accepted for Lift" by the engineer accepting overall responsibility.
For offshore lifts, codes such as "DNV Marine Operations Part 2 Chapter 5" and "Lloyds Code for
Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment" offer guidance.
5.4

Design of Rigging

These guidelines vary the required factors of safety for rigging depending on whether the rigging is
to be used offshore or onshore. The dynamic factors of safety are based on findings of the field
study Investigation of Dynamic Amplification Effects During Offshore Lifting Reference 65.
Non-dynamic factors of safety are addressed in a discussion paper on Factors of Safety for Lifting
Slings used in Offshore Supply Boat Operations Reference 64.
The following equation is based on a similar equation given in AS 1666.2 (1995) section 9 and
includes a material factor (Rm) such that it can be used universally.
The SWL of a sling assembly shall be calculated from the equation:
SWL = (Rc Rm Rt Ro) x P
4 x 9.81

Equation

1.

Where
SWL =
P
=

Safe Working Load of the sling assembly (in tonnes)


Minimum Breaking Force for the individual rope (kN),
chain or webbing which comprises the assembly

Rc

Factor for Sling Assembly Configuration

(refer Table 1 AS1666.2 (1995))

Rm

Material Factor

(refer Table 5.4.1 )

Rt

Termination Factor

(refer Table 5.4.2 )

Ro

Operational Factor

(refer Table 5.4.3 )

Table 5.4.1

Material Factor (Rm)


Sling Type

Page 22

Rm

Chain and Lifting Components (Ref AS3776)

1.0

Wire Rope

1.0

Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings

.57

Round Synthetic Slings

.57

Shackles (Grades S&T Only)

0.80

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Table 5.4.2

Termination Factor (Rt)


Sling Type

Rt

Chain and Lifting Components (Ref AS3776)


Wire Rope

1.0
1.0 - 0.8
(refer Table 2 AS 1666.2 1995)

Flat Webbing

.875

Round Slings

1.0

Shackles

1.0

Table 5.4.3

Operational Factor (Ro)


Type of Operation
Onshore or Platform Lift

(Ro)
1.0

Application
-

0.69

6 tonnes

6 tonnes < SWL 10 tonnes

0.69-0.81

SWL tonnes

10 tonnes < SWL 25 tonnes

0.81-0.92

SWL tonnes

0.40

Offshore Lift (Hs max 3.0m)


SWL 6 tonnes

Personnel Lift
Note:

1.
2.
3.

For SWL > 6 tonnes, Ro may be obtained by linear interpolation between


the parameters specified.
Where the lift weight is not measured, the uncertainty of the lift weight shall be
considered.
Where the Factor of Safety for wire ropes, predicted herein, is less than the
Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1976) the greater value shall be applied.

The Safe Working Load (SWL) can also be expressed in terms of a Factor of Safety (FoS):
SWL =

P
FoS Rc

Where
FoS

4/(Rm Rt Ro)

Equation.

Where the Factor of Safety as specified in Equation 2 is less than the Factor of Safety as specified
in AS1666(1976) for wire rope, the greater value shall be applied. Equation 2 is consistant with the
explicit application of termination efficiency where AS1666(1976) is based on the poorest
performing termination. Although equation 2 would allow a minimum Factor of Safety for a
conventional ferrule secured wire rope sling of 4.21 this guideline is adopting a minimum Factor of
Safety of 5 as recommended in AS1666(1976). It should be noted that the for a similar sling the
Factor of Safety as specified in AS1666(1995) would be 5.26 for which the increase in
conservatism from AS1666(1976) does not appear to have any justifiable technical basis. For
further discussion on this issue refer to Reference 64. The Factor of Safety for chains and wire rope
are provided as a function of SWL in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively.
Table 5.4.4 lists recommended Factors of Safety for commonly used slings in offshore and onshore
operations for direct loaded lifting arrangements. Values for other types of operations may be
determined by substituting the appropriate values of Rm, Rt and Ro in Equation 2.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Table 5.4.4

Recommended Factors of Safety for Commonly Used Slings

Type of
Operation

Ro

Onshore or
Platform lift

Chain Sling
Rt= 1.0
Rm = 1.0

Wire Rope
Rt=0.95,
Rm =1.00
5,
(Theoretical
value = 4.21)

Flat Webbing
Rt=.875
Rm=.57

Round Webbing
Rt=1.0
Rm=.57

1.00

SWL <= 6

0.69

5.8

6.1

11.6

10.2

SWL = 10

0.81

5.0

5.2

9.9

8.7

SWL =25

0.92

4.4

5.0*

8.7

7.7

Offshore Boat Lift


(Hs=3.0m Max)

Note: 1.
2.
3.

SWL in tonnes
Where the lift weight is not measured, the uncertainty of the lift weight shall be considered.
Where the Factor of Safety for wire ropes, predicted herein, is less than the Factor of Safety as
specified in AS1666(1976) the greater value shall be applied. *

Figure 1.

Effective FOS for Chain Sling for Offshore Boat Lifts


Effective FoS - Chain
(Hs < 3.0m, Rt = 1, Rm = 1)

6
APPEA (OFFSHORE)

Factor of Safety

4
AS3776 (ONSHORE)

0
0

10

15

20

25

Safe Working Load (tonnes)

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Effective FoS - Wire Rope


(Hs < 3.0m, Rt = 0.95, Rm =1)
7

APPEA (OFFSHORE)

Factor of Safety

AS1666-1976 (ONSHORE)
4

0
0

10

15

20

25

Safe Working Load (tonnes)

Figure 2.

5.5

Effective FOS for Wire Rope Sling for Offshore Boat Lifts
(Ferrule Secured Terminations)

Access to Crane Hook for Marine crews Fifth Leg Assemblies

Rigging assemblies should be of sufficient length to allow a rigger at ground or deck level to
connect the rigging assembly to the crane hook from the outside of the Lifted Equipment. During
lifting, the recommended included angle between the sling and the horizontal at padeye level is 60
degrees. Rigging assemblies with angles less than 45 degrees must be approved by the operator
prior to use. In some instances, consideration should be given to attaching a fifth leg to the top of
the assembly to ensure the top end of the rigging assembly can reach to within one metre of the
deck. Whilst the inclusion of a 5th leg will greatly assist supply vessel deck crews, it does delete the
inherent redundancy in a 4 leg assembly. For this reason a 4 leg assembly is preferred.
5.6

Diagonalling

For loads up to approximately 25 tonnes using 2, 3 and 4 point lifts, the total load should be taken
by 2 slings as required by AS 1666. Diagonalling effects should be considered for both Lifted
Equipment (including padeyes) and the rigging. (Not applicable to engineered lifts)

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5.7

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Specific Requirements for Offshore Use

5.7.1 Synthetic Slings (Refer AS 1353.17.2-1997, AS 4497.1&.2 -1997)


It is recognised that there may be a need to use synthetic webbing slings and round slings for
offshore lifting of critical components. Synthetic slings should only be used where hard slings
would cause damage to the lifted load.
Factors of safety for both types of slings are given in Section 5. 4. Synthetic slings are
manufactured from nylon, polyester, polypropylene and Aramid Polyamide and their labels are
coloured green, blue, brown and yellow respectively. Only polyester (blue label slings are
considered suitable for offshore service.
Synthetic slings are more susceptible to damage than other types of slings and special procedures
should be developed for storage, inspection, identification, tagging and discard criteria.
Load testing requirements are covered in the above mentioned codes. It is generally accepted that
it is more economical to replace used slings than retest them, particularly in the smaller sizes.
5.7.2 Safety Shackles
It is preferred to use safety shackles rather than screw pin shackles. Where screw pin shackles are
used, the pins must be suitably seized using seizing wire. Plastic cable ties shall not be used to
secure pins. Shackles can be supplied as Grade S or Grade T. Generally Grade S shackles are
preferred.
5.7.3 Eyebolts
Eyebolts shall not be used for boat to facility or boat to boat lifts.
Prior to lifting using an eyebolt, the design of the eyebolt should be checked by a qualified
engineer. Refer to Clause 2.6 for competency requirements. All eyebolt lifts should be considered
as engineered lifts requiring approval.
An approved body should perform a thorough inspection of the eyebolts prior to lifts. Removal of
eyebolts for inspection should be considered. Refer to Clause 2.4 for competency requirement.
Eyebolts need not be included in registers except where the equipment is lifted on a regular basis.
5.7.4 Chain Slings
Chain slings manufactured from grade T chain (Australian Standard AS2321) have been
traditionally the preferred chain slings for offshore use. As a result of documented failures during
offshore lifts with chain slings manufactured using grade T chain, chain slings should comply with
the following guidelines.
All new purchase of chain slings for offshore use shall specify chain slings to ISO 3076
ISO 4778 or ISO 7593 until such time as Australian Standards are upgraded;
Existing AS3775 slings using AS2321 grade T chain may still be used for lifts where there
is redundancy in the rigging arrangement (4 leg assemblies). They shall not be used for
single or two leg sling lifts where there is no redundancy.
Where chain slings are used for Offshore Lifting Operations a minimum chain size of 10mm shall
be adopted.

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5.8

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Design of Offshore Container Padeyes & Their Attachment

Padeyes for Lifted Equipment up to a maximum weight of approximately 25 tonnes that are
intended for repeated use should be designed on the following basis:

The dynamic amplification factor (DAF) is to be taken from the graph in Appendix D
based on the total lifted load.

The Design Load shall be taken as the Resulting Sling Force (RSF) times the
appropriate DAF. The resulting sling load will take into account of the sling angle (apex
angle of 60 degrees is common) and the diagonalling effects described in Clause 5.6.

The load factor described in Clause 2.2 of AS1170/1 SAA loading code shall be taken as
1.0 on the basis that the maximum static load is known accurately.

Padeye local capacity checks should be conducted using AS4100 Steel Structures Code,
Clause 7.5.

A lateral load of 5% times RSF shall be applied concurrently with the RSF. The lateral
load shall be multiplied by the DAF. The lateral load shall be applied perpendicular to the
plane of the padeye at the height of the shackle pin centreline.

The combined actions of the biaxial bending and tension should be checked using AS4100
Steel Structures Code, Clause 8.3.4.

The steel grade used for padeyes shall be clearly specified on the design drawings. It is recognised
that 350 grade is widely used but where padeyes are being checked on an existing container the
designer shall assume that grade 250 steel has been used unless justification for a higher grade
exists.
Hole sizes in padeyes should be equal to the shackle pin diameter plus 3mm or 4% greater than the
shackle pin diameter, whichever gives the larger hole. The thickness of the padeye should be at least
75% of the shackle width to avoid twisting the shackle. The maximum thickness of the padeye
shall be such that a total minimum gap of 5mm is maintained to avoid binding
5.9

Design of Lifted Equipment (Offshore Containers)

Lifted Equipment consisting of structural steelwork such as: offshore containers skids, skips,
frames and bins which are intended for repeated use shall be designed in accordance with DNV 2.71.
The container shall be checked for two conditions as follows:

4 point in accordance with Clause 3.2.1.1 of DNV 2.7-1.

2 point lift in accordance with Clause 3.7.1.3 of DNV 2.7-1.

The allowable stress for both conditions is given in clause 3.2 of DNV 2.7-1. Structural designers
attention is also drawn to clause 3.2.3 of the DNV certification notes 2.7.1 regarding minimum
material thickness.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Where a material other than structural steel is used, a design engineer should determine the
appropriate design standards and load factors.

5.10 Sea (ISO) Containers


Sea (ISO) Containers can be described as containers built for international shipping and are
designed to carry general purpose cargo internationally and interstate. They generally have twist
lock type corner fittings for lifting with a purpose built frame. Sea (ISO) containers are not
specifically designed for use as offshore containers in operations associated with the offshore
petroleum industry.
Such containers intended to be used offshore should be load tested to the requirements of IMO
circular MSC 860.
It is recommended that the use of such containers be phased out as soon as possible. A target date of
December 31st 2000 has been set for the complete phase out of ISO containers. Contractors are
advised to check with individual operators for their requirements with respect to the phase out of
ISO shipping containers. During the transition period, the following guidelines should apply to their
use as offshore containers:
They should not be loaded above 40% of their ISO MGW rating and load tested in
accordance with Section 7;

All lifting should be conducted using padeyes. Twist lock fittings shall not be used for
lifting;

There should be trace-ability of the material used for padeyes fitted to the container and of
all welding carried out on the container;

Closed and open top ISO containers greater than 20 feet (6.4 metres) in length should not
be used offshore. Open top ISO containers should not be used as offshore containers;

Prior to any intended offshore use, thorough inspections should be carried out on the
containers floor support members and door latching mechanisms. These are critical to the
containers integrity;

Inspections should be conducted by competent persons. Refer to clause 2.4.2


competency requirements;

for

Forklift pockets shall only be used for onshore lifting;


Prior to the container phase out date, inspection and testing of ISO shipping containers used in the
offshore oil and gas industry should be performed according to the APPEA Guidelines for the
Phase Out of ISO Shipping Containers (Refer Appendix H).

