Anda di halaman 1dari 172

Services Catalog

Introduction
Table of Contents

Version

Date

2.0

May 2008

2.1

August
2008

Revision History
Comprehensive text and image editing; added new section, Deployment Risk
Management; deleted obsolete services and added new services; incorporated
new Atlas Orange color scheme
Minor corrections made throughout document.

Introduction
Baker Atlas

Baker Atlas is a division of Baker Hughes


Incorporated, a Fortune 500 company
recognized worldwide as a leading provider
of products, services and solutions for the
petroleum industry. Since entering the oilfield in
1932 as the Lane-Wells Company, Baker Atlas
has grown through a series of mergers and
acquisitions including Wedge DiaLog, Z&S
Geoscience, SSI and Accutec. Today, building
on more than seven decades of technological
breakthroughs and service excellence, the
company serves its worldwide client base as
an integral part of Baker Hughes Incorporated
and through joint ventures with partners
including GeoMark Research and Compagnie
Gnrale de Gophysique (CGG).

Baker Atlas offers advanced well logging,


completion and geoscience services.
Baker Atlas offers a complete range of downhole well
logging services for every environment including
advanced formation evaluation, production and
reservoir engineering, petrophysical and geophysical
data acquisition services. In addition, perforating and
completion technologies, pipe recovery, data management, processing and analysis of open and cased hole
data complete the service range.
Offering a proven track record of efficient and
professional service execution at the wellsite, Baker
Atlas is committed to doing the job right the first time.
Baker Atlas believes being number one in the wireline
industry doesn't mean being the largest company.
Instead Baker Atlas prefers to lead the industry in
being The Best Choice for customers by focusing
on three key areas and delivering them every day.
Baker Atlas stands for Efficiency, Data Accuracy and
People-oriented Service.

ii

Introduction

Efficiency
Baker Atlas people are committed to providing
superior and efficient service through the complete
job cycle. Our goal is to offer flawless wellsite
execution driven by personnel, enhanced by reliable
instrumentation, efficient conveyance methods and
flexible instrument combinations.

Data Accuracy
Baker Atlas recognizes that data accuracy is fundamental
and achieves this through aggressive technology
development. Proactive research and development
programs develop new logging instrumentation and
advance the logging interpretation sciences.

People-oriented Service
We believe in maintaining a close working relationship
with our clients to understand reservoir development
needs. When the data acquisition is complete, our
focus is on delivering maximum value from that data.
In a continuous effort to assist oil and gas companies
in cost-effective exploration and production, Baker
Atlas operates a state-of-the-art research and manufacturing facility. The Houston Technology Center is
co-located with Baker Atlas global headquarters in
Houston, Texas.
Our business centers on assisting our customers to be
successful in discovering, quantifying and producing
hydrocarbon reserves that represent the companies
present and future. Technology is designed to create
client value through improved reservoir description,
efficient reservoir development and the reduction of
risk through timely and accurate data quality.
Health, safety and environmental issues are given
the highest priority in Baker Atlas logging operations.
Comprehensive training programs educate field crews
in safety procedures and the safe handling of
hazardous materials.
Every day in oil fields around the world, Baker Atlas
field service personnel, engineers and geoscientists are
applying leading technology to help find, develop and
produce oil and gas. Baker Atlas shares our customers
goal: to understand the reservoir and achieve ultimate
recovery at the lowest overall cost.

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Table of Contents

1. Formation Evaluation Services


Resistivity Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Deep Formation Resistivity
High-Definition Induction Log (HDIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Dual Laterolog (DLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Anisotropic Resistivity
3DEX Elite Induction Logging Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Shallow Investigation Instruments
Micro Laterolog (MLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Minilog (ML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Nuclear Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Compensated Z-Densilog (ZDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Compensated Neutron (CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Gamma Ray Log (GR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Digital Spectralog (DSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Acoustic Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog F1 (XMAC F1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Digital Acoustilog (DAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Magnetic Resonance Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
MR Explorer (MREX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
High-Efficiency Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log (F_HDIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
FOCUS Digital Acoustilog (F_DAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (F_ZDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
FOCUS Compensated Neutron (F_CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
FOCUS Gamma Ray Log (F_GR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
Geological Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
Resistivity and Acoustic Imaging
Water-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager (STAR Imager) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Oil-Based Mud Formation Resisitivity Imager (EARTH Imager) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log (CBIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Hexagonal Diplog (HDIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28
Caliper Services
Well Geometry Instrument (WGI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29

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2. Formation Testing and Sampling Services


Pressure Testing/Fluid Characterization and Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Reservoir Characterization Instrument (RCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Straddle Packer Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
SampleView IB Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
SampleView IC Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
RCI Single-phase Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
RCI Multi-tank Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Coring Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool (RCOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Sidewall Corgun (SWC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10

3. Geophysical Services
Borehole Seismic Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Velocity Survey (Checkshot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Zero Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (ZVSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Surface Seismic AVO Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Walkaway VSP, 3-D VSP
2-D and 3-D Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Hydraulic-Fracture Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Downhole Seismic Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Downhole Instrumentation
Downhole Receiver Array Geochain (GCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Digital Multi-level Downhole Seismic Array (GWV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Multi-level Slimhole Receiver (MSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
PipeSeis (PSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Buried Gun Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Surface Instrumentation
Seismic Logging Systems (SLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Integrated Borehole Seismic Navigation System (TASMAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Energy Sources and Energy Source Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
2-D Imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3-D Migration; 3-C, 3-D Migration; 4-C Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3-D VSP Processing, Interpretation and Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Q-Compensating Surface Seismic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19

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3. Geophysical Services (continued)


Special Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Post-Survey Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
2-D and 3-D VSP Inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Presurvey Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23

4. Reservoir and Production Services


Cased Hole Formation Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
PDK-100 (PDK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Production Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Production Optimization Log and Reservoir Information Solutions (POLARIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Production Logging Services (PRAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Flowmeters
Continuous Spinner Flowmeter (FMCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Folding Impeller Flowmeter (FMFI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Basket Flowmeter (FMBK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Fluid Composition Logs
Nuclear Fluid Density (FDN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Water Holdup Indicator (WHI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Flolog/Tracers
Nuclear Flolog (NFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Tracerlog (TRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager (PNHI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Hydrolog (HYDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Surface Readout Pressure Gauge (SRPG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Miscellaneous Cased Hole Services
Noise (Sonan) Log (SON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Temperature Log (TEMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Pipe Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Vertilog Service (VRT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Digital Magnelog Service (DMAG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Imaging Caliper Log (ICL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22

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5. Completion and Mechanical Services


Cement Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Segmented Bond Tool (SBT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Radial Analysis Bond Log (RAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Acoustic Cement Bond Log (CBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Pipe Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Overview of Pipe Recovery Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Pipe Recovery Log (PRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Free Point Indicators (FPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator (SAFP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Magna-Tector Free Point Indicator (MAFP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
String Shot Backoff (BO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Chemical Cutter (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Jet Cutter (JCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log (SON/TEMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14

6. Completion and Perforating Services


Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Perforating Charges Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Dynamic Underbalance Optimization Process (DUO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
StimGun Propellant-Assisted Perforating Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
XLD (eXtreme Low Debris) Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
PERFFORM Low Debris Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
2 and 2 12 Low Swell Guns (XPLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Horizontal Oriented Perforating System (HOPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Snapshot CT Live Well Deployment System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Stackable Gun System (SGS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Inter-Gun Automatic Release (IGAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Model J-Gun Brake (J-GB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Electro-Magnetic Orienting Perforating (EMO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating (CTCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
One-Trip Perforate and Completion Systems (NeoTrip) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System (PDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
TCP Azimuthally Oriented Perforating (TCP-AOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Parallel Perforating System (PSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Tubing-Conveyed Dual String Perforating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Guardian II/EBW Perforating Package (GDN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21

vi

Table of Contents

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Table of Contents

7. Deployment Risk Management


Wireline Conveyance Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Pipe Conveyed Logging (PCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Tractor Conveyed Logging (WTCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging (CTCW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Pump Down Conveyance (TDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Risk-Reduction Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Well Intervention Modeling Services (CERB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
High-Tension Devices
High-Strength Wirelines (XSMC) (XSSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Powered Capstan (PSW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Wireline Jars (EEJ) (ISJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Advanced Conveyance Devices
Flywheels (RHRA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Positioning Devices (RLSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Roller Assemblies (ROLI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Swivels (SWVL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Knuckle Joints (KNJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Hole Finders (HFD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Contingency Services and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Logging While Retrieving (LWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead (MRCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Single-Conductor Releasable Tool (ART) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool (HWST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Surface Wireline Cutters (RWCC) (RWC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18

8. Hostile Environment Services


Extreme HPHT Logging Instruments (Nautilus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2

9. Data Delivery/Management Services


Data Delivery Service (WellLink) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2

10. Geoscience Services


Acoustic Waveform Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Geomechanics Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Resistivity Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Diplog Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Table of Contents

vii

Table of Contents

10. Geoscience Services (continued)


Borehole Image Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Cased Hole Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Production Log Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Pipe Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-10

11. Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


By Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Alphabetical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8

viii

Table of Contents

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

1. Formation Evaluation Services

I
Resistivity Logging
Nuclear Logging
Acoustic Logging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
High-Efficiency Logging
Geological Services

Resistivity Logging

Resistivity and depth were the first logging measurements ever recorded, and resistivity or its reciprocal,
conductivity, is virtually always recorded as part of openhole logging operations. Present-day technology
combines other measurements such as neutron, density, acoustic, and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify
effective porosity, saturations and permeability. Hydrocarbon evaluation has evolved to logging in more
complex environments, and as oil fields age around the world, more sophisticated equipment is required to
extract hydrocarbons more efficiently and economically. This new marketplace demands an instrument that
can look ever deeper into the formation and resolve increasingly thinner structures. Baker Atlas meets this
need using the High-Definition Induction Log (HDILSM) service along with the powerful computational
capabilities of the ECLIPSSM surface acquisition system. This flexible induction device is designed to
accommodate a wide range of subsurface combination options with other tools.
In addition to conventional openhole formation evaluation measurements, we now offer state-of-the-art
anisotropic evaluation services. The 3D Explorer (3DEX EliteSM) Induction Logging Service is a unique
formation evaluation instrument designed to efficiently and economically identify and quantify hydrocarbons
in thinly bedded low-resistivity pay zones. The 3DEX instruments unique multi-component resistivity
measurement determines Rh and Rv to identify and quantify hydrocarbon volume in anisotropic formations.
More in-depth information for each service is available in Baker Atlas brochures.
Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more
information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Technology

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Form
a

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Resis
tivit y
Resis
tivity
Aniso
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High
-Reso
lutio
n Res
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ty/Th
Low
in Be
Resis
ds
tivit y
Pay
Drilli
ng Fl
uid In
vasio
n Pro
file
Salin
e Dri
lling
Fluid
sH
ighly
Fresh
Resis
Form
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ation
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Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

High-Definition Induction Log

Dual Laterolog

3DEX Explorer (3DEX Elite)

Micro Laterolog
Minilog
FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log*
X
* Located in the High-Efficiency Logging Section on page 1-18

1-2

Formation Evaluation: Resistivity Logging

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Determine Accurate Formation Resistivity


Improved Rt Results in Improved Sw and More Accurate Reserve Estimates
HDIL High-Definition Induction Log
The High-Definition Induction Log (HDILSM) service, a
full-spectrum array-type induction logging service,
provides formation resistivities at multiple depths of
investigation in freshwater and oil-based drilling mud
systems. The combination of the HDIL high-vertical
resolution and deep-investigating measurements with
inversion processing provides a detailed analysis of
formation resistivity (Rt), flushed zone resistivity (Rxo)
and depth of invasion.

Operation
The HDIL subsurface instrument is a multi-receiver,
multi-frequency induction device. Multiple receivers provide
formation resistivities at six depths of investigation, ranging
from 10 to 120 inches (0.25 to 3 m). The longer receiver coil
spacings enable the estimation of Rt, even in the presence of
deep invasion; the shorter spacings provide the information
to correct for borehole and near-borehole effects.
Hydrocarbon evaluation in complex environments requires
technologies that can look deeper into the formation and
resolve thinner structures. In thinly bedded hydrocarbonbearing reservoirs and in the presence of deep drilling fluid
invasion, HDIL measurements provide more accurate
formation resistivity data than conventional induction systems.
Using the HDIL service in these conditions results in better
reservoir description, more accurate water saturation (Sw)
determination and a detailed evaluation of the drilling fluid
invasion profile.

Highlights

Inversion processing of HDIL data provides improved


true formation resistivity (Rt) and flushed zone
resistivity (Rxo) values, as well as drilling fluid
invasion profile information. The invasion profile in
track 1 distinguishes the fully flushed, transition and
undisturbed regions. Track 2 shows Rt, Rxo and the
resolution-matched measurements, while track 3
shows a radial resistivity image.

Superior measurements in deeply invaded formations


Detailed evaluation of the drilling fluid invasion profile
Inversion processing provides thorough analysis of all
available data
Flexible combination options

Benefits
More accurate formation resistivity, water saturation and
reserves estimates
Improved evaluation in deeply invaded formations

Specifications Series 1515


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification
27.1 ft

8.27 m

3.63 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature rating

350 F

177 C

Weight

433 lb

196 kg

Formation Evaluation: Resistivity Logging

1-3

Log in High-Resistivity Environments


Reliable Formation Resistivity in Saline Drilling Fluids or High-Res Formations
DLL Dual Laterolog
XX00

Dual Laterolog instruments are electrode tools


designed to produce reliable formation resistivity
measurements in boreholes containing saline
drilling fluids. They operate by focusing a survey
current into the formation. Dual Laterolog instruments are superior to induction instruments in
high-resistivity (>100 ohm-m) formations and/or
wellbores with drilling fluids more conductive than
the in-situ formation waters.

Operation
XX00

The Dual Laterolog instrument simultaneously


produces a deep investigation resistivity and a
shallow investigation resistivity measurement.

Highlights
Determine formation resistivity in saline mud
systems and high formation resistivities
Qualitative permeability indicator
Formation evaluation, including hydrocarbon/
water contacts

Benefits
Estimate of hydrocarbon saturation via measurement of formation resistivity and invasion profile
in the presence of saline drilling fluids
Estimate of movable hydrocarbons in the presence
of saline drilling fluids

Specifications Series 1239


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

1-4

Formation Evaluation: Deep Formation Resistivity

Specification
18.80 ft

5.73 m

3.63 in.

91.2 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

278 lb

126.1 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Determine Resistivity Transverse Anisotropy


Compute Horizontal and Vertical Resistivity
3DEX Elite 3D Explorer Induction Logging Service
The 3D Explorer (3DEX EliteSM) Induction Logging Service is a
unique formation evaluation instrument designed to efficiently
and economically identify and quantify hydrocarbons in thinly
bedded, low-resistivity pay zones. Improved engineering has
now enhanced the service, providing more measurements,
better accuracy and increased logging speed.
Conventional resistivity tools often miss hydrocarbon pay zones
in thinly bedded sand-shale sequences. They measure horizontal (bed-parallel) resistivity, and the measurements are
dominated by the low-resistivity shale laminae, not by the
high-resistivity, hydrocarbon-bearing sand laminae. In many
horizons, these formations contain significant reserves and
produce commercially. The 3DEX Elite tool enables determination of bed parallel (R HORIZONTAL) and bed-normal
(R VERTICAL) resistivities and can be run in combination
with the High-Definition Induction Log (HDILSM).

Operation
New petrophysical models have been developed
that allow for the application of horizontal
and vertical resistivity in a true reservoir
description model that accurately determines
the hydrocarbon saturation of thin-bedded
laminar sands and better productivity estimates.

In thinly bedded reservoirs, here a sand-shale


sequence in which the hydrocarbon-bearing
sands measure 10 ohm-m and the conductive
shales 1 ohm-m at 50% net-to-gross, traditional
induction logging tools measure 1.8 ohm-m
in a vertical well. The 3DEX Elite provides an
additional measurement, the vertical resistivity
at 5.5 ohm-m, which is much more sensitive to
the hydrocarbon-bearing sand layers.

Benefits
More accurate formation
resistivity, water saturation and
reserves estimates in thinly
laminated reservoirs
Better resistivity estimates in
highly deviated wells
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

The 3DEX Elite service employs sets of Z-direction coils coaxial


with the instrument and additional orthogonally mounted X and
Y coil arrays. Inversion processing of 3DEX Elite data allows
computation of horizontal and vertical resistivity, enabling determination of the resistivity transverse anisotropy. Conventional logging
tools generate currents parallel to the formation bedding layers in
boreholes that are drilled perpendicular to the formation. In this
situation, instruments such as the High-Definition Induction Log
(HDIL) service measure the horizontal conductivity. In thinly
laminated or thinly bedded reservoirs, the horizontal conductivity
is governed by the conductive shaly laminae. For example, in a
hydrocarbon-bearing sand-shale sequence, the shale resistivities
could measure 1 ohm-m while hydrocarbon-bearing sand layers
could measure 10 ohm-m, with a net-to-gross of 50 percent. A
resultant horizontal resistivity measurement of 1.8 ohm-m would
be observed. The highly conductive shale dominates the measurement, obscuring the presence of the hydrocarbons. The vertical
conductivity measurement is very sensitive to the presence of the
hydrocarbon-filled sand layers and would increase to about 6 ohm-m
in the example described above. This physical phenomenon is
resistivity transverse anisotropy.

Highlights
Determine accurate Sw in thinly bedded sand shale sequences
Determine resistivity anisotropy, formation dip and azimuth

Specifications Series 1520


Description

Specification

Length

37.8 ft

11.5 m

Diameter

3.63 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Pressure Rating
Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

580 lb

264 kg

Note:
High-pressure
equipment
available on
request

Formation Evaluation: Deep Formation Resistivity

1-5

Indicator of Movable Hydrocarbons in Salt Muds


Measurements Adjacent to Wellbore Measure Flushed Zone Resistivities
MLL Micro Laterolog
The Micro Laterolog is a focused-pad device
that measures the resistivity of the invaded zone
near the borehole. It is designed to work best
when the resistivity of the flushed zone is much
greater than that of the mudcake, a situation
where the Minilog performs poorly. When used in
conjunction with deeper-reading resistivity measurements, the MLL can provide a good indication
of movable hydrocarbons.

Operation
The Micro Laterolog is typically run in situations
where the drilling fluid is saline and formation resistivity is high. A one-arm caliper is an intergal part of
the tool and provides a continuous caliper curve. The
Micro Laterolog can also be run when fresh drilling
muds are used, but corrections become large when
mudcake thickness exceeds 1/4 inch (6.4 mm).
Micro Laterolog run in combination with Dual Laterolog

Highlights
Determine flushed zone resistivity

Benefits
Movable hydrocarbon indication in salt muds

Specifications 1233 Series*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
15.0 ft

4.58 m

4.75 in.

120.7 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

340 lb

154.2 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

1-6

Formation Evaluation: High-Resolution Resistivity

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Qualitative Permeability Indicator in Fresh Mud Systems


Measurements Adjacent to Wellbore Measure Mudcake/Flushed Zone
ML Minilog
Minilog (ML)

The Minilog is a pad device that measures resistivity at


two shallow, but different depths of investigation. This
allows the identification of mudcake, and therefore
permeable formations.

Operation
The 2-inch Normal Resistivity measures up to 4 inches
(101.6 mm) out from the pad face, whereas the 1-inch
Lateral Resistivity measurement has a depth of investigation
of approximately 1.5 inches (38.1 mm). Thus in usual freshmud situations, the RNML curve, reading through the
mudcake to the formation with drilling fluid, reads higher
than the mudcake reading RLML curve, indicating mudcake
and permeability. In impermeable formations the curves
should overlay and can even exhibit a negative separation.
Under favorable conditions, the Minilog can also measure
the Flushed Zone Resistivity quantitatively. Like the Micro
Laterolog, the Minilog includes a one-arm caliper pad device.

Highlights
Identify zones with developed mudcake
Determine flushed zone resistivity

Benefits
Permeability indication in fresh mud systems
for completion designs
Movable hydrocarbon indication for completion decisions

Specifications 3104 Series*


Description

Specification

Length

12.10 ft

3.7 m

Diameter

6.50 in.

165.1 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

278 lb

126.1 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: High-Resolution Resistivity

1-7

Nuclear Logging

Reliable economic evaluation of a reservoir requires reasonable knowledge of certain fundamental reservoir
properties. Although rock recovered by coring methods is the cornerstone of formation evaluation, wireline
data are more universally available for determining the fundamental reservoir properties.
Logging devices that measure density characteristics of the rocks traversed with the instrument are very
important to openhole log analysis. Baker Atlas nuclear tools provide an array of accurate formation porosity
and lithology information. Baker Atlas nuclear tools acquire neutron porosity, natural gamma ray spectrometry,
density porosity and photoelectric effect measurements along with basic gamma ray measurements. The
combination of these measurements can simplify porosity and lithology evaluation in difficult reservoirs.
Of all the log measurements that are sensitive to porosity in rock, the density measurement is the most
important because it provides a bulk density (rhob) value that is most sensitive to effective formation porosity.
The photoelectric absorption index (Pe) of the Compensated Z-DensilogSM service is particularly useful in
determining formation lithology. The principal use of neutron logs is to identify porous rock and determine
an apparent porosity. If the formation is shale-free, the pores filled with liquid, and the matrix lithology
known, the neutron log can be used to determine the porosity. Comparing the neutron log data to other log
data often resolves the presence of gas, volume of shale and matrix type.
More in-depth information for each service is available in Baker Atlas brochures. Please contact your local
customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete
list of Baker Atlas services.

X
X
X

X
X

ation
eline

logy

le** D

X
X
X

Corre
lation
Volu
me o
f Sha
le

Litho

X
X

Sand

/Sha

ralog
y

Mine

logy*

Matr

ix

Gamma Ray Log


Digital Spectralog
FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog*
X
FOCUS Compensated Neutron*
X
FOCUS Gamma Ray Log*
* Located in the High-Efficiency Logging Section on page 1-18

Litho

X
X

Bulk

ty

Compensated Z-Densilog
Compensated Neutron

Poro
si

Technology

Dete
rmin
ation
Iden
**
tify G
as**
Clay
Type

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

**When combined with other porosity devices

1-8

Formation Evaluation: Nuclear Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Determine Both Formation Porosity and Lithology


Evaluate Complex Lithologies
ZDL Compensated Z-Densilog
Z-Densilog (ZDL)

X000

The Compensated Z-DensilogSM service provides both


formation bulk density and the photoelectric absorption
index (Pe) data. These measurements allow evaluation
of complex formations determining lithology and porosity
in such formations. Because the photoelectric absorption
of gamma rays depends strongly on atomic number, the
measured values of Pe are directly related to the formations composition. The Pe measurement is not significantly dependent on porosity or fluid content, making it
particularly useful in determining formation lithology.

Operation

X000

Instrument features that enhance quality include: scintillation


detectors for increased count rates and improved repeatability,
256-channel spectrum recording for advanced signal
processing, real-time gain compensation for temperaturerelated changes in detector response, compensation of bulk
density for variable mudcake composition and thickness,
and Dewar flasks that protect heat-sensitive downhole
electronics for use in higher temperature wells. A one-arm
motorized caliper is an intergal part of the tool and provides
a continuous caliper curve.

Highlights
Accurate determination of formation porosity and lithology
Accurate determination of formation minerals
Accurate determination of gas zones
Accurate determination of fluid properties

Benefits
Porosity evaluation even in the presence of
complex mineralogy
Complex mineralogy evaluation
Determine gas/water contacts for completion designs

Specifications Series 2234*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
11.3 ft

3.43 m

4.88 in.

123.8 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

365 lb

165.6 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: Nuclear Logging

1-9

Determine Formation Porosity


Locate Gas When Run in Combination with Compensated Density Log
CN Compensated Neutron
Neutron logs are primarily used for identification of
porous formations and the estimation of porosity. Often,
it is possible to distinguish gas zones from oil or water
zones by the comparison of a neutron log with another
porosity log or with information from core analysis.
Combining the Compensated Neutron with a Z-Density
(or Densilog) or an Acoustilog survey provides accurate
porosity values, shale content and lithological information.

Operation
The Compensated Neutron instrument utilizes a source
and two detectors. The surface computer calculates the
apparent porosity using the ratio of the count rates from
the two detectors.
The Compensated Neutron has fewer borehole effects than
other types of neutron logs. This instrument design is useful
in rough or washed-out boreholes.
Neutron tools respond to the amount of hydrogen per unit
volume of formation or hydrogen index. Gas and some oils
have a much lower hydrogen index than water, and the tool
responds to the reduced hydrogen content by indicating a
lower apparent porosity. In gas zones, the apparent porosity
will read lower than in water zones of the same porosity to
produce a gas effect on the logs.

Highlights
Porosity analysis
Locate gas (when combined with Compensated Densilog
and/or Acoustilog)
Identify lithology when used with other porosity devices

Benefits
Determine gas/water contacts
Input as shale indicator provides for accurate computed
log analysis for completion decisions

Specifications Series 2446*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
7.6 ft

3.31 m

3.63 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

150 lb

68.0 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

1-10 Formation Evaluation: Nuclear Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Identify Formation Boundaries


Estimate Shale Content and Sand Count for Reserve Calculations
GR Gamma Ray Log

X000

The Gamma Ray instrument measures the natural


radioactivity of the formation being surveyed. The
intensity of radiation gives an indication as to the type
rock present along the wellbore. The gamma ray curve
usually correlates with the SP curve.
Gamma Ray logs are effective in distinguishing
permeable zones by virtue of the fact that radioactive
elements tend to be concentrated in the shales, which
are impermeable, and are much less abundant in
carbonates and sands, which are generally permeable.

Operation

X000

The instrument has analog and digital varieties providing


combination flexibility with all instruments, including
downhole seismic applications. The Gamma Ray instrument
can be run in any liquid or air-filled hole, either cased or
uncased. In cased holes, a Casing Collar Log can also be
recorded simultaneously.

Highlights
Make depth correlations with other logs
Determine formation profiles
Estimate shale content in reservoir rocks
Delineate stratigraphic boundaries for several
production logs

Benefits
Lithology correlation between wells
Estimation of shale content for advanced log analysis
Qualitative permeability indicator for completion decisions

Specifications Series 1330*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
4.75 ft

1.45 m

3.375 in.

85.7 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

110 lb

50.0 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: Nuclear Logging 1-11

Define Lithology and Identify Potential Productive Zones


Analyze Depositional Environments and Define Facies
DSL Digital Spectralog
X000
X000

The Digital Spectralog SM (and combined Digital Gamma


Ray) service differs from a standard gamma ray instrument which records total gamma rays in that it also
measures the discrete energy of each gamma ray
detected. By separating the total gamma ray signal into
its components, the Digital Spectralog service can assist
customers in locating fracture zones, identifying the
lithology of subsurface formations, measuring bed thickness, correlating zones of interest between wells, and
making qualitative estimates of formation permeability.

Operation

X000

Discriminating the total gamma ray signal into discrete


energy levels or windows infers the individual amounts of
potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (Th). Virtually all
of the gamma radiation detected by downhole instruments
can be classified in one of three categories. As a result,
certain lithology ambiguities which often exist when using
only total gamma ray signal can be resolved.
For example, given a high total gamma ray count over a
40-foot interval, the signal could be indicative of a shale
zone. If that signal were composed mostly of uranium
gamma rays, it could be indicative of a fault plane where
uranium-carrying fluid had migrated.
Improved acquisition allows the Digital Spectralog tool to
operate at three times the standard recommended logging
speed of the standard Spectralog instrument without loss of
statistical precision. The Digital Spectralog tool can be
combined with any other openhole logging instruments.

Highlights
Lithology identification and correlation between wells
Determination of clay type and clay content
Locating uranium by-product buildup in a cased wells
Identify depleted zones and water encroachment
Identifying potential fracture zones

Benefits
Make completion decisions based on fractures, high permeability zones; avoid depleted zones or water contacts
Accurate shale volume for advanced log analysis input

Specifications Series 1329*


Description

Specification

Length

7.31 ft

2.23 m

Diameter

3.63 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Pressure Rating
Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

142 lb

64.5 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

1-12 Formation Evaluation: Nuclear Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Acoustic Logging

Many earth science disciplines benefit from information derived from acoustic logging data. Digital acoustic
measurements provided by Baker Atlas services play an important role in a variety of petroleum exploration and
production applications. Full-wave, monopole and dipole acoustic data is used in petrophysical, geophysical,
geological, drilling, geomechanical, reservoir engineering and production applications.
The industry-leading Baker Atlas digital acoustic logging services provide quality compresssional and shear wave
data including data from unconsolidated, low-velocity formations. A Best-in-Class Stoneley wave data is also
available. These systems provide improved reservoir characterization and petrophysical property determination
to maximize well and reservoir productivity.
More in-depth information for each service is available in the Baker Atlas document, Acoustic Logging
Applications supplementary guide. Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on to
www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.
More in-depth information for each application is available in the following Baker Atlas brochures.

X
X
X

ole
d Dip
le an

ties

nopo

Aniso
tropy
Anal
ysis
Ston
eley
Perm
eabil
ity

Prop
er

X
X
X

Rock

nal (P
-Wav
e)
Shea
r (S-W
ave)
in Slo
w Fo
Litho
rmat
ions
logy*
*

ressi
o

X
X
X

Full-W
ave M
o

Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog F1


Digital Acoustilog
FOCUS Digital Acoustilog*

Com
p

Technology

Poro
si

ty

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

* Located in the High-Efficiency Logging Section on page 1-18


**When combined with other porosity devices

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: Acoustic Logging 1-13

Best-in-Class Acoustic Service


Accurate and Reliable Data Even in Ultra-Slow Formations
XMAC F1 Cross Multipole Array Acoustilog F1
12

GR
DTS

Frequency Spectrum

10

22

19500 0

19500
XMAC
Elite

200

Amplitude

900

5
XMAC

Shear Slowness
+800 sec/ft

200

400
600
800
Frequency (Hz)

1000

The Cross Multipole Array Acoustilog F1 (XMACSM F1)


service is a fullwave monopole, inline dipole and crossdipole instrument that was developed through technology
transfers and licensing agreements from ExxonMobil
(source technology) and Shell (receiver technology).

Operation
Caliper 22"

In this Gulf of Mexico Pleistocene example,


ultra-slow formation data acquisition presents
a difficult environment to determine accurate
shear slowness. Shear slowness values are in
the 800-900 usec/ft range. A comparison of
the XMAC F1 demonstrates the superior
capability of the XMAC Elite.
The Frequency vs. Amplitude graph
demonstrates the significantly improved
frequency and amplitude response of XMAC
F1 transmitters.

The Baker Atlas XMAC F1 service builds on the previous


XMACSM Elite instrument already accepted as the benchmark
for acquiring quality compressional and shear measurements
over a broad range of borehole environments. The XMAC F1
service provides the best quality monopole and dipole measurements in unconsolidated formations (tc>250 s/ft,
ts>1200 s/ft) where competitor tools have had
difficulties performing.
A new telemetry scheme allows acquisition of a full data
set twice as fast as the XMAC Elite service. Petrophysicists
can now easily get acceptance for acquiring data that otherwise
would have been cost-prohibitive when rig time is high. It
allows Baker Atlas to record a full data set for later retrieval
even if the need for the data is not apparent at the time of
acquisition. Typical logging speed for inline and cross-dipole,
full monopole and Stoneley data was 15 ft/min (4.6 m/min),
while the XMAC F1 instrument records the same data at
30 ft/min (9.1 m/min).

Highlights

The orientation of the fracture system


indicated on the azimuthal anistropy map
is confirmed by the image data.

Benefits
Rig time savings through single-pass
data acquisition at 30 fpm (9.1 mpm)
Superior quality shear and
compressional measurements for
accurate seismic tie-in and rock
property information
Porosity determination, permeability
indexing, hi-res processing
Anisotropy analysis for FRAC
design, geomechanics

1-14 Formation Evaluation: Acoustic Logging

Best-in-Class full wave monopole and cross-dipole data


even in unconsolidated, low-velocity formations
Same depth co-located and matched dipole transmitters for
cross-dipole anisotropy measurements around borehole
Most comprehensive dataset and lowest frequency
transmission in industry providing true formation slowness
Industrys highest dynamic range providing
reduced uncertainties

Specifications Series 1678


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
36.0 ft

11.0 m

3.88 in.

98.6 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

636 lb

288.5 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

High-Resolution Tool Measures Compressional Monopole Data


Compressional Slowness in All Formations & Shear Slowness in Fast Formations
DAL Digital Acoustilog
The Digital AcoustilogSM (DAL) logging system
acquires high-resolution, waveform acoustic data
in open and cased holes. The instrument provides
acoustic-derived porosity in openholes as well as
cement bond evaluations in cased holes. Waveform
amplitude, slowness and arrival time (delta t)
processing of the raw data can be incorporated
into advanced log analysis programs to evaluate
fractures, sand production and rock properties.
X000

Operation
The instrument efficiently and accurately records
compressional travel times using an array of four
downhole receivers and two low-frequency transmitters.
The waveform correlation is insensitive to cycle skipping, making it particularly effective in gas-saturated
formations, rugose wellbores and borehole washouts.
The instrument also provides through-casing logging
and cement bond evaluation.
Efficient acquisition of compressional arrival time
(delta t) in a wide range of borehole environments.

