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Table of contents
List of figures
1. Automatic drain cleaner

2.1. Alkaline drain openers
2.2. Acidic drain openers

Handheld drain augers


Electric drain cleaners


3.1. Components lists

3.2. Square hollow pipe
3.3. Bearings
3.4. Chain Sprocket
3.5. Bush Roller chain
3.6. Tank
3.7. Motor
3.8. Transformer
3.9. Rectifier
3.10. Nut and bolts
3.11. Water filtering grille
3.12. Rod









Alkaline drain openers

Acidic drain openers
Handheld drain augers
Electric drain cleaners
Enzymatic drain cleaners
Hollow square pipe
Chain sprocket
Bush roller chain
DC motor
Nut and bolt
Water filtering grille

List of components used:-








Big Square hollow pipe

30 ft




Small square hollow pipe

6 ft




Rectangular hollow pipe


1 ft




















Chain sprocket




Geared Motor




Water filtering grille



Labour cost(welding etc)



Travelling cost



12+1 pcs






Automatic drain cleaner is the system installed in an open canal, river or drainage
passage so that manual extraction of waste to be replaced through it. This helps us to
prevent the spreading of diseases in between humans by manual working in garbage
waste. Plastic & other waste dump & block the flow of water in Canal & Rivers near the
bridges support pillars, so it can extract out from river & canal & allow the water to flow
without any obstacle. Then, may pass through conveyors to recycling plant.

Literature Survey
A drain cleaner is a chemical based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps
to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains. The term may also refer to the individual
who uses performs the activity with chemical drain cleaners or devices known as
plumber's snake. Drain cleaners can be classified in two categories: chemical, or device.
If a single sink, toilet, or tub or shower drain is clogged the first choice is normally a
drain cleaner that can remove soft obstructions such as hair and grease clogs that can
accumulate close to interior drain openings. Chemical drain cleaners, plungers, handheld

drain augers, air burst drain cleaners, and home remedy drain cleaners are intended for
this purpose.
If more than one plumbing fixture is clogged the first choice is normally a drain
cleaner that can remove soft or hard obstructions along the entire length of the drain,
from the drain opening through the main sewer drain to the lateral piping outside the
building. Electric drain cleaners and sewer jetters are intended for this purpose.

2.1 Chemical drain cleaners

Chemical drain cleaners can be in solid or liquid form that is readily available through
hardware stores, though some (primarily acidic ones) are intended for use by licensed
Alkaline drain cleaners are available in either solid or liquid state while the acidic ones
are usually in liquid form.

2.2 Alkaline drain openers

Fig No:-1 Alkaline drain openers

Bottles of alkaline drain cleaners containing soium hydroxide can dissolve greases and
Alkaline drain openers primarily contain sodium hydroxide and some may contain
potassium hydroxide. They may appear in liquid or solid form.
Liquid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners can contain sodium hypochlorite
(bleach) and lye (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) in concentrations up to 50
percent. Other corrosive mixtures come as two-part cleaners that are mixed as they are
poured in the drain opening. Inside the drain the two solutions react to release a gas, and
surfactants trap the gas as dense foam. The intent of this foaming action is to coat the
inside of the drain pipe to dislodge more of the substances that form the clog.
Solid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners in the form of sodium hydroxide
or potassium hydroxide granules can provide more concentrated effective ingredients.
Some patented, solid-formula cleaners add aluminum turnings that react with the solid
hydroxide in water to heat the caustic mixture to a boil.

Alkaline drain openers can dissolve hair (containing proteins) and fats inside pipes via
alkaline hydrolysis of amide and ester respectively:
RCONH2(amide or proteins)+ OH NH3 + RCOO
RCO2R(ester or fats)+ OH R'OH + RCOO

2.3 Acidic drain openers

Fig No:-2 Acidic drain openers

Acidic drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) at a high concentration
which turns a piece of pH paper red and chars it instantly.
Apart from grease and hair, an acidic drain cleaner containing sulfuric acid can be also
used to dissolve tissue paper inside water pipes.
The acid in drain openers reacts with aluminum oxide on the surface of some pipes.
Acid drain cleaners usually contain sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) at high concentrations.[2]
It can dissolve proteins and fats via hydrolysis and since sulfuric acid at high
concentrations also has a strong dehydrating property, it readily dissolves tissue paper
inside pipes through dehydration as well.