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

5.11 Design of Sub-sea Lifts


Sub-sea lifts are a specialised form of lift the design of which should only be undertaken by
qualified engineers with experience in this area. Generally, the design of Lifting Equipment
should follow the same approach as that for a similar lift in air. Sub-sea Lifting Equipment should
be designed in accordance with DNV Marine Operations, Part 2 Chapter 6 - Sub-Sea Operations
or a recognised equivalent. The lift design should take into account factors specific to the offshore
environment in which the lift is being conducted. As a minimum, consideration should be given to
the following factors associated with subsea lifts, many of which are highly dependent on the shape
of the equipment being lifted.
Viscous drag due to diversion of water around the Lifted Equipment (noting that velocity
of equipment in water = winch velocity plus angular velocity due to vessel roll);
Apparent additional inertia due to the Lifted Equipment accelerating the surrounding
fluid. (commonly referred to as the added mass);
Reduced mass of the Lifted Equipment in water due to buoyancy;

Near surface and near seabed stability due to the vibration absorption/amplification of the
surrounding fluid.
When the Lifted Equipment is at or just above the air/water interface, allowing for the
mass of the water to be temporarily supported when waves break over the equipment;
Increased mass due to marine growth and entrapped sediments when retrieving Lifted
Equipment;
Suction when lifting off the sea bed;
When in water, force due to the apparent additional inertia from accelerated water
= mass of water x g x (DAF - 1.0)
Force due to equipment, marine growth and sediments
= mass of items in water x g x DAF).
As the hook of the Lifting Device will rise and fall in the water due to vessel roll, rigging for
Lifted Equipment needs to be of sufficient length to avoid the hook striking divers, ROVs and
other sub-sea equipment in the vicinity of the lift. Padeyes and rigging should be of a suitable
colour and of sufficient size to enable easy location and use by divers or ROVs.
Many of the above factors can be reduced by the use of specialised equipment and techniques.
When a self-compensating winch or other line load control system is used, the effects of vessel roll
on dynamics and velocity in water may be reduced. When an item is lifted off the sea bed, suction
effects can be reduced by sliding before raising. Excessive mass due to marine growth and
entrapped sediments may be removed prior to lifting.
The above factors cannot be avoided by assuming motion of the Lifted Equipment is always
downward, as any requirement to stop lowering prior to placement, either planned or in emergency,
may result in their occurrence.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

5.12 Materials of Construction and Fabrication Requirements


Fabrication of Lifting Equipment shall be in accordance with recognised international or
Australian standards.
All materials should be suitable and safe for their intended purpose; for the fabrication, transport,
installation and use of Lifting Equipment; and to comply with the requirements for materials in
nominated Australian or international standards. Particular attention should be paid to the fracture
toughness of materials.
Vendors and fabricators should have quality management systems equivalent to ISO9001, ISO9002
or ISO9003. All materials used in the fabrication of Lifting Equipment shall have documentation
in accordance with the contractors quality control procedures to demonstrate trace-ability. As
applicable, some or all of this documentation may be required to support the equipment register.

5.13 Documentation New Build Lifted Equipment


All Lifted Equipment should be issued with a Certificate of Conformity prior to their initial proof
load testing. This must be issued by one of the following bodies, either as a separate document or as
a dedicated section included on the Load Test Certificate and must be signed by an endorsed
signatory of either of the following:
Classification societies with accepted design standards for offshore Lifted Gear (e.g.
DNV);
A body holding NATA accreditation for design verification of Offshore Lifted Gear to
these guidelines;
The Certificate of Conformity should contain the following information:
Assurance that the lifted item (container) has been designed, fabricated and tested to
offshore Lifting Equipment standards (e.g. DNV or other). The owner of the equipment
shall retain the certificate;
Containers that are required to comply with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods
(IMDG) regulations, should also be certified in accordance with the IMDG code.
The certificate of conformity shall be based on the following documentation collated in an as
built dossier, which shall be retained by the owner:

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Structural calculations;

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Drawings;
Specifications for welding procedures;
Welder qualifications;
Material certificates;
Report on trace-ability of materials;
Report from fabrication inspection;
Report from non-destructive examination;
Report from prototype testing;
Report from proof testing;
Report from final inspection;
The certificate of Conformity shall contain the following information:
Container fabrication number;
The Certificate number;
Description of the container including;
External dimensions;
Number of lifting points;
Name of fabricator;
Date of fabrication;
Maximum gross weight in kilograms;
Tare weight in kilograms;
Net weight in kilograms;
Reference to the as built dossier;
The total gross weight in kilograms applicable to the all points lifting test and the actual
method of test;
Specification of lifting set;
Angle of legs (from horizontal);
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Shackle bolt diameter;


Required safety factor (against breaking);
Conformity to other requirements and codes;
A statement that the container has been designed, fabricated and tested in accordance with
this guideline;
Remarks;
Signature on behalf of the certifying body.
Proprietary devices and Lifted Equipment, such as drum lifters, plate clamps, etc, should be
accompanied by schematic drawings and a maintenance and operating manual and should only be
used for onshore and on platform lifts.
Lifted Equipment may be type or batch tested where required by Australian or international
standards. Evidence of type testing status (in the form of third party certification) shall always be
sought for new equipment. Examples of Lifting Equipment requiring type testing to destruction to
Australian Standard are as follows:

Serial hoists and winches

AS 1418.2

Flat synthetic webbing slings

AS 1353

Eyebolts

AS 2317

Synthetic round slings

AS 4497 parts 1 & 2

5.14 Documentation for Existing Lifted Equipment


It is recommended that a certificate of conformity be issued for existing Lifted Equipment by
December 31, 2000 or the next due date for periodic load testing which ever is the sooner. The
minimum requirement to enable a certificate of conformity to be issued for existing Lifted
Equipment are as follows:

Existing Lifted Equipment is inspected in accordance with Section 8 and Appendix I


and found to have passed the certified visual inspection and NDT where appropriate (eg.
padeyes).

Padeye designs should be reviewed by an experienced Engineer1 to ensure compliance


with clause 5.8. Where padeyes do not meet this standard they should be modified
appropriately.

The design of the container has been reviewed by an experienced Engineer2. The review
should confirm that the item of Lifted Equipment has sufficient structural integrity to
pass load tests specified in Table E.2.

Refer to Clause 2.6 for competency requirements


Refer to Clause 2.6 for competency requirements
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Load testing of Lifted Equipment is conducted by an appropriate body in accordance


with Table E.2.

Load testing of rigging is conducted by an appropriate body in accordance with Table


E.3.

Rigging shall meet the requirements of Appendix C, where existing rigging is retained
some reduction in the maximum SWL will be required.

5.15 Initial Load Tests (Offshore Containers including ISO Containers)


When new containers are built or containers being put back into service after a major repair or
modification or are being put into offshore service for the first time, they shall be load tested by an
appropriate body. The accrediting body may request a drop test of containers when verifying a
design for the first time. Refer to Clause 2.5.1 for competency requirements.
The following points should be observed:
In the case of Sea (ISO) Containers the internal test load is to be based on the maximum
gross mass (MGM) determined in accordance with Section 5.10. For purpose built
containers, the MGM identified on the containers identification plate should be used.
e.g.
MGM
= 9.6 Tonnes,
Tare
= 2.5 Tonnes
Test load For 4 point lift
= (2.5 x 9.6) - 2.5 = 21.5 Tonnes
(to be placed in the container)
Precautions should be taken when securing test loads, particularly for a 2 point lifting test.
Where a large number of identical containers are manufactured, guidance on the number to be
tested is given in DNV Certification Notes 2.7-1 Section 4.
The container shall be considered to have passed the initial load test provided there is no permanent
deformation of the container. Deformation can readily be measured using two taut wires strung
between the diagonal corners of the container.
Where proof loading is not a viable option, (i.e. where access for loading is restricted such as for
transportable buildings with small doorways) structural assessment of the container may be
determined by a certified visual inspection. The certified visual inspection of the container shall be
conducted by an appropriate body. Refer to Clause 2.4.2 for competency requirements.

5.16 Non Destructive Testing (Offshore Containers including ISO Containers)


NDT at fabrication shall include inspection of the lifting points (padeyes) and the connections
immediately adjacent to the lifting points as a minimum.
Consideration should also be given to the NDT inspection of all primary members and their
connections.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

NDT inspection shall be conducted by an appropriate body. Refer to Clause 2.5 for competency
requirements.

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6 DESIGN OF TANKS FOR FLUIDS


Tank design shall conform to relevant sections of:
AS 1692
Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids

AS/NZ 3711.6

IMDG Code

DNV 2.7-1

Offshore Containers

ISO 1496-3

Freight Containers Specification and Testing

prEN 12079

Offshore Containers Design, Construction, Testing, Inspection


and Marking

Tank Containers

The APPEA guidelines for offshore tanks for fluids coincide with the requirements of DNV 2.7-1,
section 3.5 and prEN12079, section 5.5.3.
The following is an extract from prEN12079:
Tanks for dangerous cargoes shall fulfil the requirements of the IMDG Code and shall be
designed according to recognised rules for pressure vessels. A tank and its support shall be
able to withstand lifting and impact loads. In addition, due account shall be taken of fluid
surge arising from partly filled tanks.
Note: Chapter 13 of the general introduction to the IMDG Code does not allow tanks with a length
above 3m to be handled by forklift in a loaded condition. Special protection of the tank and fittings
in the area near the fork pockets is required.
On tank containers for dangerous cargoes, all parts of the tank and fittings shall be suitably
protected from impact damage by a frame, suitable for offshore service where applicable. In
addition to the IMDG Code, the following shall apply:

Beams, plates or grating, shall protect the top of the tank and its fittings. No part of the
tank or its fittings shall extend above a level 100mm below the top of the framework. It
shall not be possible for any part of the lifting set to foul fittings, manhole cleats or other
protrusions on the tank.

Protective beams shall be placed at or near the location where the tank shell is nearest to
the outer plane of the sides. Beams shall be spaced sufficiently close together to give the
necessary protection.

At the maximum calculated elastic deflection of any side member, the residual clearance
between the member and any part of the tank shell or its fittings shall be at least 10mm.

No part of the underside of the tank shell (including sumps), the bottom valves or other
fittings shall extend below a level 150mm above the bottom of the framework. Any such
part extending below a level 300mm above the bottom of the framework shall be
protected by beams or plating.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Tank containers designed with direct connection between the tank and the side or top frame
elements shall be subject to special consideration by the operator or during operation to
avoid damage.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

7 MARKING OF LIFTING EQUIPMENT


7.1

General

All Lifting Equipment shall be marked with an individual identification code (Unique Number)
and the safe working load (SWL) as determined from the design. Where appropriate, for certain
Lifted Equipment, the SWL may be replaced by the tare and gross. The identification code shall
enable the operator to link the manufacturer and test certification numbers. For contractor owned
equipment, this code should include unique character(s) or colour to indicate the owner.
If the use of an item of Lifting Equipment is restricted to certain types of operations, this shall be
marked on the item. For example, a spreader beam which has been designed for onshore use, shall
be marked, ONSHORE USE ONLY; NOT FOR OFFSHORE BOAT LIFTS

7.2

Marking of Lifting Devices

7.2.1 Fixed Location Padeyes


Valid certified padeyes which have undergone proof loading (to Marine Orders 32 requirements as
a minimum) and non destructive testing should be identifiable at point of location with the padeye
centrally positioned in a 30 cm x 30 cm black painted square (minimum size). The SWL and the
identification number should be stenciled in white within the black square.

7.3

Marking of Lifted Equipment

Lifted Equipment including equipment containers, skips, baskets, frames and similar items are
expected to be marked with the information as shown on examples of marking plates provided in
Appendix E or a similar alternative.
All characters marked on the container (e.g. Tare, Nett and Gross) should be durable, of
proportionate width and thickness and in a colour contrasting with that of the container. The
markings should be clearly legible and, if painted, stenciled.
Manufacturers plates should be of a suitable size for the required information as indicated in
Appendix E and should be of durable material (such as stainless steel) and securely fixed in a
visible but protected location.
Inspection & test plates should be of a suitable size as indicated in Appendix E, should. The plates
should be updated or replaced when either load testing, NDT or certified visual inspection is carried
out.
Containers and tanks used for dangerous cargoes should be marked according to the requirements of
the IMDG Code, in addition to the marking requirements of this Section.

7.4

Container and Roof Identification Markings

Each container should be marked with a container number issued by the owner as a unique
identification, which should be the common cross-reference on all in service certification, shipping
documentation, etc.
The container number shall be prominently displayed on all sides of the container (as viewed from
ground level) in characters of contrasting colour, not less than 75 mm high.
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

If the container has a roof, the container number should be displayed on the roof, in characters not
less than 300 mm high (or less if space is limited). The marking should be carried out in such a way
as to avoid incorrect interpretation (e.g. by underlining). Where applicable, the lower edge marking
should be positioned near the side of the container in which the door is located.

7.5

Lifting Frame and Beam Markings

The minimum marking required for each lifting frame and lifting beam should include ID No,
TARE and SWL. The marking should be done using 50 mm letters. Where required, the design
approval number allocated by the relevant Statutory Authority should be added. Where no suitable
location exists, painted markings down to 25 mm, on a securely fixed plate are acceptable. Stamped
markings should not be less than 8 mm in height.

