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Lecture 4: Introduction to Gross Anatomy; Skull

Introduction to Gross Anatomy


Objectives
1. Describe the anatomical position, supine and prone position.
2. Use anatomical terms, body sections, body regions, relative positions and directions to describe
location of structures and abnormalities.
3. Identify the body cavities and their subdivisions: dorsal cavity, cranial cavity, ventral cavity, thoracic
cavity, mediastinum and abdomino-pelvic cavity.
4. Differentiate the serous membranes: visceral vs. parietal, and indicate their common function.
5. Name the nine regions and four quadrants of the abdomino-pelvic cavity.
6. Use anatomical terms of movement and laterality to describe action of the muscles: flexion,
extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction, supination, pronation,
eversion, inversion, protrusion, retraction, elevation and depression.
1. Describe the anatomical position, supine and prone position.
Anatomical position is a standard position anatomists refer to when they are describing location of
structures or pathologies. A person in an anatomical position stands erect with their head and eyes
directed to the front, upper limbs by the sides, palms front, lower limbs close together and toes directed
to the front.

A person in a prone or supine position keeps body parts in the same relation to each other as the person
in an anatomical position. A person in a supine position lies flat on the back, face up. A person in a
prone position lies face down.

2. Use anatomical terms, body sections, body regions, relative positions and directions to describe
location of structures and abnormalities.
Some clinical terms are based on Greek or Latin words.

A plane is an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body.


A section is one of the two 2 surfaces (pieces) that results when the body is cut by a plane passing
through it.
Median or midsagittal plane passes vertically through the center of the body and divides body into
equal left and right halves. There is only one median plane. Planes that run parallel to the median plane
are called parasagittal. There can be many parasagittal planes.
Coronal (frontal) planes are passing vertically at the right angle to the median plane. Coronal planes
divide body to the anterior and posterior portion. There can be more than one coronal plane.

Transverse planes are passing horizontally at the


right angle to the median and coronal plane.
Transverse plane divides body to the superior and
inferior portion.
Oblique planes are not parallel to the median,
coronal and transverse planes.
Terms of laterality: Symmetrical and paired
structures occurring on the both sides of the body
or having left and right members are called
bilateral (kidneys, nostrils).
Structures which only occur in one side of the body
are called unilateral (spleen, appendix).
Ipsilateral refer to the structure or event that
occurs on the same side of the body, e.g. injury to
the peripheral nerve in the right arm is causing
muscle paralysis in the right hand.
Contralateral means on the opposite side of the
body, e.g. paralysis of the right arm caused
hypertrophy of the muscles of the left arm.

3. Identify the body cavities and their subdivisions: dorsal cavity, cranial cavity, ventral cavity, thoracic
cavity, mediastinum, abdomino-pelvic cavity.

Cavities are spaces or potential spaces


inside the body.
Two major cavities are ventral cavity and
dorsal cavity.
Ventral cavity is derived from embryonic
gut, in humans it is divided by diaphragm
into thoracic (above diaphragm) and
abdominopelvic cavities.
Dorsal cavity develops from the
embryonic neural tube: in humans it is
divided into cranial cavity that is formed
by the skull and holds the brain and spinal
(vertebral) canal that holds the spinal
cord.
Body cavities are usually lined by
connective tissue membranes. Dorsal
cavity is lined by meninges. Ventral cavity
is lined by fascia and serous membranes.
Serous membranes separate and wrap
organs of the ventral cavity.
Pleura is a serous membrane around lungs. Pericardium is a serous membrane around the heart.
Peritoneum is a serous membrane around the abdominal viscera.
There are two layers of serous capsule: visceral layer is the layer closest to the organ, it is difficult to
remove visceral layer and not damage the organ; parietal layer is the lining of the cavity. The space
between visceral and parietal layers usually contains a small amount of fluid produced by serous
membranes.
Thoracic cavity is filled with lungs and mediastinum - the space between lungs. Heart, esophagus,
trachea as well as important nerves and blood vessels are located in the mediastinum.

