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Narrative Text

Disebutkan bahwa A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks

narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang).

Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken
or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work,
as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration.
(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwaperistiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra,
berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita)
Jika disimpulkan, maka sebuah narrative text adalah teks yang berisi sebuah cerita baik
tertulis ataupun tidak tertulis dan terdapat rangkaian peristiwa yang saling terhubung.

Generic Structure dari Narrative Text:

Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are
introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa,
kapan dan dimana)

Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul /

mulai terjadi dan berkembang)

Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, --- secara baik
"happy ending" ataupun buruk "bad ending".

Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text

Grammar (tata bahasa) yang sering muncul dalam membuat narrative text adalah:
Menggunakan tenses "Past", baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect
continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous. (aturan ini bukan aturan wajib yang
mutlak harus dipenuhi kok. Tidak percaya, tanyakan pada guru bahasa Inggris sobat)
Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat contohnya di bawah ini :
Contoh Narrative Text (1)
Sincere Will Get a Great Return

Once upon a time, there was a kingdom named Auretto, all people lived peacefully there.
One of them was Charlita, the kings daughter who was assumed as the most beautiful
and kindest Princess of Auretto.
One day, Charlita looked blue. Because of that her father got confused. Whats the
matter my beautiful daughter? Why are you so sad? asked King Fernando. Charlita was
just silent. She did not say anything.
Then, King Fernando decided to make a competition to cheer Charlita again. After that,
the palace representative announce: I will make a competition. The aim is to make my
daughter, Princess Charlita to be happy and laugh again. Everyone who can do it, will get
a prize. It will be held tomorrow when the sun rises. Sign: King Fernando.
The following morning, everybody came to the palace, tried to give their best
performance. They seemed happy and laugh, but not for Princess Charlita. She was just
silent and still looked sad.
King Fernando started to give up. No one amused his daughter. Then, there came a
young handsome man. Excuse me King Fernando. I would like to join your competition.
But, would you mind if I took Princess Charlita for a walk? said the young man gently.
As long as you make my daughter be happy again, it will totally alright. said King
Fernando. The young handsome man took Princess Charlita for a walk in a beautiful blue
lake with a green forest around it. Princess Charlita smiled and looked happy after that.
Every body looked happy, too. I know why are you so my beautiful daughter. Now, I
promise I will environment green. I regret for always destroying it. Finally, the
environment around the kingdom became so beautiful and green, full of plants. Then,
the young handsome man got a prize from the king. I will marry you off my daughter.
said him. That is the prize I promise for you. Thanks for keeping our environment well.
Thanks for making my daughter happy again.

Contoh Narrative Text (2)

The Legend of Rawa Pening

Once upon a time, there was a little poor boy came into a little village. He was very
hungry and weak. He knocked at every door and asked for some food, but nobody cared
about him. Nobody wanted to help the little boy.

Finally, a generous woman helped him. She gave him shelter and a meal. When the boy
wanted to leave, this old woman gave him a lesung, a big wooden mortar for pounding
rice. She reminded him, please remember, if there is a flood you must save yourself.

Use this lesung as a boat. The lesung was happy and thanked the old woman.The
little boy continued his journey. While he was passing through the village, he saw many
people gathering on the field. The boy came closer and saw a stick stuck in the ground.
People challenged each other to pull out that stick. Everybody tried, but nobody
succeeded. Can I try? asked the little boy. The crowd laughed mockingly. The boy
wanted to try his luck so he stepped forward and pulled out the stick. He could do it very
easily. Everybody was dumbfounded.

Suddenly, from the hole left by stick, water spouted out. It did not stop until it flooded
the village. And no one was saved from the water except the little boy and the generous
old woman who gave him shelter and meal. As she told him, he used the lesung as a
boat and picked up the old woman. The whole village became a huge lake. It is now
known as Rawa Pening Lake in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.

Pemahaman Singkat Teks Recount

Recount text adalah jenis teks yang digunakan untuk

menceritakan pengalaman, peristiwa-peristiwa yang sudah terjadi pada masa lampau,
pengalaman berlibur, sejarah, atau sejarah hidup seseorang. Recount text juga
digunakan untuk menceritakan pengalaman seseorang yang lucu.
Jadi, tujuan komunikatif teks recount adalah to tell the past event.
Karena digunakan untuk menceritakan the past event, recount text menggunakan simple
past tense. The simple past tense adalah bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk
menceritakan kejadian yang sudah lewat.
Last week I went to Bali for holiday
Yesterday my brother bought a new laptop computer
My father rode his new schwinn recumbent bike yesterday
Perhatikan kata kerja yang bercetak merah. Kata itu adalah verb (kata kerja) berbentuk
past tense.
Generic Structure (Kerangka/struktutur Teks)

Mr. Richards family was on vacation. They are Mr. and Mrs. Richard with two sons. They
went to London. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to the
British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They had booked fourteen days tour. This
includes travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London.
They boarded a large Boeing flight. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. On the plane
the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them news paper and magazine to read.
They gave them food and drink. There was a film for their entertainment. They had a
very pleasant flight.
They slept part of the way. On arrival at Heathrow Airport, they had to go to Customs and
Immigration. The officers were pleasant. They checked the document carefully but their
manners were very polite. Mr. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to
London Welcome Desk.
They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. The
room had perfect view of the park. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Instead of
keys for the room, they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the third floor, there
was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had a variety of food.
The two weeks in London went by fast. At the end of the 14-day, they were quite tired
but they felt very happy.
Orientation membahas who(siapa), what (apa), when (kapan waktunya), dan where (di
mana waktunya). Siapa yang pergi berlibur. Siapa melakukan apa. Siapa melakukan apa
di mana dan kapan waktunya. Orientation merupakan pijakan pertama dan sekaligus
menjadi pengantar cerita.
Events adalah peristiwa-peristiwa yang terjadi dalam peristiwa itu. Kalian dapat
menempatkan satu event untuk setiap paragraf.
Re-orientation berisi kesimpulan, atau ungkapan perasaan penulisnya, atau tanggapan
personal, atau pendapat penulis tentang peristiwa yang diceritakan.
Untuk siswa SMP contoh teks recount yang paling sering digunakan adalah menceritakan
kembali pengalaman pergi berlibur (holiday).
Silakan latih kemampuan anda dengan soal-soal latihan berikut.
Diberikan sebuah teks monolog berbentuk recount tentang suatu event, siswa dapat
menentukan informasi rinci tersurat dengan benar.

