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Section 3.

2 • Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs 61


Name______________________________________________
Section 3.2 Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs

Objective: In this lesson you learned how to recognize, evaluate, and


graph logarithmic functions.

Important Vocabulary Define each term or concept.

Common logarithmic function The logarithmic function with base 10.

Natural logarithmic function The logarithmic function with base e given by


f(x) = ln x, x > 0.

I. Logarithmic Functions (Pages 229−231) What you should learn


How to recognize and
For x > 0, a > 0, and a ≠ 1, where x = ay, the logarithmic evaluate logarithmic
function with base a is defined as functions with base a

f(x) = loga x , which is read as


“log base a of x” .

The logarithmic function with base a is the inverse

of the exponential function f ( x) = a x .

The equation x = ay in exponential form is equivalent to the


equation y = loga x in logarithmic form.

When evaluating logarithms, remember that a logarithm is a(n)


exponent . This means that log a x is the exponent
to which a must be raised to obtain x .

Example 1: Use the definition of logarithmic function to


evaluate log 5 125 .
3

Example 2: Use a calculator to evaluate log10 300 .


2.477121255

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
62 Chapter 3 • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Complete the following properties of logarithms:


1) log a 1 = 0 2) log a a = 1

3) log a a x = x and a log a x = x

4) If log a x = log a y , then x=y .

Example 3: Solve the equation log 7 x = 1 for x.


x=7

II. Graphs of Logarithmic Functions (Pages 231−232)


What you should learn
To sketch the graph of y = log a x , you can use the fact that . . . How to graph logarithmic
functions
the graphs of inverse functions are reflections of each other in
the line y = x.

For a > 1, is the graph of y = log a x increasing or decreasing


over its domain? Increasing

For the graph of y = log a x , a > 1, the domain is

(0, ∞) , the range is (− ∞, ∞) , and


the x-intercept is (1, 0) .

Also, the graph has the y-axis as a vertical


asymptote.

Example 4: Sketch the graph of the function f ( x) = log 3 x .


y
5

x
-5 -3 -1-1 1 3 5

-3

-5

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Section 3.2 • Logarithmic Functions and Their Graphs 63
Name______________________________________________
III. The Natural Logarithmic Function (Pages 233−234) What you should learn
How to recognize,
The natural logarithm is written without a base; the base is evaluate, and graph
understood to be e . natural logarithmic
function
Complete the following properties of natural logarithms:
1) ln 1 = 0 2) ln e = 1

3) ln e x = x and e ln x = x
4) If ln x = ln y , then x=y .

Example 5: Use a calculator to evaluate ln 10 .


2.302585093

Example 6: Find the domain of the function f ( x) = ln( x + 3) .


(−3, ∞)

IV. Applications of Logarithmic Functions (Page 235) What you should learn
How to use logarithmic
Describe a real-life situation in which logarithms are used. functions to model and
solve real-life
Answers will vary. applications

Example 7: A principal P, invested at 6% interest and


compounded continuously, increases to an amount
K times the original principal after t years, where t
ln K
is given by t = . How long will it take the
0.06
original investment to double in value? To triple in
value?
11.55 years; 18.31 years

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
64 Chapter 3 • Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Additional notes

y y y

x x x

Homework Assignment

Page(s)

Exercises

Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.