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Engineering Circuit Analysis

1.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) -0.7822; -0.544;1.681


(b) 4cos2t: 4; -1.665; -3.960
4sin(2t +90o): 4; -1.665; -3.960
(c) 3.2cos(6t+15o): 3.091; 1.012; 2.429
3.2cos(6t+105o): 3.091; 1.012; 2.429

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

2.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)
5sin 300t 5 cos(300t 90)
1.95sin t 92 1.95 cos( t 182)
2.7 sin 50t 5 10 cos 50t
2.7 sin 50t cos 5 2.7 cos 50t sin 5 10 cos 50t
2.6897 sin 50t 9.7647 cos 50t 10.13cos(50t 15.4)

(b)
66 cos(9t 10) 66 sin(9t 80)
4.15 cos10t 4.15sin(10t 90)
10 cos 100t 9 10 sin 100t 19
11.0195sin100t 13.1325 cos100t
17.14 cos(100t 40)
17.14 sin(100t 50)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

3.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) v1 leads i1 by -45o


(b) v1 leads by -45 + 80 = 35o
(c) v1 leads by -45 + 40 = -5o
(d) 5sin(10t 19o) = 5cos(10t 19o) therefore v1 leads by -45 + 109 = 64o

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

4.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

v1 34 cos(10t 125)
(a) i1 5cos10t ; v1 lags i1 by 235 360 125
(b) i1 5cos 10t 80 ; v1 lags i1 by 155 235 80
(c) i1 5cos 10t 40 ;v1 lags i1 by 195 235 40
(d) i1 5cos 10t 40 ;v1 lags i1 by 275 235 40
(e) i1 5sin 10t 19 =5cos(10t 109);v1 lags i1 by 126 235 109

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

5.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) cos4t leads sin4t; sin4t lags cos4t


(b) the first is lagging by 80o
(c) the second is lagging by 80o
(d) the second is lagging by 88o
(e) Neither term lags

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

6.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) cos 3t 7sin 3t 0


7.07 cos(3t 1.4289) 0
3t 1.4289 1.5708
3t 0.1419
t 0.0473 s
Also, 3t 0.1419
t 1.0945 s
and, 3t 0.1419 2
t 2.1417 s

(b) cos 10t 45 0


10t 0.7854 1.5708
10t 0.7854 t 0.0785 s
Also, 10t 0.7854 t 0.3927 s
and, 10t 0.7854 2 t 0.7069 s

(c) cos 5t sin 5t 0


5t 0.7854 1.5708
5t 0.7854 t 0.1571 s
Also, 5t 0.7854 t 0.7854 s
and, 5t 0.7854 2 t 1.4137 s

(d) cos 2t sin 2t cos 5t sin 5t 0


1.4142 cos(1.5t 0.7854) 0
1.5t 0.7854 1.5708
1.5t 2.3562 t 1.5708 s
Also, 1.5t 2.3562 t 3.6652 s
and, 1.5t 2.3562 2 t 5.7596 s

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

7.

(a)

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

t = 0; t = 550 ms; t = 0; t = 126 ms

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8th Edition

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8.

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) v (t ) 2t ; 0 t 0.5s
v (0.25s ) 0.5 V

(b) Using the first term of the Fourier series only,


v(t )

sin t

v(0.25s )

sin 45 0.5732 V

(c) Using the first three terms of the Fourier series,

v(t )

sin t

8
3
2

sin 3 t

8
5 2
2

sin 5 t

v(0.25s) 0.4866 V
(d)

t=linspace(-1,3);
v = 8/(pi^2)*sin(pi*t);
figure(1);
plot(t,v);
xlabel('t(s)')
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Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

ylabel('v(t)V')
title('Plot of v(t)using first term of Fourier series','FontSize',11)
(e)

t=linspace(-1,3);
v = 8/(pi^2)*(sin(pi*t)-1/(3^2)*sin(3*pi*t));
figure(2);
plot(t,v);
xlabel('t(s)')
ylabel('v(t)V')
title('Plot of v(t)using first two terms of Fourier series','FontSize',11)
(f)

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

t=linspace(-1,3);
v = 8/(pi^2)*(sin(pi*t)-1/(3^2)*sin(3*pi*t)+ 1/(5^2)*sin(5*pi*t));
figure(3);
plot(t,v);
xlabel('t(s)')
ylabel('v(t)V')
title('Plot of v(t)using first three terms of Fourier series','FontSize',11)

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

9.