Last month SLTP Utama team entered for a tug-of-war contest with SLTP Bangsa. Two
weeks before the contest, the boys of SLTP Utama team started practicing hard. We
must learn to pull the rope together at the same time, said Amin, their team leader.
Only then will our team be strong.
On the day of the contest, the team from SLTP Bangsa arrived at SLTP Utama in a
bus. Everyone was surprised to see that these boys were much taller and bigger than the
boys of SLTP Utama. Well surely lose, said Rano, a member of SLTP Utama.
Dont give up so easily, said Amin. We must try our best. Soon the contest
began. Which team do you think of the winner of the contest? It was SLTP Utama. It was
too strong for the SLTP Bangsa team. Why was that so? You see the SLTP Utama boys
pulled the rope together at the same time. SLTP Bangsa boys, on the other hand, were
not united at all.

Spoof Text - Penjelasan & Contoh


Spoof text adalah salah satu jenis teks yang dianggap paling menyenangkan untuk
dipelajari. Dengan adanya Spoof text, setidaknya siswa yang selalu cemberut saat
belajar bahasa Inggris bisa terobati. Coba tanyakan pada kawan anda, adakah siswa
yang sangat membenci pelajaran bahasa Inggris? Saya pastikan, ADA. Lah, seorang
Nabi saja banyak yang benci, apalagi sebatas bahasa Inggris.
Namun, dengan hadirnya materi belajar spoof text ini, semoga saja berangsur-angsur
kebencian ini bisa berganti menjadi rasa cinta.
Spoof text adalah salah satu jenis teks bahasa Inggris yang isinya mengenai cerita lucu.
Siapa sih yang tidak tersenyum jika ada hal yang bersifat lucu? Orang stress aja kali ya?
Jika narrative text cenderung menceritakan suatu kisah dengan berbagai permasalahan
yang harus dipecahkan; dan jika recount text lebih condong menceritakan kegiatan
seseorang dalam urutan waktu tertentu, spoof text masih berbeda dengan dengan
kedua teks tersebut. Apa sih?

Untuk lebih jelasnya, mari pelajari daftar isi pelajaran spoof text di bawah ini :
Pengertian / Definisi Spoof Text
Generic Structure of Spoof Text
Contoh Spoof Text - Absence
Contoh Spoof Text - Sam Ting Wong
Disebutkan dalam Cambridge Advance Learner's Dictionary Online, ada dua makna
spoof. Pertama, sebagai kata benda, spoof bermakna, "a funny and silly piece of writing,
music, theatre, etc. that copies the style of an original work". Sedang kedua, spoof
sebagai kata kerja, bermakna, "to try to make someone believe in something that is not
true, as a joke."
Dari kedua arti spoof di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengertian spoof text adalah
sebuah teks yang berisi tentang humor meski sebagian teksnya sudah dimodifikasi dari


Generic Structure (Susunan umum) dalam spoof text adalah :

Orientation, berisi pengenalan tokoh, latar, setting dll.
Events, berisi peristiwa atau kejadian
Twist, ending cerita (akhir cerita yang dianggap lucu, kadang tidak terduga)

Report Text - Penjelasan & Contoh

Secara umum, report text adalah salah satu jenis teks yang masuk kategori "factual
texts." Teks jenis ini sering dikatakan sebagai "saudara kembar" descriptive text
sehingga wajar banyak siswa "bingung" cara membedakan kedua teks tersebut.

Sebelumnya, secara singkat dan sederhana, sudah memberikan penjelasan aneh

mengenai perbedaan keduanya [baca: bingung report text atau descriptive text]; lagilagi itu cuma perbedaan kecil dan hampir semua siswa bisa mencerna. Oleh karena itu,
untuk mendalami apa itu report text, yuk kita simak bersama-sama keterangan di bawah

Pengertian Report Text

Generic Structure Report Text
Ciri-Ciri Report Text
Contoh Report Text : Thanksgiving Day
Contoh Report Text : Venice

Pengertian Report Text

Istilah report text sering juga dikenal dengan sebutan informational report. Report,
dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary Edisi 10, diartikan sebagai 1) an account given of a
matter after investigation or consideration. 2) a piece of information about an event or
situation. Jika disimpulkan, secara bahasa report text adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk
memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya
investigasi dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan.

Definisi report text ini juga hampir mirip dengan apa yang sering disebutkan dalam
berbagai buku bahasa Inggris di tingkat menengah, "Report is a text which present
information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic
observation and analyses." [Report adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi
tentang suatu hal dengan apa adanya. Teks ini adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan
analisa secara sistematis.]

Dengan demikian, sebenarnya teks report dan descriptive mempunyai perbedaan yang
cukup jelas, meski nampak keduanya dikatakan sebagai "saudara kembar" sekalipun.

Intinya, dalam report text itu biasanya berisi dengan fakta-fakta yang bisa dibuktikan
secara ilmiah, Oke..

Generic Structure Report Text.

Seperti halnya dengan descriptive text, Report text juga hanya memiliki dua struktur
umum [generic structure] yaitu :

General Clasification; Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan,

keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.
Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities,
habits or behaviors; Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomenafenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun
tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah.
Ada juga beberapa keterangan mengenai generic structure report text, yang meliputi :

General information
Bundles of Specific Information
General information adalah bagian yang menyebutkan informasi umum dari tema tulisan
yang. Sedangkan Bundles of specific information, adalah penjabaran dari informasi
umum tersebut.

Saya sendiri lebih cenderung setuju dengan generic structure kedua; karena hal ini bisa
membuat siswa lebih paham akan cara menulis report text.

Tujuan Report Text

Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki tujuan mengapa tulisan itu ditulis. Begitu juga dengan
report text. Beberapa pakar menyebutkan bahwa tujuan teks report adalah :

Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an
entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants,
countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on.