7.6

Marking of Rigging

The appropriate Australian Standards provide all marking details for rigging. Wire rope rigging
assemblies shall be tagged in accordance with AS1666.1 Section 7. Chain rigging assemblies shall
be tagged in accordance with AS3775 Section 8.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

8 PERIODIC INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE


8.1

General

The periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance (including repairs) of all Lifting Equipment,
including contractor owned, shall be conducted by competent, qualified personnel accredited to
these guidelines by NATA or a Classification Society with industry accepted standards in the
inspection, testing and maintenance of Lifting Equipment. (Refer Sections 2.42.6 for
competency requirements) Periodic inspection, testing and maintenance shall be conducted in a
manner to ensure safety to people and plant. When requested, contractors are expected to supply the
operator with, copies of all relevant certificates before the Lifting Equipment is used at any
location under the operators jurisdiction.
A specific inspection, maintenance and testing plan should be developed for each Lifting Device,
each item of Lifted Equipment and rigging assembly or item. Where a safety case is in place this
plan should be risk based and developed in accordance with the appropriate safety case guidelines.
The inspection, testing and maintenance plan should consider the following factors:
Manufacturers recommendations;
Statutory requirements;
Relevant historical data;
Frequency of use;
Operational environmental conditions.
The plan should address:
Periodical inspection and maintenance routines (e.g. weekly, annual);
A feedback loop to allow modifications to routines based on performance;
Procedures for documenting results of inspections and tests;
Procedure for colour coding inspected and tested equipment;
Inspectors responsibility and qualification matrix.
Records of testing, inspection, maintenance, repair and modification should be included in the
Lifting Equipment Register.
All Lifting Equipment shall be visually checked prior to each use by appropriately certified crane
driver, dogger or rigger (as applicable). This inspection should ensure that:
Equipment is appropriate for load to be applied;

Equipment is in good condition;

Equipment is correctly labeled;

Equipment for onshore use is not being used offshore.

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Non complying equipment shall be tagged and either removed from site or repaired.
Scheduled testing and inspections should include test loading, non-destructive testing (NDT) and
visual inspection (as appropriate). Recommended inspection and testing frequencies are provided in
Appendix F.
Variations to these recommended frequencies are acceptable where a reliability based approach is in
place under a facilitys safety case.

8.2

Lifting Devices

8.2.1 Inspection Before and After Proof Loading


For Lifting Devices and associated rigging, inspection should be performed in accordance with
the Australian Standards.
For equipment not covered by Australian Standards, the equipment owner in conjunction with the
inspector should select the most appropriate of those inspection requirements provided in AS 1418
for other devices.
For specially fabricated devices such as overhead padeyes, the requirements for Lifted Equipment
should be applied.

8.3

Lifted Equipment

The following requirements for inspection apply to Lifted Equipment. Note that these
requirements are based on DNV recommendations for periodic inspection of Lifted Equipment.
These requirements are guidelines for inspection or repair organisations to develop their own
detailed work instructions or procedures. These requirements should be subject to the equipment
owner and/or users approval.
All Lifted Equipment should be periodically inspected by an appropriate body. Refer to Clause
2.4.2 for competency requirements.
The inspection should meet the following requirements:
Prior to testing, key dimensions and straightness should be measured;

Structure should be visually examined for corrosion, mechanical damage and injurious
deformation;

All accessible load bearing welds should be visually examined to ensure freedom from
defects;

The lifting points should be visually examined for distortion, mechanical damage or any
other sign of distress or overload;

Doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks etc. should be visually examined and functionally
checked to ensure that they operate in a satisfactory manner without undue force being
required;

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

The floor should be visually examined to check that it is substantially flat with no sign of
distress or overload. Drainage facilities, where fitted should be examined, e.g. drain holes
should be clear of debris etc.;

The paint markings and plates should be checked to see that they meet the
recommendations of this document;

Inspect lifting set for: rating, condition, currency of test etc.;

If due or required proof load test. (Proof load test to be conducted prior to NDT);

After completion of a proof test load, the equipment should be re-examined for signs of
permanent deformation caused by the test. Any deformation or weld defect caused by the
load test shall result in the withdrawal of the equipment from service until all such faults
have been corrected and a further satisfactory load test completed;

NDT by the method nominated on the drawings if due, or required;

Welds to all padeyes and members directly supporting padeyes should be subject to 100%
magnetic particle inspection (MPI);

Where it is determined that a fault is related to design or fabrication quality, a


modification or repair method shall be developed, and approved by the responsible
person, before commencement of any rectification works;

APPEA detailed guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of offshore containers are
provided in Appendix I.

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APPEA

8.4

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Rigging

8.4.1 Proof Loading of Rigging used for Offshore Lifting (Boat Lifts)
The rigging for the Lifted Equipment shall be subject to a proof force that is not less than 50% of
the rated minimum breaking load (MBL) of the member.
Proof Load

= 50% x Rt x Rm x MBL,

Where Rt and Rm are defined in section 5.4


Where all the components of the sling have been proof tested, but any component has been subject
to further processing subsequent to any further earlier proof testing, the rigging shall be subject to
further proof testing.
The sling shall withstand the application of the proof force, without sustaining damage that may
affect its intended function or safety. The sling shall also be free from any deleterious permanent set
or defects visible to the unaided eye.
Proof load testing of rigging and NDT testing as appropriate shall be conducted by an appropriate
body. Refer to Clause 2.5 and 2.5.1 for competency requirements.

8.5

Repairs and Modifications to Lifting Equipment

Repairs and modifications to Lifting Devices should be carried out to conform with the original
manufacturers specification and in accordance with Section 4. For Lifted Equipment where it is
not clear whether a member is structural or not, guidance should be sought from a qualified design
engineer. Design changes that alter the original structural details or safe working load capabilities of
the Lifting Equipment should be approved by a qualified design engineer. Refer to clause 2.6 for
competency requirements.
Lifting Equipment shall be proof load tested following repairs involving modifications or heat
application to structural members.
All repairs or modifications should be recorded in the Lifting Equipment Register (Section 3).

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

9 SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES


9.1

Lifting Operations between Platforms and Vessels

9.1.1 Planning
The Australian Offshore Support Vessel Code of Safe Working Practice provides guidance on
lifting operations between platforms and vessels.
The safe conduct of lifting operations involving the transfer of cargo between a platform and a
vessel require planning and a high level of communications among the parties involved in these
operations.
Prior to the start of any lifting operations, the communications between the person in charge of the
facility and the Master of the vessel, or their appointed deputies, should address the following
issues:
The suitability of existing and forecast weather conditions for the required lifting
operations involving the vessel;

Communications arrangements between the facility and the vessel during the lifting
operation;

Any limitations or restrictions affecting, or which may interrupt, the proposed operations;

The nature and weights of the cargo to be transferred and any special lifting requirements;

Whether any of the proposed lifts require special consideration, safeguards or controls
during lifting, or special securing arrangements on the vessel;

Rigging arrangements to be used and any special rigging requirements;

Procedures to be used in the event of an emergency occurring while lifting operations are
being conducted.

9.1.2 Communications
Safe lifting operations rely on there being effective communications among the Master of the
vessel, the person in charge of the facility, the crane operator, the deck officer in charge on the
vessel and the deck crews on both the facility and the vessel. A reliable radio communication link
on a dedicated channel or frequency should be maintained throughout the operations. The crane
operator on the facility should have direct radio communication with the vessel.
The crane operator should have a clear view of the deck areas on both the facility and the vessel.
Where this is impractical, a dogger should be so stationed as to have a clear view of the deck area to
assist the crane operator. Directions given to the crane operator by the deck crew on the vessel must
only be given by one person who has been clearly identified for that purpose.

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9.1.3 Lift Preparation and Handling


Wherever practicable, all lifts should be pre-slung using rigging which conforms to these
guidelines. Rigging should allow the deck crew to connect / disconnect the lift at deck level.
Open cargo baskets containing loose materials should be provided with safety nets or covers to
prevent discharge of the contents during lifting operations or while in transit. Doors and lids on
closed containers must be securely fastened.
No container should be loaded in excess of its rated capacity. Material should not be added to
containers, skips, cargo baskets, etc already transferred to the deck of a vessel unless it is safe to do
so, the capacity of the container will not be exceeded, and the change to the loading is recorded on
the manifest.

9.2

Personnel Transfers

Personnel baskets should only be used in emergency or in other circumstances where the use of
alternative means of transferring personnel is impractical or unsafe. They should only be carried out
under the authority of the person in charge of the facility and with the agreement of the personnel
being transferred and the master of the vessel involved.
Each facility should have documented procedures for this type of operation. These procedures
should address the issues identified in these guidelines.

9.2.1 Authority
The person having the authority to approve personnel basket transfers should be clearly identified.
Approval should not be given unless this person is satisfied that the personnel involved agree to the
transfer operations and the transfer can be safely carried out.

9.2.2 Duties
The duties of personnel in supervising or carrying out the personnel basket transfer should be
clearly defined. Generally, this would include the person in charge of the facility, the crane
operator, the Master of the vessel, and other people nominated by the person in charge and the
Master of the vessel to undertake specific duties.
The Person in charge of the facility should:
be aware of the reason for the transfer;
be satisfied with the fitness and training of the people to be transferred;
be satisfied as to the suitability of the vessel;
know the limitations of visibility and sea state;
be aware of the limitations on transfer by night;
be aware of the suitability of the crane for personnel transfer;
check the wind speed limitations on crane operations;
establish satisfactory communications with the Master of the vessel involved in the
transfer;
ensure that participants understand the procedures involved;
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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

be satisfied with the competence and experience of the crane


driver;

be satisfied with the inspection and testing of the personnel basket.


The Master of the vessel should confirm to the person in charge of the facility that:
the transfer has been accepted and the procedures have been understood;
the vessel has a satisfactory station keeping capability;
the deck crew have been fully briefed;
the people to be transferred have been adequately briefed and are fit to
be transferred.
The crane operator should ensure that:

the crane is fully operational;

the wind speed is satisfactory for safe operation;

the requirements and procedures involved are clearly understood;

the dogger and the transfer area are clearly visible;

adequate communications have been established.

The dogger and deck supervisor should ensure that:


the transfer procedure is understood;
they are clearly identifiable as dogger and deck supervisor.
the personnel basket is correctly used;
the transferees are fit for transfer and understand the procedures;
proper communications have been established;
respectively they have a full view of the transfer areas.
Individuals who are to be transferred should:

ensure that they understand the transfer procedure;

confirm that they are agreeable to the transfer;

be able to use correctly the safety equipment provided;

observe all instructions from those in charge of the operation.

9.2.3 Suitability of the vessel


The type of vessel considered suitable to carry out a transfer should be determined by its ability to
maintain station alongside the facility and have sufficient clear deck space to safely receive the
basket.
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9.2.4 Weather conditions


Weather conditions are critical factors impacting on the safety of personnel basket transfers. Factors
which should be taken into account include visibility, wind and sea state. Guidelines should be
provided which specify the maximum wind speed and sea state beyond which basket transfer is not
permissible, including the wind speed limitations for crane operations and the effect of weather
conditions on the stability of the vessel.

9.2.5 Communications
Both radio and visual communication should be established and maintained between those
personnel conducting the operation.

9.2.6 Safety equipment and rescue procedures


The procedures should specify the type of safety equipment to be worn by personnel being
transferred and the rescue arrangements made. Personnel being transferred should wear life-jackets,
suitable clothing and other specified safety equipment. Life-jackets should be equipped with
suitable means of illumination during night transfers. The standby vessel should be in close
attendance during transfer, with the rescue boat ready for immediate launching.

9.2.7 Training
Personnel will be transferred by basket in greater safety and with less apprehension if they, and the
personnel conducting the transfer, have received training in the techniques involved. The type of
training required can be included in installation drills. Inexperienced people or those not trained in
the use of personnel baskets should always be accompanied by someone who has been trained in
personnel transfer procedures.

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APPENDIX A

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

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LEGISLATION
1.

Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 [PSLA]

2.

Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Acts: Schedule of Special Requirements as to Offshore


Petroleum Exploration and Production

3.

Navigation Act 1912 and associated Regulations and Marine Orders


MO Part 32 Cargo Handling Equipment and Safety Measures
MO Part 44 Safe Containers
Explosives and Dangerous Goods Act
Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act
WA: Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 and Associated Regulations 1996
NT: Work Heath Act 1992
NT: Work Health - Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 1992

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS ETC.


9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Page 48

AS ISO-1000 The International System of Units and its Application


AS 1138
Thimbles for Wire Rope
AS 1171
Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic Particle Testing of Ferromagnetic
Products, Components and Structures
AS 1163
Structural Steel Hollow Sections
AS 1353
Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings
AS 1380
Fibre Rope Slings
AS 1418
Cranes (Including Hoists and Winches)
AS 1438
Wire - Coil Flat Slings
AS 1504
Fibre Rope Three Strand Hawser Laid
AS/NZS 1554 Structural Steel Welding
AS 1650
Hot-Dipped Galvanised Coatings on Ferrous Articles (superceded in part by
AS/NZS 4534 but remains current)
AS 1657
Fixed Platforms, Walkways, Stairways, Ladders,
AS 1664
Aluminium Structures
AS 1666
Wire Rope Slings
AS 2068
Flat Pallets for Materials Handling
AS 2076
Wire Rope Grips for Non-Lifting Applications
AS 2089
Sheave Blocks for Lifting Purposes
AS 2207
Non-Destructive Testing for Ultrasonic Testing of Fusion Welded Joint in
Carbon and Low Alloy Steel
AS/NZS 2312 Guide to the Protection of Iron and Steel against Exterior Atmospheric
Corrosion
AS 2317
Collared Eyebolts
AS 2318
Swivels for Hoists
AS 2319
Rigging Screws and Turnbuckles
AS 2321
Short Link Chain for Lifting Purposes (Non Calibrated)
AS 2550(1982) Cranes - Safe Use
AS 2741
Shackles
AS 2759
Steel Wire Rope - Application Guide
AS 3569
Steel Wire Ropes
AS/NZS 3678 Structural Steel - Hot Rolled Plates, Floor Plates and Slabs
AS/NZS 3679.1
Structural Steel - Part 1: Hot Rolled Bars and Sections
AS/NZS 3679.2
Structural Steel - Part 2: Welded I Sections
AS 3775
Chain Slings - Grade T
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40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

AS 3776
AS 3777
AS 3990
AS 4048

Lifting Components for Grade T Chain Sling


Shank Hooks and Large Eye Hooks - Maximum 25 Tonne
Mechanical Equipment Steelwork
Flat Pallets for Materials Handling (1100mm x 1100mm Suitable for use in
ISO Series 1 Freight Containers)
AS 4100
Steel Structures
AS 4142
Fibre Rope
AS 4497
Roundslings - Synthetic Fibre, Parts 1 & 2
AS B291
Lifting Rings & Links
AMSA
Marine Orders part 44
AMSA
Marine Orders part 32
AS/NZS 3711 Freight Containers

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.