According to a manufacturer, potential hazards include violent reaction with water and
the production of explosive hydrogen vapors upon contact with most metals; chronic
(delayed) and acute (immediate) health hazards if inhaled, ingested, or contacted,
including severe eye, flesh and skin burns or even permanent visual loss, inflammation of
respiratory membranes, and corrosive burns to all human tissue. It may even be fatal if
swallowed.[3] Due to the vigorous reaction between the acid and water, such acidic drain
openers should be added slowly into the pipe to be cleaned.
Here are the ways where acidic drain openers hydrolyze proteins and fats via acid
hydrolysis, similar to their alkaline versions mentioned above:
RCONH2(amide or proteins)+ H2O + (H+ or acid) NH4+ + RCOOH
RCO2R'(ester or fats) + H2O + acid or dehydrating agent
(e.g. conc. sulfuric acid)


Sulfuric acid at high concentrations in drain openers also dehydrates substances

containing carbohydrates, like tissue paper which consists of cellulose:
(C6H10O5)n + sulfuric acid 6n C + 5n H2O

Usage considerations
Advantages of chemical drain cleaners include ready availability of some formulations
through retailer stores and potential ease of use for removing soft hair and grease clogs
that accumulate close the drain openings.
Disadvantages of chemical drain cleaners include a lack of effectiveness for removing
clogs far from the drain opening (for example, clogs that occur in toilets [4] or in the main
sewer drain), an inability to remove most solid obstructions, and the safety considerations
outlined below.
Danger arises from chemical drain cleaners' potential to injure eyes, lungs, and skin; and
damage to clothing and household materials such as wood, paint, aluminum, and

fiberglass. Chemical drain cleaners should be used only according to the manufacturer's
instructions, as other use may cause injury. Strongly corrosive and acid drain cleaners are
among the most hazardous household products available to the public. Chemical drain
cleaners can cause strong reactionssometimes explosivelywith other chemicals that
may have been used previously, which can result in serious injury to anyone in the

2.4 Handheld drain Augers

Fig No:-3 Handheld drain auger

Handheld drain augers are typically designed to clean portions of a drain within 8
meters (25 ft) of the drain opening. The cable of a handheld drain auger is driven into a
drain by the mechanical force created when the operator rotates a drum that anchors the
Many handheld augers have cables that are thin enough to pass through common sink
traps, though some manufacturers do not recommend using handheld drain augers in
toilets because of their potential to scratch ceramic surfaces. Instead, a special closet
auger (from "water closet") should be used.
Similar to handheld augers, drain rods can be used for clearing blockages in long, straight

Advantages of handheld drain augers include low relative cost and ready availability
through hardware stores. However, drawbacks include a reach that is normally limited to
8 meters (25 ft), and the potential for the twisting cable to scratch the ceramic surfaces of
plumbing fixtures. They are also only effective on small diameter pipes - 40-50mm rather
than main sewer pipes of 110mm.
Safety considerations include a requirement to wear protective gloves and eye protection,
and to practice good hygiene after coming into contact with drain fluids.

2.5 Electric drain cleaners

Fig No:-4 Electric drain cleaner

Electric drain cleaners, also called plumber's snakes, use the mechanical force of an
electric motor to twist a flexible cable or spring in a clockwise direction and drive it into
a pipe. Electric drain cleaners are commonly available with cable lengths of up to 40
metres and can go as far as 80 metres.
Advantages of electric drain cleaners include the ability to clean long sections of sewer
drain, the ability to remove solid objects such as tree roots and jewelry, and ready

availability through hardware stores and tool rental counters. Machines using springs can
easily negotiate multiple 90 degree bends while maintaining their effectiveness and
without damaging the pipe.
Disadvantages of electric drain cleaners include high relative cost and weight, and the
considerable physical effort that may be required to control the cable.
Safety considerations for electric drain cleaners include the requirement to wear work
gloves and eye protection, to carefully control the cable during operation to avoid
overstressing it, to use appropriate caution when working around rotating machinery, and
to use properly grounded electrical outlets.

2.6 Enzymatic drain cleaners

Fig No:-5 Enzymatic drain cleaner

Enzymatic drain cleaners contain bacteria cultures and concentrated enzymes that react
with organic residue that builds up on sewer pipes, dissolving the residue to help prevent
slow-running drains. Most enzymatic drain cleaners are intended for general maintenance
to maintain proper flow and are not intended to clear fully clogged drain pipes.


Advantages of enzymatic drain cleaners include relative safety for use in a wide range of
plumbing fixtures, low environmental impact, low cost and ease of use.
Disadvantages of most enzymatic drain cleaners include longer cleaning times compared
to most other drain cleaners. Because enzymatic cleaners rely on liquid flowing through
the pipe to disperse, they are also generally not intended to open completely clogged
Safety considerations for enzymatic drain cleaners include a requirement to avoid contact
with eyes and prolonged contact with skin.