Jika disimpulkan, tujuan report text adalah untuk menyampaikan informasi hasil
pengamatan dan analisa yang sistematis. Informasi yang dijelaskan dalam report text
biasanya bersifat umum, baik itu alamiah ataupun buata seperti binatang mamalia,
planet, bebatuan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, negara bagian, budaya, transportasi, dan lain

Pola Tata Bahasa dalam Report Text

Setiap tulisan pasti memiliki ciri bahasa tersendiri; jika recount text dan narrative text
cenderung memiliki ciri menggunakan simple past, lalu bagaimana dengan report text?
Oke berikut adalah pola grammar yang umum digunakan dalam teks report, yang
meliputi :
Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns, eg our dog;
Use of relating verbs to describe features, eg Molecules are tiny particles;
Some use of action verbs when describing behaviour, eg Emus cannot fly;
Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, eg Tropical cyclones always begin
over the sea;
Use of technical terms, eg Isobars are lines drawn on a weather map;
Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organise bundles of information; repeated
naming of the topic as the beginning focus of the clause.
Keterangan :

General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup atau mati) yang
bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs >< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat
umum; sedangkan my dog bersifat khusus.
Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking verbs. Seperti to be [is,
am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain sebagainya.
Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam simple present
seperti "often, usually, always" dan lain-lain.
Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi teks report tersebut.
Misalnya tentang "music" maka, istilah-istilah musik harus ada.

Contoh Report Text :

Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace,

and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn.

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North
America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land
which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New
England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada.
Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the
second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the
North America and for three days in Canada.

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey
is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held.
In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are
lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique
silver dishes to mark the occasion.

Contoh Report Text : Venice

Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua,
the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the
Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Bridges, and The City of Light. The
city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic
Sea in northeast Italy.
Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed
by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are
connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of
roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot.
You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly

used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians
travel by motorised waterbuses (vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the major
canals and between the citys islands. The city also has many private boats. The only
gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries
crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.
You can see the amusing citys landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini
del Bovolo, Saint Marks Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural
residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of
Venetian countryside.
They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society.
The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.

Pengertian Descriptive Text

Dalam artian luas, Description, seperti dijelaskan oleh Kane (2000: 352), diartikan seperti
pada kalimat di bawah ini :
Description is about sensory experiencehow something looks, sounds, tastes. Mostly it
is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.
Jadi, jika disimpulkan dari penjelasan Kane di atas, tulisan deskriptif bermakna teks yang
menjelaskan tentang pengalaman yang berhubungan dengan pancaindera, seperti apa
bentuknya, suaranya, rasanya. Kebanyakan teks deskriptif memang tentang pengalaman
visual, tapi nyatanya pengalaman selain dari indera penglihatanpun bisa digunakan
dalam descriptive text.

Namun secara khusus, descriptive text adalah, "...... is a text which says what a person
or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or
thing." [teks yang menjelaskan gambaran seseorang atau benda. Tujuannya adalah
mengambarkan atau mengungkapkan orang, tempat atau benda tertentu]
Jadi, bisa dikatakan bahwa descriptive text ini adalah teks yang menjelaskan tentang
seperti apakah orang atau suatu benda dideskripsikan, baik bentuknya, sifat-sifatnya,

jumlahnya dan lain-lain. Tujuan (purpose) dari descriptive text pun jelas, yaitu untuk
menjelaskan, MENGGAMBARKAN atau mengungkapkan seseorang atau suatu benda.

Generic Structure dalam Descriptive Text

Ketika menulis descriptive text, ada beberapa susunan umum / generic structure
(sebenarnya tidak wajib) agar tulisan kita dianggap benar. Susunan tersebut adalah :
Identification : berisi tentang identifikasi hal / seorang yang akan dideskripsikan.
Description : berisi tentang penjelasan / penggambaran tentang hal / seseorang dengan
menyebutkan beberapa sifatnya.
Ketika kita menulis descriptive text, hal yang wajib kita ketahui adalah cara kita
menyampaikan deskripsi tulisan kita tersebut. Oleh karena itu pemahaman tentang
adjective (kata sifat bahasa Inggris) wajib kita kuasai.

Selain adjective, beberapa struktur bahasa Inggris yang berfungsi sebagai adjective pun
harus kita pahami agar penulisan descriptive text kita terlihat tidak kaku.

Contoh Descriptive Text

Banyak sekali contoh descriptive text yang tersebar di dunia maya. Cara mudah
mendapatkan contoh descriptive text dalam sebuah situs yaitu dengan melihat about us
sebuah situs. Mengapa demikian, karena suatu situs biasanya terdapat penjelasan atau
gambaran tentang keberadaan mereka dalam dunia maya.

Oke, mari kita lihat contoh descriptive text yang belum pernah anda baca (mungkin) :

Contoh Descriptive Text tenang Ibu

My mother is a beautiful person. She is not tall but not short, and she has curly hair and
brown. Her eyes color are like honey and her color skin color light brown, and she has a
beautiful smile. Her weight likes 120 lbs.

She is a very kind person. She is very lovely, friendly, patient, and she loves to help
people. I love my mom, because she is a good example to me. She loves being in the
Church, and she loves sing and dance too.

She is a very good child, wife and mother. She always takes care of her family. She likes
her house to be clean and organized. She a very organized person, and all things in the
house are in the right place. She doesn't like messes.
She always has a smile on her face. She is so sweet and lovely. I like when I am going to
sleep or went I wake up or when I am going to go to some places, she always give me a
kiss, and when the family have a problem she always be with us to helps us and to give
us all her love.

Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Jeruk

Orange, the popular fruit which is easy to find and relatively cheap, in fact contain much
nutrition, which is good for our health. The fruit has widely been known as not only
vitamin and mineral-rich fruit but also containing essential substances, which cannot be
produced by human body. As a matter of fact, those substances are necessary since they
are used in the process of the growth and development of human body.
The non-nutrition compounds in orange can minimize the risk of some dreadful diseases,
such as cardiovascular, cancer, and eyes problems. Unfortunately, for many years
people see the fruit only as the source of vitamin C while actually it also produces
carbohydrate, potassium, calcium, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B, phosphor, magnesium,
riboflavin, another natural chemical compounds.

