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Rule 6 - Safe speed

Rule 6 - Safe speed


Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she
can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be
stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among
those taken into account:
(a) By all vessels:
i. the state of visibility.
ii. the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or
any other vessels;
iii. the manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to
stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
(iv) at night the presence of background light such as from shore
lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
iv. the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of
navigational hazards;
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v. the draught in relation to the available depth of water.

Rule 6 - Safe speed


(b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
i. the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar
equipment;
ii. any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
iii. the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other
sources of interference;
iv. the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects
may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
v. the number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
vi. the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible
when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or other
objects in the vicinity.

Rule 6 - Safe speed

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


n

Safe speed
Difficult to define. In practice:
A speed whereby proper and effective
action can be taken to avoid collision
A speed whereby the vessel can be
stopped within a distance appropriate to
the prevailing circumstances and
conditions
It applies to:
n

All vessels and at all times


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Rule 6 - Safe speed


All vessels
Power-driven vessels, sailing vessels, large and small vessels, fast and slow
vessels, etc.

Rule 6 - Safe speed


At all times
By day as well as at night
In clear weather
In restricted visibility
In open seas
In local waters
Etc.
Thus: WHENEVER NECESSARY but ESPECIALLY
In restricted visibility
In areas of high traffic density
Where frequent manoeuvres are required
In accordance with the local prevailing circumstances and conditions

If speed is not reduced, put at least engines on stand-by

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels

Rule 6 (a)

The state of visibility


The traffic density
Manoeuvrability of the vessel
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n

Stopping distance
Turning ability

Background lights
The state of wind, sea and current
The proximity of navigational hazards
The draught in relation to the available depth of
water
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Interaction
Squat

Rule 6 - Safe speed


n

By all vessels
The State of Visibility

Rule 6, (a) (i)

A rough rule for maintaining a safe speed could be the


visibility of the sidelights:
Vessels of 50 m or more in length: 3 miles
Vessels between 12 m and 50 m in length: 2 miles
Vessels of less than 12 m in length: 1 mile
Safe speed will also be influenced by the density of the visibility and
the manoeuvrability of the vessel
The more the visibility is restricted, the more your speed should be restricted

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels
The state of visibility

Rule 6, (a) (i)

In certain circumstances the speed can be :


Too high: restricted visibility
heavy traffic areas
Too low: steering may be difficult or impossible
excessive drift, due to current and/or wind
(especially in narrow channels)

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels
The Traffic Density

Rule 6, (a) (ii)

Light or heavy traffic


Traffic separation schemes
Number of fishing vessels in the vicinity
The proximity of a convoy of warships
Vessels at anchor
Concentration of pleasure crafts
Etc.

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels
The manoeuvrability of the vessel

Rule 6, (a) (iii)

The type of engine: steam, diesel, turbine, .


The power of the engine
Fast or slow vessel
Manoeuvrability of the vessel with regard to:

loading
draught
trim
etc.
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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels

Rule 6 (a)

STOPPING DISTANCE
and
STOPPING TIME
(Rule 6, (a) (iii))

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STOPPING DISTANCE - STOPPING TIME


n

The stopping distance is the distance that a vessel with her


rudder amidships and her engines full ahead, will run from
the moment her engines are put to full astern until she
comes to a complete rest over the ground. The time taken
to accomplish this is called stopping time
Stopping distance and stopping time must:
Be expressed in Ships lengths (L) or m. and in min. and
secs
Be clearly exposed on the bridge
The water resistance, at a constant speed is equal to the
power of the engines and, as a rough estimate, that the
water resistance is proportional to the square of the speed
(V2)
If the speed of a vessel, equal to 16 knots, is reduced to
8 knots only of the power is necessary to maintain
that speed
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STOPPING DISTANCE - STOPPING TIME


n

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Suppose a vessel with a speed of 16 knots with her engines


at the average power of 100%. The water resistance in that
case is also equal to 100%. The engines are stopped and
the vessel is continuing to move on her own inertia with her
helm at midships.
When the vessel has slowed down to 8 knots the water
resistance will be equal to 25% of the initial water
resistance. When she reaches a speed of 4 knots, the water
resistance will be equal to only 0,0625 % and at a speed of
2 knots, 0,015625% of the initial water resistance.
In other words, since R = V2 where R is the resistance of
the water and V the speed in knots,
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=
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256
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1
0

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STOPPING DISTANCE - STOPPING TIME


n

The Figure shows how


drastically the resistance of
the water drops with a
decrease in speed. At a speed
less than 8 knots the water
resistance is so small that the
vessel will continue to move
on her own inertia for quite a
long time.
If the engines are put to full
astern instead of simply being
stopped, the speed pattern
will be quite different.
Suppose that a ship with an
average speed of 14 knots is
temporary moving at a speed
of 7 knots (adverse weather,
bad visibility, etc.), thus to
half her speed. Her stopping
time will, in that case, also be
reduced to half its value.

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STOPPING DISTANCE - STOPPING TIME


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GENERAL REMARKS
The stopping distance depends for a great deal on the proportion between
the propeller power ahead and astern.
The power of a turbine steam engine, working astern is about 70 % of its
power working ahead.
When applying astern propulsion to stop a ship, the ship may be
considered as being stopped when the wake reaches the middle of the
ship. Another way to check when a vessel is stopped is to observe the
cooling water of the engines which must produce a stationary pool.
When the stopping time and the speed of a vessel are known, it is quite
easy to determine the stopping distance.
When considering the stopping distance, take into account the distance
ran from the time the chadburn is put on full astern and that the propeller
actually starts to turn astern. The engineer is not always close to the
manoeuvring board and a whole minute can elapse before the propeller
actually turns in reverse direction.
Elements such as the wind, the state of the sea, the depth of water should
be taken into account when considering the stopping distance and the
stopping time.
Keep in mind that when astern power is applied, the vessel will not stay on
her original course but the bow will turn either to starboard or to port
depending on the type of propeller used. For instance, with a right hand
fixed propeller, the stern will move to port and the bow to starboard.
When the vessel has come to a complete rest, the vessel may well have
turned over 90.

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Rule 6 - Safe speed


By all vessels

TURNING CIRCLE
Rule 6, (a) (iii)

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TURNING CIRCLE
n

The turning circle of a vessel is the circle the vessel will


describe when her helm is put, hard over starboard or hard
over port, usually with her engines full ahead.
The determination of the turning circle of a vessel is
normally carried out during the sea trials of the vessel prior
to handover from the builders to the owners.
The turning circle, together with the stopping distance, are
placed on board of the vessel in the trial papers, so that
they can be consulted by the ships Master, the watch
officers and eventually the pilots.
With regard to the turning circle the following statements
are usually stated in the trial papers:

the advance of the vessel;

the transfer of the vessel;

the tactical diameter that the vessel scribes;

the final diameter that that the vessel has scribed.

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