Anda di halaman 1dari 14

Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology

Abrasivity of Hawkesbury Sandstone (Sydney, Australia) in relation to rock


dredging
Peter N. W. Verhoef
Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 1993; v. 26; p. 5-17
doi:10.1144/GSL.QJEG.1993.026.01.02

Email alerting
service

click here to receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article

Permission
request

click here to seek permission to re-use all or part of this article

Subscribe

click here to subscribe to Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and


Hydrogeology or the Lyell Collection

Notes

Downloaded by

Victoria Roads Library on 6 November 2007

1993 Geological Society of London

Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 26, 5-17.

0481-2085/93 $03.50 1993 The Geological Society

Abrasivity of Hawkesbury Sandstone (Sydney, Australia) in relation to


rock dredging
Peter N. W. Verhoef
Delft Technological University, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Section of Engineering Geology,
P. O. Box 5028, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Abstract
During rock cutter dredging for the trench for the Sydney
Harbour Tunnel, partially cut in rock of the Hawkesbury
Sandstone, tool consumption data were obtained and compared with the wear value F developed by Schimazek, and
with the cutting and abrasive wear rates as determined by the
Newcastle-upon-Tyne cuttability tests. It appears that while
the F-values correlate well with actual tool consumption,
correlations with laboratory cutting and abrasion tests are not
always significant.
The F-value is obtained from a number of easily measured
rock parameters (Brazilian tensile strength, mineralogical
composition and grain size.) Use of the F-value is considered
advantageous compared to laboratory tests which measure the
abrasivity of rock directly because it is difficult to perform
sufficient abrasivity tests to cover the variability inherent in a
rock mass and it is impossible to perform laboratory tests that
are truly representative of the actual cutting and abrasion
mechanisms operating. Site investigations for rock dredging
projects would be improved if systematic determinations of
the F-values were carried out. This would help to improve the
'educated guesses' of tool consumption currently practised
during the tendering stages of a dredging project. Accurate
prediction, however, will always necessitate a trial dredge
excavation to calibrate and to check the appropriateness of
the abrasivity parameters chosen.

Introduction
One of the major problems in rock dredging projects is
the correct prediction of tool consumption. During the
tendering stage, potential tool consumption is a
significant factor in the estimation of contractors'
costs. As rock dredging is a relatively recent development it can profit from the experience gained in
mechanical tunnel excavation.
Large parts of the Sydney area, including the
Harbour, are underlain by the Hawkesbury Sandstone,
a weak to moderately strong quartz-rich rock. The
Hawkesbury Sandstone is of Triassic age and up to
290m thick. Major tunnelling projects have been
carried out in this rock and increasingly use has been
made of mechanical excavation methods. For the two
recent projects carried out in the Sydney region, the
Sydney Harbour Tunnel and the Sydney Ocean

Outfalls, considerable attention has been paid to the


abrasivity of the Hawkesbury Sandstone (Fig. 1). This
situation provided an opportunity to compare the
available information on tool consumption and abrasivity of both projects.
On two of the Outfall tunnels, data have been
published on the cuttability and abrasivity 1 of the
rocks excavated (Lowe & McQueen 1988, 1990). The
Malabar Ocean Outfall Decline passes through
Hawkesbury Sandstone and was partially excavated by
mechanical means. Lowe & McQueen (1988) give data
on the rock properties and the tool consumption rate
and provide an analysis of roadheader performance.
For the Sydney Harbour Tunnel, consisting partly of
land tunnels and partly of immersed reinforced
concrete tube elements in the harbour, the trench
dredged for the tube elements was excavated partially
in rock, using a rock cutter suction dredger. Unusually
the contractor made excavation data available for
analysis. Experience with tool wear prediction in rock
dredging (Verhoef 1988) is limited, as contractors
usually consider their tool consumption and production data to be highly confidential. This paper
compares the available site investigation and laboratory data with the excavation performance of the
dredger.
Tool wear in rock cutting dredging appears to be
related mainly to the abrasivity of the excavated rock
in one way or another. In Australia, the rock
cuttability and wear tests developed by Roxborough
(1987) and the Cerchar test and Goodrich test
(Bamford 1984; cited in Braybrooke 1988) are used in
site investigations to assess abrasivity of rock for
tunnelling or mining purposes. In this paper special
attention is given to the F-value developed by
Schimazek & Knatz (1970). The F-value has shown a
tendency to be linearly related to abrasive wear
(Schimazek & Knatz 1970, 1976; Paschen 1980;
Verhoef, Van den Bold & Vermeer 1990). Certainly in
Europe the F-value is used to assess abrasivity of rock,
1Cuttability refers to the facility of rock to be excavated by
cutting tools. Cuttability is influenced by the abrasivity of the
rock as it may blunt the tools resulting in an increase of
cutting energy required.

P. N. W.

VERHOEF

SUBURBAN SYDNEY
(J
0

TH HEAD OUTFALL
SYDNEY
HARBOUR

BONDI

OUTFALL

SYDNEY
HARBOUR
TUNNEL

MALABAR OUTFALL

BAY
(J
,......,

5
LUCAS

HEIGHTS

Q..

KM
~

FIG. 1. L o c a t i o n m a p .

especially in coal mining and tunnelling. Voest-Alpine


Bergtechnik uses graphs containing the F-value and
unconfined compressive strength to predict the consumption of several types of tungsten carbide chisels
(K. Gehring 1991, pers. comm.). Braybrooke (1988)
shows graphs published by Voest-Alpine on pick-usage
of Voest-Alpine's AM 100 roadheader using Schimazek's F-value. However, tool consumption data of
projects for which the F-value was determined are
unknown to the author. Values of F can be obtained
from rock samples using the Brazilian tensile strength
test (on saturated specimens for dredging projects) and
by studying thin sections of the same sample under the
microscope to obtain information on mineralogy and
grain size. Hardness of minerals other than quartz may
be accounted for by expressing their hardness relative
to that of quartz. Thus,
F=Eq

Qtz x 0 x BTS
100
(N/mm)

(1)

where F is Schimazek's wear factor, Eq Qtz is the


equivalent quartz volume percentage and is the grain
size (mm). As the Schimazek method was not used

during the site investigation programme of both


projects, the necessary parameters were not readily
obtainable and had to be partially inferred. The rock
abrasivity data were compared with tool replacement
data. The data on the Malabar project came from
Lowe & McQueen (1988) and data on the dredging
project were compiled by Watson (1990). Only tool
replacement data considered representative of normal
rock cutting dredging operation were used.