Consuming orange is also suggested for those who have diet programme since there are
only 60-80 calories in one fruit. Therefore, by having this fruit in daily menu, someone
can reduce his or her weight.

Bagaimana membuat Descriptive Text Keindahan Shangri-La? Indahnya....

Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Yuta, Teman Kelas

Yuta is one of the 150 International students at the ELC of Brigham Young University. He
is from Japan. He grew up in Japan, and he is 19 years old. There are six people in his
family, a father, a mother, three sisters and himself. He is the youngest in his family. He
is also the only boy in his family, but now he is in Provo, Utah, studying English. Yuta
likes the United States very much and he thinks everything is cheap. Yuta thinks his
English classes are excellent and the teachers are professionals. Yuta thinks someone in
his class is noisy so he doesn't like that. In his free time he spends too much time
sleeping, so it seems that he has a sleeping sickness.

Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Provo

I have been in Provo for almost eleven months. I have seen winter, spring, summer, and
fall. Provo's winter is so beautiful. The mountains are covered with a lot of snow. They
look like many beautiful brides wearing wedding dresses, and veils. In spring, Provo
doesn't have many trees; when the snow melts the mountains are bald as strong bald
men. Summer in Provo is very hot in the daytime. Last summer when I was walking
under the sky, it was like walking in an oven; the sun was like a fire that burned my skin.
In spring and summer the weather was always clear. I never used my umbrella. Provo
was like a huge clothes dryer; it is very dry in spring and summer. In the fall the weather
in Provo is very strange. One late September morning when I woke up, the mountaintops
was covered with snow. Provo is a lovely and strange place. I love it very much.
Contoh Descriptive Text tentang Gitar
written by Jeremy Burden

My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar--the first instrument I
taught myself how to play.
It's nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed.
At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a
silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the
wood worn by years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the
Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in
shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the
pick guard fell off years ago.
No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will
always treasure it.


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Definition and Social Function of Anecdote

Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its
purpose is to entertain the readers.






Example of Anecdote text

There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine
children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were
making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally
they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the
whole family member in a new liner to America.

The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America.
However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The
doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being
quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The
family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had

The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship
leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his
son and God for the misfortune.

Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty
Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had
been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.

The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog,
they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked
him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind
a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

Teks anekdot adalah teks yang memiliki fungsi sosial untuk berbagi
sebuah insiden yang tidak biasa atau lucu. Bagian penulis / nya atau
pengalaman seseorang yang memiliki acara unik. Dapatkah kita
mengatakan bahwa teks anekdot adalah cerita lucu atau konyol? Teks
anekdot bisa menjadi cerita konyol atau lucu kadang-kadang. Tapi,
tidak semua harus anekdot lucu. Hal ini tergantung pada kejadian
dalam cerita. Yang penting, anekdot harus memiliki bagian dalam
yang tidak biasa dan pengalaman sejati orang itu. Bagaimana
menyusun teks anekdot? Untuk membuat teks anekdot mudah. Anda
hanya perlu pengalaman atau kisah nyata yang Anda pikir itu tidak
biasa untuk dibagikan dengan orang lain. Berikut ini adalah struktur
generik teks anekdot: abstrak, orientasi, krisis, reaksi, koda. Abstrak
menceritakan kejadian yang tidak biasa akan terjadi dalam cerita. Ia
memberikan sinyal pada bagian unik dari cerita. Hal ini biasanya
ditulis dalam pertanyaan misalnya apakah Anda pernah jatuh cinta?,
apakah Anda pernah kehilangan ponsel? Orientasi merupakan bagian
dimana penulis mengatakan siapa, kapan, dimana cerita terjadi. Ini
memberitahu subjek, situasi dan tempat cerita. Krisis adalah bagian
dari kejadian yang tidak biasa terjadi. Penulis menceritakan kejadian
itu secara rinci. Bagian unik dari cerita ini disajikan dengan sangat
jelas. Reaksi menceritakan bagaimana subjek cerita bereaksi
terhadap insiden tersebut. Penulis harus menceritakan perasaan dan
tindakan subyek menghadapi kejadian yang tidak biasa. Coda adalah
bagian penutup dari cerita. Penulis dapat menceritakan bagaimana
subjek memecahkan masalah dan mengakhiri insiden itu.

News Item Text - Penjelasan & Contoh

News item adalah salah satu jenis "text" yang bisa mengantarkan kita menjadi seorang
jurnalis handal. Dengan mempelajari teks ini, kita setidaknya sudah berlatih untuk bisa
menulis layaknya seorang penulis berita profesional. Oleh karena itu, jangan malas jika
guru sobat menyuruh mengerjakan tugas membuat teks berita berbahasa Inggris, oke?
Ya mungkin saja kelak sobat bisa menjadi jurnalis kelas kakap :)

Namun, jika sobat belum sepenuhnya memahami news item text ini, sobat tak usah
bersedih hati; semoga dengan membaca tulisan ini sobat bisa lebih pintar dari bapak /
guru sobat dalam menulis news item text :)

Pengertian News Item

Generic Structure of News Item
Ciri-Ciri News Item
Contoh News Item

Pengertian News Item

News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are
considered newsworthy or important. (News item adalah teks yang memberikan
informasi tentang kejadian / peristiwa harian. Peristiwa harian ini dianggap pantas
dijadikan berita atau [bisa dibilang] penting)

Artinya, jika ada suatu peristiwa penting yang patut diketahui oleh banyak orang, maka
peristiwa ini pantas dijadikan berita. Nah, teks berita itulah yang dinamakan dengan
news item. Namun, jika ada peristiwa yang tidak pantas diketahui oleh orang banyak,
maka peristiwa tersebut jelas tidak layak dijadikan berita.

Generic Structure of News Item

Ada tiga susunan umum dalam menulis news item, berikut adalah generic structure dari
News item :

Main Events : Kejadian utama yang pantas dijadikan berita.

