Anda di halaman 1dari 26

GEOTHERMOMETER

KETIKA

CAIRAN KELUAR
PERMUKAAN MELALUI MATA
AIR
PANAS/FUMAROLE,
KOMPOSISI
KIMIA
DIGUNAKAN
UNTUK
MENGETAHUI TEMPERATUR
BAWAH PERMUKAAN
KONSENTRASI DARI UNSUR
YANG
BERHUBUNGAN
DENGAN
TEMPERATUR
YANG ADA DI DALAM
DIKENAL DENGAN UNSUR
KIMIA GEOTHERMOMETER

When the fluids reach the


surface by the way of hot
spring or fumarole, the
chemical composition may
often be used to deduce
sub-surface temperature
Concentration of constituent
that relate to deep
temperature are called
chemical geothermometer

UNSUR KIMIA
GEOTHERMOMETER

TERGANTUNG TEMPERATUR
PADA KEDALAMAN
KESETIMBANGAN MINERAL
FLUID
ASUMSI YANG DI PAKAI :
1.
FLUID MINERAL
MEMPUNYAI
KESETIMBANGAN DI
KEDALAMAN
2.
TEMPERATUR
MEMPENGARUHI REAKSI
3.
SUPPLY PHASE PADATAN
YANG CUKUP
CAIRAN MENJADI
JENUH
HUBUNGAN UNSUR
YANG AKAN
DIGUNAKAN DALAM
GEOTHERMOMETER

Depend on the existence at


depth of temperature
dependant mineral fluid
equilibria
Assumption
DI
DOMIN
ASI
OLEH
BATUA
N

Fluid- mineral equilibrium at


depth
Temperature dependant
reaction at depth
Adequate solid phases supply

Fluid became saturated with respect


to contituents used for
geothermometer

Domina
ted by
rock

4.

PROSES
KESETIMBANGAN
KEMBALI TIDAK
BERPENGARUH

5.

AIR MENGALIR PADA


PERMUKAAN

DILLUTION/MIXING
COLD & HOT WATER
TIDAK TERJADI

Negligible re
equilibrium

Water flow to the


surface

No Dilution/mixing
of cold and hot
water

pH NEUTRAL, ALKALI CHLORIDE

Very informative
Acid Sulfate water:

Not suitable
Leaching from the rocks

Sea water

Misleading temperature prediction


Prevent establishment of fluid-mineral
equilibrium

Kwarsa
Quartz
Asumsi
Sangat baik untuk
temperatur bawah
permukaan > 150oC
Effek dari pemisahan steam
akibat subsurface boiling
Presipitasi SiO2 sebelum
sampling
Presipitasi SiO2 setelah
sampling
Kelarutan SiO2 dikontrol oleh
padatan lain
Pengaruh pH pada kelarutan
Dilution

Consideration

Work best for water with


subsurface > 150OC
Effect of steam separation due
to subsurface boiling
Polymerisation or presipitation
of SiO2 before sampling
Polymerisation or presipitation
of SiO2 after sampling (due to
sample preservation)
Dissolved SiO2 controlled by
solid other than quartz
Effect of pH on quartz solubility
Dilution

Kwarsa
Quartz
Suhu/temperature
Baik untuk/good between 100250oC
>250oC diperlukan persamaan
untuk menerangkan kelarutan
kwarsa/different equation are
required to describe quartz
solubility

PEMISAHAN UAP/Steam separation


(ADIABATIK VS CONDUCTIVE COOLING)
MATA AIR SANGAT PANAS, ALIRAN
120 130 kg/menit atau 2 kg/s
ADIABATIK

ALIRAN CEPAT

TIDAK ADA HEAT LOSS


PERSAMAAN AKAN BENAR
KARENA CAIRAN YANG DIGUNAKAN
(SILICA TIDAK MENGUAP WAKTU
MENDIDIH)
MATA AIR BERKURANG DAN
TEMPERATUR KURANG
ADIABATIK DAN KONDUKTIF
COOLING
Re 200OC, DEPTH = 500 m
CONDUCTIVE COOLING 200OC
100OC

Very hot spring, Flow120 130


kg/menit or2 kg/s
ADIABATIK

Rapid ascent

No heat lost

The equation correct


due to steam
loss is used (silica does not vaporise
upon boiling)
Reducing flow rate and temperature
ADIABATIC AND CONDUCTICVE
COOLING
Reservoir = 200OC, DEPTH = 500 m
CONDUCTIVE COOLING 200OC 100OC

PRESIPITASI SILICA SEBELUM SAMPLING


Precipitation of silica before sampling

KWARSA LARUT DI
AIR 200 250OC,
pH 5 8, KADAR
GARAM TINGGI
T > 225OC CAIRAN
SUPER JENUH
AMORPHOUS
SILICA
100OC
SAMPLING TERBAIK
PADA 225OC