Engineering properties of the Hawkesbury


Sandstone
Pells (1985) has given a comprehensive review of the
properties of the Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Sydney
area. The rock mass consists dominantly of massive
sandstone beds, typically 2-5 m thick, but locally up to
15m. The mass structure is typically mega crossbedded which has been described by Herbert (1976) to
be the result of braided river deposition in a Triassic
environment comparable to the present River Bramaputra in Bangladesh. Locally mudstone or shale is

ABRASIVITY OF HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE


present in layers up to 2 m thick, usually interbedded
with the sandstone. The mega cross-bedded structure
results in a spatial variability of the rock material
distribution on outcrop scale. The sandstone is
composed of subangular quartz grains in an argillaceous matrix, with some siderite. Table 1 gives the
mineralogical composition as assembled by Robson
(1978) and cited with other data by Pells (1985). The
variability of the quartz content, expressed by the
coefficient of variation (CV) is somewhat more than
20% according to the data given in Pells' paper.
TABLE 1. Mineralogical composition of the Hawkesbury

Sandstone (average of 42 samples from 16 locations in


Sydney basin)
Mineral

Fractional
(%)

Standard
deviation

Quartz (sand size)


Others (rock fragments, feldspar
and silt size particles)
Matrix clay (kaolinite,
illite, mixed layer clay)
Secondary silicates

58.4

13.0

3.5
24.2

2.8
7.1

8.4

4.4

Dry bulk density (Mg/m 3)


Porosity (%)

2.37
16.1

0.13
3.5

(%)

Data from Robson (1978); from Pells (1985)


As part of the present study, 27 samples obtained
from cores of ten over-water boreholes for the Sydney
Harbour project were examined in thin section. Two
main groups of rock types were present: sandstones
and siltstone-shale laminites. The major minerals
present were quartz and clay with subordinate iron
hydroxides and carbonate (possibly siderite; in some
samples dolomite crystals have been observed). White
mica grains occur in minor amounts and occasionally
microcline feldspar is found. Accessory minerals present are tourmaline and zircon. In certain zones, iron
hydroxides stain the rock through thin layers or
laminae and may act as cement. Disregarding the
siltstone-shale laminites, the modal quartz content of
the 19 sandstone samples estimated with the use of
density diagrams was 74 vol.% (range 71-89%, CV
14%). The modal clay content was 13% by volume
(range 5-20%, CV 34%). Mean grain size was 0.32 mm
(range 0.25--0.46mm, CV 22%).
The compilation of data on strength variation in the
Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Sydney area given by
Pells (1985) is relevant to the present study. Most
unconfined compressive strength values fall in the
moderately strong group (12.5-50MPa), with UCSdry
values also occurring in the strong (50-100MPa)
range. Moisture has a pronounced effect on strength;
UCSsa t values being only 30-67% of the dry strength

values measured. The variability of unconfined compressive strength values of the Hawkesbury Sandstone
is about 35%, which is rather high for sandstones (a
value of 20% is common; cf. Roxborough 1987). Pells
gives correlations between axial point load strength
Is axia~ and UCS and also between the Brazilian tensile
strength (BTS) and UCS. Based on data from Ferry
(1983) he concluded the UCS was 20 times the Is axi~
and UCS = 13 BTS (modal values; range: 12 to 15
BTS). From these data the correlation between point
load strength and Brazilian tensile strength (necessary
for this study to estimate F-values from the borehole
records) has been derived as: BTS = 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7)
S axial"

Table 2 gives a summary of the data on engineering


geological properties of the Hawkesbury Sandstone at
the site of Sydney Harbour Tunnel. The data fit the
range of properties as described by Pells (1985)
although the ductility number ~ (UCS/BTS) seems
lower, being in the range 7-12. Unfortunately no
correlations between I s and UCS or BTS could be
derived from the site investigation reports. Table 2
shows that in ten instances the F-values could be
calculated for samples collected from the over-water
boreholes and relevant for the rock dredging. In each
case saturated BTS mineralogy and grain size were
determined on one sample and reported in the site
investigation report.
For the present study additional tests on cores from
the over-water boreholes have been performed. The
data have not been included in Table 2 because the
cores had suffered from ageing which would influence
the test results. The results of these tests will be
discussed in a later section of this paper.

Cuttability and abrasivity of Hawkesbury


Sandstone
To be able to make predictions on the performance of
a rock cutting machine excavating a rock mass, it is
necessary to understand the excavation process.
According to Roxborough (1987), the factors that
affect the performance of mechanical rock excavation
systems can be grouped under the following headings:
cutter head design;
cutter head operation;
rock mass properties.
1The ductility number or brittleness ratio, UCS/BTS, is an
indicator for the mode of cutting. According to Gehring
(1987), a value less than 9 indicates ductile cutting behaviour,
9 15 is average and greater than 15 indicates brittle
behaviour. The test results of Roxborough (1982) on
Hawkesbury Sandstone from the Sydney Outfall project for
16 data pairs gave an average of 9 and a range of 5.5-17.6.

P. N. W. V E R H O E F

TABLE 2. Summary of geotechnical properties of the Hawkesbury Sandstone at the Sydney Harbour Tunnel site
Test
UCS dry (MPa)
UCS sat. (MPa)
BTS dry (MPa)
BTS sat. (MPa)
Ductility number UCS/BTS
Qtz (%)
Qtz eq (%)
SE dry (MJ/m 3)
SE sat. (MJ/m 3)
Cutting wear dry (mg/m)
Cutting wear sat. (mg/m)
Abr. wear dry (mg/m)
Abr. wear sat. (mg/m)
Cerchar Abr. dry (0.1 mm)
Cerchar Abr. sat. (0.1 mm)
F-value sat. (N/mm)

Northern Tunnels
No (n) Mean (Range)
70
55
45
--10
-10
3
4
-9
-19
---

42.9 (16.2-93)
22.8 (4-46)
4.6 (1.5-9.8)
70 (40-82)
10.6 (8.3-13.9)
8.5 (6.8-10.7)
1.70 (1.44-2.11)
1.14 (0.57-1.80)
4.8 (2.8-8.7)

Southern Tunnels
No (n) Mean (Range)
18
14
16
--10
-10
---9
-6
6
--

42.6 (29-67)
21.0 (8-40)
3.6 (1.4-6.0)
76 (66-80)
11.6 (10.4-13.9)

1.13 (1.0-1.2)
4.0 (2.0-5.7)
4.0 (2.0-6.3)

Over-water boreholes
No (n) Mean (Range)
-26
-26
6
13
13
-4
4
-6
--10

22.6 (9.0-34.6)
3.3 (1.4-5.4)
9.2 (7.8-10.2)
60 (19-82)
62 (24-83)
11.3 (10.0-12.3)
4.25 (3.83-4.98)
0.87 (0.11-1.15)
0.61 (0.03-1.07)

Sources: Pells (1990); Coffey & Partners SI reports (1987). F-values calculated from data SI report.

