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Estimation of materials:
Material estimation include sand, cement, coarse aggregate and steel for a
particular mix design. Let us consider a mix design of 1:1.5:3 for our estimation
practice. The dry volume of total materials required is considered as 1.54 times
the wet volume of concrete, due to voids present in sand and aggregates in dry
stage. Therefore, for our calculation, we will consider the total volume of
materials required as 1.54 m3 for 1 m3 of wet concrete.
a) Bags of cement required:
Volume of cement required for 1m3 of Concrete =

=0.28 m3
Then number of bags of cement (volume of one bag of cement = 0.0347 m 3)

= 8.07 bags of cement.

b) Volume of Sand required:

Volume of sand required =

= 0.42 m3 of sand.

c) Volume of Coarse Aggregate Required

Volume of Coarse Aggregate =

d) Estimation of Reinforced Steel:

= 0.84 m3 of coarse aggregates.

Quantity of steel required depends on components of structure, i.e. slabs,

beams, columns, foundations, roads etc. To estimate the steel required, there
are two methods.
First method is, when we have the drawing available, we can calculate the total
weight of steel required divided by total volume of concrete for different
components. This will give us the weight of reinforcement steel per cubic meter
of concrete.
Second method is assuming the percentage of reinforcement for different
components. Following are the percentage of reinforcement steel generally
required per different components. Its values can vary from structure to
structure, and can be assumed from past experiences of similar structure.

For slabs = 1.0 % of concrete volume.

For Beam = 2 % concrete volume.

For column = 2.5 % of concrete volume.

For RCC Roads, 0.6% concrete volume.

Lets take example of RCC Column, where reinforcement required is 2.5% of

concrete volume, weight of steel required will be:

=196.25 kg.
2. Labour Requirement for 1m3 of RCC:
Labours required are presented in terms of days required by particular labour to
complete its work for the given quantity of concrete. Following are the various
labours required:

a) Mason: As per Standard Schedule of Rates and Analysis of Rates, One mason
is required for 0.37 days.
b) Labours: One Unskilled labours required for 3.5 days.
c) Water carrier: One water carrier required for 1.39 days.
d) Bar Bender: Bar bender requirement depends on weight of reinforcement.
Lets consider one bar bender required for 100 kg of steel as for 1 day.
e) Mixer Operator: One mixer operator required for 0.0714 days.
f) Vibrator Operator: One vibrator operator required for 0.0714 days.
3. Equipments and sundries:
Equipment and other charges, such as water charges, miscellaneous items,
tools and tackles etc can be assumed as some percentage of total cost of
materials and labours. Lets say it as 7.5%.
4. Contractors Profit:
Contractors profit depends on place to place, organization to organization and
work to work. It varies from 10 20%. For our case lets assume it as 15% of
total cost of materials, labours and equipments.
We have calculated the quantity of every item in above 1 3 steps. For rate
analysis of RCC, we need to multiply each quantity with their rates to get the
amount for every item of work. Rates vary from place to place and time to time.
It is advisable to assume local rates or standard rates of the place.
The sum total of all the four items above will give the rate or cost for 1m 3 of