(b)

Vrms

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Vm

110 V 156 V
115 V 163 V
120 V 170 V

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8th Edition

Engineering Circuit Analysis

10.

Chapter Ten Solutions

In this problem, when we apply Thevenins theorem with the inductor as the load, we get,

1
1
4.53cos 0.333 103 t 30
0.4118cos 0.333 103 t 30 V
1 10
11
1 10 10
Rth

0.909
1 10 11

voc vs .

Now for a series RL circuit with L 3mH , Rth 0.909 and a source voltage of
0.4118cos 0.333 103 t 30 V , we get,

iL (t )

cos t tan 1
30
R

Rth 2 2 L2
Vm

0.4118

0.909

0.333 103 3 103

0.333 103 3 103


3
1
cos 0.333 10 t tan
30

0.909

0.453cos 0.333 103 t 30 A

iL (t 0) 0.453cos 30 392.3 mA
Now,
diL
3 103 0.333 103 0.453sin 0.333 103 t 30
dt
0.4526 cos 0.333 103 t 120 V

vL (t ) L

vL (t 0) 0.2262 V
vL (t 0)
0.2262 A
R
is (t 0) iR iL 392.3 mA
iR (t 0)

(b) vL (t ) 0.4526 cos 0.333 103 t 120 V


Pspice Verification:
This has been verified using the phasor in Pspice.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

11.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

8.84cos(100t 0.785) A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

12.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

In this problem, when we apply Thevenins theorem with the inductor as the load, we get,
voc 25cos100t

1 1 2

1 2

2 12.5cos100t V

Rth 1 1 2 1
Now for a series RL circuit with L 10mH , Rth 1 and a source voltage of

12.5cos100t V , we get,

cos t tan 1

Rth 2 2 L2
Vm

iL (t )

12.5
12 100 10 103

100 10 103
1

cos 100t tan

8.84 cos 100t 45 A

Now,
diL
8.84 10 103 100sin 100t 45
dt
8.84 cos 100t 45 V

vL (t ) L

Voltage across the 2 resistor is equal to vL (t ).


Power dissipated in 2 resistor is given by,
pR (t )

vR 2 vL 2

39.07 cos 2 100t 45 W


R
R

Pspice Verification:
This has been verified using the phasor in Pspice.

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

13.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

1.92cos(40t 0.876) V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

14.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Let i be the current flowing in the circuit in the clockwise direction. Then, on applying
KVL, we get,
15i vC 3cos 40t
Substituting, i iC C
30 103

dvC
on the above KVL equation, we get,
dt

dvC
vC 3cos 40t
dt

Let us choose to express the response as,


vC (t ) A cos 40t
dvC
40 A sin 40t
dt

On rewriting the KVL equation, we get,

1.2 A sin 40t A cos 40t 3cos 40t

2
1.2 A
A2 1.2 A cos 40t tan 1
3cos 40t
A

On equating the terms, we get,


A 1.92

tan 1 1.2 50.19


vC (t ) 1.92 cos(40t 50.19) V

Energy stored in a capacitor is given by,

1
wC CvC 2 (t )
2
At t=10 ms,
1
wC (10ms) 2 103 1.712 2.92 mJ
2
At t=40 ms,
1
wC (40ms) 2 103 1.452 2.1 mJ
2
Pspice Verification:
Phasor method is used to verify the solution.