VDL (MICS)

Free Pipe

Highlights
Accurate and efficient wellsite determination of
compressional travel time (delta t)
Through-casing acoustic logging
Qualitative cement bond evaluation
Identify lithology and gas zones

Benefits
Top of Cement

Provide acoustic-derived porosity for


water saturations
Provide seismic correlation through compressional
and shear synthetic seismograms in fast formations

Partial Bonding

Specifications Series 1680*


Description

Fast
Formation

Specification

Length

20.6 ft

6.3 m

Diameter

3.38 in.

85.7 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

336 lb

152.4 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.


Good Overall
Cement Job

The DAL can be used for qualitative


cement evaluation.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: Acoustic Logging 1-15

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The MR ExplorerSM (MREXSM) service, the latest-generation magnetic resonance openhole wireline logging
tool, delivers the benefits of previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems while acquiring data more
quickly and providing high-quality results in almost any borehole environment. The answers provided by the
MREX service reduce uncertainty when evaluating reservoirs and identify hydrocarbon-bearing intervals for
maximizing recovery.
A pioneer in NMR logging, Baker Atlas provides more than a decade of data acquisition and interpretation
expertise on every NMR logging job. This experience was leveraged to develop the proprietary technology
known as the MR Explorer (MREX) to deliver best-in-class NMR answers. The strengths of previous NMR
logging technologies have been combined with new features to improve performance in the downhole
environment by increasing acquisition efficiency and enhancing data quality.
More in-depth information for each application is available in the Baker Atlas MREX brochure. Please contact
your local customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a
complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Solution Highlights Matrix


Objective Oriented Acquisitions (OOA) for the MR Explorer Service
Acquisition

Objectives

Deliverables*

PoroPerm

Porosity
Permeability

t, c, CBW, BVI, BVM, kNMR

PoroPerm + Light Oil**

Porosity
Permeability
Characterize and quantify oil in pore spaces

t, c, CBW, BVI, BVM, kNMR


Acquisition sequences for oils with
viscosities from 1 cp to 10 cp.

PoroPerm + Medium Oil** Porosity


Permeability
Characterize and quantify oil in pore spaces

t, c, CBW, BVI, BVM, kNMR


Acquisition sequences for oils with
viscosities from 10 cp to 25 cp.

PoroPerm + Gas**

Porosity
Permeability
Characterize and quantify gas and
light hydrocarbons in pore spaces

t, c, CBW, BVI, BVM, kNMR


Acquisition sequences for gas and
hydrocarbons with viscosities of
less than 1 cp.

PoroPerm + Heavy Oil

Porosity
Permeability
Characterize and quantify heavy
oil in pore spaces

t, c, CBW, BVI, BVM, kNMR


Acquisition sequences for oils with
viscosities greater than 20 cp.

FAST BW

Permeability calculated in combination


with conventional porosity measurements
High-speed acquisition consumes no additional
rig time when combined with triple combo

CBW, BVI, kBW

*Definitions

t
c
CBW
BVI
BVM
kNMR
kBW

Total NMR porosity


Effective NMR porosity
Clay bound water
Bulk volume irreducible water
Bulk volume movable fluid
Permeability calculated from NMR
Permeability calculated from NMR bound water data and conventional
porosity measurements

** Consult your Baker Atlas representative for the optimal OOA for characterizing both oil and gas within the reservoir.

1-16 Formation Evaluation: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Multi-Frequency Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Well Logging


Side-Looking Antenna Ensures Successful Logging in Most Boreholes
MREX MR Explorer
The MR ExplorerSM (MREX) service from Baker Atlas
provides improved data quality and logging efficiency
over previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
systems. This newest-generation magnetic resonance
logging service measures porosity and permeability
and characterizes reservoir fluids more quickly and
more accurately than previous NMR systems.

Operation
The side-looking antenna enables the same 5-in. (12-cm) OD
tool to be used in all hole sizes larger than 5 7/8 in. (149 mm)
Unlike previous generation MR tools, there are no logging
speed reductions in either large or small boreholes with the
MREX service. The instrument runs eccentered in the wellbore, and therefore, is well-suited for logging deviated wells.
The MREX tools 2.2-in. (5.6-cm) minimum depth of
investigation is deep enough to provide valid NMR data in
rugose boreholes and in the presence of mudcake. Multiple
frequency operation supports multiple NMR data acquisitions
simultaneously during a single logging pass.

Highlights
A side-looking antenna and a gradient magnetic field
yield clear readings regardless of mud conductivity, hole
size or inclination
Multiple-frequency operation supports multiple,
simultaneous NMR experiments
New NMR acquisition techniques improve NMR data
accuracy and provide superior hydrocarbon typing and
fluids analysis
Objective Oriented Acquisition (OOA) simplifies
planning and execution of MREX logging jobs
Can conduct multiple NMR data acquisitions in a
single run

MREX Sensitive
Volumes

MREX
8"
Borehole

Benefits

12"
Borehole

Formation

2.4"

2.0"

Reduces uncertainty in formation evaluation


Identifies hydrocarbons that may be missed by other
logging technologies
Reduces rig cost for acquiring NMR logs

4.4"

The MREX side-looking magnet/antenna


measures a 120 arc from an eccentered position
in the wellbore.

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification
24.42 ft

7.4 m

5 in.

127 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

347 F

175 C

Weight

622 lb

291 kg

Formation Evaluation: Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1-17

High-Efficiency Logging

The economic pressures of todays drilling environment require a new approach to wireline
formation evaluation that:
Reduces total job cost by minimizing rig time
Maintains the highest standard in data accuracy
Baker Atlas developed and built the FOCUS logging system for wells where rig time for logging is
a major concern, and where evaluation and analysis needs can be met using the new suite of highefficiency logging tools. FOCUS is the latest in high-efficiency, premium openhole logging systems.
All of the downhole instruments have been redesigned, incorporating advanced downhole sensor
technology into shorter, lighter and more-reliable logging instruments capable of providing formation
evaluation measurements with the same precision and accuracy as the industrys highest-quality
sensors at much higher logging speeds. Logging speeds are up to twice the speed of conventional
triple-combo and quad-combo logging tool strings. The logging system consists of the four standard
major openhole measurements (resistivity, density, neutron, acoustic) plus auxiliary services.
More in-depth information for each application is available in the Baker Atlas FOCUS brochure.
Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for
more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Section Contents/Solution Highlights


Focus High-Efficiency Logging
FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log (F_HDIL)
Advanced resistivity array for a more accurate Rt and Rxo with patented 1D Inversion processing
FOCUS Digital Acoustilog (F_DAL)
Monopole array acoustic
Accurate compressional slowness (t) using depth-derived borehole compensation (DDBHC)
FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (F_ZDL) and FOCUS Compensated Neutron (F_CN)
Nuclear porosity
Reliable, improved accuracy at high logging speeds
FOCUS Gamma Ray Log (F_GR)
Gamma ray
Correlation at high speeds

1-18 Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Wellsite Efficiency and Data Accuracy


Advanced Resistivity Array for More Accurate Rt and Rxo
F_HDIL FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log
The FOCUS HDILSM instrument is designed to have
a better signal-to-noise ratio than other comparable
instruments in the marketplace. Data quality is enhanced
through high data redundancy, appropriate skin-effect
corrections and flexible post-log processing. These
features result in superior data accuracy and consistent
log quality. The 1-D radial inversion processing provided
with the FOCUS HDIL data offers reliable estimates of
Rt and Rxo, even in deeply invaded formations.
X100

Operation
The FOCUS HDIL instrument is a multi-receiver,
multi-frequency induction device. Multiple receivers
provide formation resistivity information at several depths
of investigation.

Highlights

X200

FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log (HDIL)/


Gamma Ray (GR)/Tension, Temperature, Mud
Resistivity (TTRMA) log presentation

Array Resistivity includes real time 1-D radial inversion


processing for more accurate measurements of Rxo and Rt.
Superior measurements in deeply invaded formations
Detailed evaluation of the drilling fluid invasion profile
Inversion processing provides a thorough analysis of
potential reservoir zones
Short, lightweight logging instruments save rig time by
reducing the rathole needed for logging
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging
speeds (60 ft/min, 18 m/min) reducing rig logging time
without reducing accuracy or precision

Benefits
Latest technology ensures highest accuracy
Significant rig time savings over older logging systems

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
13.3 ft

4.1 m

3.13 in.

79.5 mm

10,000 psi

69.0 MPa

X600

Temperature

260 F

127 C

Weight

115 lb

52.2 kg

Comparison plot of standard conventional


measurements to FOCUS measurements for
High-Definition Resistivity, Acoustilog services

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging 1-19

Wellsite Efficiency and Data Accuracy


Accurate Compressional Slowness (t)
F_DAL FOCUS Digital Acoustilog

X200

The FOCUS Digital AcoustilogSM (DALSM) service utilizes


transmitter and receiver technologies and design elements
from Baker Atlas XMACSM instrumentation, an instrument
acknowledged in the E & P industry as the premier
acoustic technology. Consistent data accuracy at the
wellsite is maintained using Baker Atlas proprietary
AVAN processing. This calculates an accurate real-time
compressional slowness (delta t) with the option of
shear slowness in suitable formations.

Operation

X300

FOCUS Acoustilog (DAL)/Gamma Ray (GR)/


Caliper Log (CAL) log presentation

The FOCUS Digital Acoustilog instrument acquires


high-resolution waveform acoustic data in open and
cased holes. Instrument efficiently and accurately records
compressional travel times using an array of downhole
transmitters and receivers.
AVAN provides an approach to acoustic data acquisition
that is hands off, removing the influence of surface setup
over data quality, thus reducing the opportunities for
acquisition error and enhancing reliability.

Highlights

X600

Comparison plot of standard conventional


measurements to FOCUS measurements for
High-Definition Resistivity, Acoustilog services

Acoustic slowness offers an improved monopole signal


resulting in accurate compressional slowness values (delta t)
using a depth-derived borehole compensation technique
Accurate and efficient wellsite determination of
compressional travel time (delta t)
AVAN processing improves compressional slowness
accuracy and reliability
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging
speeds (60 ft/min, 18 m/min) without reducing accuracy
or precision

Benefits
Latest technology ensures highest accuracy
Significant rig time savings over older logging systems

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

1-20 Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging

Specification
8.1 ft

2.5 m

3.13 in.

79.5 mm

10,000 psi

69.0 MPa

Temperature

260 F

127 C

Weight

95 lb

43.1 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Wellsite Efficiency and Data Accuracy


Reliable, Improved Accuracy at Higher Logging Speeds
F_ZDL FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog

X200

The mechanical and sensor limitations of previous


instruments were overcome in the designing and building
of the new FOCUS Compensated Z-DensilogSM (ZDLSM)
instrument. The mechanical design of the FOCUS ZDL
instrument provides excellent pad contact with the borehole
wall at high speeds even across rugose boreholes and
through washed out zones. The pad design is shorter than
on other typical instruments with articulation that provides
maximum flexibility. The result is high-confidence density
porosity data in a wider range of borehole conditions, even
at high logging speeds.

Operation
The FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog instrument possesses
features that enhance quality including scintillation detectors,
256-channel spectrum recording, real-time compensation for
temperature and bulk-density changes.

Highlights

X300

FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (ZDL)/


Compensated Neutron (CN)/Gamma Ray (GR)/
Caliper (CAL) log presentation

Nuclear porosity design changes improved detector


response and efficiency at high logging speeds compared to
conventional instruments
Accurate determination of gas zones
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging speeds
(60 ft/min, 18 m/min) without reducing accuracy or precision
New articulation design and reduced pad size maintains pad
contact much better than conventional instruments
Two FOCUS ZDL tools combinable in tandem at 90 to each
other for accurate ZDL logging in severe borehole conditions.

Benefits
Accurate measurements reduce uncertainty in
formation evaluation
Reduced cost of operations achieved by shorter tools and
faster logging speeds

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating
X100

Comparison plot of standard conventional


measurements to FOCUS measurements for
Z-Density, Compensated Neutron and Gamma
Ray services

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification
9.6 ft

2.9 m

3.75 in.

95.3 mm

10,000 psi

69.0 MPa

Temperature

260 F

127 C

Weight

200 lb

90.7 kg

Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging 1-21

Wellsite Efficiency and Data Accuracy


Reliable, Improved Accuracy at Higher Logging Speeds
F_CN FOCUS Compensated Neutron
The FOCUS Compensated Neutron instrument
has been extensively modeled to provide repeatable
accuracy with high confidence in reservoir rocks
and formations exhibiting a high porosity. Design
changes improved detector response and efficiency
at high logging speeds of conventional instruments,
and enabled the production of a real-time nuclear
porosity cross-plot log.
X200

Operation
The FOCUS Compensated Neutron instrument utilizes
a source and two detectors to help identify porous
formations and estimate porosity.

Highlights

X300

FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (ZDL)/


Compensated Neutron (CN)/Gamma Ray
(GR)/Caliper (CAL) log presentation

Nuclear porosity design changes improved detector


response and efficiency at high logging speeds of
conventional instruments, and enabled production of
a real-time nuclear porosity cross-plot log
Accurate determination of formation porosity
Accurate determination of gas zones (when combined
with Compensated Densilog and/or Acoustilog)
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging
speeds (60 ft/min, 18 m/min) reducing rig logging
time without reducing accuracy or precision

Benefits
Latest technology ensures highest accuracy
Significant rig time savings over older logging systems
Short, lightweight logging instruments save rig time
by reducing the rathole needed for logging

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
X100

Comparison plot of standard conventional


measurements to FOCUS measurements for
Z-Density, Compensated Neutron and Gamma
Ray services

1-22 Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging

Pressure Rating

Specification
4.8 ft

1.5 m

3.13 in.

79.5 mm

10,000 psi

69.0 MPa

Temperature

260 F

127 C

Weight

65 lb

29.5 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Wellsite Efficiency and Data Accuracy


Correlation at High Logging Speeds
F_GR FOCUS Gamma Ray Log
The FOCUS Gamma Ray has been redesigned to log
at the higher rates of the FOCUS system. It includes an
inline accelerometer which is used to correct for stick
and pull.

Operation
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging speeds
(60 ft/min, 18 m/min) without reducing accuracy or precision.
X200

The single, most-critical measurement made during a wireline


logging run is the depth measurement. Even small errors in
the depth estimate can corrupt data such as synthetically
focused resistivity curves. The assumption that the logging
tool is moving smoothly through the borehole is not usually
valid due to rugose and sticky borehole conditions and the
effect of centralizers and decentralizers in the toolstring. An
accelerometer aligned along the long axis of the toolstring
can be used to make corrections to the surface depth estimate.

Highlights

X300

FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (ZDL)/


Compensated Neutron (CN)/Gamma Ray (GR)/
Caliper (CAL) log presentation

Make depth correlation with other logs


Determine stratigraphic profiles
Estimate shale content in reservoir rocks
Delineate stratigraphic boundaries
Premium sensors are designed to log at high logging
speeds (60 ft/min, 18 m/min), reducing rig logging time
without reducing accuracy or precision

Benefits
Latest technology ensures highest accuracy
Significant rig time savings over older logging systems
Short, lightweight logging instruments save rig time by
reducing the rathole needed for logging

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
8.0 ft

2.4 m

3.13 in.

79.5 mm

10,000 psi

69.0 MPa

Temperature

260 F

127 C

Weight

95 lb

43.1 kg

X000

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: High-Efficiency Logging 1-23

Geological Services

Borehole images and high-resolution formation dip data describe the structural framework, fracture patterns,
sedimentary features and in-situ stress orientation of the formation. Borehole images and resistivity anisotropy
measurements provide valuable information to design completion and perforation strategies. These measurements
are used as an aid in conventional core description and orientation, as well as for selecting intervals for formation
testing, sampling and perforating.
For thinly laminated sequences, borehole images and resistivity, anisotropy measurements are the only practical
method of determining net-pay thickness in the absence of conventional cores. In addition, these services are
used for the identification of bioturbated zones, overturned, slumped, and contorted beds all potential
impediments to production. When combined, the horizontal and vertical resistivities from the 3DEXSM service
and the high-resolution borehole images from the STAR ImagerSM or the EARTH ImagerSM services can
significantly improve the petrophysical evaluation of thinly bedded sand-shale sequences.
More in-depth information for each service is available in the Baker Atlas Borehole Imaging Services and
Applications manual and the HDIPSM brochure. Please contact your local customer service representative, or log
on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Technology

360 D
egre
e Eva
luatio
n
Resis
tivit y
Imag
ing
Acou
stic I
mag
ing
Wate
r-Bas
ed M
ud Sy
stem
Oil-B
s
ased
Mud
Syste
ms
Struc
tural
Featu
res
Strat
igrap
hic F
eatu
res
Fract
ure Id
entif
icatio
n
Direc
tiona
l Sur
veys
Sand
/Sha
le Di
strib
ution
in Th
Wellb
in Be
ore S
ds
hape

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

Imagers
STAR Imager
EARTH Imager
Digital Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log
Hexagonal Diplog
Well Geometry Instrument

1-24 Formation Evaluation: Geological Services

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X
X

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

High-Resolution Formation Imaging


Micro-Resistivity Imaging for Wells Drilled with Water-Based Muds
STAR Imager Water-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager
The STAR ImagerSM service provides high-resolution
resistivity formation images in conductive mud systems
used to identify geological and borehole features.
These include planar features such as bedding, fractures
and faults, and stratigraphic features such as crossbedding and ichnofabrics, in addition to borehole wall
features such as breakout and drilling-induced fracturing.
The identified features are subsequently used in the
analysis of structural dip, fracture systems, depositional
environments, borehole stability and net-pay in thinly
bedded sequences.

Operation
The STAR Imager tool

STAR Imager
(Static)
0

degrees

STAR Imager
(Dynamic)
360

degrees

360

The six-arm independently articulated carrier and powered


stand-off ensures optimal sensor-to-formation contact even
in highly deviated boreholes. Pads with 24-sensors are
mounted on each of the six articulated arms, producing a
total of 144 microresistivity measurements, with a vertical
and azimuthal resolution of 0.2" (~5 mm) resulting in the
high-resolution borehole images described above.
The STAR Imager service may be logged in combination
with the acoustic imager (CBILSM) service to provide
complementary measurements allowing for a more complete
evaluation of the formation.

Highlights
Structural analysis including structural dip analysis, fault
and fold analysis and unconformity recognition
Fracture evaluation
Sedimentological analysis including description of facies
and facies sequences, determination of paleotransport
direction, analysis of reservoir geometry and characterization of depositional environment
Net-to-gross analysis
Used with 3DEXSM service for quantitative thin-bed analysis
Allows for determining reservoir permeability trends

3 ft

Thinly bedded deepwater sheet sands. Light/dark


alternating bands on the STAR Imager log
correspond to a similar outcrop analogue as
shown in the photograph.

Benefits
Optimizes development well placement and hydrocarbon
depletion efficiency
Helps differentiate open from closed fractures for
production analysis

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating
Temperature
Weight
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification
30.7 ft

9.7 m

5.25 in.

133 mm

20,000 psi

138 MPa

350 F

177 C

680.9 lb

310 kg

Formation Evaluation: Geological Services 1-25

High-Resolution Formation Imaging


Micro-Resistivity Imaging for Wells Drilled with Oil-Based Muds
EARTH Imager Oil-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager
The EARTH ImagerSM service from Baker Atlas brings
the well-understood responses of microresistivity
images in wells drilled with non-conductive (commonly
referred to as oil-based) muds. This service provides
significantly improved vertical resolution and borehole
coverage when compared to other available systems.
Detailed structural, sedimentological and petrophysical
analysis using image data is now possible in wells
drilled with oil-based muds.

Operation

The EARTH Imager tool

EARTH Imager
Static Normalization
0

degrees

EARTH Imager
Dynamic Normalization
360

degrees

360

The EARTH Imager service uses advanced electrical


conductivity measurements in oil-based mud systems to
provide high-resolution image logs of a quality previously
available only in water-based mud systems. The EARTH
Imager service allows simultaneous acquisition of highresolution resistivity and acoustic borehole image data.
This unique capability provides a powerful interpretation
perspective based on two sets of complementary data.
The EARTH Imager service incorporates a microresistivity
imaging and focusing technique into a field-proven carrier
mechanism that affords operators the unique ability to log
images in horizontal, highly deviated and rugose wells.

Highlights
Structural analysis including structural dip analysis, fault
and fold analysis, and unconformity recognition
Fracture evaluation
Sedimentological analysis including description of
facies, determination of paleotransport direction and
characterization of depositional environment
Net-to-gross analysis
Used with 3DEXSM service for quantitative
thin-bed analysis
Allows for determining reservoir permeability trends

Benefits
The EARTH Imager service provides highresolution borehole images in wells drilled
with oil-based mud.

Optimizes development well placement


Allows easier and more confident interpretations by
resolving finer vertical and azimuthal features
Helps differentiate open from closed fractures

Specifications
Description
Length

30.7 ft

9.7 m

Diameter

5.25 in.

133 mm

20,000 psi
25,000 psi

138 MPa
172 MPa

350 F

177 C

680.9 lb

310 kg

Pressure Rating
Temperature
Weight
1-26 Formation Evaluation: Geological Services

Specification

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

High-Resolution Borehole Imaging


Borehole Ultrasonic Images in All Mud Types
CBIL Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log
The digital Circumferential Borehole Imaging LogSM
(CBILSM) system provides high-resolution borehole
images in difficult wellbore conditions including highporosity, unconsolidated formations. These images
provide valuable insight for making difficult drilling,
completion and production decisions at the wellsite.

Operation

The CBIL Imager tool

CBIL
(Static)
0

degrees

CBIL
(Static)
360

degrees

360

Full 360-borehole imaging is possible due to an acoustic


transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode. The transducer
rotates to scan the entire circumference of the borehole wall
providing sharp images and boundary delineation.
The CBIL instrument operates reliably in both water-based
and oil-based muds. The lower operating frequency (250 kHz)
allows for superior performance in larger holes and heavier
muds than other similar devices. Because the CBIL system
is an acoustic device that does not require contact with the
borehole wall, it is quite effective in horizontal wells. Its
small size [3.625 in. (92.1 mm)] allows for operation in slim
holes as well as large-diameter holes. Signature waveform
recording allows the image data to be monitored real time
during acquisition.

Highlights

A CBIL log example of overturned folded bedding


where reservoir navigation is highly problematic.
Information such as fold axis and the dip of the
fold limbs are not normally available from other
sources. Fractures are also clearly visible on
this image.

Presents a complete 360-borehole image


Determination and orientation of formation dip
Identify and classify faults and unconformities
Detect secondary porosity fractures, vugs, and washouts
Determine sand/shale distributions in thin-bed
sedimentary sequences
Images facilitate detailed sedimentological analyses

Benefits
Determine optimum kick-off direction for
horizontal drilling
Plan well-site positioning for production optimization
Structural dip analysis improves inter-well correlation and
refines structural interpretation

Specifications
Description
Length

15.5 ft

4.71 m

Diameter

3.63 in.

92 mm

Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification

20,000 psi

137 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

270 lb

122.7 kg

Formation Evaluation: Geological Services 1-27

High-Resolution Formation Dip Information


Detailed Structural and Stratigraphic Dip Evaluation
HDIP Hexagonal Diplog
The Hexagonal DiplogSM (HDIPSM) logging service
acquires high-resolution formation dip information
using six independent microresistivity sensors. The
HDIP data is processed to calculate and orient the
dip and direction of formation features. The
processed dip values can then be correlated to the
structural and/or stratigraphic geologic events that
generated them.

Operation
A tri-axial accelerometer and three magnetometers
are employed to determine borehole drift and azimuth
and correct for velocity fluctuations of the instrument.
Accurate borehole geometry and wellbore volumes
are determined from the six independent caliper
measurements.
This instrument can host measuring pads suitable for
water-based mud or oil-based mud systems.

Highlights
Geological structural and stratigraphic
dip evaluation
Detailed geologic evaluation across target reservoirs
Improved dip data acquisition in highly deviated
and horizontal wells (using an innovative
powered standoff)
Determination of sand/shale distribution in thinly
bedded sediments
Six-point evaluation of borehole size, geometry and
integrated borehole volume
Fracture identification
Directional surveys

Benefits
Determine offset locations based on structural dip
Map field perimeters and bed thicknesses for
accurate reserve calculations

Specifications Series 1020*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
18.23 ft

5.56 m

5.00 in.

127.0 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

334 lb

151.5 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

1-28 Formation Evaluation: Geological Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Continuous Profile of the Wellbore


High-resolution and Versatile Six-arm Caliper Measurement Service
WGI Well Geometry Instrument
The Baker Atlas Well Geometry InstrumentSM (WGISM)
measurement service brings a new dimension to openhole caliper measurements by acquiring high-resolution
data while running in and out of the hole.

Operation

A fully open mechanical section of the Well


Geometry Instrument tool showing the
telescoping arm design, which allows full
6-radii logging in both directions.

As part of formation-evaluation programs in all exploration


and development wells, a large variety of caliper instruments
are used either as stand-alone devices or in combination
with other measurements. The WGI measurement service
addresses the most significant shortcomings of previous
caliper tools: high-resolution calipers cannot acquire data
while running in the hole, and instruments designed to
work in both directions do not acquire measurements with
high-enough resolution.

Features
Can acquire data in both upward and downward directions
The small contact area of the caliper measuring tips
allows high-resolution measurements
Can be run simultaneously with an orientation instrument
at all sample rates
Combinable with all other openhole instruments in any
string configuration
Brings significantly improved vertical and azimuthal
resolution when compared to other caliper devices

Benefits
When logged as part of the first openhole string, the WGI
measurement service provides an early insight into the
hole quality for wellsite completion decisions
Fully oriented hole geometry profiles can be generated at
the wellsite to determine testing and sampling feasibility
Provides accurate environmental corrections for
petrophysical services reducing uncertainty in
formation evaluation

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Example of a field presentation of a 3-D-borehole
profile acquired while running in hole using a
WGI caliper in combination with the Baker Atlas
Reservoir Characterization InstrumentSM
(RCISM) service.

Specification
7.5 ft

2.31 m

3.625 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

115 lb

52 kg

Pressure Rating

No testing or sampling attempts were made at


the out-of-gauge borehole intervals, clearly visible
in the 3-D profile, saving a significant amount of
rig time.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Evaluation: Geological Services 1-29

1-30

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

2. Formation Testing and Sampling Services

II
Reservoir Characterization Instrument
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool
Sidewall Corgun

Formation Testing and Sampling

For efficient completion design, gas-, oil-, and water-bearing zones must be identified and characterized along
with fluid contacts and hydrocarbon types. The Reservoir Characterization InstrumentSM (RCISM) service defines
the reservoir pressure profile and obtains samples of the reservoir fluid, both key elements of the completion
perforating design. The RCI services expanded offerings include SampleViewSM IC service, Single-phase Tanks
(SPT) and Straddle PackerSM module. The RCI service provides this information in real time, crucial in the
decision-making process.
Laboratory testing of sidewall cores provides valuable rock characteristics used in the course of evaluating
a formation. Information gathered from sidewall cores can be used throughout the life of a reservoir, from
determining sensitivities to formation damage during drilling, to maximizing hydrocarbon production.
Baker Atlas offers two sidewall coring services: the Rotary Sidewall Coring ServiceSM (RCORSM) service and the
Sidewall CorgunSM tool. The RCOR service is a computer-controlled and hydraulically powered wireline coring
device for cutting and retrieving multiple sidewall core samples. The Corgun tool is a ballistically operated
sidewall coring system. The samples obtained help oil and gas producers better evaluate their reservoirs.
More in-depth information for each service is available in the Baker Atlas RCI RESolution and RCOR
brochures. Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on to www.bakerhughesdirect.com
for more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

2-2

Formation Testing and Sampling

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Obtain High-Quality Representative Formation Fluid Samples


Limitless Pre-Flushes and Overpressured Samples Ensure Single-Phase Samples
RCI Reservoir Characterization Instrument
The Reservoir Characterization InstrumentSM (RCISM) service
with SampleViewSM module is a wireline formation pressure
testing and fluid-sampling service. The RCI service provides key
petrophysical information to determine reservoir volume, formation producibility, and the type and composition of the movable
fluids and to predict reservoir behavior during production.

Operation

The Multi-tank Carrier is designed


to efficiently collect 24+ samples during
a single trip and save rig time.

The RCI instrument can collect


representative samples and eliminate
the need for a Drill Stem Test (DST).

Benefits
Precision Pressure
measurements validated in
real time with FRA. Smart
Sampling with RCI tools unique
drawdown pressure control.
SampleView module provides
real-time fluid characterization
while monitoring sample
contamination levels.
Up to 24+ representative
reservoir fluid samples and
unlimited pressures for true
reservoir characterization
Advanced reservoir
characterization using the
Straddle Packer module for
mini-DST and micro-Frac.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Sample pressures in conjunction with limitless pre-flush volumes


are used to monitor sample clean-up and ensure a single-phase
representative formation fluid sample is captured. Sample tanks are
maintained at a positive overbalanced pressure to eliminate the risk
of sample-flashing in the tanks during sampling. Captured samples
are overpressured downhole to ensure a single-phase sample is
transported to the surface.
The RCI instrument is a modular formation testing and sampling tool
designed to provide a more complete description of reservoir fluid
and behavior. The instruments modularity provides the ability to test
and sample fluids in a wide range of geological environments and
borehole conditions. It includes a fully controllable packer section for
variable-volume and variable-rate drawdown, large volume (500 cc)
displacement pumps, a Multi-tank Carrier for cost-efficient sample
recovery, and the SampleView module, a near-infrared analyzer for
complete downhole fluid characterization. The RCI service can also
be configured with the Straddle PackerSM module for testing and
sampling in low permeability, fractured and unconsolidated formations,
as well as for conducting mini-DST and micro-Frac testing for complete
rock and fluid characterization. The RCI service also incorporates
Formation Rate AnalysisSM (FRASM), a proprietary technique used
when formation pressure testing that provides a method to validate
formation pressure test data and provides a robust permeability
estimate. This real-time analysis technique improves testing and
sampling efficiency.

Highlights
Extensive pre-job modeling and planning
Precision, repeated pressure measurements on a single seat
Multiple clean fluid samples at reservoir conditions
Well suited for fluid sampling for accurate measurement of
low-level H2S concentration and formation water pH.
Real-time downhole fluid assessment

Specifications Series 1970 w/Transportable 6-Tank Carrier


Description

Specification

Length

95.20 ft

29.0 m

Diameter

4.75 in.

120.7 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

2310 lb

1050 kg

Formation Testing and Sampling

2-3

Representative Fluid Samples, Mini-DST, Interference Testing and Mini-FRAC


Straddle Packer Module
The Straddle PackerSM module is a recent addition to the
Baker Atlas Reservoir Characterization InstrumentSM
(RCISM) suite of modules. The Straddle Packer addresses
the limitations generally encountered in low perm,
fractured, vuggy and unconsolidated formations.

Utilizing two Baker Oil Tools custom-designed inflatable


packer elements, a one-meter zone is isolated to enable
various tests to be conducted in this isolated interval. The
different testing modes include basic pressure tests, highquality single-phase samples, mini-DST, interference and
mini-frac tests.

Features

Expansion of the Reservoir Characterization


Instrument service with Straddle Packer
technology is continuing with the development
of small-scale Drill Stem Test (mini-DST) and
interference testing.
The top figure shows an example of a mini-DST
test result where the Straddle Packer build-up
pressure response is plotted logarithmically with
its derivative to demonstrate the detection of both
spherical and radial flow regimes.
The bottom figure shows an example of a miniDST complete with interference test. As shown
in the example, the Straddle Packer pressure
response is combined with a remote reference
probe response or interference test.

Fully combinable with all RCI modules


One-meter isolated zone (variable using inserts)
In-line temperature probe
In-line quartz pressure crystal with zero-depth offset
Standard elements cover both water- and oil-based
mud systems
Hole sizes: 6 in. to 14 in. (152.4 mm to 356 mm)

Benefits
Pressure tests and fluid samples can now be acquired in
previously unexplored zones, increasing confidence in
completion decisions.
High-quality test data save completion costs by avoiding
bad zones or increase profits by completing previously
by-passed commercial zones.
High-quality, single-phase samples at in-situ conditions
provide insight to properly plan future completion and
facilities designs.
Mini-frac tests optimize frac designs saving frac horsepower expenses while still exploiting the full production
potential of the reservoir.

The remote probe response is used to verify the


Straddle Packer response and to help resolve
both horizontal and vertical permeabilities in
situations where radial flow might not be present.

2-4

Formation Testing and Sampling

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Improves Downhole Fluid Characterization


SampleView IB Service
Baker Atlas has improved the technology for acquiring
representative formation fluid samples. SampleViewSM
IB service, introduced as a significant upgrade to the
original Reservoir Characterization InstrumentSM (RCISM)
SampleViewSM module, brings enhanced fluid characterization measurements to better quantify fluid typing
and contamination.

Fig. 1

The original SampleView optical analyzer has been


upgraded to improve resolution and stability to aid in the
development of chemo-metric modeling. Additionally, two
optical channels have been added to identify and quantify
the presence of methane (Figures 1, 2).
With improved SampleView IB optical response, Baker
Atlas has introduced the FTAForecast software. This realtime software allows the engineer to calculate an estimation
of sample purity at individual depths (Figure 3). The software
enables selection from the full range of SampleView-acquired
measurements as inputs to the analysis, and graphically
displays the estimations of sample purity at any given depth.