Cutter head design refers to the geometry and the


material properties of the cutting tools. The cutter
head operation refers to the applied energy input; the
forces and velocities involved and the environment in
which the cutting operation takes place. The environment refers to dry or wet excavation conditions and
encompasses the external physical variables such as
ambient temperature and pressure.
Roxborough (1987) points out that the question of
cuttability of rock is largely determined by the rock
mass properties at the site. The choice requires the
selection of a type of machine and then adapting it to
the site conditions. The machine characteristics needed
for a certain type of rock are governed mainly by its
cuttability, information on which can be obtained from
the following rock properties (Roxborough 1987; see
also Fig. 2):
(1) Specific cutting force: F/d; the mean force acting
on a pick or chisel in its cutting direction (F) per unit
depth of cut (d).
(2) Specific normal force: F,/d; the mean force acting
on a cutting tool normal to its cutting direction per
unit depth of cut (d).
Both specific forces are known to increase linearly
with depth of cut. From the specific cutting force the
torque and power required to cut a rock at a specified
rate can be determined while the force that must be
provided by a machine's thrusting system to achieve
and maintain the required depth of cut can be
calculated from the specific normal force.
(3) Specific energy: SE = F,L/V; the energy or work
required (cutting force F times distance travelled L) to
cut a unit volume of rock (V). This parameter may be

used to measure the efficiency of a rock cutting system


within a given rock, with lower values indicating higher
efficiencies. It can also be used to compare the
cuttability of different rock types (using a standard
cutting test) and from the result it is possible to
approximate the potential excavation rate for a
particular machine type in a given rock.
(4) Cutting tool wear rate: the rate at which a cutting
tool wears in a given rock, measured as the weight loss
of tool material (usually tungsten carbide; steel for
cutting dredgers) per unit cutting distance (mg/m).
According to Roxborough (1987), specific energy
and tool wear rate provide the most useful basis on
which to relate machine potential to rock properties.

T h e core c u t t i n g t e s t
In the late 1960s a cutting test was developed by
Roxborough and co-workers at the Mining Engineering Department of the University of Newcastle-uponTyne (UK). This test aimed to assemble information
on the relevant parameters which might describe the
performance of an excavation machine in a rock mass.
The cutting test was developed to determine the four
machine performance parameters on core samples.
The test is standardized to exclude machine design
influences and consists of cutting a groove 12.7mm
wide and 5 mm deep along the surface length of a rock
core sample parallel to its long axis (Fig. 2). The core
is then rotated by 180 to make a similar parallel cut.
If the core has not been broken it may be rotated

ABRASIVITY

OF H A W K E S B U R Y

DYNAMOMETER[~
PICK HOLDER ~ IDIRECTION
CARBIDE INSERTa-~--~ OF CUTTING
....

~ ..........

12.7

...~"

rnm

e"

CORE SAMPLE

FIG. 2. Test arrangement of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne cutting


test.
again to make a third and fourth cut. If the core is
250 mm long a maximum length of 1 m can be tested.
The test arrangement is placed on a shaper. For each
rock core tested a new tungsten carbide chisel-shaped
cutter insert is used. The insert is 12.7 mm wide with a
front rake angle of 0 and a back clearance angle of 5.
The principal forces acting on the chisel are measured
by means of a triaxial dynamometer to which the
cutting tool is attached. The forces are measured
continuously during the cut and logged on computer.
The amount of rock cut from each groove is measured
and used to calculate the specific energy. The tungsten
carbide insert is weighed before and after the set of up
to four cuts and its weight loss is used to determine
cutting wear. The specifications of this cutting test are
given in Table 3.
TABLE 3. Specifications for rock cutting test (UNSW,

Sydney)
cutting speed 105 mm/s
cutting depth 5 mm
cutting width 12.7 mm
insert: tungsten carbide 12.7mm wide, front rake angle 0,
back clearance angle 5
Material properties: grade B23. Composition: Co 9.5%, WC
90.5%. Grain size 6 ~tm, density I4.59 _+ 0.6 Mg/m 3, hardness
HV2o = 1225kgf/mm 2.
rock core: diameter larger than 50 mm, length preferably 200250 mm.

A limiting minimum diameter of 50 mm for the rock


core is required because the breakout angle of rock
chips is dependent on the radius of the core; with small
diameter cores the rock yield is reIatively lower and the
specific energy higher than for a larger core of the
same rock.
The execution of the test is straightforward, but the
equipment necessary is quite exclusive and, probably
more importantly, considerable amounts of rock core
are required to obtain a good impression of the
variation in rock cutting characteristics for a certain

SANDSTONE

rock mass. From the beginning of the development of


the cutting test, Roxborough and co-workers have
performed a suite of index tests on the rock materials
used, including petrographic examination (mineralogy, grain size and shape, cementation), physical
properties (density, porosity), UCS, BTS, Shore hardness, NCB cone indenter and Schmidt hammer
rebound. Results of these index tests have been
correlated with the parameters obtained from the
cutting test by means of multiple linear regression
techniques (McFeat-Smith & Fowell 1977). Attempts
were made to relate relevant index tests and the rock
cutting parameters to the actual performance of
tunnelling machines. McFeat-Smith & Fowell (1977)
found linear correlations between laboratory specific
energy and in situ specific energy and between
laboratory cutting wear and pick replacement rate for
a Dosco road header in relatively massive rock (no
significant discontinuities). In addition a relation
between SE and field cutting rate was found (see also
Speight & Fowell 1987). However, Roxborough (1987)
points out that, although these relationships look
promising, the major drawback of the method is the
difficulty of performing sufficient tests for the results to
become representative. Hence relationships of cutting
parameters with index tests are important. For the
laboratory cutting test, Roxborough found:
SE = 0.25 UCS + C(N/m 2)

(2)

where SE = specific energy; UCS = unconfined compressive strength and C is a constant found by linear
regression and dependent on rock type. This relationship allows cutting tests to be used and advantage
taken of the more numerous data on UCS to make an
analysis of the variability of strength in the rock mass
to be excavated, which can be applied to the
excavation performance prediction. According to Roxborough (1987), equation (2) is basically sound, but
would apply only to machines which have a constant
depth of cut.
Roxborough considers the wear of the carbide
inserts in the cutting test to be attributable to two
sources, namely abrasion and brittle chipping of the
metal. The latter mainly occurs when rock of high
strength is tested. The impact chipping usually takes
place at the cutting edge and corners of the inserts in
the cutting test. Significant chipping relates to the
magnitude of the peak component forces measured
during the test.