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

15.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

7.02cos(6t 0.359) A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

16.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 50 75 50 cos(75) j 50 sin( 75) 12.94 j 48.29


(b)
19e j 30 19 cos(30) j19sin(30) 16.45 j 9.5
2.5 30 0.545 2.5cos(30) j 2.5sin(30) 0.5cos(45) j 0.5sin(45)
2.52 j 0.89
(c) 2 j 2 2 j 2 8 80
(d) 2 j 2 522 2.8245 522 14.1467

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

17.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 2.88 11.5o


(b) 1 90o
(c) 1 0o
(d) 2.82 + j0.574
(e) 2.87 j4.90

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

18.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 4 8 j8 45.25 45
(b) 45 215 3.98 j 0.35 1.93 j 0.52 2.05 j 0.17 2.05 4.74
(c) 2 j 9 50 3 j 9 9.5108.44
(d)

j
j
340 2
2.3 j1.93 2 0.34 j 2.01 2.03260.4
10 j 5
10 j 5

(e) 10 j 5 10 j 5 340 2 22540 2 174.36 j144.63 226.5439.68

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

19.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 7.79 + j4.50


(b) 6.74 j0.023
(c) 7.67 + j87.5
(d) 2.15 + j2.50
(e) 2.89 + j241

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

20.

(a)

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

2 j3
2 j3
4
4 3.6 j 0.2 3.6183.18
1 890
1 j8

1025 315

j 2 235 0.52 44.04 290 1.58 j 4.02


(b) 5 10 3 j 5
4.32111.46

1 j 1 j 10
j

3 90
5 45
j
(c)

90 0.2135 8.86 j 0.14 8.860.91

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

21.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

88.7sin(20t 27.5o) mA; 2.31sin(20t + 62.5o) V

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8th Edition

Engineering Circuit Analysis

22.

Chapter Ten Solutions

Let iL in the complex form be iL Ae j (35t ) A .

Given, is 5sin(35t 10) 5e j (35t 100 ) A

vL L

diL
d
0.4
Ae j (35t ) j14 Ae j (35t )
dt
dt

vR iL R 6 Ae j (35t

vS vC vR vL A(6 j14)e j (35t


iC C

dvC
d
0.01
A(6 j14)e j (35t ) A 4.9 j 2.1 e j (35t )
dt
dt

Applying KCL, we get,

is iC iL

5e j (35t 100 ) 4.43 Ae j (35t

151.69 )

A 1.129 and 251.69 108.31

iL 1.129e j (35t 108.31 ) 1.129 cos(35t 108.31) A


Pspice Verification:

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

23.
1/2

(62.5) 2 (1.25 ) 2

1.25

cos t 31.3 tan 1


mA
62.5

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

24.
This problem can be easily solved by performing a source transformation which results in
a circuit with voltage source, resistance and inductance.
Given,

is 5e j10t
vs 10e j10t

The steady-state expression for iL (t ) can be found as:

iL (t )

L
cos t tan 1

R L
Vm

2 2

10 0.4
cos 10t tan 1

22 102 0.42
10

2.24 cos 10t 63.44 A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

25.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 75.9 0o
(b) 5 -42o
(c) 1 104o
(d) 8.04 -78.4o

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

26.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 11sin100t 11cos(100t 90) 11 90


(b) 11cos100t 110
(c) 11cos(100t 90) 11 90
(d) 3cos100t 3sin100t 30 3 90 3 j 3 4.2445

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

27.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 9cos(2103t + 65o) V


(b) 500cos(2103t + 6o) mA
(c) 14.7cos(2103t + 4o) V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

28.

8th Edition

(a)

2 j
2.24 26.56
0.45 71.56 V
V
545
545

(b)

620
j V 0.00564 j1 1 89.67 V
1000

Chapter Ten Solutions

(c) j 52.5 90 V 52.50 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

29.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 0; 11
(b) -11; 0
(c) 0; 11
(d) -3; -3

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

30.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) v (t ) 9 cos(100 t 65) V


At t = 10 ms: v (t ) 9 cos 245 3.8 V
At t = 25 ms: v(t ) 9 cos 515 8.16 V

(b) v (t ) 2 cos(100 t 31) V


At t = 10 ms: v(t ) 2 cos 211 1.71 V
At t = 25 ms: v(t ) 2 cos 481 1.03 V

(c) v (t ) 22 cos(100 t 14) 8 cos(100 t 33) V


At t = 10 ms: v(t ) 22 cos194 8cos 213 14.64 V
At t = 25 ms: v(t ) 22 cos 464 8cos 483 0.97 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

31.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 2 0o
(b) 400 -90o mV
(c) 10 90o V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