Elaboration : Penjelasan mengenai latar belakang adanya peristiwa tersebut; orangorang yang terlibat dalam peristiwa tersebut; tempat peristiwa terjadi; dan lain-lain..
Resource of Information [Source] : Sumber berita; komentar para saksi; pendapat para
ahli; dan lain-lain.
Untuk poin pertama, kejadian utama harus benar-benar pantas diberitakan. Jangan
sampai ada hal ga penting dijadikan heboh karena masuk berita, nanti dianggap
pembaca / penonton berita tidak menyukai berita tersebut. Misalnya: Pak Momod Pergi
ke Pasar Membeli Beras.. waduh siapa tuh pak Momod.. :)

Ciri-Ciri News Item

Banyak sekali ciri umum news item text; ciri paling menonjol adalah bahasanya singkat
padat dan tidak bertele-tele. Beberapa lagi diantaranya :
Sering menggunakan action verbs
Dominan menggunakan saying verbs
Banyak menggunakan adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner.
Catatan :

Action verb adalah kata kerja yang menunjukan aktifitas. (lebih jelas lagi baca :
Dynamic Verbs)
Saying verb seperti "diberitakan, dikatakan, dikutip, mengatakan, memberitakan,
Adverb baca : Jenis Adverb

Contoh News Item

Pamekasan student wins math contest in Romania
Alyssa Diva Mustika, a student from Pamekasan Junior High School, East Java, won the
gold medal at the International Mathematics Contest held in Romania between March 22
to 29, Antara news agency reported.

Speaking to journalists, Diva said she was glad that she had
been able to win the competition, which she said had been very tight. Thank God I won.
I will study harder, she said.

Indonesia sent 10 students to the competition in Romania. Diva is not the first
Pamekasan student to win an international science competition. Oktavian Latief, a
student from SMA Negeri 1 Pamekasan won gold at the International Physics Olympiad in
2006. Another student, Shohibul Maromi, won the same award in 2010.

I thank Diva for giving a good name to Indonesia and Pamekasan on the international
stage, Pamekasan Regent Kholilurrahman said as quoted by Antara.

Analisis Contoh News Item di atas :

Paragraf Pertama : Main Events

Paragraf Kedua & Ketiga : Elaboration
Paragraf Keempat : Sources.

Procedure Text - How To Make "Pisang Goreng"

Dalam procedure text, contoh yang paling sering digunakan adalah "Judul Tulisan
Mengandung Kata HOW TO". Biasanya, jenis teks ini hanya berisi simple sentence
(kalimat sederhana) sehingga wajar saja jika banyak siswa menganggap bahwa
procedure text lebih mudah dikarang daripada jenis teks lainnya.

Coba saja sobat bandingkan, pilih mana membuat narrative text atau procedure text?
Hmm.. membuat narrative text dengan tulisan hasil karya sendiri pasti lebih sulit
daripada membuat procedure text bukan? Wuaduh...Meskipun dianggap mudah oleh
beberapa siswa, namun ternyata "konon" masih banyak yang belum menguasai cara
membuat procedure text model HOW TO.

Baiklah, bagi sobat yang belum bisa membuat procedure text HOW TO, silahkan baca
contoh teks di bawah ini:

1 ripe black-skinned plantain or 4 small finger banana (make sure that the banana is
1 egg
1 tsp. sugar
6 Tbs. flour
a pinch of salt

vegetable oil for deep frying

Place flour in a deep mixing bowl. Make a well in the middle of the flour, and add egg,
sugar and salt. Add water little by little. Whisk vigorously until batter is evenly smooth
for coating and not too thin. If it is too thin, add more flour.
Peel plantain or banana and cut in half lengthwise and then cut again with 4-inch width.
Dip into batter to coat generously.
Heat oil in a wok or deep fryer until moderately hot. Place coated plantain or banana in
the wok or deep fryer and fry slowly until golden brown and crispy. This usually take
approximately 10-15 minutes. Remove bananas from oil, drain on paper napkins and dry
Serve while still warm

Hortatory Exposition - Penjelasan & Contoh

Hortatory exposition? makanan apa lagi ya? :) Secara umum, hortatory exposition text
adalah salah satu jenis persuasive writing. Apa tuh persuasive writing? itu tuh, makanan
bule :) Bagi sobat yang sedang atau sudah mempelajari hortatory exposition text pasti
sudah tahu kan? Bagi yang belum tahu, yuk kita belajar bareng...

Kita tinggalkan persuasive writing.. Mempelajari berbagai jenis text lagi... Belajar bahasa
Inggris memang ribet ya? Tapi tidak apa-apa, toh nanti juga sobat mendapatkan manfaat
yang sangat besar. Tidak percaya? Hmm.. coba deh belajar dulu dengan serius, nanti
juga tahu sendiri manfaatnya...

Oke, langsung saja ini nih daftar isi pelajaran hortatory expositon text :

Pengertian Hortatory Exposition

Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
Contoh Hortatory Exposition

Disebutkan dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary, Hortatory termasuk kata sifat (adjective)
bermakna "tending or aiming to exhort" ("cenderung atau bertujuan mendorong /
mendesak orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu"). Sedangkan Exposition bermakna "a
comprehensive description and explanation of a theory" ("Penjelasan dan penjabaran
sebuah teori secara komprehensif").

Jadi secara bahasa, jika disimpulkan, hortatory exposition adalah teks yang menjelaskan
sebuah teori/masalah secara komprehensif dengan tujuan mendorong orang lain
melakukan / tidak melakukan sesuatu.


Generic Structure, atau susunan umum hortatory exposition adalah sebagai berikut :
1. Thesis / General Statement

Thesis / general statement berisi pernyataan pembuka mengenai topik pembahasan.

Sebagai contoh kita akan membahas mengenai bahaya rokok, thesis statement yang
bisa kita gunakan misalnya :

Rokok dapat menyebabkan kanker, serangan jantung, dan impotensi.

2. Arguments

Arguments, Pendapat berisi berbagai pembahasan lanjutan dari thesis statement

secara detail. Akan lebih baik jika argument ini tidak hanya berisi pendapat pribadi
penulis saja tapi juga bisa berisi pendapat para pakar. Mengacu pada contoh thesis
statement tentang rokok di atas, kita bisa membuat arguments pendukung dengan lebih
detail, misalnya :

Argument 1 : Saya mengira serangan jantung yang dialami direktur PT. LaptopButut, Pak
XXX, disebabkan karena intensitas merokok lebih banyak dari pada minum air putih.
(Terus kembangkan paragraf ini lebih dalam)

Argument 2 : Telah banyak dibuktikan bahwa rokok hampir menjadi sebab utama
penyakit kanker. (Terus kembangkan paragraf ini)

Argument 3 : Impotensi seorang bos XXX di kota XXX disebutkan karena kebiasaanya
merokok sebelum tidur. (terus kembangkan lagi paragraf ini)

3. Recommendation.

Recommendation / suggestion berisi saran penulis tentang topik pembahasan. Jika

membahas tentang bahaya rokok, sobat pasti tahu dong apa yang harus disarankan?