Fig. 2

Refractive Index
A measurement of Refractive Index in the SampleView IB
service aids in the identification of fluid types and contamination monitoring. This continuous measurement allows for
very accurate OBM filtrate contamination monitoring and
gas presence. The refractive index of various fluid types is
significantly different, allowing simple differentiation
between gas, oil and water. The refractive index can also
be used as an input to the FTAForecast analysis.

Fluorescence Spectrometer
The SampleView IB service also has a fluorescence
spectrometer. Through use of a downhole ultraviolet lamp,
a measurement of hydrocarbon fluorescence is acquired
over five differing wavelengths. This measurement aids in
the hydrocarbon typing process based upon fluorescence
spectrum, and differentiation between light crude oils and
condensates (Figure 4).

Baker Atlas

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

In-situ Phase-separation Measurements

Fig. 1 - SampleView spectrum of 38API crude oil with


methane channels highlighted

The ability of the RCI tool to perform phase-separation


tests under downhole conditions has been incorporated into
the FTA software package available with the SampleView IB
service. This allows for real-time estimations for compressibility of the fluid and gas states while performing a phaseseparation test, plus built-in algorithms for indicating the
phase-separation pressure measured downhole at reservoir
temperature and pressure (Figure 5).

Fig. 2 - Spectrum of methane channels through clean-up


period, allowing estimation of gas/oil ratio based on the
calculated weight fraction of methane present

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Fig. 3 - Example of FTAForecast analysis using optical


absorbance as primary input
Fig. 4 - Light crude oils have a more intense fluorescence
in the lower wavelengths.
Fig. 5 - Phase-separation test performed downhole under
reservoir temperature and pressure for automatically
calculating bubble-point pressure and compressibility of
fluid and gas phases
Formation Testing and Sampling

2-5

SampleView IC Service
Seconds
XX00

XX00

XX00

XX00

XX00

XX00

XX00

Seconds

Example of the enhanced real-time interpretation log available with


SampleView IB and IC modules. Real-time fluid fraction determination
combined with image displays of optical absorbance, fluorescence and
refractive index all aid the identification and monitoring of fluids during the
clean-up and sampling process. In addition, SampleView IC service provides
physical properties such as Fluid Density, Fluid Sound speed and GOR for
efficient reservoir fluids characterization.

The SampleViewSM IC module is


a service offering from Baker Atlas
that represents a significant
advancement in downhole
reservoir fluid characterization
because it provides a continuous
real-time measurement of density,
viscosity and sound speed of the
reservoir fluid. These accurate
measurements, combined with
the fluid pressure and temperature,
are used to calculate solution
gas-oil ratio in real time.

Features
Fluid density and viscosity sensor
Acoustic transducer for measuring
fluid sound speed
19-channel real-time near infrared
spectrometer (includes 2-channel
methane detection)
Continuous refractometer
5-channel UV fluorescence
spectrometer

Benefits
Accurate in-situ measurement of
fluid properties provides efficient
reservoir fluid characterization
Accurate GOR prediction
Reliable determination of compositional grading based on multiple
closely spaced fluid properties
measurements
Reliable sample contamination
monitoring to ensure high-quality
samples are captured for lab
analysis.
Validation of PVT results from
lab analysis of collected samples
by comparison with in-situ
measurements
SampleView IC module is rated to
350 F (177 C) and 20,000 psi
(137.9 MPa) and is fully combinable
with all RCI modules.

2-6

Formation Testing and Sampling

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

RCI Single-phase Tanks


Single-phase I sample chambers are designed to capture
a 450 cc sample. The Single-phase I sample is appropriate
when an accurate determination of PVT parameters is required
and for flow-assurance studies. These chambers are particularly
well suited to sampling in black and volatile oils. They are also
recommended for formation water sampling because ideally,
the sampling process maintains the integrity of dissolved
gases such as H2S or CO2 and other dissolved minerals, thus
maintaining the pH of water at in-situ conditions. Accurate
determination of formation water pH, in turn, allows for determining scaling potential. The RCI Single-phase I Tank systems
were specifically designed to maintain sample integrity by
eliminating the need to combine smaller volume samples in
order to obtain a sufficient volume for PVT analysis.

Single-phase I sampling is similar to PVT sampling with an added


feature to further compensate for the sample cooling as it is retrieved
from the wellbore. The RCI Single-phase I Tank consists of two
floating pistons with a pre-determined charge of nitrogen between
the pistons. Expansion of the nitrogen gas compensates for the
pressure drop in the sample due to temperature loss as the sample
is retrieved from the well and transported to the lab.

Single-phase I Tank

Single-phase I tanks can be outfitted with the Baker Atlas Continuous


Data Recorder (CDR) to monitor sample integrity during transport.
These tanks incorporate mixing balls (a requirement from the PVT
labs) and have U.S. Department of Transportation and Canadian
Transit Authority exemptions, so they can be transported by
common carrier. The tanks are rated for 20,000 psi (137.9 MPa),
400 F (204 C), and are constructed from NACE-approved
materials. Single-phase II sample chambers are designed to
capture 432 cc samples up to 25,000 psi (172.4 MPa).
The Single-phase II sample (SPT II) is also appropriate when
an accurate determination of PVT parameters is required and for
flow-assurance studies and the conditions warrant additional
compensation over the Single-phase I sample. Single-phase II
sampling is recommended when reservoir conditions exceed 250 F
(121 C) or 13,000 psi (89.6 MPa). It is particularly suited to
sampling in black oils, high-GOR volatile oils, and retrograde
condensates. It is also recommended for formation water sampling.

Single-phase II Tank

Single-phase II sampling is similar to Single-phase I sampling


with an added feature to further compensate for the sample cooling
as it is retrieved from the wellbore. The RCI Single-phase II Tank
consists of two floating pistons with a pre-determined charge of
nitrogen behind the second piston.
The nitrogen piston has a 2:1 compression ratio, which effectively
doubles the compensation potential in the tank.
Single-phase II Sample Tanks also features two 15 cc MicroSample
Tanks that can be extracted to validate the samples without disturbing
the main sample chamber.
The tanks are rated for 25,000 psi (172.4 MPa), 400 F (204 C),
and are constructed from NACE-approved materials.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Formation Testing and Sampling

2-7

RCI Multi-tank Carrier


The Multi-tank Carrier is designed to efficiently collect multiple
samples during a single trip into the well. This process yields
cost-effective, high-quality sampling and a significant savings
in rig time.

Baker Atlas offers two multi-tank carrier modules with the RCISM
service, a 6-tank carrier for efficient multi-zone sampling and a 2-tank
carrier which is purpose-built for HPHT single-phase sampling.

Features of the 6-Tank Carrier:


Six tanks per module
840 cc PVT sample tanks or 450 cc Single-phase I Tanks
Up to 24 tanks per run with power booster
Integral borehole exit
Traditional wireline formation test tools are capable of taking only
two formation fluid samples. The Multi-tank module houses six
tanks, and up to four modules can be combined on a single trip into
the hole. This feature allows the combination of 26 tanks in a single
RCI instrument run, including the two standard large-volume 4-, 10or 20-liter sample tanks. This configuration provides the largest
possible quantity and volume in the industry. The integrated borehole
exit eliminates the need to include a Borehole Exit Module when the
Multi-tank Carrier is being run.
The RCI instrument uses hydraulic sealing valves on each tank,
which can be positively verified by pumping against the valve to
ensure that sample integrity is maintained.

Features of the 2-Tank Carrier:


Two tanks per module
432 cc Single-phase II Tanks with integral micro-sample chambers
Up to four tanks per run with power booster
The two-tank carrier with SPT II sample tanks is another option that
can be selected when configuring the RCI instrument for sampling
operations. Using this option, the RCI tool can collect a total of six
samples per run in hole (4 x DOT tanks + 2 x large volume tanks).
All tanks can be overpressured to reduce the possibility of phase separation during sample retrieval to surface. The value of the required
overpressure is determined during the pre-job planning and confirmed in real time with a downhole expansion test.

Service Application
Up to 24 Single-phase I or PVT samples in any combination per
trip in the well
Up to four single-phase II samples per trip in the well
6-tank carrier is fully combinable with 2-tank carrier and highvolume sample tanks

Benefits
Multiple samples per trip in a well in any combination and unlimited
pressure measurements provide true reservoir characterization.
Representative sampling for a wide range of reservoir conditions.
2-8

Formation Testing and Sampling

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Obtain High-Quality Representative Formation Core Samples


Preserve Rock Properties, Avoid Damages Caused by Percussion Coring
RCOR Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool
The Rotary Sidewall Coring (RCORSM) instrument
provides the ability to acquire undamaged sidewall core
samples suitable for porosity and permeability analysis.
The RCOR system is an advanced, computer-controlled
and hydraulically powered coring device for cutting and
retrieving multiple sidewall cores. The entire coring and
storage operation is continuously monitored by means
of a graphical surface system.

Operation
The RCOR system can drill multiple core samples from
downhole formations and store them in the core-storage
section of the tool body for retrieval back to the surface.
The sidewall cores are drilled using a pivoting bit box. As
the tool is lowered into the hole, the bit box is in-line with
the tool body. At the desired depth, the bit box is pivoted
into the drill position to make contact with the wellbore
wall. The maximum retrievable core length is then drilled,
measured, and stored. The tool can then be repositioned for
the next sample. A maximum of 60 cores per trip are
achievable with the RCOR system.

Highlights

Bit section of Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool

Build reservoir description with information about


formation lithology and petrology
Evaluate storage capacity (porosity) and flow
potential (permeability)
Analyze hydrocarbon type and content
Measure irreducible water content
Identify thin producing intervals
Core recovery in horizontal wells
Hard-rock formation sampling
Positive core acquisition indication

Benefits
Acquisition of undamaged sidewall cores suitable for
porosity and permeability analysis
Enhanced measurement of formation and reservoir fluid
parameters for reservoir and production applications
Cost-effective alternative to conventional coring saves rig
time and money

Specifications Series 1823


Description
Length

38.0 ft

11.6 m

Diameter

4.75 in.

120.7 mm

Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

762 lb

346 kg

Formation Testing and Sampling: Coring Services

2-9

Efficient Acquisition of Core Samples


Confirm Paleontology and Hydrocarbon Shows in Zones of Interest
SWC Sidewall Corgun
Conventional methods of coring are used during the
well-drilling operation. Often, however, formation cores
are desired after the total depth is drilled and the basic
openhole logs are complete. The Sidewall CorgunSM
(SWCSM) tool provides a means for recovering a depthspecific sidewall formation sample suitable for
hydrocarbon and lithology confirmation.

Operation
The operating principle of the SWC instrument is relatively
simple. A core barrel, which is a hollow cylinder, is shot
into the formation by a powder charge ignited by an electric
current. The core barrel, containing a formation sample, is
retrieved by means of a steel cable attached between the gun
and the core barrel. Only one core barrel is fired at a time.
A tandem gun can selectively core up to 50 samples on a
single run using the 4 in. (101.6 mm) SWC tool and up to
44 samples on a single run using the 3 in. (76.2 mm) SWC
tool. The SWC tool can collect a maximum of 74 cores by
running three SWC tools in tandem.
Core barrels are available to sample formations ranging from
soft to very hard. The core samples are generally large enough
to allow a comprehensive core analysis. Cores range in size
from 0.85 in. (21.6 mm) to 0.69 in. (17.5 mm)
The SP or gamma ray curve, run simultaneously with the
SWC tool, provides depth correlation with the primary suite
of logs.

Highlights
Paleontological dating (microfaunal/microfloral and
spore content)
Determine or confirm hydrocarbon shows

Benefits
Cost-efficient acquisition of core samples suitable for
hydrocarbon and lithology confirmation
Up to 50 cores can be acquired in a single trip using
standard guns

Specifications Series 1812*


Description

Specification

Length

10.12 ft

3.09 m

Diameter

4.00 in.

101.6 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

300 lb

136.1 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

2-10 Formation Testing and Sampling: Coring Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

3. Geophysical Services

III
Borehole Seismic Applications
Downhole Instrumentation
Surface Instrumentation
VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

Geophysical Services

Borehole seismic applications and services are an essential part of energy exploration. With a seismic receiver
placed in the earth at depth and an energy source on the surface, accurate time-depth measurements are produced
that can be used to calibrate well logs. By changing the location of surface sources and the number of receivers
in the borehole, high-resolution data can be recorded and detailed formation properties and reservoir images can
be produced. Providing high-resolution data enables 3-D images to be created which can improve vertical and
lateral resolution of the reservoir when compared to surface seismic data. Baker Atlass borehole seismic division
provides the latest in digital data acquisition systems and services, which provide clients with quality data and
proven results.
VSFusion Baker Hughes joint venture with CGG-Veritas is an industry leader in borehole seismic processing.
VSFusion provides a full spectrum of borehole seismic application design, data processing and interpretation.
VSFusions 3-C 3-D vector migration processing can provide the most accurate structural image possible by
precisely locating each reflection point in the VSP data. VSFusion also provides leading technology in processing
and interpretation of 3-D VSP data.
Magnitude Baker Atlas microseismic experts, use the latest technology in seismic processing of acoustic
events in microseismic monitoring and hydraulic fracture mapping. Hydraulic fracture mapping is achieved by
monitoring and recording microseismic events that occur during the fracture treatment of a well. Fracture monitoring provides an independent estimate of fracture volume and direction which is crucial to the optimization of
a prospects development program. Baker Atlas provides the latest technology in digital downhole equipment
and wellsite operations while Magnitude provides processing and interpretation of the microseismic data.

3-D V

Hydr
aulic
Fract
ure

Slimhole Reciever

PipeSies*

Single Level Reciever

P
SP

Multi-level Reciever

ay VS

Fixed
Zero/

Primary Application

Veloc
it

y Sur

vey

Offse

Walk
aw

t VSP

Map
ping
(M

icroseism
ic)

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

* Borehole seismic acquisition inside drillpipe

Borehole Seismic Processing

3-2

Process

Objective

2-D Imaging
3-D Migration
3-C, 3-D Migration
4-C Processing
3-D VSP Processing
Q-Compensating Surface Seismic Data
3-D VSP Inversion
Pre-survey Modeling
Post-survey Modeling
Microseismic Events

Improve resolution and depth prediction


Delineation of reflectors and faults
Enhancement of 3-D image effects
Separation of wavefields in horizontal wells for improved imaging below the well
High-resolution structural imaging
Restore lost bandwidth to surface seismic data
Improves vertical resolution
Positioning of VSP recievers to maximize survey results
Updates pre-survey modeling to best match VSP data
Hydraulic fracture mapping

Geophysical Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Borehole Seismic Applications


Application: Time-Depth Correlation
Velocity Survey
Travel-time measurements are acquired with receivers
placed at known depths in a well. These measurements
produce accurate time-depth and seismic velocity
results that can be used to calibrate well log data.
Velocity survey information is presented as time-depth
correlation plots and detailed velocity tables. Borehole
seismic-generated velocity information is used to
calibrate acoustic well log data and produce accurate
synthetic seismograms. Synthetic seismograms link
surface seismic time-domain information with highresolution, depth-domain well log data.

Operation
VSFusion provides calibration information and parameters
derived from borehole seismic measurements to enhance
surface seismic imaging, attribute processing, and reduced
uncertainty in surface seismic interpretation.

Velocity or Checkshot Survey

The Velocity Survey uses a combination of geophysical and


well logging techniques to measure the one-way travel-time
of a seismic pulse. This pulse is generated from an energy
source, located at ground or sea level, and propagates to a
geophone receiver placed at a known depth in the borehole.
Using the measured total travel-time for a measured depth,
the average velocity of a pulse propagating through the
earth to that depth is calculated and corrected to the seismic
datum. Interval velocities are calculated between check shot
levels. By comparing acoustic well log integrated interval
times to the measured one-way seismic travel-times from
the Velocity Survey, the acoustic log values can be adjusted
for errors due to borehole conditions such as borehole
diameter, drilling fluid invasion and formation gas.

Highlights
Well log and surface seismic time-depth correlation
Drillers depth and surface seismic time-depth correlation
Velocity analysis
Well log editing
Synthetic seismogram generation
Well log conversion to time scale

Benefits
Velocity analysis stacking and migration velocities
Well log and surface seismic time-depth correlation
Velocity Survey Table

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: Borehole Seismic Applications

3-3

Borehole Seismic Applications


Application: True Wavelet, Phase and Multiple Identification
Zero Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (ZVSP)
The unique geometry of a zero offset VSP allows for
multiples, recorded above the depth of the deepest
receiver, to be identified and removed. The end result
is a zero-phase, primaries-only dataset. This dataset
can be used to identify residual multiple reflections on
the surface seismic data, as well as to phase and
frequency match the surface seismic data to the
zero-phase VSP.

Operation

Zero Offset VSP

With a zero offset VSP, the energy source is placed a


relatively short distance from the well. The downhole
receiver spacing is usually denser than that used when
recording a velocity survey. In addition to measuring the
elapsed time for the surface-activated energy source pulse
to travel to the geophone, as is done with a velocity survey,
the VSP technique is used to record and interpret the
seismic response that follows the first arrival pulse.
The primary output from the zero offset VSP is a single
stacked trace, which represents the acoustic response of the
subsurface at the well location. This single trace, consisting
of primary reflections called the corridor stack trace, is
compared to the surface seismic data at the well location.
The VSP receiver is placed downhole rather than on the
surface to provide the following benefits:

Highlights
Improved time-depth relationship
True wavelet corridor stack
Multiple free corridor stack
Identify surface seismic events as primary reflection or
multiple reflections
Identify depth at which seismic event intersects wellbore
Depth prediction of seismic events ahead of the drill bit
Improved vertical resolution compared to surface
seismic data
Wavelet extraction and wavelet shaping
Phase determination and matching of surface seismic data
Complex structure and wellbore deviation to allow for
offset imaging with improved lateral resolution
Attenuation studies (Q estimation)
Extraction of parameters for enhanced surface
seismic processing

Benefits
Measured averaged and interval velocities and improved
time-depth relationship
Identify surface seismic events as primary reflections or
multiple reflections

3-4

Geophysical Services: Borehole Seismic Applications

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Borehole Seismic Applications


Application: Surface Seismic AVO Calibration
Walkaway VSP, 3-D VSP
AVO gradient and intercept volumes derived from surface seismic
data are used by the interpreter to provide quantitative answers
regarding reservoir size, location and fluid saturation levels. While
they provide good spatial coverage, the seismic amplitudes recorded
on the surface have traveled twice through the sediments overlaying
the reservoir. These data were affected by scattering and attenuation,
and are also subject to variation due to the heterogeneity of the
overburden. There are many uncertainties inherent to surface seismic
AVO. These uncertainties may manifest themselves in an erroneous
reservoir model. To reduce these uncertainties, a borehole seismic
AVO survey should be run to calibrate the surface seismic AVO data.

Operation

Walkaway

Because the VSP receiver can be placed very close to the reservoir, many
of the uncertainties associated with surface seismic AVO are eliminated.
Having an in-situ receiver results in a one-way seismic travel path.
Consequently, reflection amplitudes recorded in a VSP AVO survey are
much less affected by transmission loss and scattering. In addition, with
a properly designed VSP survey, wider reflection angle apertures can be
acquired than with surface seismic geometry.

Benefit and Applications

Synthetic AVO

Reflection angle to offset correlation


Surface-to-VSP trace amplitude calibration
Synthetic AVO response from well log data
AVO attribute analysis
Angle trace gather, two-way time section
Amplitude variation with offset/angle cross-plot
Gradient vs intercept cross-plot for AVO classification
P-wave intercept trace (P), Gradient trace (G)
Quick AVO synthetic
from P and G and AVO
synthetic stack
Regression coefficients or
standard deviations of curve
fit on AVO cross-plot
Combinations of intercepts
and gradient traces,
Poissons ratio, shear,
restricted gradient, product
and math-traces

Amplitude variation with offset,


AVO synthetics, an output
traces presentation
Intercept AVO versus
gradient crossplot

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: Borehole Seismic Applications

3-5

Borehole Seismic Applications


Service: Zero Offset VSP, Far Offset VSP, Walkaway VSP, 3-D VSP
2-D and 3-D Imaging
Both 2-D and 3-D VSPs improve reservoir
characterization. High-resolution VSP data can be
integrated with surface seismic data to provide detailed
descriptions of formation properties and identification
of reservoir compartments not possible with surface
seismic data alone.

Reservoir Delineation
Depth prediction of seismic events ahead of and offset
from the drill bit
Time-depth correlation with surface seismic data
Structural imaging
Improves reservoir characterization by delineation of
faults and pinchouts

AVO and Anistrophy Modeling and Analysis


Rig source deviated borehole seismic image
(VSP-CDP transform) digitally spliced into the
surface seismic section.

Surface seismic AVO calibration


Anisotropy detection for accurate model building
Better understanding of lithology, porosity, pore fluids
and orientation of aligned fractures

2-D VSP Imaging


Improved vertical and lateral resolution compared to
surface seismic
Phase determination and matching of surface seismic
Extraction of parameters for enhanced surface
seismic processing
Generation of a high-resolution velocity model at
the wellbore
Q compensation derived from borehole VSP data
improves surface seismic resolution

3-D VSP Imaging

The offset VSP provides enhanced resolution to the


surface seismic data. The offset VSP and Corridor
Stack are superimposed on the surface seismic
data. Data example courtesy of BP

Simultaneous surface and borehole seismic data


acquisition reduces operating costs
Improved vertical and lateral resolution compared to
surface seismic
Using a shared VSP-calibrated velocity model, the 3-D
VSP can be integrated with the surface seismic data
Volumetric estimates improved by high-resolution
3-D VSP
True 3-D migration in time and depth
2-D out of plane migration errors solved by
3-D migration

Salt Imaging
Salt Flank Reflection Imaging
Sub-Salt Imaging Map reflections beneath salt base,
which are not illuminated by surface seismic
3-D Salt Proximity Refraction Methodology

3-6

Geophysical Services: Borehole Seismic Applications

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Borehole Seismic Applications


Application: Microseismic
Hydraulic-Fracture Monitoring
Acoustic Emission
(A.E.) Trapped in
Open Fracture

Seismic
Sensor

Seismic
Sensor

Microseisms Induced
by Stress Changes

Envelope
(Destabilized Zone)

Treatment Well
Observation Well

Shear-slip event locations map fracture volume


and distribution

Acoustic emissions map open-fracture azimuths

Microseismic events are detected in an observation well


that is located away from the treatment well. The Geochain,
GeoWaves and MSR tool systems are used for data
acquisition in the observation well. These micoseismic
events are used to map fractures that may occur away
from the treatment well. They can provide an independent
estimate of fracture volume and verify fracture direction.
Verification of fracture volume and direction is crucial to
optimization of a prospect development program.

Magnitude can detect microseismic events from nearby


observation wells or in some circumstances, from the treatment well itself. Monitoring from the treatment well allows
the measurement of trapped-mode acoustic emissions, which
directly measure azimuths of the open fractures. Treatment
well detectors can also see shear-slip events away from the
borehole. Ideally, a hydro-frac monitoring network would
include detectors in both treatment and observation wells.
Magnitudes expertise in microseismic monitoring uses
state-of-the-art technology in seismic processing of acoustic
events for quantitative results.
Leading acquisition QA and processing tools
SmartPick for semi-automated data QA
Smart monitoring for real-time processing and remote
follow-up
SeisTool for advanced signal processing and 3-D
location of events
Unique quantitative reports
Network sensitivity maps to show detection probabilities
Location uncertainty maps to illustrate event location
statistical reliability
Event density and maximum emitted energy maps to
assist in interpretation
Seisplay (trademark of Magnitude) 4-D dynamic event
maps with tagged magnitude (energy) levels to show
fracture volume development

Benefits
Injection
Distance

Fall Off

2
Time
Treatment well receivers record events during
pressure fall-off reduced noise conditions.
Adapted from Parotidis et al. (GRL, 2004)

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Independent estimate of fracture volume and orientation


Location and orientation of pre-existing sub-seismic faults
activated during injection
Validation of hydro-frac program parameters
Improved well spacing and field development planning
Reduced fracturing costs through efficiency improvements
Optimization of development program for minimum
completion costs and maximized production

Applications
Independent verification of fracture program success
Dynamic 4-D fracture growth characterization
Estimate of rock mechanic parameters from fracture statistics

Geophysical Services: Borehole Seismic Applications

3-7

Downhole Instrumentation
Extra Coverage and Ease of Operations for Complex VSPs
GCN Downhole Receiver Array Geochain
The 3-C GeochainSM system allows up to 42 satellites
to be deployed, spaced between 1 and 75 m (3 and
246 ft) apart. The array is capable of operating for long
periods in high-temperature (180 C/356 F) wells and,
being a modular system, is easily expandable. The
system is made up of standard tools that are adapted
to run in a multi-level configuration, making the system
highly adaptable for different survey objectives. Whether
for rig-time saving or for extra coverage and ease of
operations in complex VSPs, the Geochain system is
ideal when those extra levels are crucial to the objective.

Operation
Baker Atlas performs downhole seismic services in
environments ranging from slim- to large-diameter
boreholes, vertical to horizontal wellbores, open and
cased holes, and high-pressure and high-temperature
well conditions.
Downhole Receiver Array Geochain

The Geochain system is configurable up to 42 levels. It is


a high- frequency tool that is suitable for microseismic data
acquisition with excellent data fidelity. Hydrophone modules
can be added to provide 4-C acquisition.

Highlights
Checkshot/VSP/Offset VSP/Walkaway/3-D VSP
Microseismic
Anistropic modeling and migration
2-D and 3-D imaging

Benefits
Faster acquisition of complex borehole seismic services
via deployment of up to 42 geophones
Suitable for high-volume 2-D and 3-D surveys and
high-frequency microseismic surveys

Specifications
Description
Length

2.9 ft

0.9 m

Diameter

3.0 in.

76.2 mm

Pressure Rating

3-8

Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services

Specification

25,000 psi

172.4 MPa

Temperature

356 F

180 C

Weight

38 lb

17.2 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Downhole Instrumentation
Extra Coverage and Ease of Operations for Complex VSPs
GWV Digital Multi-level Downhole Seismic Array
The Baker Atlas GeoWavesSM tool system is a multi-level digital
downhole seismic array containing up to 32 levels. The GeoWaves tool
system has a long range, self-adapting, multi-carrier telemetry that
provides superior telemetry rates for borehole seismic acquisitions.

Operation
The tool system is resistant to extreme well conditions. Each tool is
lightweight in construction, comprising two sections connected by
quick-coupling nuts that enable efficient rig up, rig down and maintenance.
Baker Atlas has utilized the GeoWaves tool system to successfully record
large 3-D VSPs for detailed reservoir imaging around the well. Other
applications are 4-D VSPs that provide time-lapse reservoir imaging. The
GeoWaves tool system is also ideally suited to hydraulic-fracture mapping
and passive seismic monitoring applications in either fixed or semi-permanent installations.

Highlights
Long-range, self-adapting, multi-carrier telemetry
Maximum telemetry of 4 Mbit/s
Over 2.5 Mbit/s on a 7,000 m standard 7-conductor wireline
24-bit delta sigma converters
Sample rates: 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 ms
Automatic downhole electronic tests
Arm opening state indicator for each level
Digital serial number identification
Up to 32 levels
Optional 3-component fixed of gimballed geophone packages
Coax inter-tool cable (fewer parts)
Continuous operating temperature up to 170 C (338 F), with a peak
absolute maximum temperature of 180 C (356 F)
Continuous operating pressure 22,000 psi (151.6 MPa)
Light, compact and simple (fewer parts)
Automatic arm closure for safe retrieval in case of power failure
Made of corrosion-resistant materials (Titanium)
Minimal maintenance design

Features
Modular Downhole Digital
Auxiliary Channels
CCL
Tension compression meter
Temperature
Gamma tool
Weight unit sensor

Tools made of two sections connected by quick-coupling nut


Easy access to geophone or electronic cartridge
Easy handling for rig up and rig down
User-friendly system software
Fast and easy removal of arms weak links

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter - w/o pad
Pressure Rating
Temperature
Weight

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specification
4 ft

1.23 m

3.1 in.

79 mm

22,000 psi

151.6 MPa

338 - 356 F

170 - 180 C

37.5 lb

17 kg
Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services

3-9

Downhole Instrumentation
Innovative Design Allows Up to 8 Multi-Level Receivers in Slimholes
MSR Multi-level Slimhole Receiver
Baker Atlas can run up to eight multi-level receivers
in slim production holes. An innovative design, which
decouples the receiver from the satellite body, means
that the MSR tool has a very high-frequency response
of over 1,000 Hz, making it ideal for microseismic or
hydro-frac studies and for occasions when a VSP
must be run on monocable wireline or in slimhole
(<2 in.) conditions.

Operation
Multi-Level Slim Hole Receiver

Baker Atlas performs downhole seismic services in


environments ranging from slim- to large-diameter
boreholes, vertical to horizontal wellbores, open and
cased holes, and high-pressure and high-temperature
well conditions.
The MSR is a unique, multi-level slimhole receiver system
with up to eight levels. This is a high-frequency tool that is
suitable for microseismic data acquisition with excellent
data fidelity.

Highlights
Slimhole production wells/PipeSeis/VSP/Offset VSP/
Walkaway/3-D VSP/Microseismic
Fracture analysis
Monocable option
Anistropic modeling and migration
2-D and 3-D imaging

Benefits
Faster acquisition of complex borehole seismic services
via deployment of up to eight geophones
Multi-level slimhole capability, with exceptional highfrequency response, suitable for microseismic and
high-volume 2-D and 3-D surveys

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter

2.4 ft

0.7 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

302 F

150 C

Weight

20 lb

9.1 kg

Pressure Rating

3-10 Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services

Specification

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Downhole Instrumentation
Acquisition of Borehole Seismic Data Inside Drill Pipe
PSR PipeSeis
Baker Atlas offers the PipeSeis technique as an
alternative to acquiring borehole seismic data using
Pipe Conveyed Logging (PCL). The 3-C well seismic
data is recorded from within the drillpipe as the
geophone is pumped down using the mud circulating
system. This technique uses conventional wireline
and allows data to be recorded in wells that go past
horizontal at a minimal risk and minimizing rig time.

Operation
Deployment of the slimhole receiver is made through a
side-entry-sub and kelly hose connected to the top of the
drillstring. When the tool is at the required measured depth,
it is clamped inside the drillpipe and the seismic energy is
generated by means of a conventional source at the surface.
Depth is controlled by a standard wireline encoder. A number
of built-in features ensure that drillpipe does not become
stuck in the hole during surveying. The PipeSeis technique
can be run in single- or dual-level mode using the SHR
tool, or in true multi-level mode with the Multi-level
Slimhole ReceiverSM.

Highlights
VSP in drillpipe
Operations in horizontal holes
Acquire useful data even when drill is stuck in hole

Benefits
Rig-time saving
Safe alternative to pipe-conveyed logging
Look ahead of the drill in conjunction with
conventional VSP to plan casing points and detect
overpressure conditions

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services 3-11

Downhole Instrumentation
Reduced Energy Absorption and Higher Penetration
Buried Gun Array
Baker Atlas offers a proprietary buried airgun array.
Until now, buried airgun was available only as a
single-gun option with some customers preferring
the increased power of the traditional array in a pit.

Highlights of the Baker Atlas Buried Airgun Array:


Reduced energy absorbtion and higher penetration
Efficient solution for unconsolidated source environment,
particularly for transition-zone and swamp VSP acquisition
Especially suited for high-resolution VSP surveys
Highly repeatable, suitable for time-lapse VSP surveys
Eliminates static correction changes for intermediate and
final VSP
Cost-effective

Buried airgun array

3x150 in3 sleeveguns


in a gun pit

3-12 Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services

1x200 in3 buried airgun

2x200in3 buried
airgun array

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Surface Instrumentation
Fully Integrated Seismic Logging System
SLS Seismic Logging Systems
Baker Atlas Seismic Logging System (SLS) is a fully
integrated, efficient and reliable data acquisition
system for all borehole seismic applications. SLS
allows for detailed quality control of all aspects of the
service including downhole data integrity, surface and
downhole instrumentation tests, source monitoring
and navigation information.

Operation
The SLS system has the flexibility to record digital and
analog downhole receivers, surface channels, and also an
interface with 3-D surface seismic systems allowing for
simultaneous surface and downhole data acquisition.
The SLS system uses a powerful UNIXSM multitasking
workstation environment to acquire, process and transmit
borehole seismic data. Self-testing and monitoring of both
surface and downhole instrumention are performed prior to
and during acquisition to ensure data quality. Real-time QC
displays allow the field engineer to monitor energy source
firing, raw data recording, tool depth and cable tension.
Field processing of borehole seismic data is performed using
SEISLINK software, allowing a wide range of processing
capabilities at the well site. Data transmission from location
to office or to our processing and interpretation centers is
possible using the Baker Atlas WellLinkSM service.

