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TOPIK4

KEMAHIRAN PROSES SAINS ASAS


MEMERHATI

SINOPSIS
Dalam topik ini anda akan didedahkan kepada tujuh kemahiran proses sains
asas. Anda juga akan diberi dengan aktiviti-aktiviti yang boleh anda
mencuba

sendiri

dengan

murid-murid

untuk

meningkatkan

semua

kemahiran ini. Latihan dan soalan-soalan tutorial yang diberikan bukan


sahaja

akan membantu anda menilai diri anda sendiri dalam kemahiran

proses sains asas ini tetapi juga boleh meningkatkan pemahaman anda.
HASIL PEMBELAJARAN
Di akhir topik ini diharapkan guru-guru boleh :
1. Membentuk penghayatan secara kritis kemahiran proses sains asas
dan amalannya di dalam pengajaran sains di sekolah rendah.
2. Menunjukkan kefasihan dalam mereka bentuk pendekatan bagi
menyokong murid-murid dalam mengembangkan kemahiran prosedur
dan pemahaman sains
KERANGKA TOPIK
Rajah 3 : Kerangka Isi Kandungan
MEMERHATI
Apa itu memerhati?
Kemahiran Proses Asas

Memerhati

Mengkelas

Berkomunikasi

Meramal

Menyukat dan Mengguna


Nombor
Mengguna perhubungan
ruang-masa

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Membuat Inferen

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Tahukah anda apa itu memerhati? Kebanyakan daripada kita memahami
bahawa memerhati
itu melibatkan deria mata untuk melihat dan memahami benda-benda di
sekitar. Sebenarnya ia adalah lebih daripada itu.Memerhati adalah asas
kemahiran proses sains yang melibatkan semua

lima

deria untuk

mencirikan objek-objek, mengenalpasti perubahan-perubahan, persamaan


dan perbezaan untuk memahami dunia di sekitar kita. Di sebalik itu juga
kita

boleh

mengatakan

mengumpul

maklumat

bahawa
berkaitan

memerhati
dengan

juga

melibatkan

objek-objek

atau

proses

peristiwa-

peristiwa dengan menggunakan kelima-lima pancaindera, lihat, dengar,


sentuh, rasa dan bau. Memerhati dalam sains, memerlukan murid-murid
memberi perhatian secara menghalusi.Memandang, melihat dan memerhati
hendaklah

difahami

dengan

jelas.Memandang

dan

melihat

dianggap

sebagai pendekatan pasif manakala memerhati pula dilihat sebagai


pendekatan aktif.
Apabila kita hendak mengenali sesuatu buah, kita akan mengguna mata
untuk melihat bentuk dan warna buah itu.Anda juga akan menyentuh dan
menghidu buah tersebut untuk mengetahui samada buah itu masak atau
tidak. Kadangkala anda mencuba rasa mengguna lidah untuk memastikan
samada buah itu manis atau tidak. Ada kalanya kita menggoncang dan
mendengar bunyi untuk menguji isi terkandung.Disini kita mengguna
kesemua

pancaindera

untuk

mengenali

dan

memahami

buah

tersebut.Pemerhatian jenis ini disebut sebagai pemerhatian kualitatif.Jika


kita hendak mengetahui dengan lebih lanjut, tentang berat dan panjang
buah tersebut misalnya 200 g dan 30 cm, pemerhatian itu disebut
pemerhatian kuantitatif sebab ia melibatkan nombor atau kuantiti. .
Pemerhatian kuantitatif memberi maklumat dengan lebih tepat berbanding
dengan

pancaindera

memerlukan

bantuan

kita.Maka
untuk

pelajar,

membuat

lebih-lebih

lagi

pemerhatian

kanak-kanak,

yang

baik.

Jika

seseorang pelajar itu sedang menerangkan apa yang dia lihat, dia akan
menerangkan tentang warna objek itu sahaja tetapi tidak berkenaan dengan
saiz atau bentuk objek itu. Pemerhatian yang bagus dan produktif adalah
berbentuk penjelasan yang ditulis atau dilukis secara menyeluruh dan tepat
dan

pelajar

perlu

dilatih

untuk

menghasilkan

penerangan

yang

menyeluruh.Penerangan yang panjang dan lengkap oleh pelajar, maka

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barulah boleh meningkatkan pemahaman tentang konsep yang sedang
dikaji.
Bagaimanakah kita membimbing pelajar-pelajar kita memberi penerangan
yang baik dan menyeluruh.?

Beri arahan kepada pelajar supaya focus kepada objek atau peristiwa
yang sedang dikaji dan kenalpasti ciri-cirinya.

Berikan mereka peluang untuk menyatakan pemerhatian kualitatif


awal. Kemudian minta mereka memberi huraian secara menyoal atau
memberi mereka alatan yang boleh membantu mereka menjalankan
pemerhatian kualitatif atau kuantitatif yang selanjutnya.

