Anda di halaman 1dari 15

ABSTRAK

Sistem penginderaan manusia adalah sistem organ yang dikhususkan untuk


menerima rangsangan tertentu yang terdiri dari indera penglihatan, indera
pendengar, indera penciuman, dan indera pengecap, dan keseimbangan. Semua
indra mempunyai peran dan fungsi masing-masing dalam tubuh manusia. Dan
apabila terjadi gangguan pada salah satu sistem indra di atas, maka akan terjadi
ketidakseimbangan dan ketidakmampuan pada aktivitas yang dilakukan manusia
sehubungan dengan fungsi sistem indra tersebut.
1. Organ penglihatan yaitu mata berfungsi untuk menerima rangsangan berkas
cahaya pada retina dengan perantaraan serabut nervus optikus,
menghantarkan rangsangan ini kepusat penglihatan pada otak untuk
ditafsirkan.
2. Suara dapat terdengar melalui proses yang terjadi di telinga. Telinga memiliki
tiga bagian yaitu telinga luar, telinga tengah dan telinga dalam. Kelainan atau
penyakit yang sering terjadi pada indra pendengaran adalah otitis media akut.
3. Indera peraba membuat manusia dapat merasakan sentuhan, nyeri, dan suhu.
4. Fungsi alat pengecap merasakan makanan dan juga sebagai alat reflek
susunan saliva (kelenjar ludah).
5. Sistem pengecapan dilakukan oleh organ lidah. Papila filiformis lebih
berfungsi untuk menerima rasa sentuhan dari rasa pengecapan yang
sebenarnya. Selaput 17 papila langit-langit dan faring juga bermuatan putingputing pengecap. Masalah yang sering terjadi pada daerah hidung adalah
polip.
6. Sistem keseimbangan tubuh manusia berada di nervus auditori yang ada pada
telinga, yang berfungsi mengumpulkan sensibiltitas dan bagi vestibuler
rongga telingadalam yang mempunyai hubungan dengan keseimbangan.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Definition
The sensory system is a group of subsystems used for detecting and
understanding the world around you. The sensory system is a part of the
nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory
system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain
involved in sensory perception. The system is stimulated by sensory
receptors; these are the organs which trigger action potentials on a sensory
neuron in response to a specific type of stimulus. There are three basic
classifications of sensory receptors. The first is somatic receptors: receptors in
the skin, muscles, and tendons. Secondly, the visceral receptors. These are
receptors in the internal organs. Finally, special receptors are the receptors
positioned in specific locations.
B. Anatomy and Phisiology
Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, auditory
(hearing), somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and
vestibular (balance/movement).
1. Vision
The visual system is responsible for a persons sight; detecting light,
darkness, and color. The primary organs involved in sight are the eyes.
The eyes have many different components which allow them to perform
the remarkable task of providing visual imagery. The parts of the eye are
assorted and equally varied in their purposes.

Part of the eye:


Cornea
Cornea is the tissue which covers the area of the eye over the

pupil and allows light to enter; it is therefore transparent.


Iris
Iris is identifiable as being the colorful portion of the eye;
however it serves a higher purpose than just giving the eye its beauty.
The iris controls the amount of light which enters into the eye. It is
composed of smooth muscle which will constrict (condense) in bright

light and dilate (expand) in dim light.


Pupil
The pupil is the black colored portion of the eye directly below
the iris. The pupil will appear to grow larger and smaller, but, as stated
previously, this is an illusion produced by the iriss constriction and

dilation.
Lens
Light enters the eye through the lens. The lens focuses light

before it passes to the retina, covering the back of the eye.


Retina
The retina is full of blood vessels and also houses
photoreceptors called rods and cones. There are about 120 million
rods and 7 million cones located in the retina of each eye. There is one

portion of the retina called the optic disk which has no photoreceptors.
This is the part of the eye where the blood vessels enter the eye. It is
also where the axons of the neuron in the eye exit to join the optic
nerve, sending signals to the brain. This hole in the retina results in a
blind spot in the eye. The brain automatically compensates for this
blind spot and fills it in. The portion of the eye that gives us the
sharpest image is the fovea centralis. This is located in a small pit in
the macula lutea, a small yellow spot in the center of the retina.
There are three main steps to an eye processing an image. First, the
light focuses on the retina where it stimulates the photoreceptors. Second,
the photoreceptors have a reaction to the stimulus. Third, action potentials
are created as result of the stimulus that are sent to the visual cortex, where
they are interpreted.
2. Auditory
Sound can be heard through a process which occurs in the ear. The ear
has three main sections: the outer, the middle, and the inner ear. Sound
waves are vibrations in the air. These vibrations journey down the
auditory canal and vibrate the tympanic membrane, the end of the external
ear. When the tympanic membrane begins to citrate, it converts the
original vibrations of the air to vibrations of the membrane. From there,
the tympanic membranes vibrations trigger the first of the three auditory
ossicles: the malleus.