The core abrasion test


The abrasion test was developed to investigate the
contribution of abrasive wear. This is performed on a
core of the same rock, placed in a lathe rotating at

10

P. N. W. VERHOEF

50r.p.m. and feeding the tungsten carbide insert


(identical to the cutting test) at an angle of about 45
axially along the outer surface of the core (Fig. 3). The
forward feed is taken at 0.1 to 0.2 mm per revolution,
with the shallow depth of cut and the very low forces
applied ensuring that virtually all wear is the result of
abrasion. In this way lengths of 25 m to 100 m of rock
surface may be abraded. The abrasive wear can be
expressed in weight loss of carbide divided by cutting
length (mg/m). This figure may be compared with the
cutting wear loss determined by the cutting test, to
appreciate the relative contribution of abrasive wear.

counting techniques. Relative hardness of minerals


with respect to quartz was determined using Rosiwal's
hardness scale (Table 4). Grain size was determined
using the line intercept method under the microscope.
The average grain size was estimated by multiplying
the average intercept length by 1.5 (Paschen 1980).
Tensile strength was determined using the Brazilian
split test on dry specimens.

TABLE 4. Rosiwal's (1916) Mineral Hardness Scale


Mineral

LATHE
CHUCK DIRECTION
OF FEED

TOOLHOLDER

CARBIDE

INSERT

CORE SAMPLE TAILSTOCK

FIG. 3. Test arrangement of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne abrasion test.

Mohs' H.
(--)

Vicker's H.
(kgf/mm 2)

Rosiwal H.
(--)

Talc
Gypsum
Calcite
Fluorite
Apatite
Window glass
Orthoclase
Quartz
Topaz
Corundum

1
2
3
4
5
5.5
6
7
8
9

20
50
125
130
550
600
750
1000
1850
2300

0.25
1.0
3.8
4.2
5.4
15
31
100
146
833

Feldspars
Clay & micas
Carbonates

----

----

3l
4
3

An abrasivity index: Schimazek's F-value


Another method of assessing abrasivity was developed
by Schimazek (Schimazek & Knatz 1970, 1976). The
results of pin-on-disc abrasivity testing applied to
artificial and sedimentary rocks appeared to correlate
linearly with a wear factor F, which has been given as
equation (1) in this paper. Both Paschen (1980) and
Verhoef et al. (1990) re-examined this method by
performing pin-on-disc tests and studying correlations
with mineralogical and rock mechanical parameters.
Extensive multiple linear regression analyses undertaken by Paschen (1980) resulted in improved correlations, but the more complicated formulae do not
seem to apply to general situations (Bisschop 1990).
Also, the Schimazek factor does not include microfabric factors, such as grain angularity, which influence
abrasive wear (Verhoef et al. 1990). Considering its
simplicity and referring in advance to additional
complications due to the dependence of abrasion on
the 'tribological system' (see discussion) it seems
preferable to use the F-value as defined by Schimazek
(equation (l)).
To be able to use and compare data, it is necessary
that these are obtained in a standardized way, using
similar testing procedures. Schimazek used the following methods to obtain the necessary parameters for the
F-value:
Petrographic examination. The mineral contents
were obtained from thin section study, using point

The following adaption has been made with respect


to the standard practice of determining the F-value.
For dredging projects the use of dry tensile strengths
was considered not relevant and from the beginning
of the application of the F-value to rock dredging
saturated Brazilian tensile strengths were used to
determine the wear factor. This implies that the Fvalue data used in this paper may not be compared
directly with F-values cited elsewhere but should be
corrected for the strength test sample condition.
Table 2 shows the mean results of the cutting and
abrasion tests carried out on the over-water boreholes.
Brazilian strength data were available and for the
rocks tested the mineralogical composition could be
inferred from petrographically similar samples taken
near-by so that F-values could be calculated. The
results are given in Fig. 4, which rather surprisingly
shows no apparent relationship between the F-value
and the results of both cutting wear and abrasive wear
rates.

Cutting and abrasion testing of


Hawkesbury Sandstone
Cutting and abrasion test results were available from
the Sydney Outfall Tunnels and the Sydney Harbour
Tunnel projects. In October and November 1990 the
author undertook further tests on old rock cores from

ABRASIVITY

OF H A W K E S B U R Y

11

SANDSTONE

TABLE 5. Results of cutting and abrasion tests and F-value determination on aged samples from the over-water

boreholes of Sydney Harbour and from a block sample taken at Lucas Heights disposal site
Specific Cutting Abrasive
BTS
Cutting force
Normal force
energy
wear
wear
F-value
(MPa) Mean (kN) Peak (kN) Mean (kN) Peak (kN) (MJ/m 3) (mg/m) (mg/m) (N/mm)

Core
Number Description
3001
3002
3201
3211
3212
3213
3233
3241
3252
3261
3262
3281

sl.w. SST
fine gr. SST
med.gr. SST
med.gr. SST
sl.w. med.gr. SST
med.gr. SST
med.gr. SST
SST
SST
sl.w. SST
SST
Siltstone

Lucas Heights block


average (x)
standard deviation (s)
coeff, of variation (CV) (%)
number of tests (n)

0.4
2.7
2.3
0.5
0.4
2.0
3.0
0.9
2.3
0.3
1.3
1.9

0.27
0.36
0.29
0.27
0.29
0.50
0.68
0.25
0.58
0.20
0.37
0.55

0.40
0.79
0.65
0.43
0.38
0.79
1.39
0.37
1.05
0.27
0.56
0.77

0.12
0.31
0.40
0.07
0.11
0.27
0.57
0.13
0.54
0.07
0.13
0.06

0.18
0.55
0.57
0.10
0.12
0.43
0.89
0.16
0.75
0.10
0.20
0.16

2.28
4.39
-2.55
3.13
8.53
10.09
3.52
9.23
2.79
4.65
--

1.61
2.52
2.53
1.35
0.32
1.46
1.80
1.00
-0.41
0.69
0.83

0.59
0.32
0.88
0.40
-0.36
-0.49
1.00
0.51
0.63
--

0.12
0.09
0.67
0.12
0.08
0.61
1.03
0.17
0.52
0.07
0.28
0.08

1.0
0.3
29
14

0.26
0.06
21
14

0.36
0.08
22
14

0.13
0.04
34
14

0.15
0.05
30
14

3.00
0.72
24
12

2.84
1.23
43
14

0.43
--2

0.19
0.09
48
13

sl.w. = slightly weathered; med.gr. = medium grained; SST = sandstone

the Sydney H a r b o u r Tunnel project. These latter tests


were performed in Professor Roxborough's Laboratory
in the Department of Mining Engineering at the
University of New South Wales.
6