Jika berlaku sebarang perubahan dalam pemerhatian, pelajar perlu


menyatakan apa yang mereka lihat sebelum, semasa dan selepas
kejadian

berlaku

dalam

pemerhatian.

Jika

boleh

pelajar

perlu

digalakkan menamakan apa yang mereka perhati.

Gunakan rujukan, merujuk kepada benda yang telah menjadi biasa


kepada semua orang untuk menerangkan dengan lebih jelas sesuatu
pemerhatian. Contohnya, kita menerangkan warna dengan rujukan,
seperti langit biru, rumput hijau kuning emas untuk menerangkan
warna biri, hijau atau kuning.

Apabila kita membuat ukuran, kita membandingkan sifat dengan


rujukan unit. Sesuatu kenyataan ukuran mengandungi dua bahagian,
nombor memberitahu berapa bilangan, dan nama unit untuk
memberitahu berapa banyak kandungan isinya. Penggunaan nombor
menunjukkan ukuran itu pemerhatian kuantitatif. Contoh, helaian
daun diikat dalam bilangan lima, atau ukuran berat daun ialah lima
gram.

Sebagai rumusannya boleh kita katakana bahawa pemerhatian itu dibuat


apabila;
Mengguna semua pancaindera untuk mendapatkan maklumat.
Menggunakan perkakas atau alat untuk membuat pemerhatian tepat
Mengenalpasti

persamaan

dan

perbezaan

untuk

perbandingan
Mengenalpasti ciri-ciri khas pada objek dan persekitaran

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membuat

45
Sedar akan perubahan pada persekitaran
Mengenalpasti susunan objek atau peristiwa

Keupayaan untuk membuat pemerhatian yang baik adalah juga penting


untuk perkembangan kemahiran proses sains yang lain, berkomunikasi,
mengkelas, mengukur, membuat inferen dan meramal.

Tutorial 1
1. Secara berkumpulan, laksanakan the candle activity. Bincang dan
bentangkan dapatan anda
Tutorial 2
2. Baca artikel Elephant Observations dan jawab soalan yang diberi.

Baca artikel Working Scientifically dan sediakan peta konsep.


Tahniah !
Anda telah bekerja dan berusaha bersungguh-sungguh.Berehatlah sebentar.
Kemudian sambung dan teruskan ke kemahiran proses asas yang lain.

Tutorial 2
ELEPHANT OBSERVATIONS
Long time ago in a distant land, six blind men lived together. All of them
had heard of elephants, but they had never seen one. When they heard
that an elephant and his trainer would be visiting their village, they all

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wanted an encounter with this beast. They made their way to the site
where the elephant was being kept. Each blind man touched the elephant
and made his observations. The observations are listed below.
One man touched the elephants side and said.
An elephant is like a wall.
Another man touched the trunk and said,
An elephant is like a snake.
Another man touched a tusk and said,
An elephant is like a spear.
Another man touched a leg and said,
An elephant is like a fan.
The last man touched the tail and said,
An elephant is like a rope.
Did the blind men make appropriate inferences? Explain.
_______________________________________________________________

How might the blind men improve their inferences?


_______________________________________________________________

One of the characteristics of science is that scientists communicate


their ideas, observation, results, and inferences with each other. Why
is this a good idea?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
In the space below, write a sentence or two explaining what you have
learned.
Qualitative Observations
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Quantitative Observations
_______________________________________________________________

Did the activities above help you to make better observations? Explain.

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_____________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
How does telling stories can make teaching more fun to primary students?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

Working scientifically
Introduction
Working scientifically involves the processes of science, including
understanding the sorts of questions that are the province of science; the
designof experiments; reasoning and arguing with scientific evidence; and
analysing and interpreting data.
Detailed discussion of working scientifically in primary schools can be found
in Keith Skamps Teaching primary science constructively (Thomson
Learning2004). An example of the forms of knowledge associated with
workingscientifically can be found in the Victorian Curriculum and
StandardsFramework (CSF) for science, which can be found on the Victorian
Curriculum and Assessment Authority website
<http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/index.html>.
Key concepts of working scientifically
The activities in this topic are designed to explore the following key
concepts:
Working scientifically involves particular forms of reasoning
withevidence that is different in detail from reasoning in other areas.
There is no one scientific method, but many ways in which scientists
planto establish ideas and generate evidence to explore and support
these ideas.
An oft-cited example of scientific method is the controlled
experiment,where the relationship between an effect and a variable is
explored, withother potentially confounding variables controlled (i.e. kept
the same). Anexample would be the exploration of the effect of the length