Part of the ears:


The Malleus
The malleus is connected through a tiny joint to the incus, which
is attached to the stapes, both of which vibrate in their turn as result of
the vibrations of the bone preceding them. When the stapes vibrates, it

vibrates the flexible oval window.


The Oval Windows
The oval window acts as a wall to keep the fluid from the inner
war from leaking into the air-filled middle ear. The oval window leads

to the scala vestibuli, a tube filled with a fluid called perilymph.


The Scala Vestibuli
The scala vestibuli reaches to the tip of the cochlea where it
connects to another tube called the scala tympani, which also contains
perilymph, via a junction called the helicotrema. The scala tympani
curves all the way back around to reach the round window, just
underneath the oval window. The scala vestibuli and the scala tympani
are separated down the center by two membranes: the vestibular
membrane and the basilar membrane. These membranes encompass
the cochlear duct which houses the spiral organ, or the organ of Corti.

Corti
The organ of Corti, which is the actual hearing organ. In the
cochlear duct is a liquid called endolymph. The tectorial membrane
floats in this fluid and touches hair cells on the spiral organ.
The original sound vibrations, have now been converted through the

tympanic membrane, vibrated the auditory ossicles, traveled through the


oval window, and are being sent down the perilymph in the inner ear. If the
vibrations of the perilymph have originated from a sound with a high
enough pitch, it will cause a vibration in the basilar and vestibular
membrane in the scala vestibuli. As the tectorial membrane vibrates, it
brushes against hair cells in the spiral organ. Then activated, the hair cells
trigger action potentials in their sensory neurons. Contrastingly, if the
vibrations are of a low-frequency origin, they cause a vibration in the
basilar membrane near its point, once again triggering a vibration in the
tectorial membrane, which brushes the hair cells on the spiral organ, which
results ultimately in action potentials. Essentially, the higher-frequency a
sound is the closer to the oval window the basilar membrane will vibrate,
or if the sound is of low-frequency origin, the farther from the oval
window the basilar membrane will vibrate.
3. Somatic Sensation
There are two different types of somatic receptors in the
somatosensory system which join together to allow a person to feel
sensations such as touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception (the
positioning of joints and muscles). The first type is the cutaneous
receptors, which are receptors in the skin. The second type is
proprioceptors, receptors in the muscles and tendons.
There are different types of cutaneous receptors:
a. Free nerve endings are the simplest and most common receptors. In
these receptors, nerves rise to the epidermis where they branch out
until they end. Such nerves respond to heat, cold, movement, itch, and
pain.

b.

Hair follicle receptors which go deep into the dermis. Also deep in the
dermis are the Pacinian corpuscles. These are pressure and vibration

c.

receptors and resemble miniscule onions.


Ruffinis organs can also be found in this part of the dermis. They
respond to pressure of the surface of the skin and the stretching of the

d.

skin.
The Meissners corpuscles which are found throughout the dermal
papillae. These assist in two-point discrimination, or being able to
distinguish how many points of pressure there are within a specific

a.

space.
There are only two types of proprioceptors:
Muscle spindles, located within the skeletal muscle, these receptors

b.

respond to the stretching of muscle.


The Golgi tendon organ is found in the tendon and responds only to
tension.
Together these receptors provide the brain with the information it

requires to determine whether a muscle needs to be relaxed or contracted.


Technically, this is called a sense of body position.

4. Gustatory
Taste is not only often pleasurable, but also plays a key role in
survival. Whether warning of bitter poisons or encouraging the necessary
act of consuming food, taste plays an important role in a persons life.
The tongue houses the sensory receptors for the gustatory system. The
surface of the tongue is composed of tiny little bumps called papillae.
There are four different varieties of papillae:

a.

Fungiform papillae : are spread irregularly over the entire surface of

b.
c.

the tongue.
Filiform papillae : are the most plentiful of all the types of papillae.
Foliate papillae : are situated in the sides of the tongue and contain the

d.

most sensitive receptors.