5. Name the nine regions and four quadrants of the abdomino-pelvic cavity.
Abdominopelvic cavity is the largest. It is conventionally divided either into four quadrants or nine
regions.
Abdominal quadrants are defined by two planes: median and transumbilical, passing through the belly
button at a right angle to median. (RUQ right upper quadrant, LUQ left upper quadrant, RLQ right
lower quadrant and LLQ left lower quadrant).
Abdominal regions are defined by two vertical midclavicular planes: passing vertically from middle of
the clavicle, and two horizontal planes: subcostal plane, through the inferior border of 10th costal
cartilage (rib) and transtubercular plane through iliac tubercles (RH - right hypochondriac, E-epigastric,
LH - left hypochondriac, RL right lateral (lumbar), U-umbilical, LL left lateral (lumbar), RI right
inguinal, P pubic (hypogastric), LI- left inguinal).

6. Use anatomical terms of movement and laterality to describe action of the muscles: flexion,
extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction, supination, pronation,
eversion, inversion, protrusion, retraction, elevation, depression.

Please learn terms of movement: M&A Fig. 1.4 pp. 5-6; Types of Joints Table 1.2 pp. 15; Types of
Synovial Joints Table 1.3. pp. 16 and Bone Markings pp. 11-12.

Skull
Objectives
1. Identify the bones of the skull: 8 cranial vs. 14 facial bones.
2. Identify the bone markings of the skull.
3. Explain structural and functional divisions of the nervous system: central vs. peripheral, somatic
vs. autonomic, sensory vs. motor.
4. Know the parts of the brain.
5. Identify parts of the spinal cord and location of different types of neurons in spinal cord, spinal
nerves and adjacent ganglia.

1. Identify the bones of the skull: 8 cranial vs. 14 facial bones.


Identify these
bones:
Cranial bones
(neurocranium):
frontal, parietal (2),
temporal (2),
occipital, sphenoid
and ethmoid.
Facial bones
(viscerocranium):
nasal (2), maxilla
(2), lacrimal (2),
zygomatic (2),
inferior concha (2),
palatine (2),
mandible and
vomer.

2. Identify the bone


markings of the skull.

Foramina and apertures: magnum (CN XI, medulla, vertebral arteries and spinal arteries), jugular (CN IX,
X and XI), carotid canal (internal carotid artery), ovale (CN V-mandibular), lacerum, rotundum (CN Vmaxillary), spinosum, stylomastoid, optic (CN II), hypoglossal canal (CN XII), superior orbital fissure (CN
III, IV, V-ophthalmic & max.
Processes: occipital condyles, mastoid process , styloid pcs (of temporal bone); coronoid process
(mandible), mental protuberance, zygomatic arch, pterygoid process.
3. Explain structural and functional divisions of the nervous system: central vs. peripheral, somatic vs.
autonomic, sensory vs. motor.
Structurally, the nervous system consists of two major divisions: CNS (central nervous system) and PNS
(peripheral nervous system). The function of CNS is to integrate and coordinate neural signals and
perform higher mental functions (thinking and learning). The CNS is made up of brain and spinal cord.
Brain and spinal cord occupy the dorsal cavity and constitute the central nervous system. Brain occupies
the cranial cavity. Spinal cord occupies the vertebral canal. The PNS is located outside of the dorsal
cavity. It consists of peripheral nerves (cranial and spinal), ganglia, receptors and enteric plexus. The
function of PNS is to carry signals to and from CNS. Sensory fibers conduct impulses from receptors
(sensors) to the CNS. Motor fibers conduct impulses from CNS to the effectors (muscles or glands).

Motor division of the nervous system consists of SNS - somatic (voluntary) nervous system, which
controls skeletal muscles (soma - body), and ANS -autonomic (involuntary or visceral) nervous system,
which controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscles and glands. ANS is divided into sympathetic and
parasympathetic divisions.
Neurocranium accommodates brain, which is the biggest organ of neural system. Floor of the cranium
has three fossae: anterior, middle and posterior. Please identify the bones that form these fossa and
contents of each fossa.

There are 12 pairs of cranial peripheral nerves, which arise from the brain and exit the cranium through
foramina.
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which arise from the spinal cord and exit the vertebral canal through
the intervertebral foramina.
4. Know the parts of the brain.

Identify major parts of the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, mesencephalon
(midbrain), pons, medulla, pituitary gland, corpus collosum and nuclei in different plans and sections.

Identify the parts of the brain in the following gross Anatomy images and CT scans.

Ganglia (singular ganglion) are


collections of the neural cell bodies
located outside of CNS.
Collections of the neural cell bodies inside
CNS are referred to as nuclei (singular
nucleus).

Blue Box in M&A pp. 498 Fractures of


Cranium