4.:t
Ec~ 3.51

Cutting wear

v
3

2.5-

1.5
o

Abrasive wear

0.5 ~
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
0.8
Estimated F-value (N/mm)

FIG. 4. Results of the cutting and abrasion tests carried out


on samples obtained from the over-water boreholes for the
Sydney Harbour Tunnel project, compared with estimates of
the F-value for the tested samples.
The samples were provided by the geotechnical
consultants to the Sydney H a r b o u r Tunnel project,
Coffey Partners Pty Ltd. The samples tested were taken

from the over-water boreholes in the H a r b o u r in order


to gather additional data relevant to the rock cutting
dredging. It should be noted that these cores had been
stored in metal boxes in the open air for more than
two years which may have had a detrimental influence
on their quality. Additional cores were taken from a
block of Hawkesbury Sandstone obtained from the
domestic waste disposal site at Lucas Heights, South
Sydney, where rock excavation by ripping was taking
place.
Both the cutting and abrasion tests have been
performed on these rock cores. As the cuttability and
abrasivity of the rock were studied in relation to the
rock cutting dredging done for the Sydney H a r b o u r
Tunnel, all cores were tested in a water saturated
condition, achieved by immersion in water for 24
hours. From each core tested, discs were cut for the
Brazilian tensile strength test (saturated) and thin
sections made for microscopic study, with the aim of
determining the wear factor F of Schimazek.
The results of the laboratory tests are given in Table
5 and Fig. 5. A comparison of Figs 4 and 5 shows that
the values of cutting forces, strength and cutting wear
are generally lower than those measured during the
site investigation on fresh cores. This may reflect the
deterioration of the quality of the cores during storage.
Again, the conclusion can be drawn that there is no
clear relationship between F-value and laboratory wear
rates as measured with the cutting and abrasion test.

12

P.N.W.

VERHOEF

TABLE 6. Estimate of average strength, quartz content and grain size for the length of borehole actually excavated

for the trench, to determine a characteristic F-mass


BH no.
302 (N)
330 (N)
300 (N)
12 (N)
320 (S)
321 (S)
322 (S)
323A (S)
324 (S)
325A (S)
326A (S)

2.5E
E

Length
(m)

Is
(MPa)

BTS(est)
(MPa)

7.2
5.2
1.6
13.0
1.8
4.0
0.5
5.0
2.7
2.9
4.0

0.6
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3

0.9
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5

1.0
0.8
1.4
0.7

1.5
1.2
2.1
1.1

gg

"~ 1.5-

1t

I.. Cutting wear Ii


i: Abrasivewearli

o'.1

0'.2

013 014 015 o'.6 0'.7


F-value (N/mm)

o'.8

0'.9

Quartz
vot. %

Size
(ram)

F-mass
N/mm)

65
0. I0
60
0.10
60
0.10
70
0.35
68
0.35
80
0.50
extremely weathered rock
77
0.60
67
0.60
60
0.40
71
0.50

0.06
0.02
0.02
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.69
0.48
0.50
0.37

estimates from other tensile strength tests or index


tests is not a straightforward matter. In the ISRM
Suggested Method for Point Load Strength determination (1985) it is mentioned that I s values equal about
0.8 tensile or Brazilian strength, but it is well known
that BTS commonly over-estimates true uniaxial tensile
strength. Shulin Xu, De Freitas & Clark (1988) found
for Penrith sandstone that BTS was about four times
direct tensile strength (TS), while for Devonian
sandstone they found that BTS equals about three
times TS. Fortunately Pells (1985) gives correlation
data of UCS, the Brazilian and the point load strength
for Hawkesbury sandstone. From these it may be
derived that on average the BTS is about 1.5 times the
I s value.

FIG. 5. Results of the additional cutting and abrasion tests


carried out on (aged) samples from the over-water boreholes
of the Sydney Harbour Tunnel project, compared with Fvalues determined on the samples.

Q.

not included in regression analysis

Sydney Harbour Tunnel rock dredging


Sydney Harbour is an old river valley partially filled
with Quaternary sediments. The central part of the
trench excavation for the Sydney Harbour Tunnel was
therefore in soft sediments. Only at the sides of the
ancient valley had partially weathered Hawkesbury
Sandstone to be excavated. Estimates of F-value have
been made from the site investigation reports and the
over-water borehole records. In some instances where
no Brazilian strength data were available, other tests
which also give an indication of tensile strength were
used such as the uniaxial (or true) tensile strength and
the point load test. Alternatively an estimate of
Brazilian strength can be made from the uniaxial
compressive strength test. The derivation of BTS

o.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

ols

o16 o2~ o18

Fmass estimate (N/mm)

FIG. 6. Comparison of the tool consumption of the rock


cutter dredger with an estimate of the average F-value for the
rock mass excavated. To protect the interests of the dredging
contractor the real tool consumption data are not published.
Only data that were considered representative of normal
dredging operation at the site were used. F-mass estimates
were only made where boreholes were sufficiently close to the
excavation zone.

ABRASIVITY OF HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE


An attempt was made to estimate an average F-value
(F-mass) for the section of the borehole actually
excavated by the dredger. This was done by considering the variation in the I s value and petrography
recorded in the relevant section of the borehole. The
results are given in Table 6.
Figure 6 shows plots of estimated F-values considered
representative of the excavation zone as encountered in
the boreholes and the tool consumption recorded near
to the boreholes. The problem with tool consumption
data is that these are not always related to 'normal
practice' rock cutting dredging. Only reliable tool
consumption data were used and only F-mass estimates
of boreholes sufficiently close to the excavated rock
zone. The tool consumption data were compiled by
Watson (1990). Care was taken that the data on tool
consumption were representative of normal practice
and not biased by dredging operator factors or
exceptional dredgiiag conditions. Extremely weathered
rock was discarded, as were data from the head-on
dredging performed at the harbour sides.
The F-mass estimates were made as follows. First an
average strength (Is) was estimated for the section of
the borehole which was in the excavation zone (Table
6), together with an estimate of average quartz content
and grain size. Then the daily excavation reports were
examined and it was determined which boreholes were
close to the excavated zone (Fig. 7). If no boreholes
were close, the data were discarded. In Fig. 7 the
height contours show the approximate distribution of
rock head. The trench has been excavated to a depth
of - 2 0 . 5 m . With respect to excavation volume, the
density of borehole data is very small.