SLSIV Seismic on ECLIPS


Integrated borehole seismic capabilities within the
openhole logging unit

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services 3-13

Surface Instrumentation
Positioning Accuracy for Both Land and Marine VSP Surveys
TASMAN Integrated Borehole Seismic Navigation System

DSSNAV positioning system

The TASMAN system has been


developed to take advantage of recent
advances in DGPS technology and
radio data telemetry. Designed from the
outset specifically for borehole seismic
applications, it provides the optimum
method for reliably and accurately
positioning seismic sources with the
minimum of rig time. Use of the
TASMAN system means third-party
navigation contractors are not required.
Although the primary application is for
use in positioning marine and shallow
water sources, the system can also be
used for onshore work.

Highlights
All types of positioning required for
borehole seismic operations
Vertical incidence VSP
2-D and 3-D Walkaway surveys
Fixed offset surveys
Purpose-built software for fast,
efficient surveys
Comprehensive QA tools for ensuring
positioning accuracy
Fully interfaced to recording systems
and source contollers
Full control of target selection and
system configuration from the rig

Benefits
Reduced costs
Fewer personnel to transport
and accomodate
Reduction in potential operating
errors and incomplete source
position information
Increased flexibility

DSSNAV in-survey displays

3-14 Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Surface Instrumentation
SLS Interfaces with all Vibrator Electronics, Airgun and Explosives Controllers
Energy Sources and Energy Source Controllers
Baker Atlas SLS interfaces with all vibrator electronics,
airgun and explosives controllers. Our airgun controllers
provide precision in VSP airgun synchronization and
control, and they are capable of controlling up to 16
airguns at each of eight source locations. All controllers
are integrated into the acquisition system to automatically tune large airgun arrays and record individual
gun-timing, sensor signals, near- and far-field
hydrophones, gun pressure and depth information.

Energy Sources
Baker Atlas compressional vibrator unit

Tuned marine arrays


Compressional and shear-wave vibrators
Explosives
All other seismic sources

The Baker Atlas Deep Penetrating Focused array


is a specialized array for deepwater and/or deep
well applications.

The Baker Atlas H-Racks are tuned, compact gun


arrays that can be easily and safely deployed to
produce a high-frequency broadband signature.
Both sleeve and G gun arrays are available.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: Downhole Seismic Services 3-15

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Improve Resolution and Depth Prediction
2-D Imaging
3-C VSPs Reservoir Delineation
Offset and Walkaway VSP imaging is not limited to
improving P-wave resolution. By making use of 3-C
data, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the
various elastic wavefields. This allows the time-depth
and P-S calibration of surface seismic compressional
and shear wave studies; the study of rock properties,
such as Poissons ratio; and an improvement in
resolution by imaging the shear wave data.

2-D and 3-D Prestack Kirchhoff Depth Migrations


Anisotropic (TIV) 3-D depth migration
2-D VSP-CDP transform
Full wavefield migration
3-C, 3-D migration of 2-D data

Example of Velocity Model Grid


Kirchhoff Migration

Migrated VSP spliced into surface seismic


Vertical Incidence VSP used to improve
resolution and depth prediction.

3-16 Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


3-Component and 4-Component VSP Imaging
3-D Migration; 3-C, 3-D Migration; 4-C Processing
3-D Migration
3-D migration maps the reflection
energy in three dimensions,
achieving superb delineation of
reflectors and faults than
achieved by 2-D migration. Data
example shows a multiline 2-D
Walkaway VSP migration results
by the 2-D VSP migration (left)
and by 3-D VSP migration (right).
2-D Migration

3-D Migration

3-C, 3-D Migration


Three-component 3-C, 3-D migration
directionally distributes energies to
their reflection origins, which further
enhances the 3-D image effects. This
technique is especially beneficial
when the data quantity is limited.
The example shows the salt boundary
image by three inline (2-D) sources.
The lower reflector is in the off-line
direction. This result cannot be
achieved by the regular 3-D migration.

4-C Processing

Surface Seismic

4-C Borehole Seismic

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

With the addition of a hydrophone


module in the Baker Atlas acquisition
tools, full 4-C data can be processed.
4-C processing allows the successful
separation of wavefields in horizontal
wells. This allows improved imaging
below the well and derivation of
rock properties such as Vp/Vs ratios.
Method of combining geophone
and hydrophone data successfully
established
4-C well seismic data produces a
high-resolution image below a
horizontal well track
Guided and converted wave
information can be used to
confirm presence of faults
VSP imaging in horizontal wells
Discrimination of permeable zones
Improved interpretation in complex
geological setting
Vp/Vs computation from
P-wave amplitudes

Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing 3-17

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Leading Technology for Processing of 3-D VSP Data
3-D VSP Processing, Interpretation and Integration
VSFusion provides the leading technology for the
processing and interpretation of 3-D VSP data. The
true value of a 3-D VSP dataset is extracted through
integration with CGGs surface seismic reservoir
characterization and comprehensive rock property
analysis in conjunction with Baker Atlas Geoscience
Centers. This approach reveals lateral facies variations,
high-resolution sequence stratigraphic information and
attribute maps linked to petrophysical information such
as porosity, as well as the traditional high-resolution
structural imaging and time-depth correlation.

VSFusion makes use of all three recorded components for


imaging each wavemode separately, taking advantage of the
differing reflectivity series of compressional and shear waves.
3-D time-depth correlation
High-resolution seismic stratigraphy
High-resolution structural imaging
Simultaneous acquisition, 3-D surface seismic and 3-D VSP
Surface seismic processing parameter calibration
VSP-derived Q compensation
AVO calibration of surface seismic data
Fracture orientation
Anisotropy estimates
Time-lapse feasibility/baseline studies
3-D Inversion
Reservoir property analysis
High-resolution attribute mapping
Full 3-D visualization

3-D Surface Seismic

3-D Surface Seismic

3-D VSP Splice

3-18 Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Estimate the Decay of High Frequencies with Depth
Q-Compensating Surface Seismic Data
Attenuation in seismic data is governed by energy loss per oscillation
over a given travel time. High frequencies exhibit higher level of
oscillation and are more prone to attenuation.
Using the VSP downgoing wavefield recorded at successive depths in
the borehole, it is possible to estimate the decay of high frequencies
with depth. The frequency decay estimate can then be inversely
applied to surface seismic data to restore lost bandwidth.

Original processing

VSP-derived Q-compensated processing

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing 3-19

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Reprocessing VSPs and Rock Properties from VSP Data
Special Processing
Reprocessing VSPs
If you have suboptimal images from archived VSP data,
then reprocessing could be the answer. Advances in
VSP processing from VSFusion can yield high-quality
seismic images without having to reshoot the survey.
Customize your displays and improve your imaging
to reveal hidden information in old datasets, such as
fracture networks and lateral stratigraphic changes.
Reprocessed VSPs can be fully integrated with new or
reprocessed surface seismic data. Reprocessing offers
cost-effective advantages for all types of VSP data from
standard checkshots to walkaway, 3-D and AVO analysis.
Old data archived on paper can be reprocessed and
stored in digital format for reliable preservation.

Rock Properties from VSP Data

VSP 3-Component Rotation


(Left) Direct Component contains downgoing P
and reflected S energy
(Right) Perpendicular Component contains downgoing shear wave and reflected P-wave energy

By utilizing information from all three components in


the VSP tool, amplitude-consistent processing may be
performed for reservoir characterization and rock property
analysis. Surface seismic processing benefits greatly from
information gathered from 2-D or 3-D borehole seismic data.
Amplitude-consistent 3-C processing
AVO estimates for surface seismic calibration
Fracture orientation from azimuthal amplitude variations
Anisotropy estimates through slowness curve inversion
Tau-P domain walkaway VSP processing
P- and S-wave estimates and ratios
Poissons Ratio, elastic properties
Fracture detection
Global/effective overburden anisotropy calculations
2-D and 3-D elastic inversion for high-resolution
stratigraphic analysis
Estimates of Q at the borehole to compensate for Q in
surface seismic data

Special Products and Processing


Inversion for attributes
Over-pressure indicator
Wavelet matching and extraction

3-20 Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Update Presurvey Modeling to Best Match VSP Seismic Data
Post-Survey Modeling
Presurvey modeling is used to optimize survey geometry
to meet a given objective before the data is acquired.
In post-survey modeling, the starting model is updated
iteratively by comparing the final processed arrival times
and VSP data with the model. As the model is updated
to best match what is being observed in the VSP seismic
data, important structural and rock property information
is revealed, such as accurate positioning of faults, salt
boundaries and formation velocities.

Situation
A deviated well to run sub-horizontally within a reservoir
Poorly defined surface seismic data with 100 m lateral
and 50 m vertical errors
A requirement to penetrate the fault at a certain location
within the reservoir

Objectives
Run intermediate Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP), then
perform on-site processing within six hours
Match real results to synthetic modeling, and adjust model

Solution/Benefits
Provided high-resolution seismic information during
drilling of the well
Customer able to quickly adjust well trajectory and
enter target zone at desired point of entry with lower
risk of uncertainty

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing 3-21

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


3-D Layer-Based Inversion Improves Vertical Resolution
2-D and 3-D VSP Inversion
2-D VSP Inversion
VSFusions Sparse Spike Inversion application
estimates the impedance profile, velocity, density and depths. Sparse spike inversion mixes
a seismic wave field with the low frequency
components of a reflectance series generated
from an input model. The input model can be
developed from VSP first break time-depth of
receiver pairs, TD-pairs or from a VSP checkshot survey. Models developed using this
application initially consist of horizontal plane
layers. Dipping and nonplanar layers are then
added through the interactive editor.

The available outputs consist of the input data, and various


model parameter images presented as time images, spike
images, and the derived images of impedance, velocity and
density. For quality control, the solution can band-limited to
match filtering applied to the input surface seismic data.

3-D VSP Inversion


VSFusion performs 3-D VSP using the TDROV 3-D
technique, the only 3-D layer-based inversion service
available on the market. It features a new multi-volume
capability for 4-D, 4-C and AVO processing. The TDROV
technique derives a finely layered impedance model, giving
access to the architecture of the reservoir. Elastic impedance
is estimated from the 3-D seismic (surface or borehole
derived), using well data as calibration for the wavelet
and for obtaining the low-frequency component of elastic
impedance. TDROV technique follows a model-based
approach where the model parameters are sparse and
constrained. The key advantage of the layering approach
is improved vertical resolution. In addition, the layered
impedance model allows a quick QC of the inversion,
mapping of impedances along the stratigraphy, and an
easy description of reservoir properties.
Prediction of Events and Pressures Ahead of the Bit

Velocity model

3-22 Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

While prediction ahead of the bit is not a new technique,


advances through VSFusions inversion method and
processing software are achieving improved accuracy. The
VSP trace at the borehole is inverted to generate an acoustic
impedance log below TD. Acoustic impedance changes on
the log can provide indications of rock type and properties
such as reservoir sands and over pressured zones. VSP
imaging can also be used for visualizing formations in front
of the bit.

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing


Position VSP Receivers to Achieve Desired Results
Presurvey Modeling
Borehole seismic surveys need to be optimized if they
are to meet survey objectives and remain within budget.
Presurvey modeling aids in positioning the VSP receivers
at the proper depth and the sources at the correct offset and azimuth to achieve the desired results.

In conjunction with GeoTomo LLC, VSFusion uses the


VECON modeling package, which quickly and easily
models VSP surveys even with the most complex of
subsurface structures. This ease of use and flexibility
provides answers to VSP survey design questions before the
survey is acquired. With the VECON package loaded on a
laptop PC, a VSFusion geophysicist is able to model any
type of survey with the customer. Geologists, geophysicists,
drillers and other interested staff in the customers office are
able to participate in the survey design and add valuable
insight to the process. The VECON package allows the
geophysicist to:

Design and Model All Types of VSP Surveys


Interactively design the survey on UNIX workstation
or Windows PC
Predict the full-wavefield response
Perform advanced ray-tracing and finitedifference modeling
Simulate P- and S-wave source as well as P-S and S-P
mode converted wavefields
Input starting model from any image file or SEGY
and digitize on-the-fly
Visualize models in 3-D

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing 3-23

3-24 Geophysical Services: VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

4. Reservoir and Production Services

IV
Cased Hole Formation Evaluation
Production Logging
Pipe Evaluation

Cased Hole Formation Evaluation

To find zones of opportunity in cased wells, it is necessary to run logs that can identify hydrocarbons behind
casing. Pulsed neutron services such as Baker Atlas Reservoir Performance MonitorSM (RPMSM) and PDK-100SM
instruments differentiate between water- and hydrocarbon-bearing formations to identify bypassed or partially
drained areas of the reservoir. Pulsed neutron analysis can also estimate formation properties (porosity, shale
volume) and hydrocarbon type necessary to develop an optimal perforating and completion program. The data
can be used to optimize hydrocarbon recovery for a single well or an entire field.
By periodically monitoring reservoir fluid saturations and gas/oil/water contact levels, reservoir models can
be continually refined, impacting decisions ranging from daily wellsite operations to initiating secondary or
tertiary recovery. In addition, the use of these services can also help avoid premature well or field abandonment
by identifying bypassed hydrocarbons that could be recovered economically from the reservoir.
More in-depth information for each service is available online on the Baker Atlas website. Please contact your
local customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a
complete list of Baker Atlas services.

4-2

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Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

X
X

X
X

X
X

Reservoir and Production Services: Cased Hole Formation Evaluation

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Advanced Comprehensive Pulsed Neutron Instrument


C/O and PNC Sw, Gas Saturation, 3-Phase Water Holdup and Water Flow Measurements
RPM Reservoir Performance Monitor
The Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) is an advanced slimhole multifunction pulsed neutron tool with industry-leading accuracy and precision,
combining multiple nuclear measurements in one system. Carbon/Oxygen
(C/O) and pulsed neutron capture (PNC or Sigma) operating modes provide
measurements for water saturation. In addition, a new quantitative gas
saturation measurement service called GasViewSM is available that is unique
in the industry. The RPM also has applications in production logging. The
Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imaging (PNHI) mode provides three-phase holdup
determination, and several oxygen activation modes (Hydrolog, FloShot and
Annular Flow Log) provide quantitative water velocity measurements under a
variety of completion configurations.

The RPM addresses a broad scope of reservoir evaluation and management


applications, including reservoir saturation and produced fluids monitoring,
formation evaluation, production profiling, workover and well abandonment
evaluation, and identification of water channeling for mechanical integrity testing.
Hydrocarbon depletion
monitoring of a sandstone
reservoir using
RPM-C/O analysis.

Operation
The RPM service instrument employs three high-resolution gamma-ray detectors and
a new, more efficient and reliable neutron generator. State-of-the-art detector electronics measure both the arrival time and energy of detected gamma rays. The
neutron generator is pulsed at distinct frequencies and the detectors operate in various
acquisition modes to obtain the different logging measurements. This allows multiple
operating modes during a single trip in the well resulting in more efficient wellsite
operations. The RPM can also be run in memory mode for PNC-Sigma logging.

Highlights
Identification of hydrocarbons behind casing
Measurement of fluid saturations in fresh, mixed salinity water environments (C/O)
Measurement of fluid saturations in saline water environments (PNC-Sigma)
New quantitative gas saturation measurement (GasView)
Multiphase holdup measurements in production profiling
Measurement of water velocity in production profiling
Identification of water channeling, casing leaks, flow behind pipe

Benefits

RPM-PNC Primary log


display. While RPM-PNC
data acquisition and
processing provide
superior analysis, results
and statistics, the log
display is similar to the
conventional PDK-100
presentation.

Valuable tool for formation and reservoir evaluation, monitoring, and management
Identify and assess commercial value of bypassed hydrocarbons prior to well
abandonment and evaluation of workover effectiveness
RPM data can be matched with previous generation PDK-100SM data for
monitoring programs in mature fields
Applications in Mechanical Integrity Testing (MIT)
Memory mode capability for PNC-Sigma logging

Specifications 8281 Series RPM-C


Description
Length
Diameter

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

18.6 ft

5.7 m

1.7 in.

42.9 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

75 lb

34 kg

Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Specification

*Contact your Baker Atlas


representative for other series.

Reservoir and Production Services: Cased Hole Formation Evaluation

4-3

Enhanced Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Monitoring


Proven Pulsed Neutron Capture Technology Helps to Assess Hydrocarbon Reserves
PDK PDK-100
The PDK-100SM (Pulse and Decay 100 channels)
instrument employs pulsed neutron capture (PNC)
technology to provide high-resolution measurements
of thermal neutron decay to help evaluate hydrocarbon
reserves in formations containing saline water. The
PDK-100 has long been a standard for PNC logging
in reservoir monitoring applications.

Operation
The PDK-100 instrument measures the macroscopic
thermal neutron absorption cross-section (sigma) of the
bulk formation. Sigma is primarily a function of porosity,
formation water salinity, quantity and type of hydrocarbon
in the pore spaces, and type of rock matrix. Sigma
decreases with increasing hydrocarbon content, but
increases with increasing water salinity. In cased holes,
the PDK-100 instrument can be used to discriminate
between gas, oil and saltwater-bearing formations.

Highlights
Primary log presentation

Identification and saturation of hydrocarbons in


cased holes
Reservoir monitoring of formation
gas/oil/water contacts
Accurate sigma measurements in flowing or
static conditions

Benefits
Valuable tool for formation and reservoir evaluation,
monitoring and management
Identify and assess commercial value of bypassed
hydrocarbons prior to well abandonment and
evaluation of workover effectiveness

Specifications 2735 Series*


Description

Specification

Length

32.9 ft

10.3 m

Diameter

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

Pressure Rating

16,000 psi

110.3 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

148 lb

67.1 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

The PDK-100 instrument provides


valuable information for developing
accurate 3-D reservoir depletion models.

4-4

Reservoir and Production Services: Cased Hole Formation Evaluation

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Production Logging

Production Logging Services are necessary for a full evaluation of the static and dynamic conditions of the
reservoir. Real-time, depth-correlated production data including flow rates, pressures and gas/oil/water ratios
provide input for pressure transient and nodal well test analysis and reservoir simulation. Using these key production parameters, it is possible to evaluate drilling and production operations at the wellsite and diagnose
potential problems such as water or gas breakthrough, crossflow of thief zones and channeling.
More in-depth information for each service is available on the Baker Atlas website or in the Baker Atlas
POLARIS brochure. Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on to
www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

4-5

Advanced Production Logging For Highly-Deviated and Horizontal Wells


Multifunction Reservoir Evaluation and Well Performance Monitoring
POLARIS Production Optimization Log and Reservoir Information Solutions

MCFM sensors are deployed across


the wellbore to determine phase
fraction (holdup) and velocity profiles.
Holdup and velocity data is acquired
simultaneously within the 30-inch long
wing assembly and sensor package.

The wings of the MCFM tool are


maintained in the vertical position to
measure multiphase flow behavior in
horizontal wells.

The Baker Atlas POLARISSM System is an exclusive combination


of the Multi-Capacitance Flow MeterSM (MCFMSM) and Reservoir
Performance MonitorSM (RPMSM) logging tools creating a powerful
slimhole diagnostic system for evaluating and understanding
performance in highly-deviated and horizontal well and reservoirs.

Operation
The MCFM instrument is the premier multiphase production logging
tool developed for non-vertical wells. The small diameter multisensor
MCFM instrument incorporates sophisticated technology for measuring
three-phase flow oil, water and gas in horizontal, highly deviated and
undulating wellbores. Combining an across-the-wellbore capacitance
array with temperature, pressure and acoustic sensors allows the MCFM
instrument to pinpoint the location of three-phase entry into the wellbore.
In addition, flow velocities are measured at six levels across the wellbore
by cross-correlation of signals measured along each row of sensors.
Correlation velocities are supplemented with spinner velocity for a total
of up to seven velocity measurements across the wellbore.
The RPM is an advanced multifunction pulse neutron tool which combines
multiple nuclear measurements in one system with industry-leading
accuracy and precision. Carbon/Oxygen and pulse neutron capture
measurements acquired with the RPM tool provide water saturation and
three-phase holdup determination while oxygen activation measurements
detect and quantify water flow and channeling.

Highlights
Complete package of advanced and conventional PLT measurements
Across-the-wellbore multiphase and velocity distribution profiles
Multiphase flow rates in highly-deviated and horizontal wellbores
Oxygen activation for independent measurements of water velocity
and channel detection
Pulsed neutron water saturation measurements
Auxiliary acoustic and temperature measurements for fluid entry,
channeling and leak detection
Deployment on coiled tubing, tractor or wireline

Benefits
Provides high-resolution data for reservoir evaluation, monitoring
and management
Identify and assess commercial value of bypassed hydrocarbons prior
to well abandonment
Allows intelligent planning of well-performance enhancement

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

4-6

Specification
80 ft

24.4 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

15,000 psi

103 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

375 lb

170 kg

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Efficient Production Logging Services


Determine Flow Rate of Multiphase Flow in Vertical or Deviated Wells
PRAL Production Logging Services
Production Logging Services provide a full evaluation
of the static and dynamic conditions of the reservoir.
Real-time, depth-correlated production data including
flow rates, pressures and gas/oil/water ratios provide
input for pressure transient and nodal well test analysis
and reservoir simulation. Using these key production
parameters, it is possible to evaluate drilling and
production operations at the wellsite and diagnose
potential problems such as water or gas breakthrough,
crossflow of thief zones and channeling.

Operation
A variety of sensors provides accurate, high-resolution logs
even under difficult well conditions including multiphase
flow, various flow regimes, and low-to-high flow rates.
Sensors available include casing collar and gamma ray
correlation, temperature, pressure, gradiomanometer and
inline and fullbore flowmeters.

Highlights
Evaluate reservoir performance including downhole
flowrate and profile and reservoir component(s)
contribution
Diagnose production or injection problems such as
unusual changes in production, channeling, leaks, cement
or stimulation failures, crossflow or thief zones, and gas
or water coning

Benefits
Efficient wellsite evaluation of production and injection
profiles
Deployment in limited space rig ups

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating
Temperature
Weight

Specification
20.3 ft

6.2 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

350 F

177 C

lb

kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

4-7

Determine Velocity and Direction of Fluid Movement


Meter Fluid Flow Rates in Either Cased Hole or Openhole Wells
FMCS Continuous Spinner Flowmeter
Production Logging Services provide a full
evaluation of the static and dynamic conditions
of the reservoir. Real-time, depth-correlated
production data including flow rates, pressures
and gas/oil/water ratios provide input for pressure
transient and nodal well test analysis and reservoir
simulation. Using these key production parameters,
it is possible to evaluate drilling and production
operations at the wellsite and diagnose potential
problems such as water or gas breakthrough,
crossflow of thief zones and channeling.

Operation
Continuous Spinner Flowmeter surveys can be used for
metering fluid flow rates within cased hole or openhole
wells. The velocity and direction of fluid movement in
the borehole can be determined by the Continuous
Spinner Flowmeter.
Units of measurement are revolutions per second, which
can be converted to barrels per day and percentage of
full flow. The latter is usually presented in a flow profile
derived from a log made with a stationary instrument
or an instrument moving at constant speed.

Highlights
Injection and production profiles to indicate relative
fluid movement from or into a zone of activity
Locate points of increased production due to
well treatment
Detect the loss of production due to crossflow or
thief zones
Detect packer and plug leaks
Detect zones of lost circulation in openholes

Benefits
Prevent further production losses
Repair tubing or packer failures
Identify zones requiring stimulation to improve
production

Specifications Series 8235*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
1.7 ft

0.52 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

5.0 lb

2.3 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

4-8

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Determine Caliper Variations During Continuous Flowmeter Run


Correct Flowmeter Readings for Diameter Variations
FMFI Folding Impeller Flowmeter
Production Logging Services provide a full evaluation of
the static and dynamic conditions of the reservoir. Realtime, depth-correlated production data including flow
rates, pressures and gas/oil/water ratios provide input for
pressure transient and nodal well test analysis and reservoir simulation. Using these key production parameters, it
is possible to evaluate drilling and production operations
at the wellsite and diagnose potential problems such as
water or gas breakthrough, crossflow of thief zones
and channeling.

Operation
Folding Impeller Flowmeter surveys can be used for metering
fluid flow rates within cased hole or openhole wellbores.
Velocity and direction of fluid movement in the borehole can
also be determined. Units of measurement for this service are
revolutions per second, which can be converted to barrels per
day and percentage of full flow. This percentage is usually
presented in a flow profile, derived from either a stationary
instrument or an instrument moving at a constant speed.
The caliper version of this instrument can be used to determine
diameter variations during a continuous logging run. These data
are used to correct the flowmeter readings for diameter variations
due to heavily scaled tubular goods or to differences in openhole completions. The caliper measurement point corresponds
exactly to the measurement point of the flowmeter impeller.
The caliper data can be used independently for determining
internal corrosion, paraffin buildup or mineral scaling.

Highlights
Provide injection and production profiles to indicate relative
fluid movement from or into a zone of activity
Locate points of increased production due to well treatment
Detect loss of production due to crossflow or thief zones
Detect packer and plug leaks
Detect zones of lost circulation in openholes

Benefits
Prevent further production losses
Repair tubing or packer failures
Identify zones requiring stimulation to improve production

Specifications Series 8244*


Description

Specification

Length

7.83 ft

2.39 m

Diameter

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

Pressure Rating

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

39.0 lb

17.7 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.


Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

4-9

Measurement of Low Flow Rates


Determine Flow Rate of Multiphase Flow in Vertical or Deviated Wells
FMBK Basket Flowmeter
Production Logging Services provide a full evaluation of
the static and dynamic conditions of the reservoir. Realtime, depth-correlated production data including flow
rates, pressures and gas/oil/water ratios provide input
for pressure transient and nodal well test analysis and
reservoir simulation. Using these key production parameters, it is possible to evaluate drilling and production
operations at the wellsite and diagnose potential problems
such as water or gas breakthrough, crossflow of thief
zones and channeling.

Operation
The Basket Flowmeter is used for metering low flow rates
within cased hole or openhole wells. The motor-driven
Basket Flowmeter is lowered in a closed position into the
well through tubing. It is then opened to take stationary
readings at the point of interest. Once opened, the flow is
directed through the center of the instrument, where rotational
velocity of the spinner is proportional to the velocity of the
fluid movement.
Two-phase flow rates can be measured accurately, particularly
where fluid velocities are low. In high-angle wells, log interpretation are enhanced where water hold-up and fluid separation
are occurring due to the improved mixing of phases caused
by diversion of flow through the spinner chamber.

Highlights
Production profiles to indicate relative fluid movement
from the zones of activity
Injection profiles to determine intervals accepting
injected fluid
Detect the loss of production due to crossflow or thief zones
Detect packer and plug leaks
Determine flow rate of multiphase flow in vertical or
deviated wellbores

Benefits
Production profiles to indicate relative fluid movement from
the zones of activity-best choice in low flow rate conditions
Determine flow rate of multiphase flow in vertical or
deviated wellbores

Specifications Series 8236*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
7.42 ft

2.261 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

35.0 lb

15.9 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

4-10 Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Locate Entry of Fluids/Determine Phase Fractions


Density Differences Between Water, Oil and Gas Identify Fluid Type
FDN Nuclear Fluid Density
Production Logging Services provide a full evaluation of
the static and dynamic conditions of the reservoir. Realtime, depth-correlated production data, including flow
rates, pressures and gas/oil/water ratios provide input
for pressure transient and nodal well test analysis and
reservoir simulation. Using these key production parameters, it is possible to evaluate drilling and production
operations at the wellsite and diagnose potential problems
such as water or gas breakthrough, crossflow of thief
zones and channeling.

Operation
The Nuclear Fluid Density log is a radioactive measurement
which uses gamma rays. While the Gamma Ray log is a
measurement of natural gamma rays, the Nuclear Fluid
Density log data are a record of the density difference
between water, oil and gas, and are generated by use of a
chemical gamma ray source. The density measurement is
made by observing the relative absorption of gamma rays by
the borehole fluid in a sampling channel. The basic unit of
measure is a count of residual gamma rays. This counting
rate is inversely proportional to the density of the sample and
is a function of the activity of the gamma ray source. The log
density data are recorded in grams per cubic centimeter.
The Nuclear Fluid Density instrument, unaffected by fluid
viscosity or fluid velocity, is a good indicator of the type of
fluid entering, leaving or present in the borehole.

Highlights
Locate entry of primary and secondary fluids in a 2- or
3-phase production flow
Provide a density profile in a multiphase production flow
Determine flow regime
Locate borehole levels in static and flowing conditions
Locate product levels in storage wells

Benefits
Locate entry of primary and secondary fluids in a 2- or
3-phase production flow to address well intervention plans
Generate a fluid density profile in a multiphase production
flow for production engineering decisions

Specifications Series 2132*


Description
Length
Diameter

Specification
6.15 ft

1.876 m

1.7 in.

43.2 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

40 lb

18.1 kg

Pressure Rating

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.


Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging 4-11

Quantitative Evaluation of Water Fraction Occupying Borehole


Identify Well Fluids in Multiphase Flows
WHI Water Holdup Indicator
The Water Holdup Indicator log provides a
quantitative evaluation of the percent of water
occupying the borehole (water holdup). When oil
densities approach the density of water, the Water
Holdup Indicator log can yield far more definition
than conventional fluid density measurements.
When three phases are present in a flow regime,
both the Fluid Density log and the Water Holdup
Indicator log are required for a quantitative analysis.

Highlights
Locate water entry into hydrocarbon flow
Locate hydrocarbon/water interface in shut-in
well conditions
Locate hydrocarbon entry into water
Identify well fluids in multiphase flows; use with
Fluid Density log in three phases
Locate top of water column in a production well

Benefits
Locate water entry into hydrocarbon flow identify
and correct production problems for optimized flow
Identify well fluids in multiphase flows; use with
Fluid Density log in three phases locate source
of water

Specifications 8228 Series*


Description
Length
Diameter

Specification
3.07 ft

0.936 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

16 lb

7.3 kg

Pressure Rating

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

4-12 Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Fluid Movement in Low Rate Production or Injection Wells


Measure Low Flow Rates, Locate Channeling, Thief Zones and Tubing/Casing Leaks
Nuclear Flolog (NFL) and Tracerlog (TRL)
The Nuclear Flolog is very useful in low flow rate
producing or injection wells where relatively low
flow velocities are recorded. It is typically used to
measure flow velocities inside the casing or
tubing string.

Nuclear Flolog
The system utilizes two gamma ray detectors with a
known separation distance between them. For this
type of system, the time of ejection is not critical
because the information obtained is a function of the
time required for the radioactive tracer material to
travel from one detector to the other detector (timeof-flight). The travel time is a function of the flow
rate into or out of the formation at the level of
measurement. The time intervals are measured to the
nearest 0.1 second and tabulated for calculation. By
varying the distance between the detectors, low to
high flow rates can be accurately determined.

Highlights/Benefits
Quantitative analysis of injection or production
profiles in low flow rates
Location of thief zones
Location of tubing and casing leaks

Specifications Series 8219 Nuclear Flolog


Description
Length

9.23 ft

2.81 m

Tracerlog

Diameter

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

Tracerlogs use a single gamma ray detector to


record the movement of radioactive tracer material
injected into a borehole fluid to allow tracking the
fluid as it moves through perforations into permeable
strata. The data can also be used to detect channeling
by monitoring the migration of radioactivelytagged
fluid through channels behind pipe using multiple
pass time-lapse logging.

Pressure Rating

18,000 psi

124.1 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

34.0 lb

15.4 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Specifications Series 2149 TracerLog


Description

Highlights/Benefits
Location of channeling behind pipe and thief zones
Location of fractures and evaluation of effectiveness
of frac jobs
Location of annulus cement tagged with
radioactive material
Location of tubing and casing leaks

Baker Atlas

Specification

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Length

Specification
17.92 ft

Diameter
Pressure Rating

5.462 m

1.7 in.

43.2 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

74.0 lb

33.6 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging 4-13

Advanced Pulsed Neutron Production Logging Applications


Pulsed Neutron Imaging For Three-Phase Holdup in Casing and Annulus
PNHI Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager
The Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager (PNHI) is a mode of
operation of the Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM)
used for determining the wellbore fractions of water, oil and
gas (holdups) in horizontal and highly deviated wellbores.
Because neutrons have the ability to penetrate the tubing,
liner or casing, it is also an essential measurement when
used in combination with the MCFM instrument in POLARIS
operations for evaluation of complex completions where
annular flow may exist. Typical annular flow conditions include
flow in a tubing-casing annulus, behind slotted liners or in
gravel packs. The measurement is also useful for locating
water or gas channeling behind casing.

Operation
The RPM instrument employs a high-energy pulsed-neutron
source and three high-resolution gamma ray detectors in
various modes of operation for formation evaluation, water
velocity and 3-phase holdup measurements. The PNHI
measurement for 3-phase holdup is based on neutron-gamma
ray interactions that are sensitive to changes in the phases
present in the wellbore. Specifically, the Carbon/Oxygen (C/O)
ratio is used to determine the fraction of water relative to
hydrocarbon, and a ratio of inelastic gamma rays between two
detectors is used to determine the fraction of gas to liquid
phases. By combining the two measurements, a 3-phase
solution for phase fraction (holdup) is determined.

Highlights
Measurement of 3-phase (water, oil, gas) holdups in
horizontal and highly deviated wells
Determination of 3-phase holdups in annular flow behind
tubing, slotted liners, gravel packs (when logged in
combination with MCFM instrument)
Detection of water, oil, or gas channeling behind pipe
Determination of fluid types above or below packers in
tubing completions

Benefits
Essential measurement for production evaluation in
complex completions

Specifications Series 2725*


Description

Specification

Length

18.6 ft

5.7 m

Diameter

1.7 in.