Quartz dissolves in
water
200
250OC, pH 5 8,
high salinity
T>225 become
supersaturated with
respect to amorphous
silica before cooling to
100
The best sampling at
225

KELARUTAN SILICA
Silica solubility
Quartz stable, solid silica least soluble
Control silica solubility in geothermal
water > 150OC
If Solid silica (CHALCEDONY,
AMORPHOUS SILICA)
higher
solubility > quartz

PENGARUH pH
pH effect
KELARUTAN NAIK MAKA pH NAIK
Quartz solubility increase when pH
increase
JARAK DI KOREKSI
Distance is corrected

DILLUTION
SUBSURFACE DILLUTION Decreasing
the silica content
Equilibrium between fluid and rock
Reflect cooler condition
If equilibrium is not attained
Error temperature
too cool

Na - K
Consideration
1. The fluid have equilibrated with
SODIUM BEARING FELDSPAR (ALBITE)
POTASSIUM BEARING FELDSPAR
(ADULARIA)
Common and abundant in geothermal
Na Al Si3 O8 + K+
K Al Si3O8 + Na+A
Albite

Adularia

Very suitable for

T > 180OC
LOW CALCIUM

CCa
1
C Na

Less affected by DILLUTION and


STEAM SEPARATION
Flow less than
QUARTZ GEOTHERMOMETER

K - Mg
Consideration

The fluid have equilibrated with


K FELDSPAR (ADULARIA)
K MICA (ILLITE DAN MUSCOVITE)
CHLORITE (CLINOCLORE)
CHALCEDONY (SILICA PHASE with T
slightly cooler than quartz)

ILLITE
CLINOCLORE
0.8 KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 0.2 MgAl2Si308(OH)8 +
CHALCEDONY
ADULARIA
5.4 SiO2 + 2 K+
2.8 KAlSi3O8 + 1.6 H2O
+ Mg+2

1000 3000 C

CLORIDE WATER with CMg < 1 ppm


SENSITIVE
CK
2

CMg

Mixing with Mg ; temperature will be


cooler

Na - K - Ca
High calcium content
Fluid mineral equilibria occur

Na and K-FELDSPAR
CALCIC MINERAL (CALCIUM FELDSPAR, EPIDOTE,
CALCITE)
CLAY

Larger range of thermal fluid than Na-K


Affected by

BOILING
DILLUTION

BOILING
PRECIPITATION CaCO3; reduce the dissolved
calcium concentration

No

Methode

Persamaan/
Equation

Quartz-no
steam loss

Quartz-max
steam loss

Na-K

t oC

t oC

1309
273
5,19 log cSiO2

1522
273,15
5,75 log cSiO2

1217
t C
273
log(c Na / cK ) 1,483

Batasan

Ket

T<100250

Fournier,1981

100-250

Fournier,19
81

>180

Fournier,19
81

t oC

K-Mg

Na-K-Ca

If t<100oC and
If t>100oC and
C in ppm

1390
273
log(c Na / cK ) 1,75

t oC

t oC

4410
273
14 log c K 2 / cMg

Giggenbach
,
1988

100-300

1647

log (c Na / cK ) log c 1 / cNa 2,06 2,47


Ca

log cCa 1 / cNa 2,06


2

>0, so =4/3
<0, so =1/3

Giggenbach
,
1988
273

GEOTHERMAL

Desa Wansalib, features


geothermal yang muncul

Fumarole

Rock alteration

Hot water

No.Conto
No.Lab.
Kode Conto
Elev.(m)
pH
DHL/EC (mmhos/cm)
SiO2

421
Wansalib
7
9,3
4260
261,00

Al (mg/l)

0,03

Fe

0,00

Ca

0,04

Mg

0,03

Na
K

1000,00
68,00

Li

6,30

As

0,40

NH4

0,75

40,00

1,00

Cl
SO4
HCO3

Water analysis
in Wansalib

CO3

261,99
82,30
116,88
1034,64

meq cat

46,19

meq an.

45,55

IB (%)

0,69

Example

No

Metode

Temperatur (C )

Silika tanpa kehilangan uap


Silica no steam loss

199,2

Silika dengan kehilangan


uap maksimum
Silica with maximum steam
loss

183,4

Na/K

203,3

KETERANGAN :

KETERANGAN :

Wansalib

Wansalib

Diagram segitiga tipe


air panas Wansalib
KETERANGAN :
Wansalib

Diagram segitiga
kandungan relatif Na,
K, dan Mg di Wansalib
Diagram segitiga
kandungan relatif Cl,
Li, dan B di Wansalib