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# Section 3.

## 2 • Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs 61

Name______________________________________________
Section 3.2 Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs

## Objective: In this lesson you learned how to recognize, evaluate, and

graph logarithmic functions.

## Natural logarithmic function The logarithmic function with base e given by

f(x) = ln x, x > 0.

## I. Logarithmic Functions (Pages 229−231) What you should learn

How to recognize and
For x > 0, a > 0, and a ≠ 1, where x = ay, the logarithmic evaluate logarithmic
function with base a is defined as functions with base a

## f(x) = loga x , which is read as

“log base a of x” .

## The equation x = ay in exponential form is equivalent to the

equation y = loga x in logarithmic form.

## When evaluating logarithms, remember that a logarithm is a(n)

exponent . This means that log a x is the exponent
to which a must be raised to obtain x .

## Example 1: Use the definition of logarithmic function to

evaluate log 5 125 .
3

2.477121255

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

62 Chapter 3 • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## Complete the following properties of logarithms:

1) log a 1 = 0 2) log a a = 1

x=7

## II. Graphs of Logarithmic Functions (Pages 231−232)

What you should learn
To sketch the graph of y = log a x , you can use the fact that . . . How to graph logarithmic
functions
the graphs of inverse functions are reflections of each other in
the line y = x.

## For a > 1, is the graph of y = log a x increasing or decreasing

over its domain? Increasing

## (0, ∞) , the range is (− ∞, ∞) , and

the x-intercept is (1, 0) .

asymptote.

y
5

x
-5 -3 -1-1 1 3 5

-3

-5

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

Section 3.2 • Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs 63
Name______________________________________________
III. The Natural Logarithmic Function (Pages 233−234) What you should learn
How to recognize,
The natural logarithm is written without a base; the base is evaluate, and graph
understood to be e . natural logarithmic
function
Complete the following properties of natural logarithms:
1) ln 1 = 0 2) ln e = 1

3) ln e x = x and e ln x = x
4) If ln x = ln y , then x=y .

2.302585093

## Example 6: Find the domain of the function f ( x) = ln( x + 3) .

(−3, ∞)

IV. Applications of Logarithmic Functions (Page 235) What you should learn
How to use logarithmic
Describe a real-life situation in which logarithms are used. functions to model and
solve real-life

## Example 7: A principal P, invested at 6% interest and

compounded continuously, increases to an amount
K times the original principal after t years, where t
ln K
is given by t = . How long will it take the
0.06
original investment to double in value? To triple in
value?
11.55 years; 18.31 years

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

64 Chapter 3 • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

y y y

x x x

Homework Assignment

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Exercises