42.9 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

75 lb

34 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

4-14 Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Accurate Detection of Waterflow


Waterflow Measurement and Diagnostics in a Variety of Well Completions
HYDL Hydrolog
The HydrologSM service can be used in production logging
applications including production and injection profiling,
and in problem detection such as channel identification or
as a stand-alone service accepted for mechanical integrity
testing (MIT) programs. The Hydrolog service offers several
advantages over conventional services, including reducing
costly down time during production or injection operations
and eliminating radioactive tracer contamination.

Operation
The Hydrolog service uses oxygen activation for accurate
detection and quantification of waterflow. A high-energy
(14 MeV) pulsed neutron source activates oxygen nuclei,
creating nitrogen-16, a rapidly dissipating radioactive isotope.
Background measurements by multiple detectors allow for
waterflow detection and velocity determination. The source and
detector arrangements can be reversed, depending on waterflow
direction. Different modes of operation, including specific
neutron source utilization and logging procedures, are available
depending on the complexity of the completion and/or water
velocity range. For example, the Annular Flow Log service is
used to measure injection profiles in multiple string completions
where as many as three concurrent and co-directional waterflow
streams are present. The FloShot mode is a multi-detector
method that allows measurement of water velocities in excess
of 500 ft/min (152.4 m). In addition, all oxygen activation services can be run as continuous or stationary logging measurements.

Highlights
Multiple modes of operation
Identification of waterflow behind casing
Production and injection water profiling
Continuous logging capability for complete zone coverage
Stationary measurements for improved precision when
required
Detect flow in either liquid-filled or air-filled wellbores
Provide accurate waterflow diagnostics in a single logging
run through multiple string configurations with multiple
waterflow paths
Detect waterflow in either up or down directions

Benefits
Valuable tool for production and
injection evaluation
Evaluation of effectiveness of
workover programs
Multi-mode operation allows
efficient wellsite and singletrip operations
Eliminate radioactive tracer
contamination risk at wellsite
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Specifications Series 2725*


Description

Specification

Length

18.6 ft

5.7 m

Diameter

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

75 lb

34 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging 4-15

Record Minute Pressure and Temperature Variations


Locate Gas-Liquid Interfaces
SRPG Surface Readout Pressure Gauge
With Baker Atlas Logging Services Surface Readout
Pressure Gauges, minute pressure changes and
temperature variations in a well can be detected
and recorded. Temperature is simultaneously measured for readout and for compensation of sensor
response. Any pressure changes observed are
recorded on the surface as they occur. Plots that
are available at the wellsite include flowing
pressure gradient survey, static pressure gradient
survey, flowing pressure survey, log-log buildup and
Horner buildup.

Operation
Various gauge types with different resolutions for
specific applications are offered by Baker Atlas. They
are normally run in combination with other production
logging services. Contact your Baker Atlas representative
to determine the proper gauge and tool combination
for your application.

Highlights
Measure shut-in and flowing pressure at prescribed
depth levels
Determine pressure differentials over
prescribed intervals
Accurately locate gas-liquid interfaces (2-phase,
3-phase contacts)
Estimate damage or improvement by skin
factor value
Measure pressure buildup

Benefits
Measure shut-in and flowing pressure at prescribed
depth levels for optimum production design
Measure pressure buildup for reservoir management

4-16 Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Determine Fluid Flows Inside or Outside Casing


Records Distinctive Sounds made by Flowing Liquids or Gas
SON Noise (Sonan) Log
Raw Data,
Band Pass,
Temperature
Line CorrectedLine Corrected
Profile
135
3000

140

145

150

155

3100

3200

Liquid, gas, or a combination (single and dual-phase)


have a distinctive sound when flowing through restrictions such as channels behind casing, perforations or
casing leaks. This sound is detected and recorded on
the Sonan Log.

3300

Operation

3400

A series of band-pass filters separates the frequency spectrum


of the sound for analysis of the individual amplitudes
contained in each band. From model studies in the laboratory
and experience in the field, the relative energy levels in the
four bands of frequencies can be related to single- and dualphase flow and the probable location of the flow.

3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

200-600 Hz
600-1000 Hz
1000-2000 Hz
>2000 Hz

4000

Often considered to be a production logging instrument, the


Sonan Log can also be definitive in openhole while drilling
and during completion. To aid interpretation, the Sonan Log
often is recorded in combination with a Temperature Log.

4100

4200

4300

4400

4500

The Temperature/Sonan (Noise) Log combination


can be used to locate fluid entry into the wellbore,
underground blowouts, and lost circulation zones.

Highlights
Determine fluid flow behind or inside casing
Locate fluid flow in cement annulus channel
Locate gas or liquid entry through casing leaks
Locate gas/liquid interface in wellbore
Determine whether fluid flow is single or dual phase

Benefits
Locate underground blowouts and lost circulation zones
for remediation or well control
Identify gas entry points for production planning
Determine fluid flow behind or inside casing for
remediation or production planning

Specifications 2123 Series*


Description
Length
Diameter

Specification
3.33 ft

1.02 m

1.7 in.

43.2 mm

17,000 psi

117.2 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

11 lb

5 kg

Pressure Rating

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging 4-17

Continuous Temperature Measurement of Borehole Fluid


Calculate Continuous Differential Temperature Curve at Surface
TEMP Temperature Log
The Temperature Log provides a continuous
measurement of borehole fluid temperature.
From the absolute borehole fluid temperature, a
continuous differential temperature curve can be
calculated at the surface. The differential data is
obtained by comparing a particular absolute temperature value with one obtained at a preceding
time. Because the differential curve is more sensitive to small temperature changes, it has proven to
be useful in log interpretation applications.

Operation
A stable precision probe measures precisely the
temperature of the particular borehole environment.
The temperature is presented on the log in units of
degree per chart division. Continuous temperature
logs are readily made in liquids; however, stationary
measurements may be required in a gas.

Highlights
Locate points of gas entry in open and cased holes
Distinguish producing zones from non-producing zones
Determine the geothermal gradient
Determine injection points and under some
conditions develop an injection profile
Locate tubing and casing leaks, particularly when
the leaking fluid is gas
Time-lapse shut-in or flowing temperature surveys to
evaluate injection and production intervals

Benefits
Locate points of gas entry in open and cased holes
Determine the geothermal gradient

Specifications 8255 Series*


Temperature/Pressure Combination Instrument
Description

Specification

Length

3.58 ft

1.1 m

Diameter

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

Pressure Rating

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

13.2 lb

6 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

4-18 Reservoir and Production Services: Production Logging

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Pipe Evaluation

Pipe string failure due to corrosion or mechanical defects can occur at anytime in the life of a well. To protect your
investment, regular inspection of the production tubing and casing using Baker Atlas pipe evaluation services
can provide early detection of problem areas and allow for timely planning of remedial action.
More in-depth information for each service is available on the Baker Atlas website. Please contact your local
customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete
list of Baker Atlas services.

rmatio

X
X

ickne

anica

X
X

Mech

Wall
Th

Ident

X
X

l Defo

ss

ion
ificat

fects

X
X

360

X
X

Intern

X
X

nal D

al De

efect

l Wea
anica

X
X

n
rrosio
ral Co

Exter

Imaging Caliper
Circumferential Borehole Imaging*

Mech

Vertilog Service
Digital Magnelog Service
Calipers

Gene

Technology

H2 S/C

O2 Co
rros

ion (P

itting

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

X
X

X
X

* For details on this service see Section 1, page 1-27

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Pipe Evaluation 4-19

Identify and Quantify Internal and External Corrosion Defects


Fully Circumferential Inspection of Tubing or Casing String
VRT Vertilog Service
The VertilogSM Service uses magnetic flux-leakage
measurements to identify and quantify the extent
and penetration depth of both internal and external
corrosion defects. The overlapping arrays of flux
leakage (FL) sensors and discriminator (DIS)
sensors provides full circumferential inspection of
the tubing or casing string, allows for differentiating
between metal loss (corrosion) and metal gain
(hardware) features, and distinguishes between
general corrosion and isolated pitting.

Operation
Defects with diameters as small as 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) can
be identified, and pipe sizes from 2 7/8 in. to 13 3/8 in.
(73 mm to 339.7 mm) can be evaluated with standard
equipment. Casing sizes from 13 3/8 to 22 in. (339.7 to
558.8 mm) can be evaluated upon request.
In some sizes, the same high-quality corrosion
inspection log can be produced using conventional
single-conductor electric wireline or slickline (downhole digital memory) data acquisition.

Highlights
Perform rapid 360 tubing inspection
Detect corrosion and depth of penetration; a base
log and periodic surveys can help monitor corrosion
Differentiate between metal loss and metal gain as
well as internal and external corrosion defects
Determine the effectiveness of cathodic protection
and corrosion inhibitors
Identify and evaluate defects due to mechanical
failure distinguish between general corrosion,
isolated pitting, and perforations or holes in the pipe
Establish the need for liner or remedial cement jobs

Standard Vertilog presentation

External

Internal

Hole

Benefits
FL
DIS
Typical flux leakage (FL) and discriminator (DIS) sensor
response to common defects The FL sensors respond to
internal and external anomalies, while the DIS sensors
respond to internal anomalies only.

Evaluate remaining strength of casing and tubing to


ensure continuous production
360 identification of casing defects to avoid
production downtime
Identification of defects as external or internal

Specifications 4915 Series* for 5.5


(139.7 mm) casing
Description
Length
Diameter

17.4 ft

5.3 m

4.5 in.

114 mm

15,000 psi

103.4 MPa

Temperature

350 F

180 C

Weight

350 lb

159.1

Pressure Rating

4-20 Reservoir and Production Services: Pipe Evaluation

Specification

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other sizes.


Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Multifrequency, Multispacing Casing Inspection


Detect Wall Thickness Changes in Single or Multiple Casing Strings
DMAG Digital Magnelog Service
The Digital MagnelogSM service is an electromagnetic
multifrequency, multispacing casing inspection
service used to detect wall thickness changes in
single or multiple casing strings.

Operation
The casing wall thickness is determined by the amount
of magnetic field shift, which is affected by casing
thickness and permeability. An electronic caliper
measures the magnetic permeability of the void
between the tool and the inner wall of the casing,
indicating average inside diameter. A differential
anomaly indicator provides a curve which displays
small defects on the inside wall of the casing.
The wall thickness and caliper measurements permit a
distinction between internal and external loss of metal
from the casing. External loss is shown on the wall
thickness curve. The electronic caliber and anomaly
indicator detector curves respond to metal loss from
the inside of the casing.

DMAG amplitude plot

All data phase shift, amplitude, circumferential


section calipers and differential anomaly indicator
are recorded simultaneously on a single logging pass.
This allows selection of the frequency and spacing
best suited to specific field conditions.

Highlights
Determine joints of casing having different weights
or wall thicknesses
Locate casing collars and other casing hardware
Locate evidence of casing erosion and identify
defects as being either internal or external (inside
string only)
Locate holes greater than 2 in. (51 mm) in diameter
Locate the bottom of outside casing strings

Benefits
Identification and quantification of general corrosion
Identification of general corrosion in multiple
casing strings

Specifications 2933 Series*


Description

Specification

Length

23.83 ft

Diameter
Pressure Rating

7.264 m

3.63 in.

92.1 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

385 lb

174.6 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for other series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Reservoir and Production Services: Pipe Evaluation 4-21

Analyze Casing Wear


Multi-Finger Imaging Locates Worn or Corroded Areas
ICL Imaging Caliper Log
Imaging calipers show when casing is in serviceable
condition or indicate the need for remedial action by
locating any worn and corroded areas or holes in the
casing. The imaging caliper is of particular value when
drilling operations have been carried on for an extended
period of time through the casing string, potentially
reducing the casing strength. Measurements can also
determine whether sufficient casing strength remains
to conduct safe well stimulation operations. Finally,
imaging caliper services can help identify potential
casing leaks which may be causing high water cut or
reduced production.

Operation
The range of multi-finger imaging tools provides highresolution detail on the condition of downhole tubulars.
Each tool in the family uses an array of hard-surfaced
fingers which measure very small changes in diameter. All
finger measurements are transmitted to the surface for
real-time output at maximum log resolution. The pressure
exerted by each finger is in the range of 1-1.5 pounds (4.4
to 6.7 N) of force. This allows the tools to be deployed in
chrome or plastic-coated tubulars minimizing the possibility
of damage to the coating. Additionally, this light pressure
does not scratch standard casing, eliminating a potential for
corrosion to start.

Highlights
Assess casing wear during extended drilling operations
Locate holes, casing wear and other interior defects
Perforation mapping
Scale evaluation

Benefits
Determine wear profile for remedial action
Unique centralized measurements for improved accuracy

Specifications
A range of calipers for different applications and downhole
tubular sizes are available. Tools are available with either
24, 40, 60 or 80 caliper arms. Please contact your Baker
Atlas representative for specific information.

4-22 Reservoir and Production Services: Pipe Evaluation

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

5. Completion and Mechanical Services

V
Cement Evaluation
Pipe Recovery

Cement Evaluation

Cement evaluation tools ensure hydraulic isolation between reservoir layers by measuring the bond between
the casing and the cement pumped in the wellbore annulus. Before final well completions are made, the zones
being completed must be analyzed for hydraulic isolation to prevent possible crossflow between reservoir zones
behind the casing. Cement evaluation logs provide results to confirm zonal isolation and help you decide
whether remedial work is required before any completions are attempted.
Baker Atlas Segmented Bond Tool (SBTSM) service, Radial Analysis Bond Log (RALSM) service and Acoustic
Cement Bond Log (CBL) service provide detailed evaluations of the cement bond to casing and formation in a
wide variety of pipe sizes and borehole fluid environments. These evaluations reduce uncertainties regarding
the quality of the hydraulic isolation of zones of interest allowing more efficient completion operations while
protecting the environment.
More in-depth information for each service is available on the Baker Atlas website or in the Baker Atlas
Segmented Bond Tool (SBTSM ) brochure. Please contact your local customer service representative, or log on
to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete list of Baker Atlas services.

5-2

Type

rehole

Deter

Reco

Insen

sitive

to Bo

for H
mme

nded

Annu

Detec

mine

360

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X

Completion and Mechanical Services: Cement Evaluation

Fluid

Devia
ighly

emen
lus C

ulus
roann
t Mic

Evalu

ation

nnels
Detec

t Cha

nd to
Ceme

nt Bo

/Void

Form

ation

g
Casin
nd to
nt Bo

Segmented Bond Tool


Radial Analysis Bond Log
Acoustic Cement Bond Log

Ceme

Technology

t Stre

ngth

ted W
ells

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Provide 360 Segmented Evaluation of Cement Bonding


Quantitative Analysis of Cement Bond to Casing in 60 Segments
SBT Segmented Bond Tool
The Segmented Bond ToolSM (SBTSM) service quantitatively
measures the cement bond integrity in six angular segments
around the casing. The SBT service can find and define channels
in the cement annulus which could result in a poor hydraulic
seal. Conversely, the SBT service can reliably find zones of
uniform bonding over only a few feet of casing. Under conditions
where a short-bonded interval produces an adequate hydraulic
seal, unnecessary squeeze jobs can be avoided.

Operation
The acoustic transducers are mounted on six pads positioned in
contact with the interior casing wall to provide compensated
attenuation measurements. Acoustic attenuation is measured in
two directions, using an arrangement of two transmitters and
two receivers on four adjacent arms. The two measurements are
combined to derive a compensated value that does not depend
on receiver sensitivities or transmitter power. This measurement
processing is repeated for each of the six segments.

The SBT log identifies a wide range of


cement bond conditions as indicated for the
interval X580 to X740. Partial bonding is
identified from X600 88 and X714 28,
but there is sufficient cement present to
provide hydraulic isolation.
Attempts to improve the cement condition
between X688 and X714 would most likely
be unsuccessful because adequate hydraulic
isolation exists above and below this interval,
limiting the amount of cement that could be
squeezed into this zone.
The two quality curves, DTMN and DTMX,
indicate good pad contact with the casing
wall and that the tool is properly centralized.

The SBT service offers significant operating advantages over


conventional and pulse-echo tools due to its insensitivity to heavy
or gas-cut borehole fluids, fast formations, temperature and
pressure variations, and moderate tool eccentering.
For ease of interpretation, the SBT measurements are displayed
in two log presentations. Both presentations are available in the
logging mode as the SBT data are acquired, processed and
plotted in real time. The secondary presentation consists of six
60 segmented arrays, variable-attenuation cement map and a
tool orientation trace overlay.

Highlights
Provide quantitative analysis of cement bond to the casing in
60 segments around the borehole
Provide 360 evaluation of cement bonding
Identify intervals of uniform bonding and detect cement
channels or voids
Perform accurate, high-velocity (fast) formation
cement evaluation
Evaluate multiple-size casing strings on one logging pass

Benefits
Avoid unnecessary squeeze jobs
Identify channels to remediate to maintain production

Specifications Series 1424*


Description
Length
Diameter

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

32.1 ft

9.784 m

3.38 in.

85.7 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight

481 lb

218 kg

Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Specification

*Contact your
Baker Atlas
representative
for additional
series.

Completion and Mechanical Services: Cement Evaluation

5-3

Provide 360 Evaluation of Cement Bonding


360 Evaluation of Cement Bond Simplifies Interpretation
RAL Radial Analysis Bond Log
The Radial Analysis Bond Log (RALSM) provides improved
cement evaluation capabilities compared to conventional
cement bond logs. The RAL service combines 8 radially
distributed receivers with a 5-foot (1.5 m) receiver to
provide detailed analysis of casing formation bonding.
The results are immediate and easily interpreted by
the customer.

Operation
The RAL service simplifies interpretation by displaying the
full 360 circumference of the surveyed casing section with
a graphic, two-dimensional map. It immediately highlights
the location and extent of any cement channels present.
Because the RAL service provides more information in a
highly usable format, well operations can continue and
remedial efforts can begin with complete confidence.
The service can be run with an optional gamma ray
and neutron tool to improve correlation, and includes a
temperature probe.

Highlights
Provide 360 evaluation of cement bonding
Identify channels accurately in fast formations
Determine annulus cement strength
Detect presence of microannulus

Benefits
Avoid unnecessary squeeze operations
Maintain production, avoid water production
from channels

Specifications Series 1426 XA


Description
Length (w GR/N)
The RAL log presents vital cement information
in an easily understood manner. The log above
clearly shows excellent cement bond over most
of the middle 400 feet. Poor cement is also shown
above and below this interval.

5-4

Completion and Mechanical Services: Cement Evaluation

Diameter
Pressure Rating
Temperature

Specification

20.6 ft
2.75 in.

70 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

350 F

177 C

7.6 m

1 11/16" diameter instruments and instruments with temperature ratings up to 500F


are also available. Please contact your Baker Atlas service representative.

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Avoid Costly Production Losses


Determine Effectiveness of Cement Bond in Casing/Formation Annulus
CBL Acoustic Cement Bond Log
The Acoustic Cement Bond Log (CBL) is a valuable
source of data pertaining to the effectiveness of the
cement sheath surrounding the casing. This data is
obtained by evaluating the effect of the casing, the
cement sheath, and the formation on an acoustic wave
emanating from the Acoustic Cement Bond Log instrument. The Amplitude Curve of the reflected acoustic
wave is maximum in unsupported casing and minimum
in those sections in which the cement is well-bonded to
the casing and the formation.

Operation
Part of the log presentation is a recording of the reflected
acoustic waveform either as a half-wave or full-wave
(Signature) or a Variable Density display. These waveforms
are used to identify the wave path and confirm the interpretation of the Amplitude Curve. When complete bonding is
indicated, the through-the-formation wave is identifiable
and can be used much like the openhole acoustic log.

Highlights
Determine effectiveness of cement bond in casingformation annulus
Identify areas of zonal isolation
Detect presence of microannulus

Benefits

The CBL log clearly shows well-bonded cement


below X440, ensuring hydraulic isolation across
the interval. Strong formation arrivals shown in
the VDL display indicate good cement-toformation bonding.
Partial bonding is indicated above this point,
indicating either weaker cement or potential
channels. A cement squeeze could be required if
water producing intervals existed near a productive
interval above X440. Alternatively, a Segemented
Bond Tool log should be run to better evaluate
this interval.

Cement quality indication from Variable Density log and


amplitude measurements
Quantitative estimate of cement strength
Avoid costly production losses or unnecessary remediation
Smaller diameter for tubing and small casing sizes

Specifications Series 1412 XA*


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
12.1 ft

3.683 m

1.69 in.

42.9 mm

17,000 psi

117.2 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

55 lb

24.9 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional series.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Mechanical Services: Cement Evaluation

5-5

Pipe Recovery

Overview of Pipe Recovery Operations


Pipe can become stuck during drilling and workover
operations even when preventative measures have
been taken. When a problem occurs, special tools
and expertise are required to avoid expensive, timeconsuming trial-and-error fishing operations. Through
years of research and worldwide experience, Baker
Atlas has developed advanced wireline and pipe conveyed techniques to ensure efficient and economical
pipe recovery.

The following is an overview of the general steps that


should be performed during a pipe recovery operation.

Analysis of Downhole Problem


Determine the well configuration and events that led to the
stuck pipe condition. Work the pipe and establish a stretch
reading. After sufficiently working the pipe, obtain a free
point reading which is available with the Baker Free Point
Indicator series of downhole tools.

Backoff or Cut
After determining the free point, backoff or cut the pipe and
remove the free portion from the well.

Fishing
After retrieving the free pipe, re-enter the well to jar loose
or wash over the remaining pipe. For expediency in certain
drilling operations, the remaining pipe can be sidetracked to
reach the desired total depth.

Portable Free Point System


Surface readouts of free point tool measurements are
provided by a Free Point Indicator panel. This portable
panel and free point equipment may be used with any
electric wireline and hoist unit to run free point, string shot
or cutter services. Safety is assured through direct communication with the rig floor and the three-stage firing circuit
to arm and detonate the backoff or cutter devices.

Guardian System
The Guardian system incorporates downhole circuitry and
an exploding-bridge wire detonator to prevent accidental
firing caused by a wide range of stray voltage sources. The
Guardian system is designed for use with chemical and jet
cutters, string shot backoffs, jet circulation perforators and
setting services. For more information on this service, see
the perforating section of this catalog or contact your local
Baker Atlas service representative.

5-6

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Continuous Record and Evaluation of All Stuck Intervals


Acoustic Measurements Accurately Indicate Severity of Stuck Conditions
PRL Pipe Recovery Log
The Pipe Recovery Log uses acoustic measurement
techniques to provide a continuous record and evaluation of a stuck pipe string. This logging service can be
performed through drillpipe, casing or tubing to identify
problem areas.

Sticking Condition Increases

Percent Signal Attenuation


100 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

X500

Operation

Pipe Collar

X600

Stuck Pipe Interval


X700

X800

The Pipe Recovery Log provides a continuous


record of all stuck intervals and areas of possible
restrictions. These data are very useful in planning
the pipe recovery and subsequent fishing operations.

Acoustic pulses initiated by the instruments transmitter


travel through the pipe string and are measured at the
receiver. The energy level of the acoustic waves at the
receiver is proportional to the degree of sticking. Similar to
conventional cement bond log measurements, low attenuation
readings indicate free pipe and high attenuation readings
indicate stuck pipe.
Vibrations created by the pulses decrease at stuck intervals
in proportion to the severity of sticking. Both the downhole
instrument and the surface equipment utilize solid-state
electronics to ensure efficient operations.
The downhole instrument is calibrated in free pipe,
normally near the end of the surface pipe or cased interval.
After recording, a signal attenuation scale is placed on the
log. This scale, expressed in percentages, accurately
indicates the severity and extent of the stuck conditions
at each interval.

Highlights
Provides complete record of all stuck intervals and areas
of possible restrictions, including length and severity
Evaluates stuck wash pipe, casing, tubing, and liners
Assists in decision to sidetrack or abandon
Indicates where the pipe is stuck
Shows whether bridges have formed in the annulus
between tubing and casing

Specifications Series 2510/2511*


Description
Length
Diameter in/mm

Specification
15 ft
1.75

4.7 m
1.38

Pressure Rating psi/MPa 13,000 20,000

44.5

34.9

89.6

137.9
204 C

Temperature

350 F

400 F

177 C

Weight (varies)

40 lb

30 lb

18.1 kg 13.6 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional sizes.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

5-7

Motorized Anchor Assembly


Locate Free Point of Stuck Point
FPI Free Point Indicator
The Free Point Indicator (FPI) instrument is part of a
system used for recovering free drill pipe/casing/tubing
located above the stuck portion in a borehole. The primary function of the instrument is to find the free point;
i.e., the downhole location where the drillstring, tubular
or casing is not stuck. After the free point has been
found, there are several methods to separate and
recover the free section from the stuck section.

Slack
Joint

Operation
The Anchor Free Point Indicator instrument detects the
movement of a pipe string as the pipe is stretched, compressed,
or torqued. No movement is an indication of stuck pipe.
Upper
Anchor

Sensor
Section

Free-point
Measurement
Interval

Lower
Anchor

String
Shot

Free Point Indicator locates the lowest point from


which the free portion of a stuck pipe string can be
successfully recovered.

The system is initially calibrated in free pipe to obtain an


indication of the percent of pipe freedom in digital form.
A direct-reading digital counter is utilized as a surface
indicator. Following instrument calibration, no further
adjustments are required during the course of the survey.
A motorized anchor assembly retracts enabling the instrument to pass freely through the pipe. The assembly extends
to hold the instrument securely in place during the time that
readings are made. Precise positioning of the instrument is
accomplished by use of a Collar Locator.
After the free point has been found, the FPI system can be
used to separate the free portion of the string from the stuck
portion. One procedure utilizes the FPI instrument to detonate
an explosive force at the collar while applying left-hand
torque at the surface. The explosive force is intended to
loosen the connection so that backing off the connection
separates the string. If this procedure proves to be unsuccessful
or impractical, jet or chemical cutters, or severing tools can
be used to sever the pipe.

Highlights
Detect free pipe in drillpipe, drill collars, BHA, tubing
FPI combinable with string shot

Benefits
Determine where to severe pipe
Save time fishing stuck pipe

Specification
Description
Length

14.8 ft

4.5 m

Diameter

1.38 in.

34.9 mm

18,000 psi

124.1 MPa

350 F

177 C

Pressure Rating
Temperature

5-8

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

Specification

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Measures Both Stretch and Torque Movement in Stuck Pipe


Two Spring Anchors are used for Non-Magnetic Applications
SAFP Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator
The Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator instrument
employs a microcell that accurately measures both
stretch and torque movement in a stuck pipe string and
transmits the measurements through a conductor cable
to a surface panel.

Slack
Joint

Operation
Unlike the Permanent Magnetic Anchor Free Point instrument
or Magna-TectorSM Free Point Indicator, the Spring Anchor
Free Point Indicator instrument uses two sets of friction
springs instead of electromagnets for anchoring in the pipe
string. As such, the Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator
instrument operates effectively in aluminum or any other
nonmagnetic pipe.

Upper
Bow Spring
Section

Sensor
Section

Free-point
Measurement
Interval

A tensional or torsional force is applied to the string of pipe


at the surface and the corresponding elongation or twist
between the two sets of springs is measured by the microcell.
The readings indicate the deepest point from which a string
of pipe can be successfully recovered. A collar locator is
also run with this instrument, allowing the option of running
a string shot in combination for backing off the pipe string
in a single run.

Highlights
Identify the pipes free point
SAFP combinable with string shot
Lower
Bow Spring
Section

Benefits
Efficient anchoring in all types of tubulars including
nonmagnetic pipe

Specifications Series 2530/2531/2532*


Description
String
Shot

Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
10.3 - 11.4 ft

3.15 - 3.48 m

.63 in. - 1.00 in. - 1.63 in. 15.9 mm - 25.4 mm 41.3 mm


21,000 psi

144.8 MPa

Temperature

475 F

246 C

Weight (varies)

22 lb

10.0 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional sizes.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

5-9

Determine Free Point of Stuck Pipe


Highly Accurate Electromagnetic Measurements of Stretch and Torque
MAFP Magna-Tector Free Point Indicator
The Magna-TectorSM instrument provides highly sensitive
and accurate measurements of both stretch and torque
movement in a string of stuck pipe. The measurements
are transmitted through a conductor cable to a surface
panel. This instrument accurately locates the lowest
point from which a string of pipe; e.g., drillpipe, casing
or tubing, can be successfully recovered.

Upper
Magnet

Lower
Magnet

Operation
Free-point
Measurement
Interval

Bottom
Magnet

The Magna-Tector instrument can be run in combination


with the string shot-backoff service. This instrument may
also be run through small-diameter pipe to determine the
free point in large-diameter pipe; e.g., locating casing or
wash pipe free point below a spear. A collar log is also
recorded as an integral part of this service.

Highlights
Identify pipe free point
MAFP combinable with string shot

Benefits
Accurate identification of stuck pipe interval
String
Shot

Specifications Series 2512*


Description

Specification

Length

10.17 ft

3.1 m

Diameter

1.44 in.

36.5 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight (varies)

29 lb

13.2 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional sizes.

5-10 Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Explosive Service Frees Stuck Pipe


Backoff Stuck Pipe and Release Other Stuck Hardware Such as Packers
BO String Shot Backoff
This wireline-conveyed pipe recovery tool uses a precise
quantity of explosive detonating cord to produce shock
waves. The string shot backoff procedure involves
applying left-hand torque to the pipe string at the neutral pipe weight (in neither tension nor compression).
The string shot is then positioned at the predetermined
tool joint and detonated. The explosion produces much
the same effect as an intense hammer blow and allows
the joint to be unscrewed at the proper connection. The
string shot backoff method has been improved through
years of research and experience to increase operating
efficiency without damaging the pipe string.

Operation
To make up a proper string shot, certain factors must
be determined:
1) Pipe size, weight and condition
2) Depth of backoff
3) Borehole fluid type and weight
4) Well temperature
Factors 1, 2 and 3 are needed to determine the size of the
string shot and factors 3 and 4 are needed for the selection
of the proper fuses and detonating cord. A string shot can be
constructed that readily runs through an ID as small as in.
(19.1 mm). It can also be run in the annulus to backoff the
pipe from the outside.

Highlights
Backoff pipe (inside and outside)
Release stuck packers or fishing tools, such as an overshot
Remove corrosion from pipe
Reopen existing perforations
Jump collars

Benefits
Explosive backoff service to free stuck pipe saves
fishing time
Release stuck well hardware salvage well production

Specifications Series 2523*


Description
Length (variable)
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Specification
10 ft

3.05 m

0.63 - 1.63 in.

15.9 - 41.3 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

500 F

260 C

Weight (varies)

10 lb

4.5 kg

*Contact your Baker Atlas representative for additional sizes.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery 5-11

Free Stuck Pipe Without Torquing


Flare Free Cuts Without Damaging Adjacent Tubulars
CC Chemical Cutter
Chemical cutters have been used successfully in pipe
recovery operations for many years. The chemical cutter
service has been expanded to successfully sever a
wide range of coil tubing, tubing, casing or drillpipe
sizes in a fraction of a second without damaging an
adjacent string. Recent advances in chemical cutter
technology permits this service to cut corrosion-resistant
alloy (CRA) tubulars safely and without distortion. The
cut is flare-free, burr-free and undistorted. This allows
easy engagement of an overshot without having to
dress the top of the fish.

Operation
Chemical cutters provide a flare-free, burr-free
pipe cut, eliminating any delays or expenses
required to dress the fish top.

Collar
Locator

Chemical cutters produce a flare-free, burr-free cut that


allows easy engagement of an overshot, reducing subsequent
fishing operations time and expense bringing production back
on line with minimum downtime. Since chemical cutter tools
are completely retrievable, no debris is left in the wellbore
that can complicate future downhole work.
Chemical cuts do not require the pipe to be torqued up as
does the string shot-back off. Occasionally, stuck pipe will
rotate, even though it cannot be pulled, making a backoff
impossible. Under such conditions, the chemical cutter is
the recommended service. The cutter is also designed to
perform effectively at high pressures and temperatures.

Highlights
Firing
Sub

Upper
Propellant
Sub

Slip
Sub

Lower
Propellant
Sub

Tubular retrieval
Rated up to 400 F (204 C) for one hour and 10,000 to
20,000 psi (68.9 to 137.9 MPa) depending on size
Safe operations torque not required
Compatible with the Guardian system

Benefits
Corrosive cutter provides an instantaneous cut, free of
burrs or flares saving time required to dress fishtop
Prevents damage to adjacent strings of tubing, casing or
drill pipe
Completely free of debris facilitating future downhole work

Specifications*
Chemical
Cylinder

Description
Length

Ignition
Chamber

Cutting
Head
Bull
Plug

Specification
7 - 10.1 ft

2.13 - 3.08 m

Diameter

0.69 - 4.69 in.

17.5 - 119.1 mm

Pressure Rating

size dependent

size dependent

400 F

204 C

Temperature

Min to max pipe ID .742 - 5.047 in. 18.8 - 128.2 mm


*Contact your Baker Atlas representative to determine the proper size for your
wellbore configuration.