Contoh hortatory expostion ini diambil dari buku bahasa Inggris Interlanguage yang
membahas tentang "Masyarakat Indonesia harus menghargai perbedaan budaya demi
Kesatuan Bangsa." Mari kita simak...

Indonesian People Should Value All the Different Culture to Promote Unity of the Nation

Indonesia is a culturally-diverse country. Many different religions and cultures from many
provinces are now seen living side by side in many places. One of the biggest questions
facing Indonesian today is how to deal with a culturally diverse citizenry and then
promote unity.

Therefore, Indonesians should appreciate differences among culture for the following
reasons. Firstly, Indonesia is vulnerable to separation for its archipelago and culture
diversity. Raising tolerance among people is the best way to maintain the unity among
differences. Many ways or cultures of living are equally legal, even if they are not
regarded as normal by some people. If a society claims to be tolerant of personal choice,
then it must respect the personal choice to retain their heritage. Then, unity of the
nation can be preserved.

Secondly, Indonesians must recognize that every culture has different customs and
beliefs. Thus, people are forbidden to make judgments of comparative value, for it is
measuring something unmeasured. A plurality of nations, especially in the modern era,
can allow for cultural development and cultural exchange that benefits both parties. The
cross-cultural understanding among cultures makes the world a better place and
preserves the unity of the nation.

Lastly, raising nationalism is one way to preserve unity of the nation. It is a sense of
fellow feeling between group members. This promotes cooperation and social cohesion
within the group. The sense of social cooperation makes welfare, social security and
medical programs much more likely and stronger.

Cultural differences are sometime a sensitive matter for people. Indonesian people must
teach younger generation about the importance of the cultural identity and nationalism
to promote unity of the nation.

Analytical Exposition Teks

Definisi Analytical Exposition

Pameran adalah teks yang menguraikan ide penulis tentang fenomena sekitarnya. Fungsi sosial adalah
untuk meyakinkan pembaca bahwa ide adalah hal yang penting.
Generik Struktur Analytical Exposition
1. Tesis: Memperkenalkan topik dan menunjukkan posisi penulis
. 2 Argumen: Menjelaskan argumen untuk mendukung posisi penulis
3. Pengulangan: ulangan posisi penulis
Bahasa Fitur Analytical Exposition
Menggunakan proses relasional
Menggunakan bersama internal yang
Menggunakan bersama kausal
Menggunakan Simple Present Tense
Analytical Exposition Text
Definition of Analytical Exposition
Exposition is a text that elaborates the writers idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social
function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.
Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writers position
2. Arguments: Explaining the arguments to support the writers position
3. Reiteration: Restating the writers position
Language Features of Analytical Exposition
Using relational process
Using internal conjunction
Using causal conjunction
Using Simple Present Tense
Contohnya :
Is Smoking Good for Us?
Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year
in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a
quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six
times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the
risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are
smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in
smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking
habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.

Notes on the generic structure of this example of analytical exposition

As we know that both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition are classified as argumentative
essay. Both present argument to support the thesis state in the orientation. This thesis places the
writers position on the essay. From the generic structure, what make big different is that analytical
exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for
Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writers point of view about the topic discussed.
Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this
analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the
writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit.
Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in
narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. In this example of
analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to
support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke
but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.
Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive
paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition
points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is
very good for Cigarette Companies
A. Kesimpulan
Definisi Analytical Exposition
Pameran adalah teks yang menguraikan ide penulis tentang fenomena sekitarnya. Fungsi sosial adalah
untuk meyakinkan pembaca bahwa ide adalah hal yang penting.
Generik Struktur Analytical Exposition
1. Tesis: Memperkenalkan topik dan menunjukkan posisi penulis
. 2 Argumen: Menjelaskan argumen untuk mendukung posisi penulis
3. Pengulangan: ulangan posisi penulis
Bahasa Fitur Analytical Exposition
Menggunakan proses relasional
Menggunakan bersama internal yang
Menggunakan bersama kausal
Menggunakan Simple Present Tense
A. Saran
Dalam pembuatan makalah ini, penulis menyadari masih terdapat kekurangan dan kesalahan yang
disebabkan keterbatasan pengetahuan yang penulis miliki. oleh sebab itu, penulis meminta kritikan
dan saran dari para pembaca.

Secara harfiah, review bermakna "tinjauan, ringkasan, tinjauan ulang." Jika ada frasa
book review berarti bermakna tinjauan buku. Karenanya, review text bisa diartikan
secara harfiah sebagai teks yang difungsikan untuk meninjau. Apa saja yang ditinjau? ya
apa saja lah, baik buku, produk kecantikan, mobil, hp, laptop dan lain sebagainya.

Ternyata review text bisa berfungsi sebagai to criticise an art work, event for a public
audience. (untuk memberikan kritik terhadap suatu karya seni, ataupun lainnya untuk
khalayak umum).

Generic Structure dari Review Text terdiri dari :

Orientation : places the work in its general and particular context, often by
comparing it with others of its kind or through an analog with a nonart object or
event. (menempatkan karya yang ditinjau pada konteks umum ataupun khusus,
biasanya dengan membandingkan dengan karya lain yang sejenis atau melalui
analogi obyek yang bukan karya seni.)

Interpretive Recount : summarize the plot and/or providers an account of how

the reviewed rendition of the work came into being.(meringkas alur cerita "jika
mereview buku" bagaimana cara penyampaian karya tersebut)

Evaluation : provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or

production; is usually recursive.(memberikan sebuah evaluari karya ataupun
penampilan, produksi; evaluasi ini biasanya berulang-ulang)

Sebenarnya, susunan umum (generic structure) review text ini tidak harus sama persis
seperti di atas, mungkin karena alasan "meringkas" pelajaran, jadi ketiga susunan tadi
bisa sebagai gambaran umum saja, oke.
Masih bingung? Yang nulis juga bingung :) Okelah mari kita langsung saja memberikan
beberapa contoh review text, yang semoga bisa menambah pemahaman kita tentang
review text.