32.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) Phasor current through the resistor:


Using ohms law, we get:

VR IR
I

VR
130 A
R

(b) At =1 rad/s, the voltage across the capacitor-inductor combination is 0 as their


equivalent impedance is 0.
Z eq j j 0

VR

VC L

(c) At = 2 rad/s,
Z eq j 0.5 j 2 j1.5
VC L 130 1.590 1.5120 V

VR
130

0.67 90
VC L 1.5120

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

33.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 20 0o mV
(b) 31.8 -90o V
(c) 3.14 90o V
(d) 20 -0.1o V
(e) 3.14 89.6o
(f) 20 mV; 0; 0; 20 mV; 21.9 mV

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

34.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) Given:
I10 242 mA
V 40132 mV
1000 rad / s
V 40132

2090
Z
242
I10

The phase angle of 90degrees shows that it is an inductor.


(b) 1000 rad/s

Z L j L j 20
L 20 mH

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

35.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 2.5 ; (b) 50 35o ; 100 35o

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

36.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) The equivalent impedance of a 1 resistor in series with a 10mH inductor as a


function of is given by,
Z eq R j L 1 j 0.01

(b)

w = logspace(1,5,100);
Z = 1+i*w*0.01;
mag = abs(Z);
semilogx(w, mag);
xlabel('w(rad/s)');
ylabel('Impedance Magnitude (ohm)');

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(c)

w = logspace(1,5,100);
Z = 1+i*w*0.01;
theta = angle(Z);
theta_degrees = angledim(theta,'radians','degrees');
semilogx(w, theta_degrees);
xlabel('w(rad/s)');
ylabel('Impedance Angle (degrees)');

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

37.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 1001 -2.9o


(b) 20 90o
(c) 20 88.8o

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

38.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) The equivalent impedance of a 1 resistor in series with a 10mF capacitor as a


function of is given by,

Zeq R

j
j100
1

(b)

w = logspace(1,5,100);
Z = 1-i*100*w.^-1;
mag = abs(Z);
semilogx(w, mag);
xlabel('w(rad/s)');
ylabel('Impedance Magnitude (ohm)');

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(c)

w = logspace(1,5,100);
Z = 1-i*100*w.^-1;
theta = angle(Z);
theta_degrees = angledim(theta,'radians','degrees');
semilogx(w, theta_degrees);
xlabel('w(rad/s)');
ylabel('Impedance Angle (degrees)');

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

39.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 31.2 -38.7o mS


(b) 64.0 -51.3o mS
(c) 20 89.9o S
(d) 1 -89.9o mS
(e) 1000 89.9o S

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

40.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Looking into the open terminals we see that the parallel combination of 20 mH and 55
is in series with the series combination of 10 mF and 20 , this combination is in parallel
with 25 .
(a) = 1 rad/s
Z L j L j 0.02
j
j100
C
55 j 0.02

55 j 0.02 20 j100 25

Z eq
22.66 j 5.19 23.24 12.9
55 j 0.02

55 j 0.02 20 j100 25

ZC

(b) = 10 rad/s
Z L j L j 0.2
j
j10
C
55 j 0.2

55 j 0.2 20 j10 25

Z eq
11.74 j 2.88 12.08 13.78
55 j 0.2

55 j 0.2 20 j10 25

ZC

(c) = 100 rad/s

Z L j L j 2
j
j
C
55 j 2
55 j 2 20
Z eq
55 j 2
55 j 2 20

ZC

j 25

11.14 j 0.30 11.14 1.54

j 25

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

41.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

11.3 -5.3o

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

42.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 3 in series with 2mH

Zeq 3 j 4 553.13
V IZ 3 20 553.13 15 33.13 V
(b) 3 in series with 125F

Zeq 3 j 4 5 53.13
V IZ 3 20 5 53.13 15 73.13 V
(c) 3, 2mH, and 125F in series

Zeq 3 j 4 j 4 30
V IZ 3 20 3 9 20 V
(d) 3, 2mH and 125F in series but = 4 krad/s

Zeq 3 j8 j 2 6.7163.44
V IZ 3 20 6.7163.44 20.13 43.44 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