BS 2573
BS 2903

Rules for the Design of Cranes


Higher Tensile Steel Hooks for Chains/Slings Blocks and General
Engineering Purposes
BS 7072
Code of Practice for Inspection and repair of offshore containers (This
document will be replaced by EN12079)
DNV
Marine Operations - Part 2: Operation Specific Requirements, Chapter 5:
Lifting.
DNV
Marine Operations - Part 2: Operation Specific Requirements, Chapter 6:
Sub-sea Ops.
DNV
Certification notes No 2.7-1. Offshore Containers
DNV
Certification notes No 2.7-2. Offshore Service Containers
prEN 12079 European Committee for Standardisation. - Offshore Containers-Design,
Construction, Testing, Inspection and Marking.
IMO
Circ 613 (MSC 860)
Lloyds
Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment.
API RP 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed
Offshore Platforms
API Spec 2c Specification for Offshore Cranes
API RP 2D Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes
API Spec 9a Specification for Wire Rope
API RP 9B
Recommended Practice on Application, Care and Use of Wire Rope
AWS D1.1
Structural Welding Code Steel for Oil Field Service

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

OTHER MANUALS
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.

IICL
Guide for Container Equipment Inspection
IICL
Repair Manual for Steel Freight Containers
AMOG/ESSO Factors of Safety for Lifting Slings used in Offshore Supply Boat Operations
AMOG
Investigation of Dynamic Amplification Effects During Offshore Lifting.
APPEA
Guidelines for the Phase Out of ISO Shipping Containers
APPEA
Guidelines for the Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers
AMSA
Australian Offshore Vessel Code of Safe Working Practice.

IICL: Institute of International Container Lessors Ltd.


Note: References 62 and 63 have been prepared for International Shipping Containers and not
Offshore Containers. They do however provide a good general guidance for containers.

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Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX B

DEFINITIONS

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Alter:

To change the design of, add to or take away from the equipment where the
change may affect health and safety, but does not include routine
maintenance, repairs or replacements.

AMSA:

Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

Approved:

Approved by the Operating Company, regulator, authority or society.

AS:

Australian Standard.

Asset Owner:

Entity that owns Lifting Equipment.

Certificate of
Conformity:

Certificate issued by a facility accredited by NATA to inspect and test


containers to APPEA requirements. The issuance of this certificate
indicates to owners, users and transporters of the container that the unit is
fit for intended service.
The certificate is only to be issued when the accredited facility has ensured
that the container meets all the requirements detailed in APPEA Container
management documents.
Where there is an existing doubt, the NATA accredited facility should
recommend to the equipment owner that a qualified structural engineer
verify container design against the APPEA document.

Certified visual Inspection of Lifting Equipment accompanied by a report bearing the


endorsement stamp of the appropriate inspection body or classification
inspection:
society. The inspection must be signed by an endorsed signatory. It
typically includes visual, material dimensional, and material thickness
checks, opening up and dismantling as considered necessary by the
Inspector may be required.
COG:

Centre of gravity.

Competent
Person:

A person having practical and theoretical knowledge and relevant


experience, such as will enable that person to detect and evaluate any
defects and weaknesses that may affect the intended performance of the
equipment.

Container:

Lifted Equipment used in lifting and transport operations (see Section


1.2).

Crane:

An appliance intended for raising or lowering a load and moving it


horizontally. Detailed definitions for each type of crane are given in
AS 2549.

DAF:

Dynamic Amplification Factor.

Designated
Inspector/
Surveyor/
Verifying body:

A representative of a Classification Society or an inspection body or a


verifying body registered with the statutory body to perform certain surveys
or inspections and issue certificates of inspection on behalf of the Statutory
Authority.

DME:

Department of Minerals and Energy.

Page 52

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Engineer:

A person qualified to be a Member of the Institute of Engineers, Australia


(MIE Aust.) or recognised equivalent who is competent and has adequate
experience to assure that the technical requirements of this standard are
met.

Engineered Lift:

A lift which due to constraints, circumstances or specialised engineering


input is beyond the scope of these guidelines. An engineered lift will
typically require modification to acceptance criteria and will therefore
require a higher level of management and possible app0roval from the
relevant authorities prior to being carried out.

Equipment
Container:

Enclosure or frame designed specifically for lifting a particular item of


equipment or containing permanent fixtures such as a workshop. The
container with contents remains at a constant mass and centre of gravity
and would normally have dedicated rigging attached via padeyes. It
includes drilling support equipment, welding units, air compressor units
and workshops.

Gross Mass:

The maximum permissible combined weight of a cargo container and its


contents, i.e. Maximum Gross Mass = Tare Weight + Net Weight measured
in kilograms (This is also known as Gross Weight measured in kilograms).

IMO:

International Maritime Organisation.

Inshore Lift:

Lifting to or from a vessel at a sheltered wharf. This may be performed


using either a vessel based or a shore based crane.

Inspection
body:

An organisation accredited by the National Association of Inspection


Authorities (Australia) to perform certain types of inspections and issue
endorsed reports. These reports meet the requirements of the P(SL)A
schedule for test reports.

Inspector:

Any person carrying out inspection of Lifting Equipment. Examples of


Inspectors are representatives of NATA accredited establishments, riggers,
crane drivers, welders, NDT technicians, QC inspectors, QC managers and
qualified engineers. The qualifications of the Inspectors are dependent on
the type of inspection being performed. In all cases, the Inspector shall
have experience and training suitable to the inspection being performed.
Where inspections referred to in this document require specific
qualifications, these have been given in the appropriate section.

Lifted
Equipment:

Equipment that the rigging connects to (Refer to Section 1.2). In the case of
machinery, valves, etc with attached padeyes, This term refers to the
machinery or valve.

Lifting Device:

An item equipped with mechanical means for moving or placing a freely


suspended load.

Lifting
Equipment:

Means an item or an integrated assembly of items designed to convey or for


use in conveying people, equipment or materials and includes Lifting
Gear and Lifting Devices. It also may be referred to as materials
handling equipment.

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 53

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Lifting Gear:

An item of equipment for use with a Lifting Device for lifting people,
equipment or materials. The item is designed to be detachable from the
crane and includes both rigging and Lifted Equipment.

Lifting Points:

Points on a structure to which rigging is attached, such as padeyes.

Lift Weight:

Maximum gross weight of the container and its cargo

Maintenance:

The activity of monitoring, inspecting, testing, refurbishing and replacing


of plant and equipment within its pre-existing design specifications.

May:

Indicates a discretionary action.

MBL:

Minimum breaking load.

MO:

Marine Orders.

MODU:

Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit.

MPI:

Magnetic particle inspection.

NATA:

National Association of Testing Authorities Australia.

NDT:

Non-Destructive testing, including magnetic particle, ultra sonics.

Net Weight:

The maximum permissible weight of the contents of a container in


kilograms.

New Container:

Container constructed after the issue date of this document.

NTDME:

The Northern Territory Department of Minerals and Energy.

Offshore
Container:

Container designed for the movement of equipment or materials to, from


and at offshore installations or at onshore locations.

Offshore Lift:

A lift performed in unsheltered waters between two vessels, between a


platform and a vessel, or between a platform and the seabed.

Onshore Lift:

Lifting about an onshore location not involving a vessel.

Proof Load:

The test load required by the Code or Standard for the specific equipment.

Responsible
Person:

A person who is responsible to any one of:


the designer of the equipment
the manufacturer of the equipment
a competent testing establishment
the owner of the equipment
a classification society
the operating company
for carrying out design, testing, inspection, certification or determination of
safe working loads of Lifting Equipment.

Rigging:

Equipment which is designed for repetitive use, to be readily detachable

Page 54

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

from a Lifting Device and which constitutes all or part of a lifting


assembly that connects a load to the Lifting Device.
Safe Working
Load (SWL):

The maximum gross load which may be imposed for a specific use in order
to allow an adequate margin of safety. The SWL may equal but never
exceed the working load limit (WLL),
e.g. In AS 1418 part 1 for Class 3 load applications, the SWL =
WLL, for Class 4 and 5 applications, the SWL = 0.8 WLL.
Safe working load of a crane is the maximum mass which is permitted to
be safely handled by the crane. Safe working load of a lifting attachment
is the maximum mass that is permitted to be safely handled by the lifting
attachment.

Shall:

Indicates a mandatory requirement.

Should:

Indicates a recommended requirement.

Sling Angle:

The angle the sling makes with the horizontal. Typically within the range
of 60 to 90 degrees.

Statutory
Authority:

An Authority having statutory powers to control the design, manufacture,


use and testing of Lifting Equipment in the State or Territory within the
Commonwealth of Australia in which the equipment is used.

Tare Weight:

The weight of an empty container or the weight of a lifting beam or lifting


frame, complete with dedicated components, in kilograms.

Testing:

Testing, in the context of inspection, means such tests carried out


periodically by a responsible person, in conjunction with inspection, at
periods defined by this document.

Testing body:

An organisation accredited by the National Association of Testing


Authorities (Australia) to perform certain types of tests and issue endorsed
reports. These reports meet the requirements of the P(SL)A schedule for
test reports.

Visual
Inspection:

A detailed visual examination and other such measures considered


necessary by an Inspector to determine the condition of the Lifting
Equipment. Inspection may include visual, dimensional.

WADME:

The Western Australian Department of Minerals and Energy.

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 55

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Page 56

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX C

OFFSHORE WIRE ROPE AND CHAIN SLINGS

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 57

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C1
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR TABLE "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1570 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES

Direct
Loaded

Choke Hitch

10

11

12

Basket Hitch

Round
load

Rectangular
load

1
0.95
1

0.75
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

2
0.95
1

Round load

Other than round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm
Ro
Rope
Nominal
Minimum
diameter
breaking
force
mm
kN
10
44
11
53.2
12
63.3

90

1.73
1.41
0.95
0.95
1
1
See Note Below

120

60

90

120

1
0.95
1

1
0.95
1

0.87
0.95
1

0.71
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

Safe Working Load, t

0.73
0.88
1.05

0.55
0.66
0.79

0.36
0.44
0.52

13
14
16

74.3
86.2
113

1.24
1.4
1.8

0.93
1.07
1.4

0.62
0.71
0.94

18
20
22

143
176
213

2.3
2.9
3.5

1.7
2.2
2.6

1.19
1.4
1.7

24
26
28

253
297
345

4.2
4.9
5.7

3.1
3.7
4.3

2.1
2.4
2.8

32
Note:

60

450
8.1
5.6
3.7
The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Refer Section 5.4
Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for "Offshore Boat Lifts"

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

Page 58

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C2
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF
TWO LEG , THREE LEG AND FOUR-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1570 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES
2

Choke hitch
Direct loaded
Round load

Other than
round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm
Ro

0 to 60

90

120

1.73
0.95
1

1.41
0.95
1

1
0.95
1

0 to 45

0 to 60

0 to 45

2
0.95
1

0 to 60

0.87
0.95
1

See Note Below

Rope
Nominal
diameter
mm

Minimum
breaking
force
kN

10
11
12

44
53.2
63.3

1.27
1.53
1.82

1.03
1.25
1.49

0.73
0.88
1.05

1.47
1.77
2.1

13
14
16

74.3
86.2
113

2.1
2.4
3.2

1.75
2.0
2.6

1.24
1.43
1.88

2.4
2.8
3.7

18
20
22

143
176
213

4.1
5.0
6.2

3.3
4.1
5.0

2.3
2.9
3.5

4.7
5.8
7.5

24
26
28

253
297
345

7.8
9.9
11.5

5.9
7.3
9.2

4.2
4.9
5.7

9.8
11.5
13.3

450

15.0

12.2

8.1

17.4

32
Note:

Safe Working Load, t

The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL),
refer to section 5.4
Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for "Offshore Boat Lifts"

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 59

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C3
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR TABLE "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES

Direct
Loaded

10

11

12

Basket Hitch

Choke Hitch
Round Rectangular
load
load

Round load

Other than round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm
Ro
Rope
Nominal Minimum
diameter breaking
force
mm
kN
10
63.1
11
76.3
12
90.8

1
0.95
1

0.75
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

2
0.95
1

90

120

1.73
1.41
1
0.95
0.95
0.95
1
1
1
See Note Below

60

90

120

1
0.95
1

0.87
0.95
1

0.71
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

Safe Working Load, t

1.05
1.27
1.51

0.79
0.95
1.13

0.52
0.63
0.75

13
14
16

107
124
161

1.78
2.0
2.6

1.34
1.55
2.0

0.89
1.03
1.34

18
20
22

204
252
305

3.4
4.2
5.0

2.5
3.1
3.8

1.70
2.10
2.5

24
26
28

363
426
494

6.0
7.5
9.4

4.5
5.3
6.2

3.0
3.5
4.1

32
36
40

646
817
1010

12.5
15.8
19.5

9.1
11.8
14.6

5.3
7.1
9.7

44
48
52

1220
1450
1710

23.6
25.0
-

17.7
21.0
24.8

11.8
14.0
16.5

56
60
Note:

60

1980
25.0
19.1
2270
21.9
The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Refer Section 5.4
Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for "Offshore Boat Lifts"

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

Page 60

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C4
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF
TWO LEG , THREE LEG AND FOUR-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND WIRE-ROPE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES
2

Choke hitch
Direct loaded
Round load

Other than
round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a) 0 to 60


Loading Factors
1.73
Rc
0.95
Rt
1
Rm

90

120

1.41
0.95
1

1
0.95
1

Ro

0 to 45

0 to 60

0 to 45

2
0.95
1

0 to 60

0.87
0.95
1

See Note Below

Rope
Nominal
diameter
mm

Minimum
breaking
force
kN

10
11
12

63.1
76.3
90.8

1.82
2.20
2.62

1.48
1.79
2.13

1.05
1.27
1.51

2.10
2.54
3.0

13
14
16

107
124
161

3.1
3.6
4.7

2.52
2.9
3.8

1.78
2.07
2.68

3.6
4.1
5.4

18
20
22

204
252
305

5.9
7.8
10.2

4.8
5.9
7.7

3.4
4.2
5.1

7.1
9.7
11.8

24
26
28

363
426
494

12.1
14.2
16.5

9.9
11.6
13.4

6.1
7.5
9.5

14.0
16.5
19.1

32
36
40

646
817
1010

21.6
25.0
-

17.6
22.3
25.0

12.5
15.8
19.5

25.0
-

1220

25.0

44
Note:

Safe Working Load, t

The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL),
refer to section 5.4
Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for "Offshore Boat Lifts"

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 61

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C5
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR TABLE "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF SINGLE-PART SINGLE-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES

Direct
Loaded

Choke Hitch

10

11

12

Basket Hitch

Round Rectangular
load
load

Round load

Other than round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm
Ro
Rope
Nominal Minimum
diameter breaking
force
mm
kN
10
58
11
70.1
12
83.5

1
0.95
1

0.75
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

2
0.95
1

90

120

1.73
1.41
1
0.95
0.95
0.95
1
1
1
See Note Below

60

90

120

1
0.95
1

0.87
0.95
1

0.71
0.95
1

0.5
0.95
1

Safe Working Load, t

0.96
1.17
1.39

0.72
0.87
1.04

0.48
0.58
0.69

13
14
16

98.4
114
148

1.64
1.9
2.4

1.23
1.42
1.8

0.82
0.95
1.23

18
20
22

187
231
280

3.1
3.8
4.6

2.3
2.8
3.5

1.56
1.90
2.3

24
26
28

333
391
454

5.5
6.7
8.2

4.1
4.8
5.6

2.7
3.2
3.7

32
36
40

594
751
929

11.5
14.5
17.9

8.0
10.9
13.4

4.9
6.3
8.5

44
48
52

1122
1334
1573

21.7
25.0
-

16.2
19.3
22.8

10.8
12.9
15.2

56
60

1821
2088

25.0
-

17.6
20.2

Note:

60

The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Refer Section 5.4
Shaded Lift Configurations are not recommended for "Offshore Boat Lifts"

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

Page 62

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C6
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF
TWO LEG , THREE LEG AND FOUR-LEG SLINGS
WITH 1770 GRADE WIRE AND FIBRE CORE WITH FERRULE-SECURED EYES
2

Choke hitch
Direct loaded
Round load

Other than
round load

Method of Loading

Included Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm
Ro

0 to 60

90

120

1.73
0.95
1

1.41
0.95
1

1
0.95
1

0 to 45

0 to 60

2
0.95
1

0 to 45

0 to 60

0.87
0.95
1

See Note Below

Rope
Nominal
diameter
mm

Minimum
breaking
force
kN

10
11
12

58
70.1
83.5

1.67
2.02
2.41

1.36
1.65
1.96

0.96
1.17
1.39

1.93
2.34
2.8

13
14
16

98.4
114
148

2.8
3.3
4.3

2.31
2.7
3.5

1.64
1.90
2.47

3.3
3.8
4.9

18
20
22

187
231
280

5.4
6.9
9.2

4.4
5.4
6.8

3.1
3.9
4.7

6.3
8.5
10.8

24
26
28

333
391
454

11.1
13.1
15.2

8.7
10.6
12.3

5.6
6.7
8.3

12.8
15.1
17.5

32
36
40

594
751
929

19.9
25.0
-

16.2
20.5
25.0

11.5
14.5
17.9

23.0
25.0
25.0

Safe Working Load, t

The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL),
44
1122
21.7
Refer Section 5.4
The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL),
Note:
Shaded
Lift Configurations are not recommended for Offshore Boat Lifts
refer to section 5.4
refer to section 5.4

REFER AS1666 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 63

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE C7
SAFE WORKING LOADS FOR "OFFSHORE BOAT LIFT" USE OF SLINGS
WITH GRADE T CHAIN
1

Single Leg Slings


Straight Adjustable Ree ve d
Sling
Sling
Sling

10

11

12

13

14

Slings of 2,3 or 4 le gs
Straight Sling

15

16

17

Endle ss Slings

Re eve d Sling

Baske t/Re e ved Sling

M e thod of Loading

Include d Angle (a)


Loading Factors
Rc
Rt
Rm

60

90

1
1
1

0.75
1
1

0.75
1
1

1.73
1
1

1.41
1
1

Ro

120

60

1
1.30
1
1
1
1
See Note Below

90

120

60

90

120

1.06
1
1

0.75
1
1

1.30
1
1

1.06
1
1

0.75
1
1

1.5
1
1

Chain
S ize (as des ignated by AS 2321) Minimum
Nonbreak ing
Temporary
preferred
force
(mm)
(mm)
(in)
kN

Safe Working Load, t

Preferred

10

126.0
158
197

2.21
2.77
3.46

3.8
4.8
5.9

3.1
3.9
4.8

2.21
2.7
3.4

1/2

203
213
248

3.57
3.7
4.3

6.2
6.6
8.2

5.0
5.2
6.1

3.5
3.7
4.3

5/8

317
322
408

5.5
5.6
7.6

11.4
11.6
15.2

8.7
8.9
12.0

5.5
5.6
7.6

3/4

457
503
621

9.0
10.4
13.1

17.3
19.4
25.0

13.7
15.2
19.5

9.0
10.4
13.1

631
724
786

13.3
15.6
17.2

19.9
23.6
25.0

13.3
15.6
17.2

811
917
986

17.8
20.7
22.6

17.8
20.7
22.6

11
12

13
14

16
18

20
22
24
25
1
27
28
30

Note:

1 1/4
1267
25.0
25.0
The operational Loading Factor, Ro, is determined as a function of lifting weight (SWL), Refer Section 5.4
Sling Types in shaded region are not recommended for Offshore Lifts

REFER AS3776 FOR ONSHORE/PLATFORM LIFTS

Page 64

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX D

DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 65

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

FIGURE D.1 RECOMMENDED DYNAMIC AMPLIFICATION FACTOR


(DAF)

3.2

Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF)

2.8

2.4

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0
0

10

15

20

25

Lifted Mass (tonnes)

Page 66

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX E

CONTAINER MARKING EXAMPLE

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 67

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

FIGURE E.1 INSPECTION DATA PLATE

215

35

180 (6 x 30)

10 mm LETTERING

INSPECTION DATA OFFSHORE CONTAINER

Container No.
Maximum Gross Mass
Tare Mass
Payload
Container
Intermediate deck

kg @
kg
kg
kg

deg. Sling angle

Owner:
Tel. No. +
+
+

250 mm

70 mm

TEST

PROOF LOAD

NDT

INTERVAL
AT
MANUFACTURE

6 YEAR TEST
DATE CERT NO

3 YEAR TEST
DATE CERT NO

VISUAL
INSPECTION
1 YEAR TEST
DATE CERT NO

AT
SITE

1.5 mm STAINLESS STEEL

5 mm LETTERING

Suggested plate incorporates ideas from international documents and local


requirements. All dimensions are shown in mm.

Page 68

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

FIGURE E.2 IDENTIFICATION PLATE

215 mm

5 mm LETTERING

10 mm LETTERING

OFFSHORE CONTAINER

150 mm

Name of Manufacturer
Month/year of Manufacture
Manufacturers serial No.
Maximum Gross Mass
Tare Mass
Payload
Container
Intermediate deck
Certificate of Conformity No.
Design Temperature

kg @
kg
kg
kg

deg. Sling angle

1.5 mm STAINLESS STEEEL

The suggested plate is in line with international document requirements.

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 69

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

FIGURE E.3

OPERATIONAL MARKING PLATE

200

2mm Stainless steel plate

6.4
90

T
Y

ID No

TW-SS01

OWNER

WOODSIDE

MANUFACTURER

DISON

DATE OF
MANUFACTURE
TYPE

12/96
OFFSHORE EQUIPMENT CONTAINER

All dimensions shown are in mm.

Page 70

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

FIGURE E.4 IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

Needs to be 75mm minimum lettering to comply with


international document requirements

VARIES

6.3

70
Mi

6.2

50
Mi

PW - SS01
All dimensions shown are in mm.

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 71

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Page 72

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX F

INSPECTION & TESTING REQUIREMENTS

____________________________________________________________________________
August 1999

Page 73

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.1
INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTING DEVICES
CERTIFIED
ITEM

REFERENCE

PROOF LOAD TEST

VISUAL

NDT
FREQUENCY

INSPECTION
Cranes
(The various types of cranes and
lifting appliances are listed in
AS 1418)

Overhead Padeyes

Forklift tynes

Mono rails

Note:

Page 74

1 Year

Onshore/Inshore:

AS 1418 (Parts 1 to 17)

AS 2550

MO 32

State Acts & Regulations

Manufacturers Specs
Offshore:

API Spec 2C

BS 2573

Lloyds Code for Lifting


Appliances in a Marine
Environment

Manufacturers Specs
AS1418.1 & .2
MO 32

1 Years *

AS 2359

P(SL)A AS1418.1 & .2

Subject to:

Visual inspection

Following Repairs
Subject to:
Visual inspection

Failure Mode
Analysis

NDT

Individual Company Program

Individual
Company Program

MO32 specifies every 5 years.

Initial Certification Test

LOAD
Varies from
SWL x 1.0 to
SWL x 2.2 depending
on type of Lifting
Device, as per
AS1418.

Individual State Regulations specify


every 12 months for some devices.

Subject to visual
inspection or every 3
years

Initial test and then subject to visual


inspection, NDT and individual
company program.

1.25 x SWL

1 Year

Subject to visual
inspection

Initial test and then subject to visual


inspection, NDT and individual
company program.

Subject to individual
company program

1 Years *

Initial NDT, then


subject to visual
inspection

Subject to individual company


program

* Certified Visual Inspection includes permanent marking of SWL

August 1999

1.25 x SWL

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.2
INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFTED EQUIPMENT
Notes:
1. This table applies to Lifted Equipment up to 25* tonnes Gross Weight that has a Certificate of Conformity.
2. Lifted Equipment should be tested using their own dedicated rigging gear (lifting set).
3. Lifted Equipment above 25* tonnes Gross Weight may be proof load tested as specified by the design engineer.
PROOF LOAD TEST

CERTIFIED
ITEM

REFERENCE

NDT

VISUAL

FREQUENCY

INSPECTION
Lifted Equipment
(Includes all types of offshore containers,
baskets, skids, skips, spreader beams,
spreader frames, workshops, lab
containers, specialised items such as
work boxes, drilling guide bases,
conductor casing joints, etc.)

APPEA

Tanks for Fluids


(Includes tanks/containers of all sizes for
both normal and dangerous cargoes)

APPEA

Personnel Baskets
(Including Dedicated Rigging)

APPEA

1 year

1 year

1 year

Initial Certification Test

Initial Certification Test

Every 3 years thereafter

Every 6 years thereafter

Following repairs to
structural members

Following repairs to
structural members

Subject to visual inspection

Subject to visual
inspection

Initial Certification Test

Initial Certification Test

Every 3 years thereafter

Every 6 years thereafter

Following repairs to
structural members

Following repairs to
structural members

Subject to visual inspection

Subject to Visual
Inspection

Initial Certification Test

Every 1 year

Subject to visual
inspection

N/A

Arbitrarily selected limit for Engineered Lifts

August 1999

Page 75

ONSHORE
LOAD

OFFSHORE
LOAD

GW: < 3t,


GW x 2
GW: 3-12t
GW + 3t
GW: 12-20t
GW x 1.25
GW: > 20t
GW + 5t
GW: < 3t,
GW x 2
GW: 3-12t
GW + 3t
GW: 12-20t
GW x 1.25
GW: > 20t
GW + 5t

GW x 2.5
over 4 lifting
points and
GW x 1.5
over 2 lifting
points

GW x 3.0

GW x 4.0

GW x 2.5
over 4 lifting
points and
GW x 1.5
over 2 lifting
points

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

TABLE F.3
INSPECTION AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RIGGING
Notes:
1.
Offshore containers shall have specifically designed lifting sets, which shall not be removed from the container except for replacement of the lifting set or for examination
of the container.
2.
For Safety Factors for Rigging Equipment used in Offshore Lifting Operations refer to section 5.4.
3.
Minimum chain diameter to be 10mm. For containers with Gross Weight more than 3500kg, the minimum chain diameter must be 13mm.
4.
Min. Wire Rope diameter to be 13mm. For containers with Gross Weight more than 3500kg, the minimum wire rope diameter must be 20mm.
PROOF LOAD TEST

CERTIFIED
ITEM

REFERENCE

VISUAL

NDT
FREQUENCY

INSPECTION

ONSHORE
LOAD

Loose Rigging
(Includes all types wire and
synthetic ropes, chains, links,
shackles, swivels, rings, sockets,
hammerlocks, etc)

APPEA

Lifting Sets
(Includes wire rope and chain
sets, complete with all
associated accessories)

APPEA

Crane Hooks

APPEA

Page 76

Not Required

3 monthly visual
inspections

Colour coding

Subject to visual
inspection

Initial Certification Test

Subject to company
program.