5-12 Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Sever Practically Any Size, Weight, or Grade of Casing or Tubing


Special Cutters also Designed to Go Through Tubing Restrictions
JCS Jet Cutter
Jet cutters are available for severing practically any
size, weight or grade of downhole coil tubing, tubing,
drill pipe or casing. To perform subsequent thru-tubing
operations, special cutters are designed to go through
certain tubing restrictions such as seating nipples or
packers to sever bull plugs, tailpipe or tubing-conveyed
perforating assemblies.

Operation
The cutting action is produced by a circular-shaped charge.
This type of cutter typically leaves a flare on the severed
pipe string. To perform subsequent pipe recovery operations, it might be necessary to dress the top end of the fish
with an internal mill, usually run with an overshot.
Caution should be exercised while running the jet cutter
to avoid damage to adjacent tubing and casing strings
and to minimize debris that could hinder subsequent
wireline operations.

Highlights
Jet Cutter

Sever virtually any size, weight and grade of tubing,


drill pipe or casing
Special size cutters to go through certain tubing
restrictions such as seating nipple or packer
Available to cut bull plugs, tailpipe or tubing-conveyed
perforating assemblies to perform subsequent throughtubing operations
Cut pipe in heavy mud
Use in pipe salvage operations

Benefits
Sever virtually any size, weight and grade of tubing,
drillpipe or casing to complete fishing or salvage operations

Specifications
Please contact your Baker Atlas representative to select
the correct size cutter for your wellbore configuration
and environment.
Jet cutters typically leave a flare on the severed
pipe string. To perform subsequent pipe recovery
operations, it is necessary to smooth the top end
of the fish with an internal mill, usually run with
an overshot.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery 5-13

Combination Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log


Locate Lost Circulation Zones and Underground Blowouts
SON/TEMP Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log
Raw Data,
Band Pass,
Temperature
Line CorrectedLine Corrected
Profile
135
3000

140

145

150

155

3100

3200

3300

To locate underground blowouts and lost circulation


zones, the Temperature Log is typically run in combination
with the Noise (Sonan) Log in pipe recovery operations.
The Temperature Log provides a continuous measurement of borehole fluid temperature while the Noise
(Sonan) Log detects the sound of moving fluids in or
near the wellbore.

3400

Operation

3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

200-600 Hz
600-1000 Hz
1000-2000 Hz
>2000 Hz

4000

4100

4200

Liquid, gas or a combination of the two (single and dualphase) have a distinctive sound when flowing through
restrictions such as channels behind casing, perforations
or casing leaks. This sound is detected and recorded on the
Noise (Sonan) Log.
A series of band-pass filters separates the frequency spectrum
of the sound for analysis of the individual amplitudes contained in each band. From model studies in the laboratory
and experience in the field, the relative energy levels in the
four bands of frequencies can be related to single- and dualphase flow and the probable location of the flow.

4300

4400

4500

The Temperature/Noise (Sonan) Log combination


can be used to locate fluid entry into the wellbore,
underground blowouts and lost circulation zones.

Often considered to be a production logging instrument, the


Noise (Sonan) Log can also be definitive in openhole while
drilling and during completion. To aid interpretation, the
Noise (Sonan) Log often is recorded in combination with a
Temperature Log.

Highlights
Determine fluid flow behind or inside casing
Locate fluid flow in cement annulus channel
Locate gas or liquid entry through casing leaks
Locate gas/liquid interface in wellbore
Determine whether fluid flow is single or dual phase

Benefits
Locate underground blowouts and lost circulation zones
for remediation or well control
Identify gas entry points for production planning
Determine fluid flow behind or inside casing for
remediation or production planning

Specifications
Description
Length

3.33 ft

1.02 m

Diameter

1.7 in.

43.2 mm

Pressure Rating

5-14 Completion and Mechanical Services: Pipe Recovery

Specification

17,000 psi

117.2 MPa

Temperature

350 F

177 C

Weight (varies)

11 lb

5 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

6. Completion and Perforating Services

VI
Perforating

Proper selection of the perforating gun, as well as the conveyance and completion program, is a necessary
undertaking to complete a well to its optimum performance. Critical parameters of a perforating guns design or
performance can have positive or negative effects on the perforated completion. Each gun system has features
and benefits that can be readily identified and used as selection criteria. This section lists the perforating systems,
and their individual benefits and strengths as well as identifying techniques and technologies for various types
of completions.
More in-depth information for each service is available on the Baker Atlas website or in the Baker Atlas
document Perforating Applications, A Solutions Guide for Perforated Completions. Please contact your local
customer service representative, or log on to www.bakeratlasdirect.com for more information and a complete
list of Baker Atlas services.

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

6-2

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Perforating Charges Overview


Wide Selection of Perforating Systems Available to Fit Any Application
Perforating Charges Overview
Baker Atlas offers a wide range of gun sizes, shot density and
shot-phasing options, with either deep-penetrating or big-hole
perforating charges to match specific completion requirements.
The criteria for choosing a particular perforating system varies.
The selection can be a simple matter of economics, conveyance
or anticipated well conditions. Each gun system and charge has
features and benefits that can be readily identified and used as
selection criteria.

Charges
Predator ZXSM shaped charges are our deepest-performing perforating
series. The Predator ZX shaped charge is a market leader in penetration
and performance. This system is designed to give superior performance
for natural completions by giving more connectivity to the undisturbed
area of your formation.
Predator XPSM high-performance shaped charge is a premium line of
deep-penetrating charges providing deep penetration past the damaged
or invaded zone. This charge is tested in accordance with the rigid API
RP-19B specification. The charge is designed for use with expendable
bar carrier, through-tubing expendable hollow carrier and expendable
hollow carrier gun systems.
Predator XSSM shaped charge was recently developed to address the
needs for the stimulated completion. This series of shaped charges was
engineered to alleviate some of the problems encountered with fracing
when perforating with high-end perforators. The design of these charges
optimizes the hole size for the stimulation and keeps penetration deep
enough to get past a lot of the near-wellbore damage and expose more
of the formation. Our goal was to help frac jobs become more successful
and to help our customers decrease their fracing costs.
Predator FPSM high-performance shaped charge is the new line of big
hole charge providing maximum hole size in the casing for optimum
total-open-flow-area. This charge is used with through-tubing expendable
hollow carrier and expendable hollow carrier gun systems.
PredatorTM shaped charge was developed in the 1990s and launched
the path to high-performance shaped charge technology. This charge is
available for use with expendable bar carrier, through-tubing expendable
hollow carrier and expendable hollow carrier gun systems.
Standard Deep Penetrating (DP) shaped charge is designed for
reliable performance with expendable bar carrier, through-tubing
expendable hollow carrier, expendable hollow carrier and ported
hollow carrier gun systems.
Standard Big Hole (BH) shaped charge provides a hole size that can
be used in expendable bar carrier, through-tubing expendable hollow
carrier, expendable hollow carrier and ported hollow carrier gun systems.
API RP-19B Target opened up
for measurements

Specifications
Please contact your Baker Atlas representative to select the perforating
system and charge to fit your completion requirements.
Additional perforating information can be found in the Baker
Atlas/Baker Oil Tools Perforating Applications and Perforating
Capabilities book.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

6-3

Producing Near-zero Skin During a Perforation Event


Dynamic Underbalance
Dynamic Underbalance Optimization Process (DUO)
Baker Hughes Dynamic Underbalance Optimization
(DUOSM) process is an analysis and job planning
system to engineer the underbalance profile and flow
duration during the perforation process, and optimize
the flow efficiency of the perforated completion.

Operations

Dynamic Underbalance flow characteristic

Dynamically underbalanced perforating is a method of


creating an immediate, but temporary, underbalance condition in the wellbore to clean up the perforations without the
need of establishing traditional static underbalance conditions.
This is accomplished by using the perforating assemblys
internal volumes to manipulate wellbore pressure and flow.
This method also addresses some operational constraints
that can exist in some completion processes.
Baker Hughes has developed a customizable vent assembly
(IGPV Inter-Gun Pressure Vent) to enable the dynamic
underbalance requirements of each perforated section. The
surge assembly creates the required pressure-drop and
flow-volume based on DUO pre-job modeling.

Highlights
Berea core perforated, cut open and examined.

Reduces or eliminates perforating damage and debris,


near-zero skin perforations
Uses custom-designed programs for each interval
Simplifies well preparation by removing the need for
large static pressures
Reduces risk of environmental impact

The nearly infinite combination of the number of ports opened in the


vent sub and the volume of atmospheric chambers included, allows the
BHA to be tailored to precisely match the reservoir requirements.

6-4

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Increase Productivity
Overcome Extensive Drilling Damage
StimGun Propellant-Assisted Perforating Products
The StimGunTM family of propellant-based products offers
the industry the first fully integrated, technology-based,
and thoroughly tested tools designed to dynamically
clean up and stimulate the near-wellbore area.

Operation
The StimGun family of products consists of three unique
product offerings the StimGun Assembly, the StimTubeTM
Tool, and the Well Stimulation Tool (WST). These three
products allow for maximum stimulation design flexibility
for a wide range of well configurations.
The StimGun assembly consists of two major components
the perforating gun and the special propellant sleeve
surrounding the gun. During the perforating event, the
propellant sleeve is ignited, producing a burst of highpressure gases that enter the formation through the
perforations and create fractures. The result is improved
penetration into the formation and greater connectivity to
the wellbore.
The StimTube and WST instruments are both stimulation
tools used as an efficient and economical means to provide
stimulation to wells having existing perforations or openhole completions. They are conveyed on wireline and often
can provide economical alternatives to recompletion
and remediation.

The StimGun process maximizes connectivity


by creating fractures to extend beyond the
perforation tunnels.

An integral portion of the StimGun family of products is


the pre-job design analysis from the PulsFracTM modeling
software. The results of the PulsFrac analysis are used to
define job parameters such as propellant quantity, fluid
level requirements, pressure magnitude and duration, and
to optimize the breakdown and fracture results.

Applications
Wells with extensive near-wellbore damage
Wells with close oil or water contact, where hydraulic
fracturing is not possible
Pre-stimulation perforation breakdown to reduce
tortuosity and increase injectivity
Tubing-conveyed or wireline-conveyed
perforating applications

Pre-job design analysis from PulsFracTM


modeling software.

StimTube and StimGun are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company.


PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. Schatz Research & Consulting Inc.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

6-5

Debris Management
Drastically Reduce Debris in Extended Reach Wellbores
XLD (eXtreme Low Debris) Perforating Systems

Debris Comparisons
140

When perforating long intervals in extended reach wells


or where wellbore undulating is present, debris can
be an immense problem. Debris can build up in low
areas in the wellbore, even in the perforations tunnels,
reducing production and sometimes cutting off intervals.
Clean up is very expensive and can damage zones
under the right circumstances. The eXtreme Low Debris
system reduces the debris volume by 92% compared to
steel charges without adversely affecting shaped
charge performance.

120

Operations

100
80
Debris Volume
(cc/m)
60
40
20
0
New Extreme Low
Debris from Standard
Debris from
Steel Charge (cc/m) PERFFORM low debris Debris System (cc/m)
system (cc/m)

Baker Hughes has been an innovator and leader in lowdebris technology for perforating services in completions.
Once again Baker Hughes is advancing low debris technology
with its new XLD (eXtreme Low DebrisSM) perforating
system introduced in 2007. This advanced system does not
degrade shaped charge perforation performance, it actually
enhances it in some cases. The reduction of perforating
debris volume is 92% less that of steel and 82% less that of
our low-debris PERFFORMSM systems. This significant and
impressive reduction in debris helps keep wellbores cleaner
and significantly reduces debris-related issues and their
adverse effects on production.

Highlights
Significant decrease in debris compared to current
industrial low-debris standards
Reduced completion problems related to
perforating debris
Cleaner wellbores
Available in 3 3/8" and 4" (85.7 mm and 114.3 mm)
HOPS service

6-6

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Effective Sand Control


Reduce Perforating Debris to Enhance Operations
PERFFORM Low Debris Perforating Systems
Big-hole or gravel pack shaped charges use liners
which, after perforating, re-form into solid plugs of copper
commonly called carrots. Carrots and other charge
debris can plug perforations and cause stimulation and
completion techniques to fail, leading to increased costs
and reduced operational efficiency. Plugged perforations
might not be successfully packed, reducing effective
shot density and possibly creating a potential for gravel
pack failure. PERFFORM SM shaped charges provide
low debris, carrot-free perforating operations.

Comparison between PERFFORM low debris


shaped charge (left) and debris generated from
a standard shape charge.
PERFFORM

Operation

STEEL

PERFFORM

STEEL

INSOLUBLE
22 %

INSOLUBLE
97 %

SOLUBLE
78 %

SOLUBLE
3%

PERFFORM debris is acid soluble compared to


standard charge debris.

Baker Hughes pioneered low-debris technology when


PERFFORM shaped charges were introduced in 1991, and
it has since become the industry benchmark for low-debris
perforating. The PERFFORM perforating system utilizes a
shaped charge case and a patented liner that does not produce
carrots and coarse steel charge debris. The debris is reduced
to a fine, acid-soluble powder, which is easily flowed back.
As a direct result of the smaller debris-size distribution, the
probability of plugging is significantly reduced.
The debris from the shaped charge case is soluble to
hydrochloric acid at standard concentrations and also to
the newer high-temperature organic acids.
The result is a cleaner, more productive gravel pack completion.

Standard Perforator
PERFFORM Low Debris

Highlights
7" OD
12 SPF GP

4-1/2" OD
12 SPF GP

0.0

10

15

Kg/meter

Comparison of shaped charge debris generated per


meter of perforated interval.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Elimination of carrots
Smaller debris size
Increased solubility to acid
Reduced completion problems related to perforating debris
Cleaner wellbores and perforations
Enhance formation treatment
Compatible with most completion fluids
Available in deep penetrating versions for natural
completions and extended reach applications
Available in all shot densities and all gun sizes

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

6-7

Thru-Tubing Perforating in Gas and Restricted Profile Wellbores


Larger Perforating Guns for Restricted and Gas Wellbores
XPLS 2" and 2 1/2" Low Swell Guns
The 2" and 2" Predator XP Low Swell (LS) gun
systems are a breakthrough in performance and debris
reduction for a low swell system. These systems exceed
anything in low swell on the market. The low swell aspect
of this design was not accomplished by lowering the
explosive gram load and sacrificing performance. This feat
was accomplished through new concepts and technology
in the perforating industry developed by Baker Atlas.

Operations
2" Predator XP LS charge passing
through a 2.188" nipple after being shot
in fluid.

The 2" Predator XP LS is for conditions requiring better


performance in a well having restrictions that typically
mandate the next lower size gun system. Bigger is better,
in that the bigger the charge the better performance it has.
The smaller gun systems, 1 9/16" EHC, drastically reduce
the perforation hole in a well, thus possibly reducing the
potential for the well. This is nothing new a larger gun
down the wellbore leads to better penetration performance.

Highlights
Debris comparisons from a 2" Predator
XP LS charge (A) and a regular 2" steel
shaped charge (B).

6-8

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Premium shaped charge with deep penetration


Low swell design means the spent gun can pass through
tighter restrictions
Reduction in debris
Can be mixed-loaded with the Predator XSSM
shaped charges
Field proven with hundreds of runs
Available in 2" and 2" Predator XP shaped charges
Performance data available at www.api.org

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Prevent Sand Production


Align Perforations with the Formation Stresses
HOPS Horizontal Oriented Perforating System
Oriented perforating with respect to the in-situ formation
stresses has been shown to prevent the onset of sand
production in moderately competent sandstones. The
HOPSSM service provides accurate and reliable orientation
of the perforating guns in highly deviated, extendedreach wells.

Operation

Horizontal Oriented Perforating System (HOPS)

The Horizontal Oriented Perforating SystemSM service is


used to reliably perforate long intervals in highly deviated
and horizontal wellbores where accurate orientation of the
perforations is critical. Additionally, Shot Direction
Indicating Devices (SDIDs) can be used throughout the
gun string to provide verification the guns orient correctly.
Accurate orientation ability has been engineered into the
system and verified by both extensive full-scale laboratory
testing as well as numerous field cases, even in wells having
tortuosity through the perforated interval.

Highlights
Some of the shot patterns available

Used in applications such as perforating to prevent sand


production as well as perforating to avoid water contact
Accurate and verifiable orientation in wells having
tortuosity up to 10/30 meter build in the perforated interval
One recent North Sea job using SDIDs verified
orientation was within 7.5 as designed.
A world-record job perforated 2,246 meters of interval
in one run, using 188 swivel gun connectors with
100% success.

Specifications
Description
Gun OD (in.)
Shot Density (SPF)
Phasing
Charge Type

Specification
2.88

4.50

6.00

7.00

Various

10

10/350 Various

10/350 0/180

Predator XP and PERFFORM DP

Perforating with respect to in-situ stress


Further information on HOPS and oriented perforating is found in SPE
80929, Advances in Horizontal Oriented Perforating Optimize Perforation
Efficiency and Production While Maintaining Borehole Stability.

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

6-9

Prevent Formation Damage


Perforate Without Killing the Well
Snapshot CT Live Well Deployment System
The Snapshot CTSM Live Well Deployment System is
a special perforating gun system used to deploy and
retrieve perforating guns into a producing well without
having to kill the well. By not killing the well, no potentially damaging kill-weight fluids are placed across
the reservoir.

Operation
This system is used with a coiled tubing unit to convey the
guns and maintain well control during the entire operation
without introducing potentially damaging kill-weight fluid
to the reservoir.
Guns are deployed into the well with the Snapshot connector
using only stabbing and pulling motions to connect gun
sections. This is accomplished by the positive snap latch
design of the connector, requiring only set-down weight to
snap the latch sub of the upper gun into the receptacle of the
lower gun. The gun sections are uncoupled via a dedicated
ram in the deployment BOP, which when closed, compresses
keys in the latch sub to release the connection.
To transfer the detonation from one gun section to the next,
a field-proven bulkhead ballistic wet connect transfer
system featuring a donor shaped charge is used. Upon
detonation of the upper gun, the donor shaped charge
located in the latch sub perforates the bulkhead of the
transfer sub in the receptacle, and in so doing detonates
the lower perforating guns.

Applications
Underbalanced perforating of long intervals
Through-tubing interventions in deviated or
multilateral wells
Perforating long intervals without the need of a
drilling or workover rig
Underbalanced perforating of depleted or
fluid-sensitive reservoirs

Specifications
Description
Tool OD (in.)

6-10 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Specification
2.30

3.00

Make-up Length (in.)

37.2

34.4

Pressure Rating (psi)

20,000

20,000

Tensile Rating (lb)

60,000

75,000

Torque Rating (ft-lb)

1,800

3,100

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Prevent Formation Damage


Perforate without Killing the Well
SGS Stackable Gun System
The Stackable Gun System is a special perforating
system used in both new well completions and well
interventions to perforate long intervals underbalanced.
As the guns can be retrieved without killing the well,
formation damage can be prevented.

Operation
Utilizing either the special pressure set or mechanical set
Bottom Gun Anchor to establish a fixed bottom, the guns
are lubricated into or out of the well using slickline or
wireline, one section at a time. The last gun section
deployed contains a TCP-style firing head. After the
guns have fired, the gun sections can be retrieved one
at a time without the need to kill the well.

Highlights
Adaptable for most applications
Re-perforating
Underbalanced perforating
Depleted or fluid-sensitive formations
Rigless perforating of long intervals
Available with mechanical or hydraulic-set
Compatible with Predator XPSM perforating systems
Compatible with the StimGunTM system
Wireline or slickline conveyance

Specifications
Casing Sizes

3 1/2

4 1/2

5 & 5 1/2

7 & 7 5/8

Gun OD (in.)

2 7/8

3 3/8

4 1/2

Gun Lengths (ft)


Connector M/U
Length (ft)

4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28


0.97

0.93

2.760

3.800

Fish Neck (in.)


Centralizer OD (in.)

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

1.14

1.12

1.75
4.375

5.600

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-11

Increase Operational Flexibility


Perforate Longer Intervals while Maintaining Pressure Control
IGAR Inter-Gun Automatic Release
The Inter-Gun Auto Release (IGAR) is a modular
release tool used within the perforating gun assembly
to automatically release a portion of the perforating
guns after the guns have detonated. This feature allows
perforation of longer-length intervals on wire or coil
while at the same time allowing simple pressurecontrolled retrieval of the gun sections without the
need of expensive surface deployment systems.

Operation
The IGAR is useful in applications where it is desired to
retrieve only a portion of the perforating guns, such as
instances where limited lubricator length prohibits retrieving
the entire perforating assembly.
Detonation of the perforating guns creates a pressure
wave that travels through the IGAR to shift a piston upward.
A collet, no longer supported by this piston, is now free to
retract and the guns are free to separate.
After the IGAR has released, a fishing neck profile is
provided on the left in hole portion of the tool to allow
easy retrieval using a standard fishing overshot.

Highlights
Through-tubing wireline perforating of intervals longer
than the wireline lubricator length
Underbalanced perforating of depleted or fluidsensitive reservoirs
Useful for TCP, CT and top-fire wireline conveyed
perforating jobs
Can be placed at any connection along the gun string

Specifications
Size
OD [Max] (in.)
Operating Pressure (psi)

20,000

Tensile Rating (lb)

40,000

Fishing Neck OD (in.)


Temperature Rating
Service

6-12 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

CIS
3.125

1.375
Dependent on Explosives Used
Standard

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Reduce Completion Costs


Perforate Longer Intervals on Wireline with Fewer Runs
J-GB Model J-Gun Brake
The ability to perforate multiple or long-length intervals
in one run using wireline can drastically reduce rig time,
saving completion costs. With the Model J-Gun Brake
(J-GB), longer and heavier guns are run in a single trip,
where in the past multiple runs would have been required.
This time savings can significantly reduce operating
costs for deepwater completions.

Operation
The J-Gun Brake is a compact, economical, temporary gun
anchor that minimizes gun shock to the wireline rope
socket. The J-GB is set with axial movement (up/down),
and simple overpull releases the tool and resets it to the
run-in position. Depending upon the requirements, the J-GB
can be assembled in either the Compression Set Mode to
prevent the guns from being blown downward in balanced
or slightly overbalanced applications, or in the Tension Set
Mode to prevent the guns from being blown upward
during underbalanced perforating.
Unlike other gun brake devices that attempt to restrict or
brake any movement after detonation, the J-GB is
anchored securely before the perforating event.
Additionally, the J-GB features a Gun Shock Position
that will automatically reset if movement in the opposite
direction occurs.

Highlights
Perforate longer intervals on wireline without the need
for a rig or TCP
Rugged and reliable construction utilizing proven
Baker Oil Tools technology
Case Study: 145 feet of 4 1/2" OD 12 SPF perforating guns
shot in one run in Brazil
Case Study: 42 feet of 7" OD 18 SPF big hole guns shot
in the Gulf of Mexico in one run

Specifications
Tool Size
Casing Size (in.)

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

43

45

4 /2 to 5

5 /2

47

51
5

7 to 7 /8

Pressure Rating (psi)

15,000

Load Limit (lbs)

35,000

9 5/8

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-13

Reliably Perforate the Upper Zone


Proven Technology to Avoid Perforating the Long String
EMO Electro-Magnetic Orienting Perforating
Inadvertent perforating of the long string can introduce
safety and production concerns, as well as unnecessary
costs and complexities. The upper zone of a dual
completion can be reliably perforated using the proven
EMO perforating system to orient the perforations
away from the long string.

Operation
Oriented perforating in the direction opposite the lower
interval production string (long string) is accomplished with
through-tubing perforating using the EMO system. Using
the properties of electro-magnetism to detect the mass of
the long string and incorporating a rugged downhole motor
and anchor, the perforating guns can be selectively rotated
to a position to fire opposite the long string.

Highlights
Fully compatible with the Guardian system
Field proven technology, years of reliability
Combinable with most perforating systems, including
the Predator XPSM high-performance shaped charges
For through-tubing applications in 2 3/8" and
greater tubing
Can be configured to perforate the long string,
via the short string, for well control and
pipe recovery applications

6-14 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Reduce Costs for Interventions


Perforating Deviated or Long Intervals without a Rig on Location
CTCP Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating
Perforating of highly deviated wells without need for a
drilling rig on location can reduce costs significantly.
Coiled tubing provides an efficient and cost-effective
conveyance method of perforating guns. Coiled tubing
provides the rigidity necessary to place perforating guns
in extended-reach wells, and has the needed the strength
to run longer-length gun assemblies compared to
conventional wireline conveyance.

Operation
Coiled tubing offers a number of operational and economic
advantages including: live well intervention, elimination of
well kill and potentially damaging fluids, reduced operational
footprint, horizontal well intervention and the ability to
intervene without a rig. Its tubular construction allows a
conduit for circulation and pressure control and, coupled
with the ability to install electric line into the tubing, makes
coiled tubing a highly versatile conveyance method.
Baker Hughes provides perforating solutions that capture
the benefits of using coiled tubing conveyance while
providing field-proven technology.

Applications
Through-tubing interventions
Snapshot CTSM Live Well Deployment System for
intervention without need of well kill
Combinable with electric wireline provides positive perforating depth and multiple zone SelectFire applications
Perforating of highly deviated and extended-reach wells
without need for drilling rig
Pipe recovery applications such as perforating for
circulation and tubing cutter operations

Highlights
1,455 feet (443 meters) of 2" OD x 6 SPF perforating
guns conveyed in one run successfully perforated
and retrieved
758 feet (231 m) of 1 9/16" OD x 4 SPF perforating guns
conveyed in one run successfully perforated and retrieved

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-15

Proven Cost Savings


Save Time on Well Completions
NeoTrip One-Trip Perforate and Completion Systems
The benefits of a successful one-trip style completion
include saving rig time and minimizing fluid losses. The
NeoTripSM series of one-trip completions have been
proven in the Gulf of Mexico and other regions to
successfully provide novel solutions that save time
and offer flexibility.

Operation
Leveraging expertise from all Baker Hughes completions
technologies, the NeoTrip completion systems present a true
one-trip perforate and completion solution that is field
proven. The well is perforated after the completion, and
production equipment is in place and flanged up, so production can be brought on immediately.

Highlights
Utilizes the Hydraulic Bottom Gun Anchor (HBGA),
the Model J Bottom Gun Anchor (JBGA), or the Hang
and Release Gun Hanger (HR) to provide a temporary
platform to secure the guns on depth.
A selection of firing methods includes pressure or
mechanically actuated, redundant pressure-fire, and
slickline-conveyed passive systems.
The gun assembly is run as the bottom-most portion of
the completion. After setting the anchor to secure the guns
at shooting depth, the completion string is separated from
the bottom-hole assembly and repositioned to the desired
setting depth. The wellhead can be installed.
The completion string can be set as far uphole from
the perforating guns as desired. This allows future
completions without tailpipe interference.
After firing, the perforating gun assembly automatically
drops to bottom, providing fullbore access.
Systems available for 4 1/2" casing through 9 5/8" casings.

Sample Configurations

6-16 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

System

Firing Option

Anchor Option

Neo-Trip HH

Hydraulic

HBGA

Neo-Trip PH

Passive

HBGA

Neo-Trip RH

Redundant

HBGA

Neo-Trip MJ

Mechanical

JBGA

Neo-Trip RHR

Redundant

HR

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Simplify the Gravel Packed Completion


Save Rig Time and Reduce Fluid Loss
PDP Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System
The PDP Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System
combines proven TCP and sand control technologies.
This one-trip gravel pack completion provides benefits
such as reduced rig time and fluid loss for wells not
requiring a complex gravel pack procedure.

Operation
Leveraging expertise from all Baker Hughes completions
technologies, the PDP system presents a field-proven,
one-trip perforate and gravel pack solution. The
perforating and gravel pack operations are conducted
after the completion equipment is flanged up; production
begins immediately thereafter.
The gun and screen assemblies are run in on the completion
string with either the Hydraulic Bottom Gun Anchor (HBGA)
or the Model J Bottom Gun Anchor (JBGA) to provide a
temporary platform. The completion string is separated
from the bottom-hole assembly and raised to the desired
setting depth. The completion is set, and the well is flanged
up. The guns and screen drop immediately after firing to
the pre-determined PBTD; the screens are now across the
perforations. A simple over-the-top-style frac pack is then
performed, and the well is brought on production.

Highlights
Over 15 successful runs to date in the Gulf of Mexico
and Asia Pacific regions (2003)
Systems available for 4 1/2" casing through 9 5/8" casing
Detonated by either mechanical or hydraulic means
Combine with StimGunTM to reduce the perforation
breakdown pressures
Combine with the TCP Firing Head Setting Tool to run
and set the plug on the same trip

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-17

Reduce the Fracturing Costs


Directional Perforating with Respect to the Fracture Planes
TCP-AOP TCP Azimuthally Oriented Perforating
For reservoirs requiring stimulation, orienting the
perforations to the fracture plane helps reduce the
breakdown pressure. A novel TCP method allows
perforations to be azimuthally oriented using a
gyroscope and a properly aligned oriented-indicating
sub. This method provides real-time verification of the
orientation prior to perforating.

Operation
The perforating guns are aligned with the oriented-indicating
sub, which is placed above the firing head and ported disc
assembly. Once the guns are on depth, the gyroscope is
conveyed on electric line and seats in the oriented indicating
sub. With real-time reading provided by the gyroscope,
rotating the pipe at the surface aligns the perforations to
the desired azimuth.

Highlights
Positive orientation for proper alignment
Reduces costs involved with stimulating the well
Ideal for vertical wells
Verifies proper alignment prior to perforating
Systems available for all tubing sizes

6-18 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Reduce the Costs Associated with Stimulating Multiple Zones


Stimulate, then Perforate, in a Single Run
PSI Parallel Perforating System
In highly deviated wells requiring staged stimulations,
numerous runs are necessary: one trip to perforate
and one trip to stimulate. The PSI Parallel Perforating
System, a special TCP application, incorporates a
perforating assembly with the workstring. Using this
system, the zones are stimulated then perforated in a
single run, thus reducing the number of runs required.

Operations
This system offers a unique approach by stimulating a lower
zone, and then moving up the hole to perforate the next
zone. The perforating gun and firing head assembly are
side-mounted to the workstring, providing non-restrictive
flow during the stimulation process.
To perforate, a pump-through plug is dropped from the
surface seats, isolating the hydraulic firing head. Pressure is
then applied to fire the gun. Additional pressure ruptures the
disc in the plug to reestablish circulation.

Highlights
Special TCP application for stimulating zones and
then perforating
Allows rotation of the workstring for setting packers or
actuating accessory tools
Safe and reliable
Unlimited number of intervals may be treated
Field proven
May be used in any deviation

Specifications

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

System Size

7-inch OD casing

Gun OD (in.)

2 78

Shot Density (SPF)

Phasing

60/240

Max Torque (ft-lb)

5,000

Max Tensile Strength (lb)

180,000

Pressure Rating (psi)

15,000

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-19

Reduce Cost and Increase Efficiency on Complex Completions


Save Rig Time and Tailor the Completion of Each Zone
Tubing-Conveyed Dual String Perforating Systems
Multiple zones can be individually isolated and perforated
according to the optimum completion program for each
reservoir. Zones can be perforated underbalanced,
overbalanced, or with specialized fluids to best optimize
productivity. Tubing-conveyed perforating guns are
installed as part of the completion and positioned to
perforate away from adjacent production strings, reducing
time and increasing operating efficiency.

Operation
Tubing-conveyed perforating offers flexibility and adaptability for multi-zone, single-selective and other complex
well completion designs. Combining the TCP as part of the
completion string reduces rig time and enables the well to
be brought on production immediately after perforating. By
not killing the well to retrieve the spent perforating guns,
potentially damaging fluids are not required.
Inadvertent perforating of the long string can introduce
safety and production concerns, as well as adding costs
and complexity. Perforating in the direction opposite the
production string is accomplished by using speciallyconfigured TCP perforating guns and hardware that
maintain orientation during the trip in the hole.

Highlights
TCP systems for dual-string applications in most
casing sizes
Maximum underbalance to promote effective
perforation clean-up
Immediate production without killing the well
Combinable with most guns, including the Predator XP SM
high-performance shaped charges
Applicable for multiple, fluid-sensitive and
depleted intervals

6-20 Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Wireline Perforating Safety


Perforating Using Electrical Devices
GDN Guardian II/EBW Perforating Package
The Guardian II system is a ballistic fire control system
specifically designed for perforating safety. This system
eliminates the need for radio silence, shutting down of
cathodic protection, or welding during the perforating
operations. In areas where remote reporting sensors
and transmitters are used, the Guardian II system is
critical to ensure safety.

Operation
The Guardian II system consists of two main components:
the exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator and electronic
modules known as the PX-1.
The EBW detonator does not contain a primary explosive
and is immune to initiation by external power sources.
Activating the PX-1 module causes a capacitor to charge
and release the stored electrical energy into the bridgewire
within the EBW detonator. This time-dependent energy
release causes the bridgewire to explode into the secondary
explosive of the detonator thus beginning the high-order
explosive process.