43.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 30 j0.154
(b) 23.5 + j9.83
(c) 30 + j0.013
(d) 30 + j1.310-5
(e) 30 + 1.310-8

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

44.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

One method is to use the current divider rule in order to calculate i(t). In the given circuit,
there are three parallel branches.
Z eq

1
5 j10 2 j 2
1

2 j 0.67 2.1118.52

Z 2 j 2 2.8345
I Is

Z eq

4 20 2.1118.52 2.98 46.48 A

Z
2.8345
i (t ) 2.98cos(100t 46.48) A

PSpice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

45.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) One possible solution: A 1 resistor in series with 1 H and 10-4 F.


(b) One possible solution: A 6.894 resistor in series with 11.2 mH.
(c) One possible solution: A 3 resistor in series with 2.5 mF.

Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. All rights reserved.

Engineering Circuit Analysis

46.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

One out of many possible design solutions:


(a) At 10 rad/s, the equivalent admittance is given as, Y 1 S . We can construct this
using a 1 S conductance (1 resistor) in parallel with an inductor L and a capacitor C
such that C

1
0 . Selecting L as 5H arbitrarily yields the value of a capacitor as
L

2mF.
Thus, one design can be 1 resistor in parallel with 5H inductor and 2mF capacitor.
(b) At 10 rad/s, the equivalent admittance is given as,
Y 12 18 S = 11.4127 j 3.7082 S . We can construct this using a 11.4127 S

conductance (87.6 m resistor) in parallel with an inductor L such that

j
j 3.7082 S . This yields the value of the inductor as 26.9 mH.
L

Thus, one design can be 87.6 m resistor in parallel with 26.9 mH inductor.
(c) At 10 rad/s, the equivalent admittance is given as, Y 2 j mS . We can
construct this using a 2 mS conductance (500 resistor) in parallel with a capacitor C
such that j C j 0.001 S . This yields the value of the capacitor as 0.1 mF.
Thus, one design can be 500 resistor in parallel with 0.1 mF capacitor.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

47.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

BOTH SOURCES ARE SUPPOSED TO OPERATE AT 100 rad/s. Then,


v1(t) = 2.56cos(100t + 139.2o) V; v2(t) = 4.35cos(100t + 138.3o) V.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

48.

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

(b) In mesh 1, we have I1 2.50 mA .


In mesh 2, we have I 2 1.5 42 mA .
In mesh 3, we have,

I3 I1 ZC I3 I 2 Z L 2I 3 0
3
3
I1ZC I 2 Z L 2.5 10 j 0.4545 1.1147 j1.0037 10 j
I

2 ZC Z L

2 j 0.4545 j

1.004 1.23
0.4843 16.48 mA
2.07315.25
i1 (t ) 2.5cos10t mA

i2 (t ) 1.5cos(10t 42) mA
i3 (t ) 0.4843cos(10t 16.48) mA

Pspice Verification:

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

v1(t) = 928cos(10t 86.1o) V; v2(t) = 969cos(10t 16.5o) V.

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50.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

In the circuit given by Fig. 10.60, we have,


V1 I1 j 30 V2 55(I1 I 2 ) and
V1 I1 j 30 V3 I 2 j 20

On simplification. we get,
I1 55 j 30 55I 2 2.2635 j 9.848
I1 j 30 I 2 j 20 0.1045 j 9.0665
Solving for I1and I 2 , we get,
I1 0.6247 j 0.3339 0.7128.12 A
I 2 0.4838 j 0.4956 0.6945.69 A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

0.809 -4.8o

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52.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Using phasor domain, in mesh 1, we get,


2I1 j10 I1 I 2 2.59
I1 2 j10 I 2 j10 2.4692 j 0.3911

In mesh 2, we get,
j10 I 2 I1 j 0.3I 2 5I1 0
I1 5 j10 I 2 j 9.7 0

On solving eqns [1] and [2] we get,

I1 0.3421 j 0.0695 0.3511.48 A


I 2 0.3169 j 0.2479 0.438.04A
i1 (t ) 0.35cos(10t 11.48) A and
i2 (t ) 0.4 cos(10t 38.04) A
Pspice verification:

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

53.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

2.73 152o A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

54.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Using node voltage analysis in phasor domain, we get the nodal equations as,
I1

V1 V1 V2 V1 V2

0
1 j 3.8
j2
j4

I2

V2 V1 V2 V1 V2

0
2
1 j 3.8
j4

I1 150 15 A
I 2 25131 16.4015 j18.8677 A
On simplifying the equations [1] and [2], we get,
V1 0.0648 j 0.4961 V2 0.0648 j 0.0039 15
V1 0.0648 j 0.0039 V2 0.5648 j 0.0039 16.4015 j18.8677

V2 29.5221 j 29.7363 41.9134.8 V


Matlab Verification:
>> syms v1 v2;
eqn1 = (15+v1/(2i)+(v1-v2)/(-4i)+(v1-v2)/(1+3.8i));
eqn2 = (-16.4015+18.8677i+(v1-v2)/(1+3.8i)+(v1-v2)/(-4i)-v2/2);
answer=solve(eqn1, eqn2, 'v1', 'v2');
digits(4);
V2 = vpa(answer.v2)
V2 = -29.52+29.74*i

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

55.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

1.14cos(20t + 12o) V

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Chapter Ten Solutions

56.

Using phasor domain, in mesh 1, we get,


2I1 4.7 I1 I 2 j 2 I1 I 2 4
6.7 j 2 I1 4.7I 2 j 2I 3 4

In mesh 2, we get,
4.7 I 2 I1 j 0.0562I 2 2 I 2 I 3 0
4.7I1 6.7 j 0.0562 I 2 2I 3 0

In mesh 3, we get,
j 2 I 3 I1 2 I 3 I 2 I 3 0
j 2I1 2I 2 3 j 2 I 3 0

Here, Ix = I3. On solving we get,


I x I 3 1.1104 j 0.2394 1.13612.16 A
ix (t ) 1.136 cos(20t 12.16) A

Pspice Verification:

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

57.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

155cos(14t + 37o) A; 82.2cos(14t = 101o) A; 42.0cos(14t = 155o) A;


71.7cos(14t + 50o) A.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

Chapter Ten Solutions

58.

Using node voltage analysis in phasor domain, we get the nodal equations as,
At node A,

V1 VA VA VB VA VB VA

V2 VB VA VB VA VB VB

0.8
At node B,
0.6

0.4

0.4

j 0.02

j 0.02

j14

j16

Given,
V1 0.0090.5 0.009 j 0.000078 V
V2 0.0041.5 0.004 j 0.0001 V
On simplifying the nodal equations [1] and [2], we get,
0.009 j 0.000078
0.8
0.004 j 0.0001
VA 2 j 50 V2 4.1667 j 49.9375
0.6
VA 3.75 j 49.9286 VB 2 j 50

and on solving, we get,

VA 0.00613 j 0.00033 0.006133.09 V


VB 0.00612 j 0.00040 0.006133.75 V
vA 0.00613cos(500t 3.09) V and
vB 0.00613cos(500t 3.75) V
Pspice Verification:

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

59.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)
Rf
Vo

Vs R j
f
C1
j

A
C1

(b)
R f C1
Vo

Vs 1 R C ( R C j ) ( R C j )
f 1
f
f
f
f

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Chapter Ten Solutions

60.

Using phasor domain, in mesh 1, we get,

j 0.2 I1 I 2 3 I1 I 3 9
3 j 0.2 I1 j 0.2I 2 3I 3 9

In mesh 2, we get,
0.005I1 j1.4 I 2 I 3 j 0.2 I 2 I1 0
0.005 j 0.2 I1 j1.2I 2 j1.4I 4 0

In mesh 3, we get,
j 0.2 I 3 I 4 3 I 3 I1 I 3 j 9 0
3I1 3 j 0.2 I 3 j 0.2I 4 j 9

In mesh 4, we get,
5I 4 j 0.2 I 4 I 3 j1.4 I 4 I 2 j 9
j1.4I 2 j 0.2I 3 I 4 5 j1.2 j 9