Rhymes of the Times By: Harold Matthew Nash
Publisher: Booksurge
Reviewed by: John Lehman

I particularly liked the first few pages of this book where the poet acknowledges those
who have helped him and tells us something about his life. Too often writing is a lonely
task and poetry so personal that it excludes others until they read the final result. But
both poets and audiences are intimately involved in the process. Readers are not
consumers looking for a pair of shoes, but people trying to discover something about
how they feel, as well as understand the emotions of the person writing the poem. This
spirit of openness and participation is right here from the start in this collection.

Harold is one of nine children, raised by his mother. In the Introduction he tells us about
public moments that have shaped his life (Martin Luther Kings I Have a Dream
speech, Muhammad Alis I can float like a butterfly and sting like a bee.) as well as
very private ones like attending the wedding of a girl he was still very much in love with.
This not only gives us an insight into the person behind these poems, it helps us
understand their inspiration and connection to things outside of the words. The Bee in
the Web draws on the butterfly/bee of Alis boast, yet expands on it to a message of
racial harmony as opposed to one of militant aggression and separatism.
There are some great titles (The Martian and the Wino, W Stands for Wrong", Fasten
Your Seatbelt) and lines that make us think (Sometimes I feel that lifes a curse, has
front-wheel drive and no reverse and the very poignant I hate in order to protect
yourselfyou pack a gun or mace. So why dont I say what the hell and hate the human
race.) There are also some bad lines: Her skin is cream, her body is slim. Looking at
her makes the average saint sin.perhaps, but what or who is the average saint? The
book ends with a sweet poem by Charla Angeline Hultmann (and I really like the candor
of her bio) called Gift and giving is the real spirit of this book of poetry.
I will be honest, I am not a fan of rhyme. There is a delight in adjacent sounds rubbing

togethervowels held and savored, consonants clicking in a rowbut easy rhymes

(head/dead; love/dove; moon/prune) tend to overshadow poetic subtleties,
determine word choice and the words themselves lose their meaning, becoming clichs.
But this is the music of this poets generation, and there is no denying that poetry is
more alive, more meaningful and more accessible than it has ever been at any other
time during my life. PS I do love the Osama mama rhyme. In general I think it would
benefit Harold Nashs development to read more of the published contemporary Black

But form aside, this is an honest (courageous and unflinching) look at life todayone we
need to share together for the survival of us all. That is Rhymes of the Times message.
And it is a good one.

Reviewed By mikeandrew



While the 10-inch tablet market is very crowded and highly competitive right
now, when it comes to 7-inch powerful and reliable slates, there are still some
gaps that need to be filled. The Iconia Tab A100 wants to do just that, being a
very interesting, portable and snappy gadget.

Design and display

When talking about 7-inch tablets, the aspect is very important. The Tab A100 does not
disappoint from this point of view, being elegant and classy. The front face is surrounded
by glossy black plastic, while the back of the tablet is a dark gray plastic with Acers logo
in the middle. In terms of portability, the Iconia Tab A100 is also a more than a
satisfying device, being about the same size and weight as the HTC Flyer, for example.
The 7-inch touchscreen with 1024x600 pixels resolution offers great image quality,
contrast and brightness, but does more of a mediocre job when talking about viewing
angles. Still, the display is overall decent and holds the comparison with the HTC Flyer or
the Samsung Galaxy Tab 7.

Performance and software - The Iconia Tab A100 features the already classic
Nvidia Tegra 2 dual-core processor with 1 GB of RAM memory and is therefore at
least as snappy and powerful as any other 7 or 10-inch tablet on the market
right now. The cameras are surprisingly decent, the 2 MP front-facing and the 5

MP rear-facing devices offering pretty much the best image quality you might
hope to find on a slate.
In terms of software, Acers 7-inch tablet is set to be a pioneer, being the first slate of its
category to be powered by the Android Honeycomb OS. Not only that, but it will run on
the latest 3.2 version of the operating system, which means that you will get loads of
apps and snappy performance.

Connectivity and pricing - The Iconia Tab A100 is set to feature WiFi and
Bluetooth compatibility, as well as a micro-USB port and a micro SD slot card. It
would have been perfect if it would have featured HDMI as well, but still it is
pretty decent for a 7-inch tablet.
As far as pricing is concerned, the Acer Iconia Tab A100, which has not yet been
released on the market, will be available for 329 dollars( the 8 GB version) or for 349
dollars( the 16 GB version). This is consistently less than HTC Flyers or Blackberry
Playbooks prices, to name two of the important 7-inch tablets right now.

Wrap-up - While the Iconia Tab A500 is still struggling to become one of the
important names in the tablets world, the from this Android tablet review it looks
like a winner right away. Packing good technical specifications, as well as a
decent display and a revolutionary software for a 7-inch tablet, Acers new slate
also comes at an affordable price tag and will probably mesmerize technology
fanatics all around the world.
Paham? - Wah review-nya keren-keren kan? Maklum lah orang bule yang nulis...
Intinya, menulis review itu seolah kita adalah seorang komentator. Kita boleh
memberikan pendapat kita mengenai barang yang akan kita tinjau. Tak usah ragu, jika
memang barang tersebut tidak bagus, boleh lah sebutkan kekurangannya, namun
ditinjau lebih dalam dahulu, bandingkan dengan produk-produk lainnya akan menjadikan
review kita lebih baik...