Circumvallate papillae : are the largest but least numerous of the
papillae and are located on the back of the tongue.
The tongue is also covered with taste buds, but, contrary to popular

opinion, they are located in other areas as well. They can also be found on
the palate, the lips, and the pharynx (throat), especially in children. It is
estimated that each person has approximately ten thousand taste buds.
Taste buds are located in the circumvallate, fungiform, and foliate papillae,
being most sensitive in the foliate papillae; they are not present in the
filiform papillae. Taste buds are called such due to their flower bud-like
appearance. Inside each of these floral-shaped bumps are two different
types of cells: the gustatory cells and the supporting cells. Each taste bud
has a hole in its center appropriately named the taste pore. Protruding from
the taste pore are the gustatory hairs. Taste sensory cells are among the
shortest-lived cells in the body. During their brief existence of a few days,
they migrate from the outside of the taste bud to its center, where they then
die. Nerve fibers running out of the taste buds release neurotransmitters
when stimulated. These stimuli generate an action potential on an
associated afferent nerve. Fibers with smaller diameters associate with
only one sensory cell, while larger fibers associate with two or more. Any
given sensory cell may receive contacts from up to as many as thirty nerve
fibers. Equally impressive, a single nerve fiber can innervate up to nine
separate taste papillae. The afferent fibers carry the impulses directly from
the tongue to the brain stem via either the chorda tympani branch of the
seventh cranial verve, the lingual branch of the ninth nerve, or the
pharyngeal branches of the tenth nerve. The chorda tympani works in
coordination with the anterior (front) 2/3 portion of the tongue and the
lingual works with the posterior (back) 1/3. In addition to taste signals,

these nerves also transport information regarding temperature and texture.


From there, the nerve impulses are transferred between secondary cells in
the nucleus tractus solitarius, which then transport them to the brain.
5. Olfactory
The olfactory system plays a very important role in a persons life. It
affects emotions, reproductive and maternal functions, aggression, and
food selection. The nose contains the receptors for the olfactory system.
They are found in what is called the olfactory epithelium, located in the
superior part of the nasal cavity. Each individual has two olfactory bulbs,
one located in each nostril. In each nostril there is a bone, which protects
the olfactory bulbs. There are holes in the cribriform plates called olfactory
foramina which allow the axons of the olfactory neurons to reach the
olfactory bulb. The other end of the olfactory neuron, the side exposed to
the air inside the nasal cavity, has olfactory vesicles which end in olfactory
hairs, encased in a mucous layer. Each olfactory neuron is bipolar and has
one dendrite and one axon. Olfactory neurons are extremely unique in that
they are not permanent and can be replaced by basal cells, unlike any other
variation of neuron. Unlike other sensory systems, signals transmitted
from the olfactory hairs travel directly to the primary sensory cortical areas
and limbic system without ever involving the brain stem.

In order for a substance to be smelled, it must pass several qualifications.


Firstly, for a chemical to be smelled, it has to be airborne. A volatile
substance is one that can evaporate into a vapor so that it becomes
airborne. This means that the only substances able to be smelled are those
which are volatile. There are some volatile substances, however, that a
person cannot smell. This is because the substance must not only be
volatile, but it must also be able to reach the olfactory hairs. In order for
this to happen, the chemical must transport through the watery, mucous
layer. This means that the substance must be at least somewhat water
soluble. On top of that, the chemical must also be moderately soluble in
lipids so that it can penetrate through the plasma membrane. If the
chemical meets all of these requirements and is indeed able to reach the
olfactory hairs, it will bind to a receptor molecule on the hair. The
receptor will then generate an action potential. It is believed that smell is a
result of the combining of as many as fifty primary sensations. It does not
require much stimulation to create an action potential. This allows people
to smell things that are floating even at a very, very low concentration in

the air. However, after the olfactory hairs have been stimulated
continuously for even a short period of time, the action potentials are no
longer sent.
6. Vestibular
The vestibular sense refers to the body's set of mechanisms that
monitor and adjusts the body's sense of balance and orientation to the
world. This sense is what keeps the body upright while standing, sitting or
walking. The vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear and is
carried to the brain on a branch of the auditory sense. This is why inner ear
infections can result in problems with balance.

C. The Disease and Disorder


1. Myopia (nearsightedness)
Nearsightedness is an eye condition in which you can see nearby
objects

clearly,

but

faraway

objects

appear

fuzzy

or

blurry.

Nearsightedness is also called myopia.