Alternate terms
Liquid sosa is the well-known term for drain cleaner (in liquid form) in the Philippines.
A plunger is a device that is used to release stoppages in plumbing. The tool consists of a
rubber cup with an attached stick "shaft", usually made of wood or plastic. A different
bellows-like design also exists, usually constructed of plastic. For the common plunger,
the cup is pushed down against the drain opening, and either pressed hard into the drain
to force air in, or is pushed down until the rubber cup is flattened, then pulled out,
causing a vacuum that attracts material. The intent is to loosen or break up a blockage
caused by excessive material in the drain.
A kitchen plunger looks like a ball cut in half while a toilet plunger looks more like a
distorted ball with a large hole on the bottom.[1]
A plunger is much more effective when there is water in the pipe because water does not
compress and will thus transmit more of the applied force than air.[2] When a plunger is
ineffective, it is often supplemented by a chemical drain cleaner in the case of sinks and
tubs, or in cases of main line, toilet or stubborn clogs, a plumber's snake.
A plumber's snake is a slender, flexible auger used to dislodge clogs in plumbing. The
plumber's snake is often reserved for difficult clogs that cannot be loosened with a

plunger. It is also sometimes called a toilet jack or electric eel. An auger is a drilling
device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting"
to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material. The rotation of the blade
causes the material to move out of the hole being drilled.
An auger used for digging post holes is called an 'earth auger', 'handheld power earth
drill', 'soil auger', or 'mechanized post hole digger'. This kind of auger can be a manually
turned, handheld device, or powered by an electric motor or internal-combustion engine,
possibly attached to a tractor (being provided with power by the tractor engine's power
take-off as shown). Handheld augers can also be used for making holes for garden
Wood augers have a screw to pull them into the wood, as a gimlet has, and a cutting lip
that slices out the bottom of the hole. The auger bit, meant to be used in a brace, also has
cutting spurs to cut a clean circle deeper than where the lips scrape out the wood.
In construction, augers are used for special drilling rigs to dig holes for deep foundation
piles. Another use is for piles forming a piling retaining wall, which can be constructed in
the same way as foundation piles.
Augers either gas- or hand-powered are used by ice fishermen to drill holes to fish
through. Drilling into maple trees to extract maple syrup is also carried out with the use
of augers.


3.1.1. Square hollow pipe:- A hollow structural section (HSS) is a type of

metal profile with a hollow tubular cross section. The term is used predominantly in
USA, or other countries which follow US construction or engineering terminology.
HSS members can be circular, square, or rectangular sections, although other shapes are
available, such as elliptical. HSS is only composed of structural steel per code.
HSS is sometimes mistakenly referenced as hollow structural steel. Rectangular and
square HSS are also commonly called tube steel or structural tubing. Circular HSS are
sometimes mistakenly called steel pipe though true steel pipe is actually dimensioned and
classed differently from HSS. (HSS dimensions are based on exterior dimensions of the
profile, while pipes are essentially dimensioned based on interior diameters, as needed to
calculate areas for flow of liquids.) The corners of HSS are heavily rounded, having a
radius which is approximately twice the wall thickness. The wall thickness is uniform
around the section.

Fig No:-06 Hollow Square Pipe


3.1.2. Bearings:- A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to

only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts . The design of the
bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for
free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling
the vectorsof normal

forces that








also facilitate the desired motion as much as possible, such as by minimizing friction.
Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed,
or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.
The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear" a bearing being a machine element
that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another. The simplest bearings are bearing
surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form,
size, roughness and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed
into a machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding
applications are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the highest
standards of current technology.

Fig No:-07 Bearing


3.1.3. Chain sprocket:-

A sprocket or sprocket-wheel[2] is a profiled wheel with

teeth, cogs, or even sprockets that mesh with a chain, track or other perforated or
indented material. The name 'sprocket' applies generally to any wheel upon which radial
projections engage a chain passing over it. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets
are never meshed together directly, and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth
and pulleys are smooth.



in bicycles, motorcycles, cars, tracked



other machinery either to transmit rotary motion between two shafts where gears are
unsuitable or to impart linear motion to a track, tape etc. Perhaps the most common form
of sprocket may be found in the bicycle, in which the pedal shaft carries a large sprocketwheel, which drives a chain, which, in turn, drives a small sprocket on the axle of the rear
wheel. Early automobiles were also largely driven by sprocket and chain mechanism, a
practice largely copied from bicycles

