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Chapter 1 Functions and Their Graphs


Section 1.1 Rectangular Coordinates

Objective: In this lesson you learned how to plot points in the


coordinate plane and use the Distance and Midpoint
Formulas.

Important Vocabulary Define each term or concept.

Rectangular coordinate system A plane (Cartesian plane) used to graphically


represent ordered pairs of real numbers.

Ordered pair Two real numbers x and y, written (x, y), which represent a point in the
Cartesian plane.

I. The Cartesian Plane (Pages 2−3) What you should learn


How to plot points in the
The Cartesian plane, named after the French mathematician Cartesian plane
René Descartes, is formed by . . . using two real number lines
intersecting at right angles.
On the Cartesian plane, the horizontal real number line is usually
called the x-axis , and the vertical real number line is
usually called the y-axis . The origin is the point
of intersection of these two axes, and the two axes divide
the plane into four parts called quadrants .

On the Cartesian plane shown below, label the x-axis, the y-axis,
the origin, Quadrant I, Quadrant II, Quadrant III, and Quadrant
IV.
y-axis
5

Quadrant II 3
Quadrant I

1
origin
-5 -3 -1-1 1 3 5
x-axis

Quadrant III -3 Quadrant IV

-5

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


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2 Chapter 1 • Functions and Their Graphs

To sketch a scatter plot of paired data given in a table, . . .


represent each pair of values by an ordered pair and plot the
resulting points.
Example 1: Explain how to plot the ordered pair (3, − 2), and then plot
it on the Cartesian plane provided.
Imagine a vertical line through 3 on the x-axis and
a horizontal line through − 2 on the y-axis. The
intersection of these two lines is the point (3, − 2).
y
5

x
-5 -3 -1-1 1 3 5

(3, -2)
-3

-5

II. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Distance Formula


(Pages 4−5) What you should learn
How to use the Distance
The Pythagorean Theorem states that for a right triangle with Formula to find the
distance between two
hypotenuse of length c and sides of lengths a and b, the points
mathematical relationship between a, b, and c is . . .
a2 + b2 = c2.

The Distance Formula states that . . . the distance d between


the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the plane is
d = √ (x2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1)2 .

Example 2: Explain how to use the Distance Formula to find


the distance between the points (4, 2) and (5, − 1).
Then find the distance and round to the nearest
hundredth.
Explanations will vary. Let x1 = 4 and y1 = 2, and
let x2 = 5 and y2 = − 1. Then substitute these values
into the Distance Formula and simplify.
3.16

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Section 1.1 • Rectangular Coordinates 3
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III. The Midpoint Formula (Page 5) What you should learn
How to use the Midpoint
To find the midpoint of a line segment that joins two points in a Formula to find the
coordinate plane, simply . . . find the average values of the midpoint of a line
segment
respective coordinates of the two endpoints using the Midpoint
Formula.
The Midpoint Formula gives the midpoint of the segment
joining the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) as . . .
⎛ x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ⎞
Midpoint = ⏐ ⎯⎯⎯⎯ , ⎯⎯⎯⎯ ⎟
⎝ 2 2 ⎠

Example 3: Explain how to find the midpoint of the line segment with
endpoints at (− 8, 2) and (6, − 10). Then find the
coordinates of the midpoint.
Explanations will vary. Find the average of the
two x-coordinates and find the average of the two
y-coordinates. These averages form the
coordinates of the midpoint, (− 1, − 4).

IV. Applications of the Coordinate Plane (Pages 6−8) What you should learn
How to use a coordinate
To shift a figure plotted in the rectangular coordinate system by plane and geometric
a units to the left and b units upward, . . . subtract a formulas to model and
solve real-life problems
from the x-coordinate of each point in the figure and add b to the
y-coordinate of each point in the figure.

Give an example of a real-life situation in which representing


data graphically would be useful.

Answers will vary.

Describe a real-life situation in which the Distance Formula


could be used to solve a problem.

Answers will vary.

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
4 Chapter 1 • Functions and Their Graphs

Complete the following list of common formulas for basic


geometric figures.

Perimeter/Circumference
Rectangle with width w and length l: P= 2l + 2w
Triangle with sides a, b, and c: P= a+b+c
Circle with radius r: C= 2πr

Area
Rectangle with width w and length l: A= lw
Triangle with base b and height h: A= ½ bh
Circle with radius r: A= πr2

Volume
Rectangular solid with width w, length l, and height h: V= lwh
Circular cylinder with radius r and height h V= πr2h
Sphere with radius r: V= 4/3πr3

y y y

x x x

Homework Assignment

Page(s)

Exercises

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.