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Chapter 33

Nature and Propagation of Light

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Chapter 33
Nature and Propagation of Light
33-1 The Nature of Light
33-2 Reflection and Refraction

33-3 Total Internal Reflection


33-4 Dispersion
33-5 Polarization

Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

33-1

The Nature of Light

OBJECTIVE
Use the concept of wavefronts and rays to describe the
propagation

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33-1

The Nature of Light

OPTICS
deals with the behavior of
light & other EM waves

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33-1

The Nature of Light

Two Personalities of Light


1. Light is a particle.
Energy carried by light (waves) comes in discrete
bundles called photons.
Phenomenon revealing
light is a particle:

Emission and Absorption of light


Hydrogen Spectrum

Iron Spectrum

Spontaneous Emission

Only certain frequencies of light are emitted.5


Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

33-1

The Nature of Light

Two Personalities of Light


2. Light is a wave.
Maxwells equations reveal that light is an EM wave
traveling with a speed c in vacuum.
Phenomenon revealing
light is a wave:

Propagation of light

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33-1

The Nature of Light

Waves, Wavefronts and Rays


Wavefront
Locus of all adjacent points at which the phase of vibration of a physical quantity
associated with the wave is the same

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33-1

The Nature of Light

Ray
Wave viewpoint:

Particle viewpoint:

an imaginary line along the


direction of travel of the wave

path of the particle

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33-1

The Nature of Light

Ray
Wave viewpoint:

Particle viewpoint:

an imaginary line along the


direction of travel of the wave

path of the particle

Note:
Rays are always straight lines in an isotropic medium.

What is an isotropic medium?


A medium which has the same properties in
all regions and in all directions.
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

Chapter 33
Nature and Propagation of Light
33-1 The Nature of Light
33-2 Reflection and Refraction

33-3 Total Internal Reflection


33-4 Dispersion
33-5 Polarization

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

OBJECTIVES
Predict the direction of the reflected light using the Law of
Reflection
Evaluate the index of refraction of a material and its effect
on the path, wavelength and speed of light
Predict the direction of the refracted light using Snells Law

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Well use the ray model of light to explore two of the most
important aspects of light propagation.

1 Reflection
2 Refraction

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Incident, Reflected and Refracted (Transmitted) Rays

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Index of Refraction n of a material


(refractive index)

Where:

v: speed of light in the material


c: speed of light in vacuum
unitless constant

n: index of refraction of the material

Note: In vacuum: n = 1.

Light travels more slowly in a material than in vacuum.


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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Law of Reflection

incident ray

a
r
reflected ray
Material a, na

Material b, nb
Where:

a: angle of incidence
r: angle of reflection
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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Example:

Answer:
Discussed in class.
Sin(angle) = 11.5/sqrt(11.5^2+14^2)
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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Seatwork:
Two mirrors are perpendicular to each other as shown. A
light ray hits mirror 1 at an angle of 30. The reflected ray
then hits mirror 2. At what angle does the second
reflection emerge?

Answer:
60 degrees

30
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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Law of Refraction

Where:

(Snells Law)

a: angle of incidence
b: angle of refraction
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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

(Snells Law)

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

(Snells Law)

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

(Snells Law)

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Note:
Where:

: wavelength of light in a material


o: wavelength of light in vacuum
n: index of refraction of the material

The wavelength of light (wave) is different in


general in different materials.

The frequency f of light (wave) does not change


when passing from one material to another.
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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Example:

Answers
Spear: below
Laser: apparent

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Example:
Ray A is incident on an air-water interface as shown.
1. Which arrow corresponds to the reflected ray?
2. Which arrow corresponds to the refracted ray?

Answers:
1. B
2. E

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Example:
A ray of monochromatic light in air (n1) hits the upper surface of two
parallel-sided transparent materials as shown.
1. What is the index of refraction n2 of material 1?
2. What is the refracted angle in material 2?
3. At the bottom region, will the transmitted light bend towards or away
from the normal?

1. snells with angle of


incidence = 60 deg, not 30
2. Snells law ulit
3. Away since n1<n3

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33-2

Reflection and Refraction

Seatwork:
A ray of light passes from different materials with
indices na, nb and nc as shown. What can we
conclude about the relationship of na, nb and nc?

Answer:
nb=nc<na
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Chapter 33
Nature and Propagation of Light
33-1 The Nature of Light
33-2 Reflection and Refraction

33-3 Total Internal Reflection


33-4 Dispersion
33-5 Polarization

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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

OBJECTIVE
Given the indices of refraction of different materials,
determine when total internal reflection occurs

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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

a
r

na = 1.52

nb = 1.0

Question:
Is it possible that all of the light can be reflected back from the
interface with none of it being transmitted?
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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

Total Internal Reflection


(TIR)
occurs only when a ray in material a is incident on a second material b whose
index of refraction is smaller than that of material a

Total internal reflection occurs only if nb < na.

crit
a

na = 1.52

nb = 1.0

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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

Total Internal Reflection


(TIR)
TIR will occur if the angle of
incidence a is larger than or
equal to crit.