Subject to visual
inspection.

Initial Certification Test

Offshore Every 6
years as part of the
Lifted Equipment
Proof Load Test.

Every 2 years

Initial Certification Test

Subject to Visual
Inspection

Type test to
destruction by
Manufacturer

OFFSHORE
LOAD
Type test to
destruction by
Manufacturer

Visual inspection
each time before use.
1 year
as part of the container
inspection.

1 year

August 1999

It will be
necessary to
remove the sling
set and test
according to
Australian
Standards

50% x Rm x Rt x
MBL

Refer to
Manufacturer

Refer to
Manufacture

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX G

GUIDE TO AUSTRALIAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

August 1999

Page 77

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Table G1- Guide to Australian and International Standards


Note: This table is intended as a guide only. In many cases, requirements of International standards will be less onerous than Australian standards. Requirements less onerous
than Australian standards are not recommended to be adopted without specific Operator approval.

Aust/NZ No

Australian/New Zealand Title

ANSI Standard

British Standard
BS 5555
BS 464
BS 3226
BS 6072

AS ISO-1000
AS 1138

The International System of Units


Thimbles for Wire Rope

AS 1171

AS 1353

Non-Destructive Testing Magnetic


Particle Testing of Ferromagnetic
Products, Components and Structures
Flat Synthetic Webbing Slings

AS 1380

Fibre Rope Slings

AS 1418

Cranes (Including Hoists & Winches)

AS 1438

Wire - Coil Flat Slings

AS 1504

Fibre Rope - Three Strand Hawser


Laid
Structural Steel Welding

AS/NZS 1554
AS 1657

AS 1664

Page 78

Fixed Platforms, Walkways,


Stairways and Ladders - Design,
Construction and Installation
Aluminium Structures Code

BS 3481
BS 5053
BS 2052
BS 4921
BS 7648
BS 327
BS 357
BS 466
BS 1757
BS 2452
BS 2573
BS 2799
BS MA41
BS MA79
-

DNV Std
Rules for Marine Operations
Part 2 Chap 5
-

ISO Std
ISO 1000
-

Rules for Certification of


Lifting Appliances

AWS D1.1

BS 4870

A1264.1

BS 4592
BS 5395

AWS D1.2

BS 8118

ASME B30
API RP2D
Spec 2C

August 1999

APPEA

Aust/NZ No

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Australian/New Zealand Title

ANSI Standard

British Standard

DNV Std

ISO Std

BS CP118
AS 1666

Wire Rope Slings

ASME B30.9

BS 1290

AS 2089

Sheave Blocks of Maximum Lift 60


Tonne

AWS C3.8

AS 2317

Non-Destructive Testing for


Ultrasonic Testing of Fusion Welded
Joints in Carbon & Low Alloy Steel
Collared Eyebolts

BS 4018
BS 4344
BS 4536
BS MA47
BS EN 1714

AS 2207

ASME B18.15

BS 4278

AS 2318

Swivels for Hoists

AS 2319

Rigging Screws and Turnbuckles

BS 4429

AS 2321

Short Link Chain for Lifting


Purposes (Non Calibrated)

ASME B29

AS 2550 (1982)

Cranes Safe Use

ASME B30

BS 3113
BS 3458
BSEN 818-1
BS 6304
-

AS 2741

Shackles

AS 2759

Steel Wire Rope - Application Guide

AS 3569

Steel Wire Ropes

AS/NZS 3678

Structural Steel Hot Rolled Plates,


Floor Plates and Slabs
Structural Steel Part 1 : Hot Rolled
Bars and Sections
Structural Steel Part 2 : Welded I
Sections

AS/NZS 3679.1
AS/NZS 3679.2

August 1999

API RP9B
Spec 9A

SAE J763
SAE J1392
SAE J1442
-

BS 3551
BS 6994
BS 6210
BS 6570
BS 183
BS 302
BS 525
BS 7613

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5
Rules for Marine Operations
Part 2 Chap 5

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5
-

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5

Rules for Certification of


Lifting Appliances
Rules for Marine Operations
Part 2 Chap 5
-

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5

ISO 3578

BSEN 10210-2

Page 79

APPEA

Aust/NZ No

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Australian/New Zealand Title

AS 3775

Chain Slings Grade T

AS 3776

Lifting Components for Grade T


Chain Slings
Shank Hooks and Large Eye Hooks Maximum 25 Tonne
Mechanical Equipment - Steelwork

AS 3777
AS 3990

ANSI Standard

British Standard

ASME B29
-

BS 2902
BS 6968
-

ASME B30.10

BS 2903

AISC

AS 4100

Flat Pallets for Materials Handling


(1100mm x 1100mm suitable for use
in ISO Series 1 Freight Containers)
Steel Structures

AS 4142

Fibre Rope

AS B291

Lifting Rings & Links

BS 5950
BS 7608
DDENV 1993
DDENV 1994
BS 3810
BS 6637
BS M69
BS 5950
BS 7608
DDENV 1993
DDENV 1994
BSEN 698
BSEN 701
BSEN 1251
BS 7648
-

AS/NZS 3711.1

ANSI MH

AS/NZS 3711.4

Freight Containers:- Part 1


Classification, Dimensions & Ratings
Freight Containers:- Part 2
Terminology
Freight Containers:- Part 3 - Corner
Fittings
General Purpose Containers

AS/NZS 3711.5
AS/NZS 3711.6

AS 4048

AS/NZS 3711.2
AS/NZS 3711.3

Page 80

ASME MH

AISC

DNV Std

ISO Std

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5
Rules for Marine Operations
Part 2 Chap 5
Rules for Marine Operations
Part 2 Chap 5
-

ISO 445

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5

BS 3951

Rules for Marine Operations


Part 2 Chap 5
-

ISO 668 Amd.1

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 830 Amd.1,Amd.2

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1164 Cor.1

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1496.1 Amd.1

Thermal Containers

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1496.2

Tank Containers

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1496.3

August 1999

APPEA

Aust/NZ No

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Australian/New Zealand Title

ANSI Standard

British Standard

DNV Std

ISO Std

AS/NZS 3711.7

Dry Bulk Containers

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1496.4

AS/NZS 3711.8

Platform Containers

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 1496.5 Amd.1

AS/NZS 3711.9

Coding, Identification and Marking

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 6346 Amd.1

AS/NZS 3711.10

Handling and Securing

ANSI MH

BS 3951

ISO 3874 Amd.2

August 1999

Page 81

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

Page 82

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

APPENDIX H

GUIDELINES FOR THE PHASEOUT OF ISO SHIPPING


CONTAINERS OFFSHORE

August 1999

Page 83

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

PREAMBLE

The purpose of this document is to provide a guideline for the inspection and testing of ISO shipping
containers used in the offshore oil & gas industry. ISO shipping containers are not designed for use in
the offshore industry where dynamic lifting forces apply.
These guidelines will remain in force until the target phase out date of 31/12/2000 is reached. Whilst
this is an industry target date, individual companies may require that ISO containers be removed from
service at an earlier date. In the interim this document will provide guidance for the management of
ISO containers including inspection, de-rating and testing requirements.
For design and fabrication of replacement containers the requirements of the draft APPEA Guideline
for Lifting Equipment should be used. The following section is extracted from the referenced
document.

August 1999

Page 85

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

DOCUMENT SCOPE
Provision of procedures & guidelines to manage the use of ISO containers
used in the offshore industry.
The document provides guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of
ISO containers used in the transport of goods to and from offshore locations.
The use of the containers is to be managed in accordance with this document.
DOCUMENT SOURCE
& RECOGNITION

IDENTIFICATION OF
ISO CONTAINERS

CONTROLLED USE OF
ISO CONTAINERS

Much of the information contained within the documents on ISO Containers


has been reproduced from Woodside Energy Ltds (WEL), King Bay Supply
Base, Lifting Equipment Management System.
APPEA thank WEL for their contribution in permitting contents of their
documents to be reproduced herein.

ISO containers are the containers originally built for international shipping and
fitted with ISO Corner fittings and lifted in container ports, from these fittings,
with a purpose built spreader frame and special Twist-locks.
Most are 20ft in length although 10, 30 & 40ft lengths are also available.
NOTE: It is possible for purpose built offshore containers to have ISO Corner
fittings.
This is quite acceptable, provided that these are only used for securing during
transport and/or onshore/inshore lifting in accordance with onshore/inshore
container lifting guidelines as detailed in AS 3711.10:1993 Freight
Containers Handling and Securing and, are not used for offshore lifting.

Containers used in international shipping are controlled by the International


Convention for Safe Containers (CSC).
When the containers used in international and/or coastal shipping reach the
end of their service life, either through condition or a time life expiry they
are often sold off without current CSC compliance.
Any existing CSC compliance plate has no meaning in the offshore industry
except for a reference in de-rating the container as detailed within this
document.
The containers are designed and rated for use in still water ports and not for
offshore use where significant dynamic forces occur during lifting operations.

REFERENCE
MATERIAL

Page 86

Marine Orders, Part 44, Section 11


International Maritime Organization Circular 613 (to be replaced by Maritime
Safety Committee, Circular 860)
International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) IMO, 1982
DNV 2.7-1 Offshore Containers -Certification Notes.
AS3711.10 1993 - Freight Containers, Handling & Securing
APPEA Guideline For Lifting Equipment.

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

Typical ISO
Container
ISO corner
fitting

ALLOWABLE ISO
CONTAINER STYLES
& LENGTHS

Closed roof, ISO containers up to 20 ft. in length will be accepted for offshore
transportation subject to meeting requirements of this document.
Open top style, ISO containers and any ISO container over 20 ft in length will
not be accepted for offshore transportation.

MODIFICATIONS TO
ISO CONTAINERS

Any ISO container that has been modified from the original CSC design must
have engineering calculations to support the continued integrity of the
container.
Unlike a purpose built offshore container, which is designed to carry full load
on primary structure members, ISO containers rely on the integrity of wall
panels for primary strength.
Such modifications may include:
Addition of extra doorway
Alteration to length

PHASING OUT ISO


CONTAINERS FROM
OFFSHORE
INDUSTRY

Contractors currently utilizing ISO containers are expected to reduce the


number in use during the lead up to the phase out date and replace with
purpose built offshore shipping containers.
Advice regarding standards and guidelines to be followed for new designs will
be issued to the Australian offshore oil & gas industry by APPEA in
Guideline for Lifting Equipment currently in draft form.
An extract from the draft APPEA Guideline is included on Page 2 of this
document.

August 1999

Page 87

APPEA

COMMENTARY ON
LIFTING POINTS

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

Even in a still water port situation, ISO shipping containers cannot be


lifted from the ISO Corner fittings by shackles and slings. This applies
even when empty.
Lifting with spreader frames as used in port situations is not allowed in
offshore lifting operations. Refer to clause 2.2 of IMO 613 (referred to in
Marine Orders Part 44.)

NOTE: IMO 613 will be replaced by a new Maritime Safety Committee


document Guidelines for the Approval of Offshore Containers Handled in
Open Seas. (MSC Circular 860) This document further emphasises that ISO
corner fittings are not to be used for lifting in offshore transport operations.
ISO containers used in the offshore industry should have padeyes that are
purpose built. Refer to Padeyes below.

Shackles in ISO
Corner fittings are not
permitted.

PADEYE
REQUIREMENTS

Page 88

Although not generally required when


container is down-rated, lifting with special
lifting beams will be allowed during phase out.
Must be fitted to padeyes as shown.

The installation of padeyes must be carried out in accordance with good


engineering practices.
Design by qualified structural engineer.
Design verification by independent engineer, who has not been involved
in the design.
Carry MGW on 2 of four padeyes.
Align to centre of gravity of the load to provide for the angle of the lifting
forces to be 45 degrees from the vertical.
Shackle pin hole to be +3mm or, not greater than 4% more than the
shackle pin diameter.
Width of padeye to be equal to 75% of the opening of shackle to be fitted.
This may be accomplished by fitting bosses to padeye.
Material trace-ability.
Documented welding procedures (To AS1554, AWSD1.1 etc.)
Welder qualification trace-ability.
NDT inspection of all welding associated with padeyes.
NOTES:
1. The installation of padeyes MUST have engineering trace-ability.
2. DNV 2.7-1 provides full details of padeye design and material
requirements and designers are encouraged to use the DNV document as a
guide.