//~

329

TRENCH " ' " ....

a0,

13

block (Table 5, Lucas Heights block, CV = 48%), the


result of the estimated means of F-mass with the tool
consumption (Fig. 6) shows a good linear trend.
The conclusions of this survey are:
(1) The laboratory cutting and abrasion wear rates do
not correlate with the F-value for the Hawkesbury
Sandstone.
(2) The F-value correlates with tool consumption (and
thus abrasive wear of the pick-points).
(3) The cutting and abrasive wear rates as determined
by the cutting and abrasion tests do not correlate
with actual tool consumption in this case.

Malabar Outfall Decline Tunnel (Lowe &


M cOueen 1988)
This decline tunnel traverses two sedimentary rock
formations: the Hawkesbury Sandstone and the underlying Newport Formation, which consists mainly of
siltstone and sandstone units. Lowe & McQueen (1988)
give an extensive description of the engineering
geological properties of these rocks. They have divided
the Hawkesbury Sandstone into five types, based on
petrographic characteristics:
Type 1: fine to medium grained sandstone, average
quartz content 63 vol.%.
Type 2: fine to medium grained, quartz content 78
vol.%.
Type 3: medium to coarse grained, quartz content 78
vol.%.
Type 4: medium coarse grained to conglomerate,
quartz content 76 vol.%.
Type 5: fine to coarse, carbonate cemented, 57 vol.%
quartz.
Average data necessary to estimate the F-value are
given in Table 7.

FXG. 7. Simplified map showing part of the trench near the


northern shore. The typical daily dredging excavation zones
from which tool consumption numbers were available are
numbered in working order. Note the distribution of
boreholes.

All the reported tests were carried out in the saturated


condition, as close to natural moisture content as
possible. As regards the strength of Type 4, the
unconfined compressive strength considered characteristic by Lowe & McQueen is 55 MPa (Table 7), while
the strength measured by Roxborough on the sample
used for the cutting test was 26 MPa. If this value is
used for the calculation of F, an F-value of 0.91 is
obtained, which would give the SST 4 a more logical
position in the graph of Fig. 8. Table 7 gives the
average wear values derived from the cutting and
abrasion test of Roxborough (1987) ~ and the pick

Considering the variability of the quartz content


(CV = 20%) and compression strength (CV = 35%)
and the high variability of F-value within one rock

]Note that the cuttability test has also been carried out on
these samples in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (England). Only
cutting wear rate was determined.

\~

1~

r" ~

""

"

"

"

%X

-5
"

,,

EZ~]
N

329

~'~ ='~e

'"5'"
.,

o',,qu'wai~N'~
.

or~ d a y ~

eoce,'=~ zo~
30rn

14

P. N.

W.

VERHOEF

TABLE 7. Summary of geotechnical data for the Malabar Decline Tunnel (from Lowe & McQueen 1988)
SSST type
1
2
3
4
5
Nwp.sst
Nwp.siltst

Vol.%
mass
39
*
*
7
1.5
23
74

Grain
size (mm) Qtz %
0.30
0.30
0.50
0.60
0.40
0.13
0.09

UCS
(MPa)

63
78
78
76
57
60
45

BTS est. F est


Abrasive
Cutting
(MPa) (N/mm) wear (mg/m) wear (mg/m)

32.0
45.0
45.0
55.0
-38.0
60.0

2.5
3.5
3.5
4.2
-2.9
4.6

0.47
0.81
1.35
1.93
-0.23
0.19

1.09
2.19
2.45
1.30
2.35
0.42
0.26

AM75
(pps/m 3)

AM100
(pps/m 3)

0.302
1.189
1.189
-----

0.866
0.950
0.950
--0.535
0.206

2.16
3.13
4.10
3.93
3.07
1.30
0.92

* Type 2 & 3 make up 50% of the rock mass excavated; they could not be distinguished in the tunnel

consumption data of the two roadheader types used


(Alpine Voest AM75 and AM100) are given. As no
tensile strength test results were reported, BTS is
estimated to be 1/13 of UCS, following Pells (1985) as
the Newport (Nwp) rocks, siltstones and sandstones
were described as being very similar to type SST 1
Hawkesbury Sandstone. Pick consumption data were
given and these have been included.

boreholes apparently could not be estimated, the pick


consumptions for both have been combined. This
should be borne in mind when examining Figs 8 and 9.
Type 2 differed from Type 3 mainly in grain size, but
this is an important property with regard to abrasivity
as can be deduced from their F-values.
Considering the manner in which the data have been
obtained, any conclusions can only be tentative. In this
case it is suggested simply that the F-value and the
laboratory cutting and abrasive wear rates relate to
actual tool consumption.
1.4-

A
nwp sst

~5-

sstl

sst2

sst3

SSt4

1.2~

nwp siltst

4"

~3-

o8~

Cutting wear

E 0.6~

~ Abrasive wear

o12 0'.4

~2

~3

Cutting wear (Nc) i

1-

1.

0'.6 0'.8
i
1'.2 1'.4
Estimated F-value (N/mm)

1'.6

~1

1'.8

nwp sst
nwp siltst

-~ 0.42

o2~
AM 75

FIG. 8. Estimated F-values of the typical Hawkesbury Sandstone types (SST 1-4) and Newport Sandstone and Siltstone
compared with the wear rates determined with the laboratory
cutting and abrasion test. Malabar Outfall Decline (Lowe &
McQueen 1988). See text for discussion.