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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

Example:

(a) 90-arcsin(1/1.52)
(b) 90-arcsin(1.33/1.52)
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33-3

Total Internal Reflection

Seatwork:
Light enters a solid pipe made of plastic having an index of
refraction of nplastic. The light travels parallel to the upper part of
the pipe. You want to cut the face so that all the light will
reflect back into the pipe after it first strikes that face. What is
the largest that can be if the pipe is in air (nair)? Express your
answer in terms of nplastic and nair. Note: nplastic > nair.

Answer: 90-arcsin(n_air/n_plastic)
Physics 72 Bareza AY 15-16 1st sem

33

Chapter 33
Nature and Propagation of Light
33-1 The Nature of Light
33-2 Reflection and Refraction

33-3 Total Internal Reflection


33-4 Dispersion
33-5 Polarization

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33-4

Dispersion

OBJECTIVES
Relate dispersion to the color separation of white light as it
travels through a prism at non-normal incidence
Deduce the speed of light in a medium from its dispersion
curve

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33-4

Dispersion

White Light
Ordinary white light is a superposition of waves with wavelengths
extending throughout the visible spectrum.

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33-4

Dispersion

Dispersion
dependence of wave speed and index of
refraction on wavelength

Where:

: wavelength of light in a material


o: wavelength of light in vacuum

n: index of refraction of the material


v: speed of light in the material
c: speed of light in vacuum
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33-4

Dispersion

The amount of dispersion depends on the


difference between the refractive indexes for
violet light and for red light.
Dispersion is greatest for silicate flint glass, for
which there is a larger difference in the value of n
between red and violet
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33-4

Dispersion

How rainbows form

Dispersion Refraction
Reflection

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33-4

Dispersion

How rainbows form

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33-4

Dispersion

How rainbows form

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33-4

Dispersion

How rainbows form

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Chapter 33
Nature and Propagation of Light
33-1 The Nature of Light
33-2 Reflection and Refraction

33-3 Total Internal Reflection


33-4 Dispersion
33-5 Polarization

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33-5

Polarization

OBJECTIVES
Characterize the different types of polarization
Use Malus Law to calculate the intensity of the transmitted
light after passing through a series of polarizers

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33-5

Polarization

Polarization
is a characteristic of all transverse waves

direction of polarization of an EM wave


direction of the electric-field
Example of polarized EM wave:

waves emitted by a radio transmitter

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33-5

Polarization

Example of unpolarized EM wave:

Light from incandescent bulb

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33-5

Polarization

Question:
How do we create polarized
light from unpolarized light?

Answer:
polarizing filter
passes waves that are linearly
polarized along its polarizing axis
blocks waves polarized perpendicularly
to that axis.

Example: PolaroidTM
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33-5

Polarization

Using Polarizers

Io

0.5Io

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33-5

Polarization

What happens when the linearly polarized light emerging from the
polarizer passes through a second polarizer (analyzer)?

unpolarized light

polarized light

0.5Io

Io
polarizer
Maluss Law

analyzer
applies only if the incident light
passing through the analyzer is
already linearly polarized

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33-5

Polarization

Maluss Law

applies only if the incident light


passing through the analyzer is
already linearly polarized

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33-5

Polarization

unpolarized light

polarized light

0.5Io

Io
polarizer

analyzer

Maluss Law

Imax = 0.5Io

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33-5

Polarization

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33-5

Polarization

Example:

Answer: 3Io/8

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33-5

Polarization

Example:

Answer:
Unpolarized: phi = arccos(1/sqrt(5))
Polarized: phi=arcos(1/sqrt(10))

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33-5

Polarization

Seatwork:
A beam of unpolarized light of intensity Io passes through a
series of ideal polarizing filters with their polarizing directions
turned to various angles as shown.
Answers:
A. Io/2
B. Io/8
C. 3Io/16

What is the light intensity (in terms of Io) at points A, B and C?


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33-5

Polarization

Question:

Answer:

How do we create polarized


light from unpolarized light?

Polarization by reflection

When light is incident on a reflecting surface at the polarizing angle p,


the reflected light is linearly polarized.

Brewsters Law

polarizing angle

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33-5

Polarization

Brewsters Law

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33-5

Polarization

Brewsters Law

polarizing angle

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33-5

Polarization

Example:

Answers:
a.) n_glass=tan(54.5)
b.) snells law
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33-5

Polarization

Circularly Polarized
Two sinusoidal waves of equal amplitude, polarized in the y- and z-directions
and with a quarter-cycle phase difference, are superposed.

right circularly polarized wave: electric field vector is rotating clockwise


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33-5

Polarization

Circularly Polarized
Two sinusoidal waves of equal amplitude, polarized in the y- and z-directions
and with a quarter-cycle phase difference, are superposed.

left circularly polarized wave: electric field vector is rotating counterclockwise


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33-5

Polarization

Elliptically Polarized
If the phase difference between the two component waves is something
other than a quarter-cycle, or if the two component waves have different
amplitudes.

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End of Chapter 33

Nature and Propagation of Light

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