2. Farsightedness
Farsightedness means that its easy for you to see things that are far
away, but your close-up vision is blurry. The technical term for
farsightedness is hyperopia. People can have varying degrees of
farsightedness, depending on their eyes ability to focus on close-up
objects.
3. Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a common vision problem caused by an error in the


shape of the cornea. With astigmatism, the front surface of the eye (the
cornea) or the lens of the eye has an irregular curve, which can change the
way light is passed to the retina (or refracted). This causes blurry, fuzzy, or
distorted vision. Farsightedness and nearsightedness (hyperopia and
myopia) are two other types of refractive errors.
4. Presbyopia
Presbyopia is an eye condition in which your eye slowly loses the
ability to quickly focus on objects that are close. It is a disorder that affects
everyone people during the natural aging process of their eyes.
5. Conjunctivitis (pink eyes)
Conjunctivitis, which is commonly called pink eye, is an infection
or swelling in the eye area. Blood vessels in the conjunctiva, a thin
membrane that lines part of the eye, become inflamed. This gives the eye a
red or pink color thats commonly associated with conjunctivitis.
6. Cataract
The lens is used everyday, for everything from reading to driving to
bird watching. With age, the proteins inside the lens can clump together,
turning the lens from clear to cloudy. Certain behaviors like too much time
in the sun without eye protection, smoking, high blood sugar, high blood
pressure, use of steroid medications, hormone replacement therapy, or
taking statins may put you at higher risk for a cataract.
7. Acute Otitis Media
Acute otitis media (AOM), defined by convention as the first 3 weeks
of a process in which the middle ear shows the signs and symptoms of
acute inflammation, is the most common affliction necessitating medical
therapy for children younger than 5 years.

8. Polyp
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous
membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk, it is
said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present, it is said to be sessile.
9. Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in the skin. Left
untreated, these cells can spread to other organs and tissues, such as lymph
nodes and bone.
10. Gustatory Hallucination
A gustatory hallucination is the perception of taste without a stimulus.
These hallucinations, which are typically strange or unpleasant, are
relatively common among individuals who have certain types of focal
epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. The regions of the brain
responsible for gustatory hallucination in this case are the insula and the
superior bank of the sylvian fissure.

BAB III
CONCLUSSION
The sensory system is a group of subsystems used for detecting and
understanding the world around you, that consists from vision, auditory (hearing),
somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and vestibular
(balance/movement).
1. The visual system is responsible for a persons sight; detecting light,
darkness, and color, and the organ here is the eye. The disorder that
commonly happen to the vision are myopia (nearsightedness), farsightedness,
2.

astigmatism, presbyopia, conjunctivitis (pink eyes), cataract, and etc.


Sound can be heard through a process which occurs in the ear. The ear has
three main sections: the outer, the middle, and the inner ear. The disorder that

3.

commonly happen to the auditory is acute otitis media.


Somatic sensation allow a person to feel sensations such as touch, pain,

4.

temperature, and proprioception (the positioning of joints and muscles).


Gustatory
The tongue houses the sensory receptors for the gustatory system. The
surface of the tongue is composed of tiny little bumps called papillae. The
tongue is also covered with taste buds, but, contrary to popular opinion, they
are located in other areas as well. The Disorded that commonly happen to
gustatory is gustatory hallucination.

5.

Olfactory
Olfactory affects emotions, reproductive and maternal functions,
aggression, and food selection. The nose contains the receptors for the

6.

olfactory system. The disease that commonly happen to olfactory is polyp.


Vestibular
The vestibular sense refers to the body's set of mechanisms that monitor
and adjusts the body's sense of balance and orientation to the world. This
sense is what keeps the body upright while standing, sitting or walking. The
vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear and is carried to the
brain on a branch of the auditory sense.

LITERATURE CITED
Creationwiki. (2015). In http://creationwiki.org/Sensory_system. Accessed at
19.20, 14th October 2015.
Healthline. (2015). In http://www.healthline.com/health/eye-health. Accessed at
12.22, 15th October 2015.
Psychology glossary. (2015). In http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?
term=Vestibular%20Sense. Accessed at 11.57, 15th October 2015.
Psychlopedia. (2015). In https://psychlopedia.wikispaces.com/Vestibular+Sense.
Accessed at 12.03, 15th October 2015.
Study.com. (2015). In http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-sensory-systemdefinition-parts-functions.html. Accessed at 18.51, 14th Oct 2015.
Wikipedia. (2015). In https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyp_%28medicine%29.
Accessed at 12.45, 15th October 2015.
Wikipedia. (2015). In https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_system. Accessed at
18.57, 14th October 2015.