Pengertian dan Contoh Explanation Text Explanation text mempunyai pengertian

teks yang mempunyai fungsi sosial untuk menjelaskan mengapa dan bagaimana
sesuatu terjadi. Beberapa alasan terjadinya sesuatu dijabarkan dengan gamblang
lalu dijelaskan pula proses terjadinya sesuatu tersebut. Explanation text
mempunyai tiga bagian. Bagian pertama, menyampaikan fenomena atau kejadian
[statement]. Kedua, menyampaikan penjelasan secara runtut [sequence
explanation]. Ketiga, menyimpulkan apa yang sudah dijelaskan [conclusion].
Perhatikan contoh explanation text berikut ini secara seksama. Tulisan berwarna
merah menunjukkan bagian-bagian teks (generic structure). Where does rain
come from? [statement] Rain always comes from clouds. But where do clouds
come from? How does all that water get into the sky? [explanation] Think about
your bathroom. There is hot water in your bath. Steam goes up from the hot water.
The steam makes small clouds in the bathroom. These warm clouds meet the cold
walls and windows, and then we see small drops of water on the walls and
windows. [explanation] The world is like your bathroom. The water in the oceans
is warm when the sun shines on it. Some of this water goes up into the sky and
makes clouds. The wind carries the clouds for hundreds of kilometers. Then the
clouds meet cold air in the sky, and we see drops of water. The drops of water are
rain. [conclusion] The rain falls and runs into rivers. Rivers run into oceans. And
the water from oceans makes clouds and more rain. So water is always moving
from oceans to clouds to rain to rivers to oceans. So the rain on your head was on
other heads before! The water in your garden was in other gardens in other
countries. Penulis: Fadli Eha ~ Referensi: Developing English
Competencies XII - Achmad Doddy dkk. Interlanguage XII - Joko Priyana
Teks Explanation (Explanation Text)
Posted by Ahmad Fathoni
Explanation text (teks explanation) adalah sebuah teks yang berisi tentang proses-proses yang
berhubungan dengan fenomena-fenomena alam, soisal, ilmu pengetahuan, budaya dan lainnya.
Sebuah Explanation text biasanya berasal dari pertanyaan penulis terkait why dan how terhadap
suatu fenomena yang ada.





Tujuan komunikatif dari Explanation text adalah untuk menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi
dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena-fenomena alam, sosial, ilmu
pengetahuan, budaya, dan lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.










Dalam general statement berisi tentang penjelasan umum tentang fenomena yang akan dibahas, bisa
A squenced of explanation berisi tentang penjelasan proses mengapa fenomena tersebut bisa terjadi
atau tercipta. A squenced of explanation berupa jawaban dari pertanyaan why dan how penulis
ketika membuat sebuah Explanation text. Dalam squenced of explanation bisa terdiri lebih dari satu
Sebenarnya closing itu tidak tercantum dalam generic structure dari Explanation text, tetapi
kebanyakan orang beranggapan bahwa paragrap terakhir dari sebuah Explanation text adalah closing,
padahal itu merupakan bagian dari squenced of explantaion yang berisi tentang langkah akhir yang
dijelaskan pada bagian squenced of explanation.





Dalam sebuah explanation text, terdapat ciri-ciri kebahasaan seperti di bawah ini, yaitu:



Menggunakan Action verbs



Untuk menambah pemahaman anda mengenai penjelasan Explanation Text di atas, penulis sertakan
juga contoh explanation text berikut ini:

Making Paper from Woodchips

Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The
woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a

Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill
the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces
called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage
they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then
Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

Teks Discussion (Discussion Text)

Posted by Ahmad Fathoni
Teks Discussion (Discussion Text) - Discussion adalah sebuah proses mencari titik temu antara
dua pemikiran, pandangan atau pendapat yang berbeda. Discussion bisa di definisikan sebagai
sebuah teks yang berisi tentang sebuah wacana yang bermasalah. wacana yang bermasalah ini adalah
wacana yang memiliki dua kubu antara Pro dan Contra, antara pendukung issue dan penentang issue.
Masalah yang dihadirkan dalam teks Discussion nantinya akan didiskusikan berdasarkan dua poin of
tersebut, Pro dan Contra.

Tujuan Komunikarif Discussion Text

Tujuan komunikatif dari teks Discussion itu sendiri adalah unutk mengetengahkan suatu masalah
atau issue yang ditinjau paling tidak dari dua sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan
atau rekomendasi.
Generic Sturcture
Dalam Discussion text, terdapat empat stuktur kalimat pada discussion text sebagai bahan
pembentuk teksnya, yaitu:

1. Issue
Issue terletak di paragraph pertama yang berisi penempatan masalah atau issue yang akan

2. Supporting Points

Dalam bagian ini, penulis menghadirkan pendapat yang mendukung issue. Di setiap paragraph
supporting point terdiri dari dua komponen dianataranya adalah main idea dan elaborasi atau uraian
dari main idea tersebut.

3.Contrasting Points
Dalam bagian ini, penulis menghadirakan pendapat yang menentang issue. Seperti dalam paragraph
supportin point, contrasting points juga menghadirkan dua komponen pembentuk yaitu main idea
dan elaborasi atau uraian ari main idea tersebut.

4. Conclunlusion or Recomendation
dalam bagian ini penulis menghadirakan kesimpulan atau juga bisa rekomendari dari issue yang telah

Language Features Discussion Text

Di dalam membuat teks Discussion, penulis harus memperhatikan penggunaan bahasa yang biasa
diterapkan, seperti:

Menggunakan simpel present tense

Menggunakan modalites, seperti must, should, would, may, etc.

Menggunakan additive, contrastive, dan casual connection, seperti similiary, however,

furthemore, on the other hand, etc.




Untuk menambah dan melengkapi penjelasan di atas tentang Discussion Text, sengaja penulis
sertakan contoh discussion text berikut ini.
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The
first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England in 1956.

Supporting Point
Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces
around 11% of the world's energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution
as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:

It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.

It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse

It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.

It produces small amount of waste.

It is reliable.

Contrasting Point
On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many
years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is reliable, a lot of money has to
be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.

Conclusion or Recomendation
People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest
growing source of power in many parts of the world.

Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives
Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so
narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past
Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in
chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book;
myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are
constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict,
social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these
conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount
applies series of event as the basic structure
Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.

Generic Structure
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense
Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or
socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals

2. Using action verbs

3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition
Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple
word. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How
should". Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his
examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question" How should
student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince
that the thing should be done
Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim

2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms
Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue
(For/Pros and Against/Cons)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner
Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses

4. Using metaphor
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions
Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged
Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources

Dominant Language Features:

1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.