Highlights
Available for all perforating gun sizes
Available for both bottom-fire and top-fire systems
Available for packer setting tools and pipe
recovery applications
Field-proven technology, years of reliability
Eliminates the need for any of the following during the
perforating process:
Radio silence
Shutdown of cathodic protection
Shutdown of welding process

Specifications
Description

Specification

Temperature
Rating (F)

-13 F to +437 F (-25 C to +225 C)

Input

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

22-230 VDC @ 160-260 mA

Output (Firing)
Voltage

5000 V+15% / >2000 A / <250 ns

Pressure Rating

Dependent on the gun system

Completion and Perforating Services: Perforating 6-21

6-22

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

7. Deployment Risk Management

VII
Wireline Conveyance Systems
Risk-Reduction Technologies

Wireline Conveyance Systems


Getting In and Out of the Hole Safely

Some of the most important aspects to consider during the design, construction and productive life of a well are
the risks associated with the conveyance of downhole instruments to acquire critical formation evaluation data
while the hole is open, and the downhole toolstrings needed to service the well after installing the completion
and production hardware.
As it became more difficult to discover large oil and gas fields in relatively shallow and friendly environments,
the industry stepped out into more complex and less familiar territories requiring the creation of new technologies
and methods designed to drill, complete and produce longer, deeper and more deviated and tortuous wells.
The increased complexity of the wells increased the aggregated cost of all well interventions. In particular, the
rig cost resulting from the time required for these operations became a point of serious concern when planning
the well intervention operations.
The applicability of the different conveyance systems depicted in the table below is based on practical experience,
and is intended as a guideline only. The following pages provide more specific details on the attributes of the
specific conveyance methods.

Tractor Conveyed Logging/Perforation

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging/Perforation

Deployment Risk Management: Wireline Conveyance Systems

Wells

lstrin

HPHT
X

Pump Down Conveyance

Heav

y Too

Flow
in
Live/

gs

lls
g We

lls
h We

Wells

-Reac

Long

ontal

Pipe Conveyed Logging/Perforation

Horiz

Tortu
o

Unassisted Wireline

Technology

7-2

us W
ell Pa

Ultra

-Long

Wells

ths

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

X
X

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Drillpipe Assisted Wireline Interventions


For Extreme Operations in Highly Deviated or Tortuous Well Paths
PCL Pipe Conveyed Logging
The Pipe Conveyed Logging (PCL) system allows
logging wireline toolstrings in wells with conditions
not suitable for unassisted wireline operations, i.e.
tortuous well paths, highly deviated, horizontal or
washed-out holes.

Operation

Major components of the Pipe Conveyed Logging system

The logging instruments are attached to the bottom of


the drillpipe prior to running in hole to a latching depth.
A side-entry sub is then inserted at the surface with the
wireline already threaded through it, which is subsequently
run in hole until a mechanical and electrical connection is
established with the downhole tools via the wet-connect
and tool adapter. The drillpipe and wireline are then
synchronously moved in and out of the hole as needed
to perform the intended logging operations.

Highlights
Allows logging of all Baker Atlas tool combinations
Can be connected with all drillstring types, directly or
via adapter subs
Allows multiple wet connections while logging more
than one interval without tripping pipe out of the hole
Capable of logging while going in and out of the hole
after an electrical latch
Can be used with a motion-compensated system on
semi-submersible platforms
Displays real-time cablehead compression and
tension readouts

Benefits
The PCL is most frequently requested when:
The well deviation exceeds the limit of the instruments
freefall (~ 65 deg).
Difficult hole conditions are expected, i.e. boreholes
with washed-out sections, ledges, restrictions or
excessive doglegs.
The customer elects to reduce the risk of failing to
reach the target depth or having insufficient wireline
pull capacity, such as in 20,000 ft (6,096m) or longer
boreholes where heavy toolstrings are required.

Wet Connect and Tool Adapter assemblies

Specifications
Description
Diameter
Pressure Rating
Temperature

PCL-D

PCL-F

PCL-G

PCL-H

PCL-I

3 38 in. (86 mm) 5 in. (127 mm) 2 34 in. (70 mm) 338 in. (86 mm) 5 in. (127 mm) 5 in. (127 mm)
20,000 psi
137.9 MPa

20,000 psi
137.9 MPa

30,000 psi
206.8 MPa

30,000 psi
206.8 MPa

30,000 psi
206.8 MPa

30,000 psi
206.8 MPa

350 F (177 C) 350 F (177 C) 400 F (204 C) 400 F (204 C) 400 F (204 C) 400 F (204 C)

Add-ons
Baker Atlas

PCL-E

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Flow Control
Valve
Deployment Risk Management: Wireline Conveyance Systems

7-3

Tractor Assisted Wireline Interventions


For Fast Operations in Highly Deviated Wells
WTCL Tractor Conveyed Logging
The use of downhole tractors allows fast and
cost-effective well interventions to be carried
out in high-angle and horizontal wells where
traditional conveyance methods require
significantly more rig time, rig space, crews
or highly complex operations.

Operations

Downhole tractors are configured to pull large enough forces


to keep the wireline in tension while pushing the toolstring.

Downhole tractors are electrically powered devices


that are inserted between the wireline and the
passenger toolstring. Under the control of the
operator, they can be activated to push passenger
devices while pulling the wireline to the desired
depth in highly deviated or horizontal wells.
There are two distinctive traction methods
currently used by tractor makers:
Motorized wheels, mounted in extendable arms,
that grip the inner borehole wall
Friction pads mounted in arm assemblies
attached to the ends of a reciprocating piston.
Alternating the opening and closing of the arm
assemblies in each piston stroking cycle creates
an inch-worm type of movement.

This downhole tractor is configured with two


traction sections offset 90 degrees that include four
hydraulically driven wheels each.

Highlights
Do not require a rig in place
Tractors and surface equipment can be
transported easily.
The leading tractor models have long and
successful track records in cased hole applications.
Long-reach or tortuous-path tractor applications
require careful planning and physical tests using
the exact tractor-toolstring configuration in
representative tubulars.

Benefits
Reduce the cost of well interventions significantly,
and in some cases, offer unique conveyance
solutions by extending the operating range of
conventional wireline into high-angle and
horizontal wells.
Many additional uses have emerged for tractors
since their introduction in the mid-90s; leading
tractor providers offer add-on devices such as
heavy-duty shifting tools, milling and
cleaning heads.
7-4

Deployment Risk Management: Wireline Conveyance Systems

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Coiled Tubing and Flow Assisted Wireline Interventions


For Operations in Highly Deviated Wells
CTCW Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging
Coiled tubing (CT) containing an electrical wireline
provides an effective alternative in well interventions
targeting high-angle and horizontal wells where other
conveyance methods are not technically or
economically viable.

Operation

The CT is used to convey the logging toolstring in and


out of the hole while the wireline embedded in it
provides the electrical power and communication path.

Benefits
Does not require a drilling rig
Suitable for high-angle or horizontal wells
Provides extra protection to the wireline
Well-suited for operations in live wells

Coiled tubing is used to push the toolstring to the desired


depth in highly deviated or horizontal wells while the
wireline embedded in the CT provides the electrical path
for downhole power and data transmission.

Highlights
Requires large/heavy CT units and a large
specialized crew
Has a limited-reach range
Large-diameter CT is not suitable for small
ID completions
Needs specialized equipment:
CT logging heads
Depth encoder CT adapters
Wireline collector rings CT adapters

TDP Pump Down Conveyance


The ability to pump down fluid while running in hole
toolstrings attached to a wireline provides a fast and
effective means of reaching highly deviated or horizontal
sections of a casing, tubing or drillpipe.

Operation
The toolstring is run in the hole as deep as possible using
wireline. When it stops, fluid is pumped in the well at a rate
calculated to create enough hydraulic force on the toolstring
to push it to the target depth.

Highlights
No additional equipment is required.
Toolstring OD is limited by the ID of the tubulars.
Toolstring pistons are typically manufactured onsite
based on the given conditions.
Requires an open circulation path in most cases

Benefits
To ensure the toolstring reaches the target depth,
piston assemblies are mounted on the string to
maximize the hydraulic forces exerted by the fluid
being pumped.
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

In some cases, it is the only method capable of reaching


the intended depth.
The preferred choice in pipe recovery operations, i.e. free
point, pipe cutters.

Deployment Risk Management: Wireline Conveyance Systems

7-5

Risk-Reduction Technologies
Modern Well Interventions Demand Innovative Techniques

Over the recent years, technologies have been introduced


that eliminate or mitigate the risks that jeopardize safe and
fast wireline well interventions in modern, complex wells.

Some of the most effective and popular technologies available


today are illustrated in the diagram at the left and their values
provided below:
1. Wireline-Forces Modeling Modern modeling software
takes the guesswork out of predicting the forces exerted
on the tools, the borehole and the wireline during well
interventions at all depths.
2. Wireline Tension-Relief Devices These devices avoid
the safety hazards associated with high tension exerted on
the wireline.
3. High-Strength Wirelines These wirelines can be used
to safely deploy heavy toolstrings in deep wells while retaining
sufficient overpull capacity.
4. Releasable Cableheads Allow wireline operations without downhole mechanical weakpoints that limit the downhole
pull capacity.
5. Wireline Jars They are a very effective means of avoiding
stuck-tool or fishing operations.
6. Low-Friction Roller Stand-offs They ease the descent
in deviated holes while reducing the risk of differential sticking.
7. Advanced Hole Finders They are designed to overcome
borehole anomalies, such as ledges, abrupt directional
changes, debris, etc.

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

ffs

Hole

Finde

ller S
n Ro

ars

X
X

rs

tando

s
head
X

nced

Increase downhole pull capacity

Adva

Help reaching target depth

X
X

LowFrictio

line J

Avoid high tension hazards

Wire

Cable

irelin
es

High-

Relea

Wireli

Avoid differential sticking

sable

th W

-Relie

Stren
g

Wireli

Reduce the number of runs

Primary Application

7-6

ne Te

ne Fo

nsion

rcesM

odeli
ng

f Dev

ices

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Wireline Well Intervention Planning


Modeling Forces for Planning and Performing Wireline Operations
CERB Well Intervention Modeling Services
Modern modeling software takes the guesswork of the
prediction of the forces exerted during well interventions
on the tools, the borehole and the wireline at all depths.

Cable or Tool Segment

Operation

Hole Wall
Deviated & Friction Effect

A model is built based on the well geometry, trajectory,


temperature profile, properties of the fluid in the hole,
toolstring and wireline physical specifications.
The model is then used to simulate the well intervention
under planned and contingency conditions, such as a
stuck tool.
The forces calculated during the simulations are then
assessed against a set of pre-defined boundary limits to
flag potential hazards.

Benefits

Dogleg Effect
These diagrams depict two of the many principles
on which modern wireline forces-modeling software
is based.

Allows the characterization of the magnitude and nature


of deployment risks present in complex well interventions
early in the well-construction process
It is the most-effective tool for:
Well intervention feasibility studies
Risk-benefits intervention analyses
Well intervention contingency planning
Toolstring optimization
Wireline and weakpoint selection
Flow and pressure effects assessments
Managing stuck tool and fishing operations
When used at the wellsite, it helps manage complex
well interventions.

This surface weight graph depicts an intervention planned in a well with the trajectory shown at the right. The modeling
software predicts that the expected pull-out-of-hole surface tension (green curve) will exceed the wireline manufacturers
safe working load illustrated by the red vertical line.
Continued on next page
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

7-7

Wireline Well Intervention Planning


Modeling Forces for Planning and Performing Wireline Operations
CERB Well Intervention Modeling Services (continued)
Tension Simulation At Depth
Force analysis with the toolstring at a specified depth, i.e.
pulling on a stuck tool, negotiating a dogleg, differential
sticking analysis, etc.

Min/Max Tension Simulation


Force analysis running in and out for a given well and
toolstring, based on expected well parameters (fluid,
friction, deviation, well state, etc.)

Full-Tension Simulation Historical Data


Force analysis using historical data to refine the drag
model to achieve an optimized tension profile based on
actual recorded well tensions.

Full-Tension Simulation Flowing Well


Force analysis in a well with flowing borehole fluids
added to the basic model to determine the maximum
recommended flow rate.

The surface wireline tension curves in this graph


depict the ability of the system to get in and out of a
deviated well while highlighting the possibility of
damaging the wireline and the impossibility of breaking
the 8,000-lb (3,628.7 kg) weakpoint should the toolstring get stuck below 5,000 ft (1,524 m).

Sensitivity Analysis
Helps identify inherent well or toolstring properties that
make a planned well intervention particularly sensitive to
defined types of risk, i.e. not getting down and insufficient
pull capacity.

Pipe Conveyance Analysis


Full analysis of forces in a specific PCL operation to
determine the number of latches required, latching depth(s),
weakpoints, optimum wireline-tension profiles, etc.

This table depicts the sensitivity of the pulling capacity


of the model to the friction coefficient and the wireline
strength.

Tractor Conveyance Analysis


Full analysis of wireline forces required to perform
operations with the use of downhole tractors, it allows
determining the tractor pull specifications, the interval to
tractor, optimum tension profile, etc.

Pump Down Conveyance Analysis


Through full analysis of wireline forces required to perform a pump down operation, it allows determining the
intervention feasibility, ideal piston OD, pump rates and
running-speed profiles.

Deployment Oracle
A consultancy service where deployment experts:
Assess the deployment risks present in a planned
operation or a set of operations
Quantify success likelihood and associated cost using a
decision-tree methodology
Provide customers with recommendations on how to best
achieve their well-intervention objectives that support
their priorities, i.e. data assurance, minimum cost, etc.
7-8

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

This graph depicts the ability to reach the perforating


depth of three different gun assemblies; the blue
curve shows the effect on the surface tension of the
tractor being powered up at ~10,500 ft (3,200 m) to
pull 300 lb (136 kg).

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Log Deeper with More Sensors


High-Strength Wirelines Have Greater Pulling Capacity
XSMC High-Strength Multi-Conductor Cable
High-strength wirelines can be operated safely at higher
working loads without electrical or mechanical failure.
This means that heavy toolstrings can be deployed in
deeper wells while still providing sufficient overpull
capacity.

Operation
High-strength wirelines operate similarly to standard
wireline. However, the size and safe working load for the
spooling drum and rig-up equipment must be compatible
with their enhanced specifications.

Highlights
Increase overpull capacity
Modern versions are crush-resistant.

Benefits
Reduce risk of wireline mechanical and electrical failure
Enable wireline conveyance in deeper wells
Allow longer, heavier toolstring combinations per run
Improve job efficiency

Example of multi-conductor wireline


cross-section illustrating the 7-conductor
distribution, insulation, inner and outer
armor wires.

High-strength
wireline mounted
on spooling drum

Specifications Camesa
Description

Nominal Diameter

Breaking Strength

Vendor Designation

Extra Strength

0.474 in.

12.04 mm

23,600 lb 10,705 kg

7H47

Ultra-Strength
Crush-Resistant

0.490 in.

12.44 mm

25,200 lb 11,431 kg

7Q49RTZZ

Ultra-Strength

0.484 in.

12.29 mm

28,200 lb 12,791 kg

7Q48

Breaking Strength

Vendor Designation

Specifications Rochester
Description

Nominal Diameter

Extra Strength

0.472 in.

11.99 mm

24,500 lb 11,113 kg

7H472

Ultra-Strength
Crush-Resistant

0.490 in.

12.44 mm

26,500 lb 12,020 kg

7H490K

Ultra-Strength

0.484 in.

12.29 mm

27,600 lb 12,519 kg

7H484K

Information for these products is as per publications dated February 2008

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

7-9

Avoid High Tension Safety Hazards


Powered Capstans Eliminate High Spooling Tensions
PSW Powered Capstan
A powered capstan reduces the risk associated
with high tension exerted on the wireline
segment between the logging unit and the rig
floor. It also prevents wireline damage caused
by spooling high-tension wireline over lowtension wireline (drum crush).

Operation
The wireline is threaded through the powered
capstans wheels which maintain the tension on
the unit side at a constant selectable amount, while
allowing downhole tensions to vary from 0 to
20,000 lb (9,072 kg).
Tension
Relief
Device

Tension
Meter

Logging
Unit

Wireline

Tension
Meter

T2

Highlights
Compact and easily transportable
Can be rigged up in horizontal or vertical
configurations, as shown in images.
Two independent tension meters monitor the
unit-side tension and well-side tension.

T1

Benefits
T1 = constant low tension
T2 range = 0-20,000 lb

Powered Capstan vertical rig up

Toolstring

Reduces the risk associated with high tension


exerted on the wireline segment between the
logging unit and the rig floor
Prevents wireline damage (drum crush) caused
by spooling high-tension wireline over lowtension wireline
Provides wireline mechanical and
electrical stability
Improves the consistency of the magnetic marks
for better depth control

Specifications
Description

Specification

Cable Speed

0 - 300 ft/min

0 - 91 m/min

Cable Tension

0 - 20,000 lb

0 - 9,072 kg

Powered Capstan horizontal rig up

7-10 Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Preventing Stuck Tools


Fishing is Costly and Should Always Be Avoided
EEJ Hydraulic Wireline Jars
ISJ Mechanical Wireline Jars
Wireline jars provide a proven and effective means of
freeing stuck tools by producing a large impact to the
toolstring rather than depending only on wireline pulls.

Operation
1

Wireline jars are inserted as near as possible to the cablehead.


If the toolstring becomes stuck and the pulling tension exceeds
a pre-set value, the jars initiate a tensile strike that is delivered
to the stuck point. If the initial strike, which is several times
greater than the maximum pull achieved, is insufficient then
additional strikes are delivered to free the toolstring.

Wireline jars should be used when:


The maximum overpull at the toolstring is restricted by the
wirelines safe-tension limit.
The selected cablehead mechanical weakpoint does not allow
sufficient overpull to be exerted to the stuck toolstring.
The wells tortuosity severely reduces the tensions that can
be pulled downhole.
The weight of the toolstring makes it more difficult to
generate significant pulls on the stuck toolstring.
The toolstring is to be maintained stationary for long periods
over permeable reservoir rocks (sampling/testing tools).
The well geometry, trajectory, mud properties and field
experience suggest that the toolstring is likely to become
differentially stuck.
The daily rig rate or the cost of deferred production makes
the financial impact of a fishing job unacceptable.

Jars Firing Sequence, 1. Toolstring logging up,


2. Pulling on a stuck toolstring, 3. Jars fired,
4. Toolstring free, logging continues

Specifications Openhole Hydraulic Jars


Description

Specification

Description

Specification

Length

10.8 ft

3.3 m

Length

13.2 ft

4.0 m

Diameter

3.50 in.

89 mm

Diameter

3.38 in.

86 mm

Pressure Rating

20,000 psi

138 MPa

30,000 psi

207 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Temperature

500 F

260 C

Lock Setting

1,800 - 4,000 lb

816 - 1,814 kg

Lock Setting

1,000 - 4,500 lb

454 - 2,041 kg

Specifications Cased Hole Hydraulic Jars


Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

Baker Atlas

Specifications Openhole Mechanical Jars

Specification

Pressure Rating

Specifications Cased Hole Mechanical Jars


Description

5.1 - 6.3 ft

1.6 - 1.9 m

Length

1.69 - 2.75 in.

43 - 70 mm

Diameter

Specification
4.5 - 6.0 ft

1.4 - 1.8 m

1.56 - 1.81 in.

40 - 46 mm

25,000 psi

172 MPa

25,000 psi

172 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Temperature

500 F

260 C

Lock Setting

300 - 1,500 lb

136 - 680 kg

Lock Setting

300 - 1,800 lb

136 - 816 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Pressure Rating

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies 7-11

Get Where You Want to Go Without Getting Stuck


New Technologies Reduce Drag and Differential Sticking
RHRA High-Efficiency Flywheels
RLSC High-Performance Tool Positioning
ROLI Roller Assembly
Advanced conveyance devices are frequently added
to a toolstring to eliminate or mitigate the risks that
jeopardize safe and fast wireline interventions in
modern complex wells.

Operation

Flywheel
Tool Positioning Device

These devices connect in-line or are clamped on at multiple


points along the toolstring body. Their inclusion reduces the
surface area in contact with the wellbore and friction forces
acting on the toolstring.

Roller Assembly

Advanced
Conveyance
Device

Disadvantages

Description

Advantages

A series of clamp-on
devices which use
rolling caps instead of
wheels to support the
toolstring on their curved
profile while spinning
over low-friction bearings

Minimum contact area


reduces differential
sticking
Large-diameter rolling
caps allow toolstring
to ride over debris or
well imperfections with
minimum friction.
Increases unassisted
wireline target depth in
high-angle wellbores
No wheels

Increases toolstring
diameter
Sensor eccentricity
might, or might not
be beneficial

High-Performance
Tool Positioning

A clamp-on device that


maintains the toolstring
and sensors azimuthally
oriented, centered,
or stood-off in the
wellbore.

Reduces contact area to


minimize differential
sticking
Improves response due
to controlled sensor
positioning in the
borehole

Increased toolstring
diameter
Sensor eccentricity
might, or might not
be beneficial

Roller Assemblies

A series of devices that


support the weight of
the toolstring on largediameter wheels

Reduces contact area


to minimize differential
sticking
Lowers friction for
improved wireline
overpull capacity
Increases the
unassisted wireline
target depth in highangle wellbores
Available in clamp-on
or in-line designs

In-line design
increases toolstring
length.
Wheels might
follow ruts.

High-Efficiency
Flywheels

7-12 Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Getting Where You Want to Go is Not Always Easy


New Technologies Improve Conveyance in Tortuous Wells
SWVL Swivels
KNJ Knuckle Joints
HFD Hole Finders
Advanced conveyance devices that allow sufficient
toolstring flexibility to navigate tortuous wellbores while
optimizing pad and sensor orientation.

Operation
These devices connect in-line with the body of the toolstring
to improve conveyance through borehole ledges, washouts
and high-angle doglegs.
Advanced
Conveyance
Device
Wireline Swivel

Knuckle Joint

Hole Finder

Description

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Disadvantages

Allows adjoining
portions of the toolstring
to rotate independently

Isolates the toolstring


from the normal torque
induced as the spiralwound wireline is lowered into and pulled out
of the well
Minimizes toolstring
rotations that reduce log
quality
Reduces the risk of
cable damage

In-line design
increases toolstring
length.

Allows an angular
offset between
adjacent instruments

Optimizes wellbore
sensor positioning when
neighboring sensors
require varying degrees
of standoff
Reduces toolstring drag
friction when traversing
wellbores with high
dogleg severity

In-line design increases


toolstring length
Reduces tensile and
compressive strength

Installed at the bottom of


the toolstring to reduce
drag forces while running
in hole

High-Performance
Hole Finder

Baker Atlas

Advantages

Improves toolstring
movement through
obstacles such as
ledges, debris and
sections of high
dogleg severity

Double
Knuckle Joint

Some devices might


increase toolstring
diameter.
Increases toolstring
length

Wireline Swivel

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies 7-13

Essentials for When Well Interventions Go Wrong


Services and Equipment to Deal with Unexpected Hazardous Conditions
Contingency Services and Devices
One of the critical tasks of a well intervention planning process, often neglected, is the selection and provision
of services and equipment required to recover from conditions resulting from unplanned events.
The following is a list of the most common situations that require contingency planning ahead of time:
Unable to reach the target depth
Stuck tool
Higher wireline tensions than anticipated
Higher friction coefficient than anticipated
Not enough downhole pull capacity
Evidence of differential sticking conditions
Higher-than-expected overbalance pressures
Unexpected high-dogleg severity
Loss of mud circulation
Largely washed-out sections
Significant cuttings or debris in deviated wells
The more remote and isolated the wellsite is from major oil and gas support locations, the more important
becomes the need to have contingency equipment/services readily available onsite to avoid costly incomplete
operations, wasting of expensive rig time and the financial loss resulting from the deferred production of all the
wells planned with the drilling rig.
Alternative conveyance systems, pipe conveyed logging and downhole tractors in particular, are frequently
mobilized for jobs where the risk of not getting down to the target depth with unassisted wireline is unacceptable.
These interventions are first attempted with wireline alone, and operators will switch to pipe or tractor conveyance
only if the toolstring cannot reach the target depth.

X
X

Loss of well control

ders
Pipe
Conv
eyed
Logg
ing
Dow
nhol
e Tra
ctors
Wire
line T
ensio
n Rel
ief D
evice
High
s
-Stre
ngth
Wire
lines

le Fin
d Ho

Rolle

X
X

Adva
nce

c tion
LowFri

X
X
X

r Sta

Cutte
r
line J
Wire

Poor hole geometry/trajectory


Higher tensions than expected
Insufficient downhole pull capacity

ars

e Wir
eline

Cutte
r

nhol

Dow

Sur fa

Relea

sable

Tools

ce W
irelin
e

eads
Cabl
eh

Relea

Unable to reach target depth


Sticky conditions and/or services

Logg
i

Primary Application

sable

ng W
hile R
e

triev

ing

nd-o

ffs

Section Contents/Solution Highlights Matrix

X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

The first five contingency services/equipment included in this table are covered in the following pages;
the other seven are documented in the previous pages of this section - Deployment Risk Management.

7-14 Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Completing a Job While Recovering a Stuck Toolstring


Using Drillpipe and Wireline to Free Stuck Tools and Finish the Logging Job
LWR Logging While Retrieving
The use of the Logging While Retrieving (LWR) service
reduces the overall cost of a fishing operation by
allowing the completion of the logging run while
recovering a stuck toolstring.

Operation

The loose ends of the wireline, cut during a


cut-and-thread fishing operation, are spliced using
a torpedo outside the side-entry sub to allow the
logging operation to resume after the stuck
toolstring is latched and worked free.

The LWR operation starts when the wireline is threaded


from the inside to the outside of the pipe using a
side-entry sub inserted on top of a drillpipe stand during
a cut-and-thread fishing operation.
The loose ends of the wireline are then spliced using a
double-ended torpedo to recover its mechanical and
electrical integrity.
The drillpipe is then run in hole until the grapple, part of
the fishing assembly, latches on the stuck toolstring, and
the drillpipe is worked until the tollstring is free.
The logging operation is then resumed in the
required direction by moving the wireline and the
drillpipe synchronously.
After the logging operation is completed and the
side-entry sub is back at the surface, the wireline is
pulled out of the toolstring cablehead and retrieved prior
rigging down the side-entry sub and wireline to extract
the toolstring.

Highlights
Intended for cut-and-thread fishing operations
Effective in key-seated wireline, a stuck tool or when
both conditions exist
Equally applicable for stationary or moving
logging services
Not recommended when the loss of well control is a
likely event; the presence of the wireline outside the
drillpipe will not allow achieving an effective seal in
an emergency.
To provide an effective means of removing the wireline
from the well, a Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool should
be inserted in the drillpipe fishing downhole assembly.
Requires experience personnel and careful planning
In addition to the side-entry sub, a high-strength
torpedo and dual-groove sheave wheels, shown in
this photograph, are part of the LWR kit.

Benefits
Reduces the rig time required to fish the stuck toolstring
and log the target intervals in an additional run
Eliminates the need of a conditioning trip
Reduces the number of threading events and the
associated safety hazards
Allows the use of strong weakpoints to increase the
downhole pulling capacity that helps prevent
toolstrings from getting stuck

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies 7-15

Log Heavy Toolstrings While Avoiding a Fishing Job


Electrical Wireline Release Built in the Cablehead
MRCH Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead
The Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead allows
removing the wireline from the well in a stuck-tool
situation without pulling high tensions. The MRCH also
reduces the rig time and cost in well conditions
conducive to stuck toolstrings.

Operation
The MRCH includes a latching assembly that, in a stucktool situation, can be electrically activated to disconnect the
wireline from the toolstring to allow its fast extraction from
the well.

Highlights

Wireline Release Sequence


1. Toolstring logging up, 2. Pulling does not free
the toolstring, 3. Release mechanism is activated.

Includes safeguards to prevent unintentional activation


Can host a back-up tensile bar weakpoint should the
wireline lose electrical integrity while trying to work the
stuck toolstring free

Benefits
Eliminates the need to pull high tensions to disconnect
the wireline from a stuck toolstring
Eliminates the need for mechanical weakpoints, which
means that:
Heavy toolstrings can be deployed.
Deep and/or deviated wells can be logged in fewer runs.
Higher tension can be pulled on toolstrings that help
prevent them getting stuck.

Specifications
Description
Length
Diameter
Pressure Rating

7-16 Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

Specification
75.3 in.
3

1.91 m

3 8 in.

85.8 mm

20,000 psi

137.9 MPa

Temperature

400 F

204 C

Weight

85 lb

38.6 kg

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Log Heavy Toolstrings While Avoiding a Fishing Job


Electrical Wireline Release Built in the Toolstring
ART Single-Conductor Releasable Tool
Releasable tools allow the safe removal of the wireline
and the tools above the stuck-tool section, eliminating
the need to build a mechanical weakpoint in
the cablehead.

Operation
This type of releasable tools are often inserted immediately
below the cablehead and between the top correlation/
conveyance section and the bottom passenger
tool/gun section.

These sequences depict how two releasable


tools inserted in a toolstring can be activated
individually to release the free part of a
stuck toolstring.

Depending upon which part of the toolstring is stuck, the


top or bottom releasable tool is activated to allow pulling
the wireline and free tools out of the well while leaving a
fishing neck profile looking up on the stuck-tool section.

Highlights
Includes safeguards to prevent unintentional activation
Often used in perforating and downhole
tractor interventions

Benefits
Allows a controlled retrieval of the wireline and free tools
part of a stuck toolstring
Reduces rig time, cost and the risks associated with stuck
tools and complex fishing operations in live wells

Specifications
Description

ART-C

ART-F

ART-T

Diameter

11116 in.
43 mm

2 18 in.
54 mm

2 18 in.
54 mm

15,000 psi
103.4 MPa

15,000 psi
103.4 MPa

20,000 psi
137.9 MPa

350 F
177 C

350 F
177 C

400 F
204 C

Pressure Rating
Temperature
Remarks

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Approved for
Not
ballistic operations addressable

Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies 7-17

Cutting the Wireline Quickly and Safely


Devices to Cut the Wireline Under Tension at Surface or Downhole
HWST Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool
The Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool provides a safe method
to remove the wireline after catching the stuck toolstring in a
strip-over fishing operation. The HWST allows the performance
of logging operations without the use of mechanical weakpoints
or releasable cableheads.

Operation
The HWST is inserted in the drillpipe fishing downhole assembly
above the overshot.
After the stuck toolstring has been secured inside the overshot, the
HWST can be activated by pumping above a pre-defined rate.
After a set of screws, holding the top piston in place, shear, the
piston rushes down to impact a ramp profile that drives a sharp
blade laterally to cut the wireline.
The wireline is then removed quickly from the well to allow
retrieval of the drillpipe toolstring.
WIRELINE
CUTTING
BLADE

Highlights
Only required/used after making the decision to fish the stuck tool
with drillpipe
Does not rely on the integrity of the electric conductors portion of
the wireline
A Baker Hughes proprietary design and the only one of its kind
currently offered

Benefits

This schematic shows the wireline going


through the HWST inserted immediately
above the overshot fishing assembly where
the toolstring cablehead is securely held.

Specifications
Description

Specification

Length

27.5 in. (699 mm)

Diameter

5.75 in. (146 mm)

Max. BHT

450 F (232 C)

Max. BHP

30,000 psi (207 MPa)

Allows a controlled retrieval of the wireline after the stuck toolstring has been secured inside the fishing assembly
Reduces rig time, cost and the risks associated with high tensions
required to break mechanical weakpoints
Provides back up for interventions planned with electrical
releasable cableheads
When used in logging while retrieving operations, it provides an
effective means to remove the wireline from the well if loss-ofcontrol conditions develop.

RWCC and RWC Surface Wireline Cutters


Surface wireline cutters provide a fast and safe method to clear
the wireline from the surface well control tree when there is not
enough time to remove the wireline from the well.

Surface wireline cutters include a hydraulic cutting assembly


mounted around the wireline section going in the well above the rig
floor level and a control hydraulic pump connected through a hose to
the cutting assembly.
To cut the wireline, the operator uses the control pump, while in a
protected area, to increase the pressure on the cutting assembly until
the wireline is severed.
The RWCC cutters include a hydraulic wireline clamp that grips on
the upper part of the wireline before the cut takes place to avoid the
dangerous wireline recoil.

7-18 Deployment Risk Management: Risk-Reduction Technologies

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

8. Hostile Environment Services

VIII
Nautilus

High Pressure/High Temperature


Log in Temperatures and Pressures Up to 500 F (260 C) and 30,000 psi (206 MPa)
Nautilus Extreme High Pressure/High Temperature Logging Instruments
Nautilus is Baker Atlas range of high pressure and high
temperature logging instruments, designed for performance and reliability in the most extreme conditions. New
exploration horizons are extending the limits of borehole
depths. As these limits are extended, the pressures and
temperatures encountered become more challenging.

Operation
Nautilus Hostile instrumentation is available for conditions
up to 500 F (260 C) and up to 30,000 psi (206 MPa). The
service range features the latest technologies including complete formation evaluation, formation testing and sampling.
In addition, borehole seismic, production logging and pipe
recovery services complement the service range.
Nautilus delivers high-pressure, high-temperature reliability
and performance, coupled with the measurement integrity
and accuracy already delivered by our standard range of
instrumentation. To qualify for the NAUTILUS signature,
instruments must be rated above 400 F (204 C) and/or
20,000 psi (137.9 MPa). To determine if Nautilus HP, HT or
HPHT instrumentation will meet the challenge of your next
extreme hostile well, speak to a Baker Atlas representative.
When planning an HP, HT or HPHT logging operation, the
following factors should be considered. Hostile wells are
typically characterized either by a high temperature or a
high pressure component. There is a relationship between
the performance of instruments at temperature and pressure.
Time in the well and time the instrument is powered are
both key factors in the capability of the instrumentation
to perform in hostile conditions. Therefore, conveyance
methods and strategy is a key element of hostile instrument
performance. The performance of the instrument will vary,
dependent on the maximum pressure, the temperature
actually reached and the time deployed in the well (both
powered and un-powered). Any published specifications are
intended as a guide only and performance for specific well
conditions must be modeled and verified with a Baker Atlas
representative.