Figure 8 shows how the estimated average F-value


relates to the relevant wear data available. There
appears to be a relationship with the cutting wear and
abrasive wear rates determined in the laboratory tests.
Tool consumptions of the Voest Alpine roadheaders
are plotted against the F-value in Fig. 9. For both, an
increase of tool consumpton with F-value is shown. As
no distinction could be made between Type 2 and Type
3 sandstone in the tunnel and in view of the fact that
the relative abundance of these two types in the

0.2

014

016
018
1
1.2
Estimated F-value (N/mm)

1.4

1.6

1.8

FIG. 9. Comparison of tool consumption data of Voest


Alpine Roadheaders AM 75 and AM 100 with the F-values
considered representative for the rock types excavated in the
Malabar Outfall Decline. In the tunnel type SST 3 could not
be distinguished from type SST 2 (data from Lowe &
McQueen 1988).

Discussion
This study has attempted to relate laboratory or
in situ derived rock parameters to actual excavation
performance. Despite the fact that state-of-the art site

ABRASIVITY OF HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE


investigation reports were available for the Sydney
Harbour project (containing much more geotechnical
data than usual for dredging projects), the amount of
data related to abrasivity was poor. One reason was
the difficulty of performing many cutting and abrasion
tests on rock cores. In most cases the F-value had to be
estimated because one of the necessary parameters was
lacking at a particular sampling point. When a reliable
guess of mineralogy could be made (Fig. 4) or the BTS
could be assessed from other strength tests (Figs 6 and
8), the F-value was estimated. For each case the
method of estimating F has been consistent and efforts
were made to obtain representative values. It is
considered that the results as presented are the best
that could be derived. For the estimate of F-mass (Fig.
6) many more assumptions had to be made; an F-value
considered to be representative of a section of a bore
core was used for a huge volume of rock.
In the case of Malabar, the data show that the Fvalue and the cutting and abrasive wear rates derived
from the cutting and abrasion tests are related. Both
methods also relate to pick consumption. In the case of
the rock cutter dredging operation, it is notable that
the estimated F-mass value shows an apparently linear
correlation with actual pick consumption; however, the
laboratory cutting and abrasion wear rates are not
related to both F-value and pick consumption (Figs
4--6).
From what is known about wear problems using the
science of tribology (e.g. Uetz 1986; Zum Gahr 1987),
the results obtained by this survey are not surprising.
In tribology it is stressed that wear (and thus pick
consumption) is a system dependent process. The
interaction between cutter head and rock is dependent
on many variables, both internal and external, which
are too numerous to be scaled down and simulated by
simple laboratory tests. The system of a dredger
cutting rock may be approached experimentally by the
scheme shown in Fig. 10 (Verhoef 1990). Simple
laboratory tests like the pin-on-disc test (Category VI
in Fig. 10) or the cutting test (Category V) are very
remote from the actual process taking place when
dredging rock. In tribology it is attempted to simulate
as well as possible the particular aspects of the process
under study, using the same environmental conditions
and simulating the proper temperatures and forces etc.
Tests in Category VI or V are carried out to obtain an
indication of the relative performance of different types
of cutting steel for example. The tools undergo tests
with increasingly complicated equipment and finally
the prototypes are tested on the real machines. This
type of development has not always been the practice.
Very often new designs of tools were immediately
tested on a purposely built machine. This has proved
to be too expensive a method.
The above also explains why results of different
types of wear tests could diverge. Cutting tool

15

geometry and the tool material both influence the


result. Dredgers commonly use high quality steel
(sometimes with tungsten carbide coating or inserts).
This is why the specially designed cutting and abrasion
tests which are developed for the Dutch dredging
industry use steel chisels instead of tungsten carbide
ones (Bisschop 1991; Davids & Adrichem 1990; Van
der Sman 1988). In as far as the geometry of the
cutting tool determines the cutting and wear mechanisms operating, this is a factor which can be used in
tool design.

I Field testing during


normal working practise
II Full scale test of
complete test machine

lrnu

III Test with full size


part of machine

IV Test with odginal


part of machine

V Test on testbody under


similar loading conditions

4.
Vl Model test with simple
testbodies

mml

FIG. 10. Tribological testing categories for a rock cutter


suction dredger.
The major problem in the case of rock cutting no
longer lies in the tool development, on which most
attention has been placed up to now, but in the
assessment of the properties of the rock mass with its
inherent variability of properties. The limited number
of cutting or abrasion tests which can be performed for
a project is one problem. The F-value as such is a wear

16

P. N. W. VERHOEF

factor which is potentially very useful, because it is


based on parameters which can be obtained easily and
in much larger quantities. The approach to wear
prediction and cuttability performance in site investigations should therefore be to obtain as many rock
parameters as possible, using index tests like UCS, Emodulus, BTS, I s and thin section examination. In site
investigation practice for dredging projects thin section
examination is frequently neglected. The mineralogical
and microscopic properties of the soils and rocks
should be determined in a geostatistically justified way
and it is possible to undertake laboratory index tests
on a number of samples. These data should then be
used to calibrate the results of more complicated wear
or cutting tests in the laboratory and by a trail
dredging operation on the real scale (Verhoef 1990).
Contractors will then be able to estimate to a much
higher level of accuracy the tool replacement rate to be
expected for a project.

Conclusion
For the first time relatively accurate tool consumption
data of a rock cutter suction dredger could be studied.
In this case the wear factor F derived by Schimazek,
related reasonably well with tool consumption.
Another method commonly applied in rock tunnelling,
the cutting wear and abrasive wear rates derived from
the Newcastle-upon-Tyne cutting and abrasion tests,
did not correlate with the tool consumption of the rock
cutting dredger. Both F-value and the cutting and
abrasion wear rates were related to the tool consumption of the roadheaders used to excavate the Malabar
Outfall Decline in Sydney.
The amount of cutting or abrasion tests which can
be performed on rock cores will always be limited. In
site investigation practice, therefore, use should be
made of rock index tests which relate to cutting
performance and abrasive wear. Such tests include
UCS, BTS, I s, thin section examination (mineralogy,
microscopic structure, grain shape, grain size), Emodulus and so on. The results of this paper indicate
that further study into the use of wear factors
combining index tests, such as the F-value, is warranted. For wear prediction, it is necessary to calibrate
the results of abrasion tests or wear factors against a
trial excavation with a real cutting machine at the site.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research is supported by the
Technology Foundation (STW, The Netherlands). Andr6
Veldstra, Kevin Green and John Watson of the Westham
Dredging Company Pry Ltd, Sydney are thanked for the
confidence and enthusiasm with which the experience and
reports on the Sydney Harbour dredging with the Kunara
rock cutter suction dredger were entrusted to me. Likewise,
Coffey Partners International Pty Ltd (Philip Pells, Patrick

Wong) supported the work and provided rock samples.