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of a pendulum on its period of swing, keeping the weight and swing size
the same butvarying the length and timing of the swing. However, for
many branches ofscience, this type of control is not possible. For
instance, in studyingecological systems, in many cases theories must be
established by lookingat existing ecosystems with many variables. In
geology and astronomy theidea of controlling and repeating observations
is very different. What iscommon to all these areas, however, is the
collection of evidence to supportor argue against claims, and reasoning
with evidence that attempts to isolateclear causes for phenomena.
Working scientifically involves a number of concepts of
evidence,including the purpose and techniques of focused observation,
therecognition of a scientific question that can be investigated, the need
forrepeat measurements and skills in devising measurement processes,
ways ofrecording data (these can vary considerably) and representing
data foranalysis, different experimental designs and associated principles
(e.g. understanding sample size in making observations in the field),
andreporting.
Students alternative conceptions of working scientifically
Research into students ideas about this topic has identified the following
non-scientific conceptions:
Students will not immediately see the task of an investigation as
exploringideas or looking for patterns, but will treat an investigation
simply asestablishing what is without thought for considering
alternativeinterpretations.
Students have problems recognising what is an investigable question
andwill propose questions such as What is electricity? as the basis
forinvestigation. Their questions need to be worked with and clarified
tobecome amenable to scientific investigation.
Students will not understand many of the concepts relating
tomeasurementfor instance, the reading of a scale, the recording
ofcomparison measurements using consistent processes, the calibration
ofinstruments, the need for repeat measurements and the concept
ofuncertainty in measurement. They need to be supported in
makingdefensible measurements.
Students can understand the need to control variables in simple
situations(to make the test fair), such as the need to use the same
amount of eachtype of sugar when comparing the solubility of sugars.
However, they havedifficulty in cases of interacting variables (e.g. finding
out the separateeffects of weight and length on a pendulum swing, or the
separate effect oflight and moisture in determining where slaters prefer
to live).

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Students will not understand the power of laying out data in tables
andgraphs, and the use of a table as a design organiser to help plan a
series ofmeasurements.
Depending on their knowledge and experience, students may have
troublearguing clearly from evidence.

It has been amply demonstrated that, with appropriate support, even very
young
children are capable of distinguishing between observations and inferences,
of
asking investigable questions, planning experiments and arguing from
evidence.
Consumer science
Consumer science refers to activities in the classroom whereby students
use
scientific processes to make judgments about consumer products. Although
consumer science does not fall easily into any major curriculum topic
categories, it is an important and fun vehicle for teaching students about
some
of the science processes such as fair testing, measuring and recording. It
provides a vehicle for learning about the nature of scientific investigation.
It should be noted, however, that these investigations, because they mostly
involve comparisons on the basis of criteria, do not illustrate the more
difficult
nature of working scientifically that deals with the exploration of conceptual
ideas.

Skills and understandings of consumer science


The activities in this topic are designed to develop the following skills and
understandings of this topic:
how to formulate useful, investigable questions
the importance of measuring accurately
why it is necessary to ensure that all tests are fair and repeatable
the purpose of planning and designing investigations
how to design valid experiments with appropriate variable control
how to design measurement procedures

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how to represent data for analysis and reporting.
Things to consider when completing activities
The activities in this topic give examples of some types of products suitable
forearly and middle years consumer science testing. In judging different
products,the things that need to be considered (summarising the discussion
above) are:
what criteria are relevant for the evaluation
what weighting should be given to the various criteria
whether the test is fair
whether the results are reproducible
whether the method of comparison (scale, addition of scores, etc.)
isappropriate.
Development of students testing capabilities
The following descriptions of students capabilities at different year levels,
andthe type of activity appropriate for each, are based on reports of
DeakinUniversity students teaching consumer science activities to groups of
studentsin schools.

Prep/Year 1
It is most appropriate to structure tests and scaffold childrens
experimenting.Criteria and procedures need to be decided by the teacher,
using simple testsand comparisons, rather than measurements. Ensure
there is a low demand formanipulation skills.
Examples of appropriate tests include comparing the sweetness of cereals,
theamount of salt or oil in chips or the amount of bubble in detergents.
Year 2
Students can define criteria, but have little understanding of a fair test, e.g.
sothey may cheat to make sure their chosen sample wins.
Year 3
Students are beginning to appreciate the notion of a fair test. They can
definecriteria and conduct given tests with fairness and appreciate how
differences inresults can arise.
Year 4

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Depending on the content area, students should now be able to
designexperiments and plan measurements with minimal input from the
teacher.
Years 5 and above
The comparison of products by discussion of weighting of criteria
isincreasingly possible. Students are able to set out tables and deal with
differentorders on different criteria. They can hold a reasoned discussion on
the factorsaffecting the performance of different products, and ways of
exploring thesefurther.
interpreting data representati

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