Services
Formation evaluation
Formation testing and sampling
Borehole seismic
Production logging
Cement evaluation

8-2

Hostile Environment Services: Nautilus

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

9. Data Delivery/Management Services

IX
WellLink

Baker Atlas

Data Delivery Data Management


Desktop Access to Real-Time and Archived Well Data
WellLink Data Delivery Service

Secure desktop access to live and archived wells

The WellLinkSM service is the Baker Hughes web-based


data delivery service. It provides information sharing and
ease of decision-making throughout the life of a well. The
WellLink service provides a more efficient work environment
to make business decisions that impact profitability and
reduce risk. With the leading distribution system to securely
move information to well stakeholders, the user-friendly
WellLink service is flexible and intuitive. The WellLink
service, through the LiveWire, LiveDecision and RigLink
applications, also facilitates real-time collaboration anywhere
and anytime needed to save both time and money.

Operation

LiveWire Real-Time Decisions during Wireline


data Acquisition or Fluid Sampling

With a standard web browser, Internet access and a login


account to the e-business portal www.bakerhughesdirect.com,
clients can access real-time and archived data. Well-data events
are announced via email and text messaging to cell phones or
pagers. 24-hour support centers assist clients and continually
monitor all systems hosted in a best-in-class offsite environment.
Static files uploaded from any data provider are automatically
loaded to WellLink Data Services allowing entitled clients to
download data in their preferred formats immediately and for
years thereafter. Distribution tools further support Blitz, Fax,
Email and FTP to multiple global destinations. The LiveWire
Service supports viewing, interpreting and accessing real-time
Wireline data with results downloadable from WellLink Data
Services. With LiveDecision, you literally have your own workstation at your fingertips. The RigLink Service hosts any real-time
WITS or WITSML data from surface and LWD sensors. Userconfigurable displays, measurement units and threshold alarms
enhance usability and time-critical decisions while drilling.

Highlights

RigLink Real-Time Decisions while Drilling

Real-time wireline (ECLIPSSM system)


Applications to interpret data
Turnkey for all electronic well data delivery and management
Desktop delivery regardless of file size
Platform independent web-browser access
Audit trail of all activity and distributions
Client administration and reporting available
Customizable user profile settings in all systems
Single login for all well data and service information
Comprehensive long-term archive for all wellbore data
Easy integration into 3rd party applications
Access to Baker Hughes experts and 24/7 tech support

Benefits

9-2

Data Delivery/Management Services: WellLink

Manage risk by making confident and timely decisions


through simultaneous multi-user collaboration
Reduce personnel requirements at the wellsite to simplify
logistics and reduce HSE exposure
Keep your experts in the office for higher productivity
Immediate decisions on downhole fluid sample quality
Online access anywhere, anytime in your format

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

10. Geoscience Services

X
Acoustic Waveform Analysis
Geomechanics Services
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis
Resistivity Processing
Diplog Analysis
Borehole Image Analysis
Cased Hole Analysis
Production Log Analysis
Pipe Evaluation

Geoscience
Advanced Acoustic Waveform Processing and Interpretation
Acoustic Waveform Analysis
Acoustic waveform data processing offers a complete
suite of products that provide an accurate determination of compressional, shear or Stoneley wave
velocity measurements. Openhole and through-casing
analyses are both possible. Acoustic waveform
interpretation products are available for fracture
identification and orientation and fluid identification.

Service Description
XX100
XX200
XX300
XX400

Acoustic waveform energy analysis is provided to


compute the amplitude and attenuation of compressional,
shear or Stoneley wave types to identify fractured formation intervals and as a qualitative formation permeability
indicator. Other acoustic interpretation products are
available for determination of the magnitude and orientation of azimuthal and transverse formation anisotropy.
Results of acoustic waveform data analysis can be
integrated with borehole image and caliper logs for an
in-situ stress regime and borehole stability analysis.

XX500

Acoustic Waveform Processing


Slowness processing (compressional/shear/Stoneley)
High-resolution slowness processing (compressional)
Waveform energy analysis

Acoustic Waveform Interpretation


Anisotropy analysis azimuthal/transverse
Permeability indicator (Stoneley)
Calibrated permeability
Fracture evaluation
Fluid identification (ALHI Acoustic Log
Hydrocarbon Indicator)

Service Application
Compressional, shear and Stoneley velocity
measurements determination
Enhanced vertical resolution of acoustic velocities
Acoustic anisotropy and formation geomechanics

Benefits
Accurate measurement of fast and slow shear
slowness allows determination of the magnitude
and direction of anisotropy for stress determination
and fracture identification
Porosity determination and permeability estimation

10-2 Geoscience Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Geoscience
Mechanical Properties Determinations
Geomechanics Services
Geomechanics deals with the deformation and
failure of rocks under downhole stresses.
Whether drilling and/or completing a well, Baker
Atlas offers a complete suite of geomechanical
products that provide accurate solutions for
optimizing drilling and completion programs.

Service Description

XX100

Geomechanical products use highly complex


deterministic models to estimate formation
mechanical properties, in-situ stresses and pore
pressure. The basic dynamic properties product
provides a continuous profile of elastic constants
such as Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, bulk
modulus, and compressibility. These parameters are
derived from acoustic and density data and are the
prerequisites for any geomechanical study. A unique
advanced product available only from Baker Atlas,
LMP (Logging Mechanical Properties), allows you
to compute static mechanical properties and rock
strength directly from log data. Geomechanical earth
models are integrated with operational data from
drilling, completion, stimulation and production.
These integrations provide the most comprehensive
and realistic geomechanical solutions for wellbore
construction and reservoir exploitation.

XX200

Basic Geomechanics Services


Dynamic mechanical properties
Fracture migration prediction (vertical holes only)
Sand production analysis (vertical holes only)
Openhole stability prediction (vertical holes only)

Advanced Geomechanics Services

Casing collapse prediction and mitigation


Wellbore placement in naturally fractured
formations to enhance production

Benefits
Reduced drilling and completion costs
Enhances reservoir production

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Static mechanical properties and strength (LMP)


Bulk and pore volume compressibilities
In-situ stress tensor analysis
Pore pressure prediction
Borehole stability analysis
Critical drawdown pressure (sand production)
prediction
Casing integrity analysis
Critical stressed fractures and fault analysis

Service Application
Mud weight window profiles at specific breakout
sizes; Contour plots delineating stable wellbore
trajectories
Fracture gradient and pore pressure profiles
Critical drawdown pressure profiles for sand
control considerations including selective and
oriented perforations
Geoscience Services 10-3

Geoscience
Analyzing Reservoir Fluids with NMR Data
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data processing
services include the complete range of products to
process MREX data for signal-to-noise enhancement,
vertical resolution enhancement, T1 and T2 cutoff
adjustment reprocessing and borehole signal
correction processing.

Service Description
MREX data analysis products are available for the full
range of applications. New technology has enabled analysis
of the MREX data to produce 2-D-NMR images for fluid
identification and quantification. The petrophysical analysis
service integrates the MREX data with conventional data
to provide a more comprehensive and accurate volumetric
analysis. Reservoir engineering applications include in-situ
viscosity determination, permeability and productivity
analysis. Integration with core data enables accurate
reservoir characterization for permeability and irreducible
water saturation.

Service Applications
e-8

Water line
Water response

D (m2/s)

e-9

Formation evaluation
Saturation determination
Porosity determination
NMR-based permeability
Hydrocarbon identification and quantification
Distinguish gas, oil and water and identify contacts

Oil line

Identify hydrocarbons in low-resistivity zones

e-10

Shaly sand evaluation


Oil response
e-11

32

128

512

2048

T2,int (ms)

D vs. T2,int 2-D NMR image, crossplot of


D spectrum and T2,int spectrum

Quantify hydrocarbon volume in place

Benefits
Accurate formation evaluation and characterization
Direct identification and quantification of hydrocarbons
Reduced uncertainty in reserves estimates
Improved surface handling facilities design inputs

16

GAS

T1/T2,app

Identify non productive hydrocarbons heavy oil and


tar mats

CBW
BVI

OBMF

1
2

32

512

T2,app (ms)

T1/ T2,app versus T2,app 2-D plot, differentiation


of fluids
10-4 Geoscience Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Geoscience
Processing and Interpretation of Resisitivity Data
Resistivity Processing

XX200

A complete suite of products is available to provide


the most accurate determination of formation
resistivity possible for all the Baker Atlas resistivity
devices. 1-D and 2-D inversion processing is
available to obtain a reliable resistivity profile as
well as horizontal well near/far zone interpretation.
Enhanced resolution processing with adaptive
borehole and accelerometer (cable speed)
corrections is also available.

Service Description
The 3D Explorer Induction (3DEX EliteSM) service,
which measures the resistivity tensor in both the
horizontal and vertical directions, was developed to
provide improved identification and quantification of
hydrocarbon saturations in thin-bedded or laminated
sand-shale sequences. 3DEX Elite tensor petrophysical
analysis provides for accurate hydrocarbon volume
determination. The 3DEX Elite resistivity responses
also allow accurate dip and azimuth determination even
in an oil-based mud environment.

Resistivity Data Processing


High-resolution processing for array services
In homogeneous background
Focusing for HDIL
1-D Inversion processing
2-D Fast Inversion HDIL only
Horizontal well near/far zone HDIL only

3DEX Data Processing and Interpretation


Prejob modeling
Deviation processing Dip/AZ
Resistivity processing Rh, Rv

Service Application
Formation resistivity profile determination
1-D, 2-D, or full 3-D forward modeling in horizontal
wells or wells with complex resistivity distributions
Thin-bed environment, low-resistivity pay evaluation
Accurate dip and azimuth determination
Fracture identification

Benefits
Improved hydrocarbon in-place determination

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geoscience Services 10-5

Geoscience
Processing and Interpretation of Diplog Data
Diplog Analysis
Processing and interpretation of DiplogSM
data offers a complete suite of computed
interpretation products for dip magnitudes
and azimuths of bed, fracture planes
and other structural features. Diplogs
can be processed automatically or
interactively for detailed structural and
sedimentological analysis.

Service Description
XX00

The Diplog traces can be displayed as


pseudo-resistivity images for an enhanced
interpretation. The traces may also be
calibrated with a shallow-focused resistivity
curve (M1R1 or RFOC) to generate a highresolution resistivity curve (Rxo) that can be
used for thin-bed formation evaluation. The
directional survey provides a graphic projection
of the well using borehole inclination and
azimuth measurements. The borehole profile
and cross-section can be generated using
either 4- or 6-arm oriented caliper data.

XX00

Basic Diplog Processing and


Interpretation
Automated dip computation
Manual (interactive) dip computation
Generation of resistivity images from
diplog curves
Directional survey
Borehole profile

Image is representative of log

Advanced Diplog Processing and


Interpretation
Structural interpretation
Borehole breakout analysis from
caliper data
Net-to-gross analysis

Service Application
Detailed structural interpretation when used
with seismic data
Thin-bed evaluation

Benefits
Improved exploration and production results
Cost-effective method for verification
and/or enhancement of seismically derived
structural model

10-6 Geoscience Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Geoscience
Processing and Interpretation of Borehole Images
Borehole Image Analysis
Whether you are dealing with clastic or carbonate
reservoirs, highly complex structural settings, natural
fractured reservoir or requiring detailed sedimentological
interpretation, Baker Atlas' imaging analysis service
offers a complete suite of products that provide accurate
processing and interpretation of borehole image data.

Service Description
Different filters are applied to enhance image quality and
accuracy prior to interpretation. Manual (interactive) dip
computations provide for accurate geological feature identification. Structural features such as bedding, fractures,
drilling-induced fractures, borehole breakouts, sedimentary
bedding, etc. can also be easily picked. Cross-sections and
3-D borehole profiles may be generated using two-way
travel time from pre-processed acoustic image data or 6-arm
oriented caliper data from a resistivity borehole imaging tool.

Image is representative of log

Advanced borehole imaging products allow for detailed


structural interpretation and identification of basic structural
features such as formation tops, faults and unconformities.
Results of borehole image structural analyses can be
integrated with seismic data to verify or enhance an existing
structural model. Detailed fracture interpretation includes
description of the dip and strike of fracture sets, apparent
length, spacing and statistical results. A semi-quantitative
calculation of fracture aperture and porosity estimation is
also available. Borehole image sedimentological interpretation from acoustic and/or resistivity images is used to
identify sedimentary facies or lithofacies. Image log interpretation can be integrated with additional wireline log or
core information for advanced reservoir description.

Basic Borehole Image Data Processing and


Interpretation
Single and dual image processing
Manual dip computation from images
Generation of synthetic Diplog curves
High-resolution resistivity curve (Rxo)

Service Application
Borehole image processing and interpretation
provides accurate structural interpretation
when used in conjunction with seismic data
Description of fracture type, orientation,
connectivity, aperture and estimate of
fracture porosity
Thin-bed evaluation
Analysis of sedimentary bedding features,
facies, lithofacies and sediment transport
inferences
Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Advanced Borehole Image Data Processing


and Interpretation
Formation evaluation and productivity analysis via integration
of NMR and conventional logs
Structural/sedimentological
interpretation
Borehole breakout analysis
Fracture system characterization
Net-to-gross analysis
Paleotransport and facies
analysis
Core integration

Benefits
Identification of
reservoir structural
and sedimentological features
Reduced coring and
associated drilling
costs (partial core
replacement)
Geoscience Services 10-7

Geoscience
Cased Hole Formation Evaluation
Cased Hole Analysis
The Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) instrument
has several operational modes for formation evaluation
and saturation analysis. In Pulsed Neutron Capture
(PNC) mode the time spectra from short-spaced and
long spaced detectors are processed to provide traditional
thermal neutron capture cross sectional information to
compute water saturation in reservoirs with saline
formation water. The Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) mode utilizes
inelastic gamma ray spectroscopy measurements to
compute water saturation in reservoirs that contain fresh,
mixed, or unknown water salinity water (e.g. water flood
programs). GasView is a salinity-independent method
that utilizes the PNC-3D mode which incorporates the
innovative 3rd detector in the RPM-C tool to provide
improved gas detection and saturation measurements.

Cased Hole Formation Evaluation

Formation water saturation analysis can be


performed using PNC Sigma or Carbon/Oxygen
measurements (C/O analysis shown).

Dynamic Gas Envelope

0 12000 1

Gas Saturation

150

LMS

Gas Indication

Gas

Gas Flag

Fluid

Gas Curve

GASCurve departure from the wet side


of the DGE indicates the presence of gas,
and the degree of departure indicates
the gas saturation.

PNC Sigma Sw interpretation (2-phase)


C/O Sw interpretation (oil/water)
PNC-3D GasView Sg interpretation
PNC-3D Pressure depletion detection
Advanced PNC Sigma and GasView 3-phase saturation
analysis
Advanced C/O and GasView 3-phase saturation analysis

Special Programs
Log-Inject-Log analysis
Time-Lapse Monitoring
Emulation of openhole logs

Service Application
Measured curve
used for gas
analysis

Wet side
of DGE

WETThe measured curve moving along


the wet side of the envelope indicates
the absence of gas.
Gas side
of DGE

The correspondence of the measured curve


and the DGE water line in wet zones is an
indicator of the integrity of the interpretation
and the validity of the porosity, shale,
and cementation volumetrics.

Cased hole formation and saturation evaluation


Gas saturation analysis
Formation evaluation in presence of tubing strings
Time lapsed fluid monitoring
Enhanced oil recovery project monitoring

Benefits
Reservoir monitoring and management
Bypassed hydrocarbon exploration in abandoned or
workover wells
New well evaluation when openhole logs are not available

The unique interpretation product GasViewSM


provides a new method to quantify formation gas
saturation where conventional pulsed neutron
interpretation methods are ineffective, and can
also be used to identify pressure-depleted zones.

10-8 Geoscience Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Geoscience
Production Logging and POLARIS Analysis
Production Log Analysis
The production log services improves our
understanding of wellbore fluid flow in a wide
range of complex reservoir conditions in a
dynamic production environment. The POLARIS
service, a multisensor multifunction system,
provides a comprehensive range of acquisition
modes in a single logging string for highlydeviated and horizontal wells, and the efficient
PRAL system is used for production logging in
vertical and deviated wells. The analysis of the
acquired data provides a clear understanding
of the reservoir performance.

Production Log Analysis


Single-phase flow profile
2-phase flow profile
3-phase flow profile
2-phase POLARIS analysis
3-phase POLARIS analysis
Hydrolog
Annular Flow Log
Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager 2-phase
or 3-phase
PRISM multi-tracer injection analysis

Service Application
Determine multiphase production profiles in
vertical to horizontal wells
Identify water entry points and accurately
determine injection profiles
Identify waterflow behind casing
Determine borehole fluid holdup
and distribution
Monitoring multiple tracer distribution for
measuring effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing
and well stimulation

Benefits
Valuable analyses for use in formation and
reservoir performance evaluation, monitoring
and management
Borehole diagnostics, identifies casing leaks,
water channeling, other behind pipe waterflow
for planning repair and remediation work

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Geoscience Services 10-9

Geoscience
Interpretation of Pipe Evaluation Data
Pipe Evaluation
Pipe evaluation services provide fast and
accurate analysis of tubular goods, identifying
downhole conditions that can compromise
safety and interrupt production. Inspection of
the production tubing and casing on a regular
basis can provide early detection of problem
areas and allow for timely planning of
remedial action.

Pipe Evaluation
Pipe evaluation using flux leakage
Pipe evaluation using continuous potential
profile data
Pipe evaluation using acoustic imaging
Pipe evaluation using EM induction
(Magnelog service)
Pipe evaluation interpretation report

Service Application
Comprehensive suite of inspection techniques
to measure casing and tubing integrity such as
interior and exterior corrosion, monitoring,
interior wear, parting, splits and casing/tubing
deformation
Measure the minimum and maximum internal
tubing or casing diameters
Identifies casing joints with different weight or
wall thickness
Confirm locations of leaks and perforations
Assess potential for future continued corrosion

Benefits
Evaluate location and extent of casing and
tubing damage
Determines need for casing patches and tubing
replacement to ensure well integrity
On-site data analysis provides fast and accurate
results that reduces workover decision time and
minimizes lost production

10-10 Geoscience Services

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

11. Service Name and Mnemonic Lists

XI
By Category
Alphabetical
Index

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


By Category

Service Category Name

Service Mnemomic

Resistivity Logging
High-Definition Induction Log
Dual Laterolog
3D Explorer Induction Logging Service
Micro Laterolog
Minilog

HDIL
DLL
3DEX Elite
MLL
ML

Nuclear Logging
Compensated Z-Densilog
Compensated Neutron
Gamma Ray Log
Digital Spectralog

ZDL
CN
GR
DSL

Acoustic Logging
Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog F1
Digital Acoustilog

XMAC F1
DAL

Magnetic Resonance Imaging


MR Explorer

MREX

High-Efficiency Logging
FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log

F_HDIL

FOCUS Digital Acoustilog

F_DAL

FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog

F_ZDL

FOCUS Compensated Neutron

F_CN

FOCUS Gamma Ray Log

F_GR

Geological Services
Water-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager
Oil-Based Mud Resistivity Formation Imager

STAR
EARTH

Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log

CBIL

Hexagonal Diplog

HDIP

Caliper Services
Well Geometry Instrument

WGI

Pressure Testing/Fluid Characterization and Sampling


Reservoir Characterization Instrument

RCI

Coring Services
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool

RCOR

Sidewall Corgun

SWC

11-2 Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: By Category

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


By Category

Service Category Name

Service Mnemomic

Borehole Seismic Applications


Velocity Survey
Zero Offset Vertical Seismic Profile

ZVSP

2-Dimensional VSP

2-D VSP

3-Dimensional VSP

3-D VSP

Hydraulic-Fracture Monitoring

Downhole Seismic Services


Downhole Receiver Array Geochain

GCN

Digital Multi-level Downhole Seismic Array

GWV

Multi-Level Slimhole Receiver

MSR

PipeSeis

PSR

Buried Gun Array


Seismic Logging Systems

SLS

Integrated Borehole Seismic Navigation System

TASMAN

Energy Sources and Energy Source Controllers

VS Fusion Borehole Seismic Processing


2-D Imaging
3-D Migration; 3-C, 4-C Processing
3-D VSP Processing, Interpretation and Integration
Q-Compensating Surface Seismic Data
Special Processing
Post-Survey Modeling
2-D and 3-D VSP Inversion
Presurvey Modeling

Cased Hole Formation Evaluation


Reservoir Performance Monitor

RPM

PDK-100

PDK

Production Logging
Production Optimization Log and Reservoir Information Solutions

PRAL

Continuous Spinner Flowmeter

FMCS

Folding Impeller Flowmeter


Basket Flowmeter

Baker Atlas

POLARIS

Production Logging Services

FMFI
FMBK

Nuclear Fluid Density

FDN

Water Holdup Indicator

WHI

Nuclear Flolog

NFL

Tracerlog

TRL

Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager

PNHI

Hydrolog

HYDL

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: By Category 11-3

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


By Category

Service Category Name

Surface Readout Pressure Gauge


Noise (Sonan) Log
Temperature Log

Service Mnemomic

SRPG
SON
TEMP

Pipe Evaluation
Vertilog Service
Digital Magnelog Service
Imaging Caliper Log

VRT
DMAG
ICL

Cement Evaluation
Segmented Bond Tool

SBT

Radial Analysis Bond Log

RAL

Acoustic Cement Bond Log

CBL

Pipe Recovery
Pipe Recovery Log

PRL

Free Point Indicator

FPI

Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator

SAFP

Magna-Tector Free Point Indicator

MAFP

String Shot Backoff


Chemical Cutter
Jet Cutter
Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log

BO
CC
JCS
SON/TEMP

Perforating
Perforating Charges Overview
Dynamic Underbalance Optimization Process

DUO

Propellant Assisted Perforating Products

StimGun

eXtreme Low Debris Perforating Systems

XLD

Low Debris Perforating Systems

PERFFORM

2 and 2 2 Predator Low Swell Guns

XPLS

Horizontal Oriented Perforating System

HOPS

Snapshot CT Live Well Deployment System


Stackable Gun System

SGS

Inter-Gun Automatic Release

IGAR

Model J-Gun Brake

J-GB

Electro-Magnetic Orienting Perforating

EMO

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating


One-Trip Perforate and Completion Systems
Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System
TCP Azimuthally Oriented Perforating
Parallel Perforating System

CTCP
NeoTrip
PDP
TCP-AOP
PSI

Tubing-Conveyed Dual String Perforating System


Guardian II/EBW Perforating Package
11-4 Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: By Category

GDN
Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


By Category

Service Category Name

Service Mnemomic

Wireline Conveyance Systems


Pipe Conveyed Logging

PCL

Tractor Conveyed Logging

WTCL

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging

CTCW

Pump Down Conveyance

TDP

Risk-Reduction Technologies
Well Intervention Modeling Services

CERB

Hydraulic Wireline Jars

EEJ

Mechanical Wireline Jars

ISJ

Powered Capstan

PSW

High-Strength Multi-Conductor Cable

XSMC

High-Efficiency Flywheels

RHRA

High-Performance Tool Positioning

RLSC

Roller Assembly

ROLI

Swivels
Knuckle Joints

SWVL
KNJ

Hole Finders

HFD

Logging While Retrieving

LWR

Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead


Single-Conductor Releasable Tool

MRCH
ART

Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool

HWST

Surface Remote Hydraulic Wireline Clamp and Cutter

RWCC

Surface Remote Hydraulic Wireline Cutter

RWC

Hostile Environment Services


Extreme HPHT Logging Instruments

Nautilus

Data Delivery Data Management Services


Data Delivery Service

WellLink

Geoscience Services
Acoustic Wavefrom Analysis
Geomechanics Services
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis
Resistivity Processing
Diplog Analysis
Borehole Image Analysis
Cased Hole Analysis
Production Log Analysis
Pipe Evaluation

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: By Category 11-5

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


Alphabetical
Service
Mnemomic

2-D VSP
3-D VSP
3DEX Elite
ART
BO
CBIL
CBL
CC
CERB
CN
CTCP
CTCW
DAL
DLL
DMAG
DSL
DUO
EARTH
EEJ
EMO
FDN
FMBK
FMCS
FMFI
F_CN
F_DAL
F_GR
F_HDIL
F_ZDL
FPI
GCN
GDN
GR
GWV
HDIL
HDIP
HFD
HOPS
HWST
HYDL
ICL
IGAR
ISJ
JCS
J-GB
KNJ
LWR
MAFP
ML
MLL
MRCH
MREX

Service Name

Section-Page

2-Dimensional VSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6


3-Dimensional VSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3D Explorer Induction Logging Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Single-Conductor Releasable Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
String Shot Backoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Buried Gun Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Acoustic Cement Bond Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Chemical Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Well Intervention Modeling Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-7
Compensated Neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5
Digital Acoustilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Dual Laterolog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Digital Magnelog Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Digital Spectralog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Dynamic Underbalance Optimization Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Oil-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
Hydraulic Wireline Jars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Electro-Magnetic Orienting Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Nuclear Fluid Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Basket Flowmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Continuous Spinner Flowmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Folding Impeller Flowmeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
FOCUS Compensated Neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
FOCUS Digital Acoustilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
FOCUS Gamma Ray Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
FOCUS High-Definition Induction Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
FOCUS Z-Densilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Free Point Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Downhole Receiver Array Geochain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Guardian II System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Gamma Ray Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Digital Multi-Level Downhole Seismic Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-9
High-Definition Induction Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Hexagonal Diplog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28
Hole Finders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
Horizontal Oriented Perforating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-18
Hydrolog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Imaging Caliper Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Inter-Gun Automatic Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Mechanical Wireline Jars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11
Jet Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Model J-Gun Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Knuckle Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
Logging While Retrieving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-15
Magna-Tector Free Point Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Minilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Micro Laterolog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-16
MR Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17

11-6 Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: Alphabetical

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists


Alphabetical
Service
Mnemomic

MSR
Nautilus
NeoTrip
NFL
PCL
PDK
PDP
PERFFORM
PNHI
POLARIS
PRAL
PRL
PSI
PSW
PSR
RAL
RCI
RCOR
RHRA
RLSC
ROLI
RPM
RWC
RWCC
SAFP
SBT
SGS
SLS
SON
SON/TEMP
SRPG
STAR
STIM
SWC
SWVL
TASMAN
TEMP
TCP-AOP
TDP
TRL
VRT
WellLink
WGI
WHI
WTCL
XLD
XMAC F1
XPLS
XSMC
ZDL
ZVSP

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Service Name

Section-Page

Multi-Level Slimhole Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10


Nautilus Extreme HPHT Logging Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
One-Trip Perforate and Completion Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Nuclear Flolog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Pipe Conveyed Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3
PDK-100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Low Debris Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Production Optimization Log and Reservoir Information Solutions . . . 4-6
Production Logging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Pipe Recovery Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Parallel Perforating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Powered Capstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
PipeSeis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Radial Analysis Bond Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Reservoir Characterization Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
High-Efficiency Flywheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
High-Performance Tool Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Roller Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Reservoir Performance Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Surface Remote Hydraulic Wireline Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Surface Remote Wireline Clamp and Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Segmented Bond Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Stackable Gun System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Seismic Logging Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Noise (Sonan) Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14
Surface Readout Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Water-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Propellant Assisted Perforating Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Sidewall Corgun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Swivels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Integrated Seismic Navigation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Temperature Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
TCP Azimuthally Oriented Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Pump Down Conveyance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5
Tracerlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Vertilog Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
VSFusion Borehole Seismic Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
Data Delivery Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Well Geometry Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29
Water Holdup Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Tractor Conveyed Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
eXtreme Low Debris Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog F1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Predator Low Swell Guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
High-Strength Multi-Conductor Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-9
Compensated Z-Densilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Zero Offset Vertical Seismic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4

Service Name and Mnemonic Lists: Alphabetical 11-7

Index

Service Name

Section-Page

2-Dimensional VSP (2-D VSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6


3-Dimensional VSP (3-D VSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3D Explorer Induction Logging Service (3DEX Elite) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Acoustic Cement Bond Log (CBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Acoustic Waveform Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Basket Flowmeter (FMBK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Borehole Image Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Buried Gun Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12
Cased Hole Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Chemical Cutter (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log (CBIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Logging (CTCW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating (CTCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Compensated Neutron (CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Compensated Z-Densilog (ZDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Continuous Spinner Flowmeter (FMCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Cross-Multipole Array Acoustilog (XMAC F1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Data Delivery Service (WellLink) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Digital Acoustilog (DAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Digital Magnelog Service (DMAG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Digital Multi-level Downhole Seismic Array (GWV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Digital Spectralog (DSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Diplog Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Downhole Receiver Array Geochain (GCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Dual Laterolog (DLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Dynamic Underbalance Optimization Process (DUO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
EARTH Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
Electro-Magnetic Orienting Perforating (EMO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Energy Sources/Source Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Extreme HPHT Logging Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
eXtreme Low Debris Perforating Systems (XLD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
FOCUS Compensated Neutron (F_CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
FOCUS Compensated Z-Densilog (F_ZDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-21
FOCUS Digital Acoustilog (F_DAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
FOCUS Gamma Ray Log (F_GR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
FOCUS High Definition Induction Log (F_HDIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-19
Folding Impeller Flowmeter (FMFI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Free Point Indicator (FPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Gamma Ray Log (GR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Geomechanics Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
GeoWaves (GWV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Guardian II System (GDN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Hexagonal Diplog (HDIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28
High-Definition Induction Log (HDIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
High-Efficiency Flywheels (RHRA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12

11-8 Index

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas

Index

Service Name

Section-Page

High-Performance Tool Positioning (RLSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12


High-Strength Multi-Conductor Cable (XSMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Hole Finders (HFD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
Horizontal Oriented Perforating System (HOPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
HPHT Logging Instruments (Nautilus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Hydraulic-Fracture Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Hydraulic Wireline Jars (EEJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11
Hydraulic Wireline Severing Tool (HWST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-18
Hydrolog (HYDL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Imaging Caliper Log (ICL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Integrated Borehole Seismic Navigation System (TASMAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Inter-Gun Automatic Release (IGAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Jet Cutter (JCS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Knuckle Joints (KNJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
Logging While Retrieving (LWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-15
Low Debris Perforating Systems (PERFFORM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Magna-Tector Free Point Indicator (MAFP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Mechanical Wireline Jars (ISJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Micro Laterolog (MLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Minilog (ML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Model J-Gun Brake (J-GB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
MR Explorer (MREX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Multi-Conductor Releasable Cablehead (MRCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Multi-Level Slimhole Receiver (MSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Noise (Sonan) Log (SON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Noise (Sonan)/Temperature Log (SON/TEMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Nuclear Flolog (NFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Nuclear Fluid Density (FDN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-4
Oil-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager (EARTH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
One-Trip Perforate and Completion Systems (NeoTrip) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Parallel Perforating System (PSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
PDK-100 (PDK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Perforate and Gravel Pack Completion System (PDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Perforating Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Pipe Conveyed Logging (PCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3
Pipe Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Pipe Recovery Log (PRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
PipeSeis (PSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
Post-Survey Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Powered Capstan (PSW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-10
Predator XP Low Swell Guns (XPLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Presurvey Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Production Log Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Production Logging Services (PRAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

Baker Atlas

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Index 11-9

Index

Service Name

Section-Page

Production Optimization Log and Reservoir (POLARIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6


Propellant Assisted Perforating Products (StimGun) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Pulsed Neutron Holdup Imager (PNHI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14
Pump Down Conveyance (TDP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Q-Compensating Surface Seismic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19
Radial Analysis Bond Log (RAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Reservoir Characterization Instrument (RCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
RCI Multi-tank Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8
RCI Single-phase Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Resistivity Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-5
Risk-Reduction Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Roller Assembly (ROLI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12
Rotary Sidewall Coring Tool (RCOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
SampleView IB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
SampleView IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Segmented Bond Tool (SBT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Seismic Logging Systems (SLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13
Sidewall Corgun (SWC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Single-Conductor Releasable Tool (ART) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17
Snapshot CT Live Well Deployment System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Special Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Spring Anchor Free Point Indicator (SAFP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Stackable Gun System (SGS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
STAR Imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
StimGun Propellant Assisted Perforating Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Straddle Packer Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
String Shot Backoff (BO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Surface Readout Pressure Gauge (SRPG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Surface Remote Hydraulic Wireline Clamp and Cutter (RWCC) . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Surface Remote Hydraulic Wireline Cutter (RWC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Swivels (SWVL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
TCP Azimuthally Oriented Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Temperature Log (TEMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
Tracerlog (TRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Tractor Conveyed Logging (WTCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4
Tubing-Conveyed Dual String Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Velocity Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Vertilog Service (VRT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Walkaway VSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5
Water-Based Mud Formation Resistivity Imager (STAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Water Holdup Indicator (WHI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Well Geometry Instrument (WGI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29
Well Intervention Modeling Services (CERB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Zero Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (ZVSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

11-10 Index

Services Catalog Version 2.1; August 2008

Baker Atlas