Professor Frank Roxborough was a very generous host
during my three months stay at the University of New South
Wales. I benefited very much from the happy support
received from the staff and personnel of the Mining
Engineering (Paul Hagan, Joe Shonhardt, Drago Panich,
Sue Howard, Carol Vallance), Civil Engineering (Fiona MacGregor, Paul Gwynne) and Applied Geology Departments
(Larissa Smith, Michael de Mol, Red Flossman, Greg
McNally). John Braybrooke is thanked for the critical interest
shown during the course of the study. Professor David Price
(Delft University), Aldert van Hemmen (Stapel Shipyard) and
Harry Steeghs (Delft Hydraulics Laboratory) and two
anonymous reviewers are thanked for their comments on the
first draft of this paper.

List of notations
CV = coefficient of variation = s/x x 100 (%)
s = standard deviation
x = average (weighted mean)
UCS = Unconfined compressive strength (MPa)
BTS = Brazilian tensile strength (MPa)
Is a~ial = axial Point load strength (MPa)
TS = Tensile strength (MPa)
F = Schimazek's wear factor (N/mm; equation (1))
Eq Qtz = Equivalent quartz volume percentage (%);
this is determined by adding the Rosiwal hardness with
respect to quartz ( = 100) of the minerals comprising
the rock, considering the volume percentage taken by
those minerals
, = grain size (mm)
SE = specific energy (N/m2; MJ/m 3)
F c = specific cutting force (N/m)
/7, = specific normal force (N/m)
Rsq = regression coefficient squared

References
BisscnoP, F. 1991. The Analysis of a Laboratory Cutting and
Abrasion Test to be applied in Rock Cutting Dredging.
Classified internal report, Faculty of Mining and
Petroleum Engineering, Delft University of Technology.
BRAYBROOKE, J. C. 1988. The state of the art of rock
cuttability and rippability prediction. Proceedings of the
Fifth Australian-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, August 1988, Sydney, 13~42.
DAVIDS, S. W. & ADRICHEM, P. 1990. The Testing of a
Classification Apparatus for the Wear of Cutter Heads
during Cutting of Rock (in Dutch). Classified internal
report, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering,
Delft University of Technology.
ISRM 1985. Suggested method for determining point load
strength. International Journal of Rock Mechanics,
Mining Science & Geomechanical Abstracts, 22, 61-70.
GEHRING, K. 1987. Rock Testing Procedures at VA's
Geotechnical Laboratory in Zeltweg. Internal report TZU
41. Voest Alpine Zeltweg, Austria,

A B R A S I V I T Y OF H A W K E S B U R Y
HERBERT, C. 1976. The depositional development of the basin.
In: BRANAGAN,D. F. et al. An Outline of the Geology and
Geomorphology of the Sydney' Basin. Science Press,
Sydney, 5-38.
LOWE, P. T. & MCQUEEN, L. B. 1988. Ground conditions and
construction methods in the Malabar Ocean Outfall
Decline and observations on rock cuttability. Proceedings of the Australian Underground Construction and
Tunnelling Association Seminar on Cost Effective Tunnelling in the Sydney Basin. IE Australia, Canberra, 165203.
& -1990. Construction of the North Head Ocean
Outfall Tunnel. Proceedings of VII Australian Tunnelling
Conference, The Underground Domain. IE Australia,
Canberra, 90/8, 159-172.
MCFEAT-SM1TH, I. & FOWELL, R. J. 1977. Correlation of rock
properties and the cutting performance of tunnelling
machines. Proceedings of Conference on Rock Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 587-602.
PASCHEN, D. 1980. Petrographische und geomechanische
Charakterisierung yon Ruhrkarbongesteinen zur Bestimmung ihres Verschleissverhaltens. Dissertation, Technische Universit/it Claustahl.
PELLS, P. J. N. 1985. Engineering properties of the Hawkesbury Sandstone. In: PELLS, P. J. N. (ed.) Engineering
Geology of the Sydney Region. Balkema, Rotterdam,
179-197.
ROXBOROUGH, F. F. 1982. An Assessment of the Cuttability of
Rock Formations Associated with the Sydney' M W S & DB
Submarine Outfall Tunnels. Unisearch Limited Report
for The Metropolian Water Sewerage and Drainage
Board.
1987. The role of some basic rock properties in assessing
cuttability. Proceedings Seminar "Tunnels--Wholly Engineered Structures". IE Australia, April.
SCHIMAZEK J. & KNATZ H. 1970. Der Einfluss des Gestein-

17

saufbaus auf die Schnittgeschwindigkeit und den Meisselverschleiss yon Streckenvortriebsmachinen. Gliickauf,
106, 274-278.
& -1976. Die Beurteiling der Bearbeitkarkeit von
Gesteinen durch Schneid- und Rollenbohrwerkzeuge.
Ertzmetall. 29, 113-119.
SHULIN XU, DE FREITAS, M. H. & CLARK, B. A. 1988. The
measurement of tensile strength of rock. In: ROMANA
(ed.) Rock Mechanics and Power Plants. Proceedings of
International Society of Rock Mechanics Symposium,
Madrid, 125-132.
SPEIGHT, H. E. & FOWELL, R. J. 1987. Roadheader
performance studies using a full scale laboratory research facility. Proceedings of the 28th US Symposium on
Rock Mechanics, Tuscon. Balkema, Rotterdam, 973-980.
VAN DER SMAN, R. M. 1988. Results of a First Series of Wear
Tests on Chisels with the Shaper (in Dutch). Classified
internal report, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine
Engineering, Delft University of Technology.
VERHOEE, P. N. W. 1988. Towards a prediction of the abrasive
wear of cutting tools in rock dredging. Delft Progress
Report, 13, 307-320.
1990. Wear testing categories for rock dredging projects.
6th International IAEG Congress, Amsterdam, Discussion
Volume. Balkema, Rotterdam.
--,
VAN DEN BOLD, H. J. & VERMEER, Th. W. M. 1990.
Influence of microscopic structure on the abrasivity of
rock as determined by the pin-on-disc test". Proceedings
of the 6th International full Congress of the IAEG,
Amsterdam, Balkema, Rotterdam, 495-504.
UETZ, H. 1986. Abrasion und Erosion Carl Hauser Verlag,
Mfinchen.
WATSON, J. 1990. Internal report Westham Dredging Company Pty., Ltd.
ZUM GAHR, K. H. 1987. Microstructure and wear of materials.
Elsevier, Amsterdam.
-

SANDSTONE

Received 28 October 1991; revised typescript accepted 5 November 1992