On solving we get,
I1 18.33 j 20 27.13132.5 A
I 2 5.092 j 3.432 6.14 33.98 A
I 3 19.76 j 21.55 29.24132.5 A
I 4 1.818 j 0.02 1.82 0.63 A
Therefore,

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Chapter Ten Solutions

i1 (t ) 27.13cos(20t 132.5) A
i2 (t ) 6.14 cos(20t 33.98) A
i3 (t ) 29.24 cos(20t 132.5) A
i4 (t ) 1.82 cos(20t 0.63) A
Pspice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

61.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Left hand source contributions:

5.58 -91.8o V; 1.29 -75.9o V

Right hand source contributions:

1.29 -75.9o V; 9.08 -115o V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

62.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Using node voltage analysis in phasor domain, we get the nodal equations as,
At node 1,
I1 I 2

V1 V2 V1 0
j5

j3

At node 2,
I2

V1 V2 V2
j5

I1 33 103 3 mA
I 2 51103 91 mA
On simplifying the nodal equations [1] and [2], we get,
V1 j 0.1333 V2 j 0.2 I 2 I1
V1 j 0.2 V2 0.5 j 0.2 I 2

and on solving these we get,


V1 0.4694 j 0.1513 493.18 162.14 mV
V2 0.0493 j 0.27 274.46 100.34 mV

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

63.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

7.995cos(40t + 2.7o) + 0.343cos(30t + 90.1o) mV;


7.995cos(40t + 2.4o) + 1.67cos(30t 180o) mV

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

64.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Calculate Thevenin Impedance

Zthevenin j 2 410 3.94 j 2.69 4.7734.32


Calculate Thevenin voltage:
V1 1.524 j 2 1.524 290 3114 V
V2 238 410 848 V
VTH V1 V2 3114 848 4.13 j8.68 9.6164.55 V

Current I1 through the impedance (2-j2) is found as:


Z total 3.94 j 2.69 2 j 2 5.94 j 0.69 5.976.626
I1

VTH 9.6164.55

1.657.92 A
Z total 5.976.63

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

65.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

1.56 27.8o A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

66.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) Thevenin Equivalent


Zthevenin 12 j 34 ( j10)

340 j120
1.67 j13.33 13.4382.86
12 j 24

Using current divider to find the current through j10 branch,


2230 340 j120
Z
12 j 24
29.5522.87 A

I s .Z eq

VTH Voc 29.5522.87 1090 295.46112.87 V


(b) Norton Equivalent

Z norton Zthevenin 1.67 j13.33 13.4382.86


I N I sc 2230 A
(c) Current flowing from a to b

Ztotal 1.67 j13.33 7 j 2 8.67 j11.33 14.2652.57


I1

VTH
295.46112.87

20.7260.3 A
Ztotal
14.2652.57

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b) 259 84.5o V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

68.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Let us first consider the current source only.

Using node voltage analysis in phasor domain, we get the nodal equations as,
At node 1,
IS

V2 V1 V1 V1 V2
1

j1

V1 1.5 j V2 1 j j 3

At node 2,

V1 V2 V2 V2 V1
j1

V1 1 j V2 0

I S 3 90 A
On solving the nodal equations [1] and [2], we get,
V1I 0.9231 j1.3846 V
V2I 2.3077 j 0.4615 V
V1 V2I V1I 1.3846 j 0.9231 1.66146.3 V
v1I (t ) 1.66 cos(20t 146.3) V
Pspice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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Chapter Ten Solutions

Now let us consider the voltage source only.

Then the current flowing in the circuit will be,


Is

Vs
2.1

1.1307 j1.4538 A
2
j

Z
j
3 j

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Using current divider to find the current through 1 branch,

I1

I s .Z eq
ZR

1.1307 j1.4538 0.7 j 0.1

V1V I1.Z R 0.6461 j1.1307 1.3119.74 V


v1V (t ) 1.3cos(20t 119.74) V
Pspice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

69.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) 24cos2(20t 163o) W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

70.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Using phasor analysis, we get the open circuit voltage as,


Voc 10 V
For finding the short circuit current through terminal a-b, we can apply KVL,
10 j 0.25I N j 2 I N j 2I N 0.5 j I N
IN

10
0.4 j 0.8 0.89 63.43 A
0.5 j

Now for finding the equivalent impedance,


ZN

VOC
0.5 j
IN

For a parallel combination of a resistor and a capacitor or an inductor,


Z eq

1
0.5 j
R ( jX ) 1

1
1
2.5 and X
1.25 from which at = 1 rad / s , we get,
0.4
0.8

the value of L 1.25 H

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b) IS leads IR by 83o ; IC by -7o ; Ix by 146o

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72.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

Taking 50 V = 1 inch, from the figure, we get the angle as 122.9. (The figure below
shows for the angle +122.9 only.)