August 1999

APPEA

ALLOWABLE MGW
(Maximum Gross
Weight)

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

ISO Containers used in the offshore industry where significant dynamic forces
occur during lifting from supply vessels must be significantly de-rated.
Subject to satisfactory inspections as per Page 7, ISO container use, up to the
phase out date, will be allowed under the following conditions:
De-rated by multiplying original CSC Maximum Gross Weight (or Mass)
x 2 and dividing the figure by 5.
E.g. A 24 tonne MGW container x times 2 = 48 tonnes divided by 5 = 9.6
tonnes MGW.

MARKING
REQUIREMENTS

All ISO containers, original or modified, shall have:


A stenciled marking beside the CSC data plates indicating Not
Applicable. The plate should remain to indicate the original MGW that is
used in the de-rating formula above.
Marking plates are required for:
Operational Marking Plate (Tare, Nett & Gross)
Test Plate (date of test and inspections)
NOTE: Refer to pages 9 & 10 for details of plates.
Other marking requirements
Each container should be marked with a unique identification number
issued by the owner.
Notes:
1. The above number should be cross-referenced on all relevant
documentation.
2. The number should be prominently displayed on a minimum of 2 sides of
the container in contrasting colours with stenciled characters of not less
than 75 mm in height.

FORKLIFT POCKETS

ISO Containers often have more than 1 set of forklift pockets. Extreme caution
should be used when lifting a laden ISO container from the forklift pockets.
If there are two sets, with one set being close to the centre of the container, the
inner set are designed for Empty lifting only. These words must be stenciled
on the base frame adjacent to forklift pockets when such forklift pockets are
installed. Stenciling to be 75mm in height.
There are instances where ISO containers have been modified and appear to
have useable forklift pockets on more than two sides, this can be a dangerous
situation as forklift pockets have been found that have the fork tynes bearing
on a plywood floor. Check before using and at scheduled inspection.

SLINGS

Sling sets may be chain or wire rope.


Four sling assemblies are preferred
Minimum sling angle of 60 degrees to horizontal.
Chain used in stingers (or 5th leg) must meet ISO 3076, or ISO 7593
standards.
Note: The use of stingers is discouraged as the redundancy in a 4 leg assembly
is lost.

SHACKLES

Shackles must be:


Grade S minimum
Safety pin type with split pin fitted

August 1999

Page 89

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

CONTAINER
INSPECTIONS

ISO containers must receive a Thorough Visual Inspection both annually and
prior to any load testing.
NDT Inspection of padeyes and floor support structure is to be carried out
annually and prior to load testing.
All Thorough Visual Inspections and NDT must be recorded in a lifting
equipment database.

THOROUGH VISUAL
& NDT INSPECTIONS

ANNUAL
REQUIREMENT

Page 90

Door latching mechanisms in good working order (where applicable)


Container is free from obvious defects, corrosion, impact damage, cracks,
etc.
Under-floor support structure inspection. The floor support structure is
very light in an ISO container and is prone to extensive corrosion and
cracking when used in the offshore environment.
Place container on supports to allow full inspection of underside and
ensure adequate lighting.
Look for corrosion and/or any cracking.
It may be necessary to sand blast corroded steel to allow full inspection.
Suspected areas of cracking to have NDT inspections carried out.
Steelwork that has suffered significant (greater than 10%) metal loss
through corrosion is to be replaced.
Complete structure to be examined for corrosion, cracking, and impact
damage. Particular attention is to be given to inspection of lifting points
and corner post assemblies.
Visually inspect all welds for defects.
NDT all welds in padeye area. (NATA accredited NDT contractor
required)
Inspect for signs of mechanical damage.
Doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks should be examined and functionally
checked to ensure satisfactory operation without undue force.
Check floor is substantially flat with no signs of damage or other
indications that may indicate overloading. Any internal floor damage may
indicate underside damage- re-check.
Marking Plates should be as per requirements of this document (pages 9
& 10).

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

VISUAL INSPECTORS
KNOWLEDGE
REQUIREMENTS

The visual inspector should have, as a minimum, a knowledge and adequate


practical experience of:
The statutory requirements relating to containers.
The provisions of DNV 2.7-1 (to be used as a guide only as ISO
containers do not comply with offshore container standards).
The various types of containers in service.
The correct methods of slinging and handling the containers.
The loads affecting containers when handled under adverse offshore
conditions, particularly those affecting lifting points and, in the case of
ISO containers used offshore, the floor support structure.
The methods of testing containers as detailed in Maritime Safety.
Committee circular 860 or, DNV2.7-1 Offshore Container, Certification
Notes.
Defects likely to be found in containers and acceptable levels of wear,
distortion and deterioration in relation to safety in use.
Welding methods and procedures and qualification of welders.
The various methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) and a good
understanding of how they work and their limitations
Procedures for measuring container to ensure distortion has not occurred
during service or load testing.

TESTING AN ISO
CONTAINER

As all ISO containers will be phased from the Australian offshore oil & gas
out by 30/12/99 it is proposed that any containers currently in use undergo the
following load test (subject to satisfying inspection requirements) which
would see them through to phase out date.
Testing of container as per Testing Requirements as detailed in IMO
613 & MSC 860. (Drop test will not be required)

TESTING
PROCEDURES

Prior to load testing, carry out Thorough Visual Inspection as detailed within
this document.
(There is no value in testing a container that has defects)
4 Point Lifting Test:
Internal Load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load,
such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 2.5 times
the de-rated MGM.
The container should be lifted with its lifting set attached to all four padeyes.
2 Point Lifting Test:
Internal load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load
such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 1.5 times
the de-rated MGM. It may be necessary to secure the weights to prevent
slippage during testing
The container should be lifted with slings attached to two diagonally opposite
padeyes during the test.
Drop Test:
IMO 613 and DNV 2.7-1 require that containers be drop tested when
approving type designs. APPEA does not require that ISO design containers be
drop tested but the requirement will need to be met when type testing future
new container designs.

August 1999

Page 91

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

ALLOWABLE
DEFLECTION
DURING &
SUBSEQUENT TO
LOAD TESTING

COMMENTS ON
DEFLECTION
LIMITS

Allowable deflection limits are detailed within DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes
Offshore Containers.
Refer to sections 3.7.1.2 & 3.7.1.3 of referenced DNV document.

Where deflection exceeds the maximum allowable limit, the container should
be scrapped.

Offshore Container Identification Plate

OFFSHORE CONTAINER
Name of Manufacturer (if known)
Month/year of Manufacture (if known)
Manufacturers Serial No. (if known)
Maximum Gross Weight
Kg at
Tare Weight
Kg
Payload
Container
Kg

IDENTIFICATION
PLATE MATERIAL &
SIZE
REQUIREMENTS

Page 92

deg sling angle

Plates to be of stainless steel, 1 .5 mm thick


Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium)
215 mm overall width
150 mm overall height
Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height
Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

Offshore Container Inspection Data Plate


INSPECTION DATA-OFFSHORE CONTAINER
Container No.
Maximum Gross Weight
Kg
Tare Weight
Kg
Payload - Container
Kg
Mid- deck (Not Applicable to ISO containers)
Owner:
Tel. No. +

Test

Proof Load

NDT

Visual Inspection

INTERVAL
DATE &
TESTED BY

ONCE ONLY

1 YEAR

1 YEAR

Note: The inspection frequencies shown above only apply to ISO containers
INSPECTION DATA
PLATE MATERIAL &
SIZE
REQUIREMENTS

August 1999

Plate to be of stainless steel, 1 .5 mm thick


Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium)
215 mm overall width
250 mm overall height
Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height
Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

Page 93

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Phase Out of ISO Containers

OK
CHECK LIST.

REVIEW PRIOR TO
ISSUING A TEST
CERTIFICATE

Container was placed on supports and a full


underside inspection carried out.

Container has no significant corrosion and/or structural fault


affecting integrity
Container floor is in sound condition

NDT of padeye welds and floor support structure


has not revealed any cracking (or repairs have
been effected)

Padeyes are fitted to the container


Padeyes have engineering design drawings available
Padeye design complies with the requirements of this
document.
Container has been de-rated as per requirements of this
document
Container has been load tested as per requirements of this
document
There is no permanent distortion of the container following
load testing
Forklift pocket marking is as per the requirements of this
document and the pockets are in a good and safe condition.
Where a 5th leg is used in a chain sling assembly, the chain in
the 5th leg must meet ISO3076 standards for lifting chain.
Engineering drawings and structural analysis support any
modifications. All such modifications should have
independent design verification.

Page 94

August 1999

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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment

APPENDIX I

GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION, TESTING AND


MARKING OF OFFSHORE CONTAINERS

August 1999

Page 95

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

PREAMBLE
The purpose of these guidelines is to address integrity requirements for existing offshore containers.
The guideline does not address requirements for new container fabrication. For information on new container
fabrication, refer to APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment
Neither do these guidelines address concerns with the use of ISO containers within the offshore industry. For
ISO container management, refer to the APPEA Guideline for the Phase Out of ISO Shipping Containers.
These guidelines will provide guidance to lifting equipment testing facilities on consistent minimum quality
requirements for testing offshore containers.
APPEA encourages all offshore container owners and their agents to utilise inspection services that have been
accredited by NATA (or equivalent overseas organisations) to carry out inspections and/or tests in accordance
with this guideline.
If the required documentation needed to obtain a Certificate of Conformity as detailed within this guideline
is not available to support the integrity of the container to be inspected and/or tested, the container should not
be approved for offshore use. This may require that engineering drawings be developed and calculations
carried out to verify the design of the container as being fit for intended service. Without all required
information, a Certificate of Conformity should not be given for the container.

Page 96

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

DOCUMENT SCOPE

Provide guidelines for the inspection, testing and marking of a wide


range of containers, baskets, skips etc. used in the offshore oil & gas
industry.

INTRODUCTION

The range of shapes, sizes and capacity of containers used in the


offshore industry makes it difficult to specify all requirements that need
to be met for each individual design.
This document will provide specifics on some matters affecting safety
of containers whilst other areas may offer guidance only.
It is the joint responsibility of both the equipment owner and the
inspection and/or testing facility to ensure that all containers used
within the offshore industry are fit for the intended service.

REFERENCE
MATERIAL

Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Marine Orders, Part 44, Section


11
International Maritime Organization Circular 613 (to be replaced by
Maritime Safety Committee, Circular 860)
DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes for Offshore Containers
APPEA Guidelines for Lifting Equipment IMDG Code
PrEN12079. Offshore Containers Design, construction, testing,
inspection and marking.
Petroleum Submerged Lands Act P(SL)A
ZOCA Regulations

COMMENTS ON
DESIGN OF
OFFSHORE
CONTAINERS

APPEA has recognised that there are many containers in use within the
Australian offshore oil & gas industry that may not be correctly
engineered for the service.
The guidelines and procedures provided in this document will assist in
ensuring that every container used within the industry has engineering
drawings and design calculations to support the Maximum Gross
Weight indicated on the container.
Without the required documentation the testing facility will have no
ready method of determining if the Maximum Gross Weight (MGW)
nominated by the owner, is in fact a safe working load to be applied.
New containers being fabricated will be to more stringent guidelines
and will be built to recognised standards such as DNV 2.7-1. This will
automatically provide the quality that this document seeks to introduce
to existing containers.

JUSTIFICATION OF
ALLOWABLE MGW
(Maximum Gross
Weight) OF EXISTING
CONTAINERS

Existing containers may well need to be down-rated due to the more


stringent testing now required.
It is recommended that container owners carry out a review of existing
design MGW ratings to ensure that the container(s) will meet the
testing requirements of 2.5 times MGW.
It may be necessary to revise the container MGW and to update
drawings as required, indicating new ratings.

August 1999

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APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

PADEYE
REQUIREMENTS

One of the most critical areas in the fabrication of an offshore container is the
padeyes and their attachment to the container. For this reason APPEA requires
that the following be met on all offshore containers.
The installation of padeyes must be carried out in accordance with good
engineering practices.
No bolted on padeyes are permitted
Padeyes must be welded to the primary structure of the container
Note: For existing containers of mono-coque construction, a detailed
engineering assessment of the padeye connection is required.
Design carried out by a qualified structural engineer and checked by an
independent engineer.
For design purposes, the design load is to be carried on two diagonally
opposite padeyes.
Align to centre of gravity of the loaded container.
Shackle pin hole to be +3mm or, not greater than 4% more than the
shackle pin diameter
Width of padeye to be equal to 75% of the opening of shackle to be fitted.
This may be accomplished by fitting bosses (cheek plates) to padeye.
Material traceability where appropriate material with through thickness
properties is to be specified. (Lamellar Defects)
Documented welding procedures (To AS1554, AWSD1.1 etc.)
Welder qualification trace-ability
NDT inspection of welding by MPI for all fillet welds & a combination of
Ultra Sonic and MPI for full penetration welds. (NATA to assist with text)
NOTES:
1. The installation of padeyes MUST have engineering trace-ability.
2. DNV 2.7-1 provides full details of container design and material
requirements and designers are encouraged to use the DNV document as a
guide.

GENERAL DESIGN
REQUIREMENTS

Mono-coque construction is not to be used in new offshore container


fabrication and/or designs. i.e.: A Primary structure is required.
For all other design requirements for new offshore containers, refer to
DNV2.7-1 Certification Notes Offshore Containers.

.
MARKING
REQUIREMENTS

All Offshore containers shall have:


Marking plates for:
Operational Marking Plate (Tare, Nett & Gross)
Test Plate (date of tests and inspections)
Other marking requirements
Each container should be marked with a unique identification number
issued by the owner.
Notes:
1. The above referenced unique number should be cross-referenced on all
relevant documentation, including the Certificate of Conformity.
2. The number should be prominently displayed on at least 2 sides of the
container in contrasting colours with stenciled characters of not less than
75 mm in height.