Fig No:-08 Chain Sprocket


3.1.4. Bush Roller Chain:- Roller chain or bush roller chain is the type of chain
drive most commonly used for transmission of mechanical power on many kinds of
domestic, industrial and agricultural machinery, including conveyors, wire- and tubedrawing machines, printing presses, cars, motorcycles, and bicycles. It consists of a series
of short cylindrical rollers held together by side links. It is driven by a toothed wheel
called a sprocket. It is a simple, reliable, and efficient[1] means of power transmission.
Though Hans Renold is credited with inventing the roller chain in 1880, sketches
by Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th century show a chain with a roller bearing.[2]

There are actually two types of links alternating in the bush roller chain. The first type is
inner links, having two inner plates held together by two sleeves or bushings upon which
rotate two rollers. Inner links alternate with the second type, the outer links, consisting of
two outer plates held together by pins passing through the bushings of the inner links.
The "bushingless" roller chain is similar in operation though not in construction; instead
of separate bushings or sleeves holding the inner plates together, the plate has a tube
stamped into it protruding from the hole which serves the same purpose. This has the
advantage of removing one step in assembly of the chain.


Fig No:-09 Bush Roller Chain

3.1.5. Shaft:- A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft is a mechanical component for
transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive
train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for
relative movement between them.
As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the
difference between the input torque and the load. They must therefore be strong enough
to bear the stress, whilst avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn
increase their inertia.


Fig No:-10 Shafts

3.1.6. Tank:-.Tank is used to collect the waste from sewerage and it is placed behind
the whole system. The waste collected by the rod moving by the chain and sprockets is
collected in it.


Fig No:-11 Tank

3.1.7. Geared Motor:- An electric motor is an electrical machine that
converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this would be the
conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric
In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between
an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the
motor. In certain applications, such as in the transportation industry with traction motors,
electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also
produce electrical energy from mechanical energy.
Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools,
household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered
by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or
by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid,inverters or generators.
Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly

standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for

industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline
compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts.
Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction,
application, type of motion output, and so on.

Fig No:-12 DC Motor

3.1.8. Transformer:- A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy
between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in
the core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the secondary winding. This
varying magnetic field at the secondary induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or
voltage in the secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with
high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to
efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks.
Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimetre in volume
to units interconnecting the power grid weighing hundreds of tons. A wide range of
transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications. Since
the invention in 1885 of the first constant potential transformer, transformers have

become essential for the AC transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical


Fig No:- 13 Transformer

3.1.9. Rectifier:- A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating
current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows
in only one direction. The process is known as rectification. Physically, rectifiers take a
number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, copper and
selenium oxide rectifiers, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other
silicon-based semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical
switches and motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a
"cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal ofgalena (lead sulfide) to serve as a
point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector"


Fig No:-14 Rectifier

3.1.10. Nut&Bolt:- Hexagonal nuts are used in this project having variable
dimensions at different place.Nut and bolts are used for joining of two different plates.It
is also called as temporary joints of two different material and can be easily open and
close the joint.


Fig No:-15 Nut &Bolts

3.1.11.Water filtering grille:- A grille or grill (French word from Latin craticula,
small grill) is an opening of several slits side by side in a wall or metal sheet or other
barrier, usually to let air or water enter and/or leave but keep larger objects
including animals in or out.[1]

Fig No:-16 Water filtering grille

3.1.12. Rod:- The Rods are an American heavy metal band formed in 1978 by David
"Rock" Feinstein (guitar and vocals), Steven Starmer ([bass guitar] and vocals), who was
later replaced by Garry Bordonaro (bassand vocals) after the first two albums, and Carl
Canedy (drums and vocals).


Feinstein had first come to mainstream attention after playing in Elf, with his
cousin Ronnie James Dio. The Rods sound differed considerably from Elf, adopting a
more traditional heavy metal sound compared with the blues-rock sound that Elf
Their first album was originally released independently as Rock Hard in 1980 and the
following year the band was signed by Arista Records, who reordered the album tracks
and released it simply titledThe Rods. Their second album Wild Dogs followed in 1982
and was re-released in 2004.

Fig No:-17 Rods


This project is made in respect to demolish the manual labor & want to introduce with
technology i.e Automatic Drain Cleaning System which is successful & if we made it
on large scale than it would be beneficial for residents of various cities in rainy season. If
this type of mechanism installed in various cities by Municipal Committee than spreading
of diseases may reduce upto 80%.