Analytical Solution: On solving,


100 140 120
100 140 cos j140sin 120

122.88

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73.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) VR = 51.2 -140o V; VL = 143 13o V; IL = 57 -85o A; IC = 51.2 -50o A;


IR = 25.6 26o A

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74.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a) VS 1200 V
Z1 4030
Z 2 50 j 30 58.31 30.96
Z 3 30 j 40 5053.13
I1

VS 1200

3 30 A
Z1 4030

I2

VS
1200

2.05 30.96 A
Z 2 58.31 30.96

I3

VS
1200

2.4 53.13 A
Z 3 5053.13

(b) Here the scale is : 50V = 1 inch and 2A = 1 inch.

(c) From the graph, we find that,


I S 6.2 22 A

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b) 0.333 124o

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76.

8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

(b) Thevenin Impedance

ZTH 1 j 2 2 j 3
j2
j6

1 j 2 2 j3
18 j10

4 j 7
20.6150.94

8.06119.74

2.5531.2
Pspice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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Chapter Ten Solutions

Thevenin voltage:
In order to find the thevenin voltage, after removing the capacitor and on applying node
voltage method, we can write the nodal equations as,

At node A,
5 78 VA' VA'

1
j2
At node B,
4 45 VB' VB'

2
j3

1
2

Solving the nodal equations [1] and [2], we get,


VA' 4.472 51.43 V and
VB' 3.328 11.31 V

VTH VA' VB'


4.472 51.43 3.328 11.31
0.4752 j 2.8437
2.88 99.49 V
Pspice Verification:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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Chapter Ten Solutions

Calculate vc(t):
Z c j 3.33 3.33 90
Z total 2.18 j 2.01 2.96 42.67
Vc

VTH Z c
Z total

2.88 99.49 3.33 90

2.96 42.67
3.24 146.82V
vc (t ) 3.24 cos(20t 146.82) V
Pspice Verification:

(c) The current flowing out of the positive terminal of the voltage source is given by
5 78 VA
A. If we apply nodal voltage analysis, we get,
1

At node A,
VC
5 78 VA VA

1
j 2 j 3.33
From (b), we have, VC 3.24 146.82 V

On solving, we get,

VA 2.0348 j3.057 3.67 56.35 V


I 0.995 j1.833 2.08 118.49 A
i(t ) 2.08cos(20t 118.49) A
Pspice Verification:

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Chapter Ten Solutions

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

If both sources operate at 20 rad/s, vc(t) = 510sin(20t 124o) mV. However, in the
present case,
vc(t) = 563sin(20t 77.3o) + 594sin(19t + 140o) mV.

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(a)

(b) Using the voltage divider rule, we get,


VO
j

VS 1 j

90 tan 1

(c)

(d) From the plot of the gain, we see that the circuit transfers high frequencies more
effectively to the output.

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

(b) 1 -90
(d)

Vo
1

Vs
1 2
The circuit transfers low frequencies to the output more effectively, as the gain
approaches zero as the frequency approaches infinity.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis

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8th Edition

Chapter Ten Solutions

One out of many possible design solutions:


Here, the impedance is given as,
Z

22 j 7 4.618 25.65 4.1629 j 2


58

If Z 4.1629 j 2 is constructed using a series combination of single resistor,


capacitor and an inductor, then, R 4.16 and j 2 j L

j
. Selecting L as 200nH
C

arbitrarily yields the value of the capacitor as 0.12pF.


Thus, one design will be 4.16 resistor in series with 200nH inductor and 0.12pF
capacitor.

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