Page 98

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

COMMENTS ON
LOAD TESTING OF
OFFSHORE
CONTAINERS

The load test requirements for offshore containers used in Australian waters
have traditionally been taken from Marine Orders Part 32 as published by the
Australian Maritime Safety Authority.
The APPEA lifting equipment guideline committee have recognised that this
table is not suited to offshore containers and further recognise that it is the
requirements of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) that must be
applied.
IMO have issued a circular (613) that details testing requirements for offshore
containers.
This circular, referenced in Marine Orders part 44, paragraph 11 is to be
replaced by circular 860. (Both circulars have similar wording.)

LOAD TESTING

Prior to load testing, carry out Thorough Visual Inspection as detailed within
this document.
(There is no value in testing a container that has defects)
4 Point Lifting Test:
Internal Load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load,
such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 2.5 times
the rated MGW.
The container should be lifted with its lifting set attached to all four padeyes.
2 Point Lifting Test:
Internal load (not to be hung under container): a uniformly distributed load
such that the combined tare of the container and test load is equal to 1.5 times
the rated MGW.
The container should be lifted with slings attached to two diagonally opposite
padeyes during the test.

DOCUMENTATION
REQUIREMENTS
PRIOR TO
LOAD-TESTING

The following requirements apply to any offshore container including baskets,


bottle racks, waste skips, completion baskets, workshops, stores and any other
structure used to transport goods to and from offshore facilities.
Prior to any container being load tested, the testing facility is required to make
all practical effort to ensure that the container is designed for the intended
loading and service.
The equipment owner is required to provide the testing facility with either a
classification society (e.g. DNV) approval for the container or, engineering
drawings and a full design package completed by an engineer experienced in
the design of offshore containers.

August 1999

Page 99

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

COMMENTARY ON
CLASSIFICATION
SOCIETY APPROVED
OFFSHORE
CONTAINERS

When a container with class society certification is presented to a NATA


accredited facility for inspection and/or load testing, the facility is not required
to verify the design.
The NATA accredited facility can proceed with load testing the container and
issue the Certificate of Conformity on the strength of the Class Society
Certification approval and the satisfactory load test.
The engineering drawings and design calculations detailed below are not
required to be presented to the inspection and/or testing facility for a class
society approved container.
Maintaining class society certification will provide acceptance of the container
at other locations throughout the world.

NATA ACCREDITED
FACILTY
RESPONSIBILITIES

When a container is presented to a NATA accredited facility for inspection


and testing according to APPEA requirements, the facility management must
recognise that they are playing a major role in ensuring the safety of offshore
containers.

ALLOWABLE
DEFLECTION
DURING &
SUBSEQUENT TO
LOAD TESTING

Allowable deflection limits are detailed within DNV 2.7-1 Certification notes
Offshore Containers.
Refer to sections 3.7.1.2 7 3.7.1.3 of referenced DNV document.

COMMENTS ON
DEFLECTION
LIMITS

Where deflection exceeds the maximum allowable limit, the container should
be either, down-rated, repaired or scrapped.

Page 100

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

INFORMATION TO
BE INCLUDED IN
ENGINEERING
INFORMATION

As a minimum the engineering design drawings, calculations and


specifications supplied by the container owner (when container is not
class society approved) to the inspection and/or testing facility should
include:

Name of qualified design engineer.


Name of verifying engineer (Design to be verified by an
independent engineer)
Specification for materials to be used in fabrication
Design Tare, Nett & Maximum Gross Weight rating
Welding specifications, consumables and weld procedures to be
used
All welding to be continuous fillet weld (except where otherwise
specified) with size of weld to be equal to the thickness of the steel
being welded or 6mm whichever is the lesser.
Notes:
1. The welding methods, procedures and personnel qualifications,
details, workmanship, quality and inspection should be specified to
be in accordance with a recognised standard
Material traceability requirements (Critical for padeyes and plates
to which padeyes attach and important for primary structure
members)
NDT Inspection requirements at time of fabrication.
Note:
Whilst not all the following NDT work may have been carried out on
an older container, the NDT on padeye welds is considered to be
critical requirement
1. Wall and floor welds to have 100% visual only.
2. Padeye butt welds 100% UT/RT (prior to load test)
3. Padeye fillet welds - 100% UT/ RT (prior to load test)
4. Padeye butt & fillet welds 100% MPI after load test
Re-weld to have 20% inspection as per original (NATA to assist)
Padeyes must be aligned to the centre of gravity of the load.
Padeyes must tie into the primary structure
Padeye hole to be 3mm or not more than 4% greater than shackle
pin diameter.
Padeye width to be 75% (minimum) of opening of shackle pin
diameter. This may require that bosses be welded to padeye plate.
Design of lifting set to be attached.
Details of surface preparation prior to apply surface coatings
Details of coatings to be applied to container

August 1999

Page 101

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

SLINGS

Sling sets may be chain or wire rope.


Six sling assemblies are not allowed
Chain used in stingers (or 5th leg) must meet ISO 3076, or ISO 7593
standards.

SHACKLES

Shackles must be:


Grade S minimum
Safety pin type with split pin fitted
Bow shackles are preferred

CONTAINER
INSPECTIONS

Containers must receive a Thorough Visual Inspection both annually and


prior to any load testing.
NDT Inspection of padeyes and floor support structure is to be carried out
every 3 years and prior to load testing.
All Thorough Visual Inspections and NDT inspections must be recorded
in a lifting equipment database.

THOROUGH VISUAL
& NDT INSPECTION
REQUIREMENTS

ANNUAL
REQUIREMENT

Page 102

Container is free from obvious defects, significant corrosion, impact


damage, cracks, etc.
Under-floor support structure inspection.
Place container on supports to allow full inspection of underside and
ensure adequate lighting.
Look for extensive corrosion and/or any cracking.
It may be necessary to sand blast corroded steel to allow full inspection.
Suspected areas of cracking to have NDT inspections carried out.
Steelwork that has suffered metal loss of 10% or greater through
corrosion, is to be replaced.
Note: This may require UT checks to quantify metal loss.
Complete structure to be examined for corrosion, cracking, and impact
damage. Particular attention is to be given to inspection of lifting points,
under-side members and corner post assemblies.
Visually inspect all welds for defects.
NDT all welds in padeye area. (3 yearly)NATA to advise type of NDT
NDT a minimum of three each, selected under-floor structural welds
Inspect for signs of mechanical damage.
Doors, frames, seals, hinges, locks should be examined and functionally
checked to ensure satisfactory operation without undue force.
Check floor is substantially flat with no signs of damage or other
indications that may indicate overloading. Any internal floor damage may
indicate underside damage- re-check.
Marking Plates should be as per requirements of this document.

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

TESTING OF
WORKSHOP
CONTAINERS,
LOGGING UNITS
ETC.

In the past, it has proven most difficult (if not impossible) to fit the required
test weights into containers that have work benches, shelving etc.
It is also impossible to fit weights into many logging units and other container
style cabins that either are full of specialised equipment used by service
companies or, only have personnel access doors.
In the case of these units APPEA has considered several options & other
interested parties have put forward options for ensuring on-going integrity.
Hanging weights under the container does little to verify the integrity and the
weights can generally only be suspended from the strongest points. This does
nothing for ensuring integrity of lesser structural members.
APPEA therefore proposes that more stringent inspection requirements apply
to these units in lieu of any load testing.

6 YEARLY
INSPECTION OF
WORKSHOP
CONTAINERS,
LOGGING UNITS
ETC.

Where test weights cannot be evenly distributed across the floor area of any
container, logging unit etc. the following inspection methods shall be used to
ensure the on-going integrity of the equipment.
These requirements shall be additional to the ANNUAL INSPECTION
requirements as detailed on page 9
Note: This method of integrity assurance will be in lieu of load testing and will
only be carried out by NATA accredited NDT inspection facilities.
Place container on racks to allow full underside inspection.
Note: Do NOT walk underneath containers suspended by forklift or cranes.
Abrasive blast 25% of under-floor welds.
Carry out MPI on all welds cleaned by blasting
If any cracking of welds or structural members is identified, abrasive blast
a further 25% and test as described above.
Where continued cracking is found in the additional welds cleaned that
have been cleaned for inspection, the underside should be completely
abrasive cleaned and all welds inspected by MPI method.
Carry out UT testing of 50% of under-side structural members.
Note: If any metal loss of > 10% is detected, the remaining structural
members shall also be UT checked for metal loss.
Carry out repairs as required using approved welding procedures,
qualified welders and trace-able materials equivalent to the original
structure members as detailed on the engineering drawings.
Carry out MPI on all weld repairs and rectify any faults detected.
Re-coat underside of container with a suitable coating for the offshore
environment.
NATA endorsed facility shall provide the equipment owner with a stick
diagram of the container underside. The diagram shall identify members
and joints inspected.
The equipment owner should ensure that all QA documents relating to
repairs carried out are complied and retained on file for future reference.

Note: Whilst the abrasive blast requirements may, at first seem to be quite
extensive, it will, in most cases be advantageous as many containers will
require re-application of coatings (particularly underneath) at the end of 6
years and this work will fit well with that requirement.

August 1999

Page 103

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

VISUAL INSPECTOR
KNOWLEDGE
REQUIREMENTS

The inspector must have, as a minimum, a knowledge and adequate practical


experience of:
The statutory requirements relating to containers.
The provisions of DNV 2.7-1
The various types of containers in service.
The correct methods of slinging and handling the containers.
The loads, stresses and strains affecting containers when handled under
adverse offshore conditions.
The methods of testing containers as detailed in Maritime Safety.
Committee circular 860 or, DNV2.7-1 Offshore Container, Certification
Notes.
Defects likely to be found in containers and acceptable levels of wear,
distortion and deterioration in relation to safety in use.
Welding methods and procedures and qualification of welders.
The various methods of non-destructive examination (NDE) and a good
understanding of how they work and their limitations
Techniques for measuring container to ensure distortion has not occurred
during service or load testing.

Offshore Container Identification Plate


OFFSHORE CONTAINER
Name of Manufacturer
Month/year of Manufacture
Manufacturers Serial No.
Maximum Gross Weight
Tare Weight
Payload
Container
Intermediate Deck Kg
Certificate of Conformity No.
Design Temperature

IDENTIFICATION
PLATE MATERIAL &
SIZE
REQUIREMENTS

Page 104

Kg at
Kg
Kg

deg sling angle

Degrees C

Plate to be of stainless steel, approximately 1 .5 mm thick


Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium)
215 mm overall width
150 mm overall height
Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height
Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

Offshore Container Inspection Data Plate

INSPECTION DATA-OFFSHORE CONTAINER


Container No.
Maximum Gross Weight (wt)
Tare Weight
Payload - Container
Mid- deck

Kg at
deg, Sling angle
Kg
Kg
Kg (Where Applicable)

Owner:
Tel. No. +

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

DATE:

DATE:

DATE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TEST TYPE:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

TESTED BY:

INSPECTION DATA
PLATE MATERIAL &
SIZE
REQUIREMENTS

August 1999

Plate to be of stainless steel, approximately 1 .5 mm thick


Affixed with stainless steel rivets (not aluminium)
215 mm overall width
250 mm overall height (approx.)
Main heading alpha characters to be stamped 10mm in height
Other alpha & numeric characters 5mm in height

Page 105

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

CERTIFICATE OF
CONFORMITY

At the completion of inspection, testing and marking compliance work the


NATA endorsed Certificate of Conformity (developed by APPEA in
conjunction with NATA) will be issued by a NATA accredited facility
In signing and approving the issue of a Certificate of Conformity the NATA
accredited facility will be advising the owners, users & transporters of the
container that the unit is fit for intended service.
Where doubt exists, the NATA facility should seek clarification from a
registered structural engineer, who is experienced in container design.
The Certificate of Conformity will remain current for the life of the container
provided no structural alterations are made.
Any structural alterations will require the container to be re-assessed and a
new Certificate of Conformity to be issued.

ONGOING
INSPECTION & TEST
REPORTS

Page 106

Ongoing, in-service reports will include the following as appropriate:


Visual Inspection Reports
Load Test Reports
Non Destructive Testing Reports

August 1999

APPEA

Guidelines for Lifting Equipment - Inspection, Testing and Marking of Offshore Containers

OK
REQUIREMENTS TO
BE MET PRIOR TO
ISSUING A
CERTIFICATE of
CONFORMITY

August 1999

Engineering drawings have been reviewed by either:


A Classification Society (e.g. DNV, ABS, Lloyds etc.)
An independent Qualified Engineer
NATA accredited facilities qualified engineer.
Drawings meet the requirements detailed within this
document.
Container was placed on supports and a full underside
inspection carried out.
Container has no significant corrosion and/or structural fault
affecting integrity
Container floor is in sound condition
Engineering drawings and structural analysis support any
modifications.
Padeyes are fitted to the container
Padeyes have engineering design drawings available
Padeye design complies with the requirements of this
document.
Container has been de-rated as per requirements of this
document
Container has been load tested as per requirements of this
document
There is no permanent distortion of the container following
load testing (Refer to DNV 2.7-1, section 37.1.2 & 3.7.1.3)
Forklift pockets marking is as per the requirements of this
document.
No grade T chain is used in 5th leg of a 5 leg assembly where
is there is no redundancy
NDT of padeye welds, structural member welds and floor
support structure has not revealed any cracking (or repairs
have been effected)

Page 107

No