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FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS

UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS


SBI 3013
ASSIGNMENT 2

TITLE/TOPIC: BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND


LECTURER: DR AZMI BIN IBRAHIM

NAME

MATRIC NO

LECTURE GROUP

NADIRAH BINTI ZAINAL ABIDIN

D20141066914

NUR LIYANA BINTI A RAZAK

D20141066900

ENGAGEMENT

How data logger can measure BOD level in water?


OBJECTIVE :
1. To identify the BOD using data logger.
2. To determine biochemical oxygen demand in the given water sample.
3. To perform a basic experiment to determine the water quality of a given system based on
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
4. To determine the most polluted water sample.
HYPOTHESIS :
The higher BOD value the more polluted water sample
VARIABLES :
1. Manipulated : sample of water
2. Responding : Dissolved oxygen value
3. Constant : Volume of water sample
APPARATUS :
Beaker
D.O probes @ dissolves oxygen meter ( sensor)
computer with data logger
Spreadsheet Program
MATERIALS :
Tasik Proton City water, drain water, distilled water, aquarium water, pipe water
PROCEDURE :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

5 beakers were labelling with A, B, C, D and E


100 mL of Tasik Proton City water are collected and pour into beaker A
The D.O probe was placed in the beaker A to read the initial D.O concentration directly
The result was recorded in Data Logger Spreadsheet Program
Steps 1 to 4 were repeated by using different sample of water which are the drain water, distilled
water, aquarium and pipe water which they are poured into the different beakers B,C,D and E
respectively.

6. The samples were let until 5 days and D.O probes was placed again in these samples to read the
final D.O concentration
BOD value = Final D.O - Initial D.O
P
INTRODUCTION :

A data logger, often reffered to as a HOBO, is an electronic instrument that record


measurements at set intervals over a period of time. Depending on the particular data logger,
such measurement can include air temperature, relative humidity, AC/DC current and voltage,
differential pressure, time-of-use (lights, motor, etc), light intensity, water temperature, water
level, dissolved oxygen, soil moisture, rainfall, wind speed and direction, leaf-wetness, pulse
signal, room occupancy, plug load and many more. For this experiment we choose BOD data
logger to measure dissolved oxygen at Tasik Proton City, drain water, distilled water, aquarium
water and pipe water. Our purpose is to get the record as we want to compared which one most
polluted.
Data loggers are typically compact, battery-powered devices, equipped with an internal
microprocessor, data storage and one or more sensors. They can be deployed indoors, outdoors
and underwater and can record data for up to months at a time, unattended. A data logger may be
a single unit, stand-alone device with internal sensors, which fits in the palm of a hand, or it may
be multichannel data collection instrument equipped with one or more external sensors.
Data logger work, first, it connected to a computer via a USB interface. Next,
accompanying data logger software is used to select logging parameters and activate the logger.
The logger then disconnected and deployed in the desired location, where it records each

measurement and stores in memory along with the time and date. Bluetooth Smart loggers can be
figured and launched wirelessly, after deployment.
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) also often referred to as biological oxygen demand,
is a test performed to measure the potential of wastewater and other waters to deplete the oxygen
level of receiving waters. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an
indication of the quality of water. BOD of water or polluted water as is the amount of oxygen
required for the biological decomposition of dissolved organic matter to occur under standard
condition at a standardized time and temperature. Usually, the time is taken as 5 days and the
temperature is 20C.
The test measures the molecular oxygen utilized during a specified incubation period for
the biochemical degradation of organic material (carbonaceous demand) and the oxygen used to
oxidised material such as sulfides and ferrous ion. It also may measure the amount of oxygen
used to oxidise reduced forms of nitrogen (nitrogenous demand).
The BOD test is widely used to determine the pollution strength of domestic and
industrial wastewater in terms of the oxygen that they will require if discharged into natural
water courses in which aerobic conditions exist. The test is one of the most important both in
regulatory work and in studies designed to evaluate the purification capacity of receiving water
bodies.
We take sample of water at pond water, drain water, distilled water, aquarium water and
pipe water. So, we use data logger to get the result from the entire water sample. Therefore, BOD
value is determined by the following formula:
BOD value in mg/l = [(D1- D2) - (B1-B2)]/P
Where:
D1= initial D0 in sample
D2= final DO in sample
B1= initial DO in blank
B2= final DO in blank
P = fraction of BOD bottle that is represented by the sample

RESULT:

Chart Title
initial DO (mg/L)
4.7

4.5

Final DO (mg/L)
4.5

4.2

4.5

3.9

0.5

Drain water

Distilled water

4.5
4

3.7

3.5

0.9

B.O.D

0.6

0.7

Tasik Proton City Aquarium water

0.5

Pipe water

ANALYSIS :
From the graph above, there are five different colour lines of graph means that, it has five
different water samples. The blue bar shows drain water. The red bar represents aquarium water.
The Pink bar represents Tasik Proton City water and the green bar represents pipe water. and
lastly purple bar represents distilled water. This graph shows the BOD ( Biochemical Oxygen
Demand ) level of the water sample against time.
From this graph, it shows the drain water have the highest BOD level which is 0.963
mg/l. while the lowest BOD level is distilled water which have 0.42 mg/l. This shows that most
polluted water sample is drain water followed by aquarium water sample , Tasik Proton City
water, pipe water, and the less polluted water simple is distilled water. Besides that, from the
graph shows the BOD level will increase over the time. It can be said that the BOD level is
directly proportional to the time.

EMPOWER (DISCUSSION) :
Data logger work, first, it connected to a computer via a USB interface. Next,
accompanying data logger software is used to select logging parameters and activate the logger.
The logger then disconnected and deployed in the desired location, where it records each
measurement and stores in memory along with the time and date. Bluetooth Smart loggers can be
figured and launched wirelessly, after deployment.
After the desired monitoring period, the data logger is then reconnected to the computer
and the software is used again to read out the data and display the measurements in graph that
show profiles over time. Tabular data can be viewed as well, or exported to a spreadsheet for
further manipulation. In the case web-based data logging, data are pushed to the Internet for
access, with wireless data nodes, data are transmitted to a central receiver, and with Bluetooth
Smart loggers, data are downloaded directly to our mobile device. Data loggers are used in a
broad range of indoor, outdoor and underwear environments- essentially anywhere data is needed
and the convenience of battery power is preferred.
There are four types of data logger include stand-alone data loggers, web-based data
logging systems, wireless data nodes and Bluetooth Smart data loggers. Stand-alone data loggers
are compact, reusable and portable and also offer low cost and easy setup and deployment. Webbased data logging systems enable remote, around-the-clock, Internet-based access to data via
GSM cellular, WIFI or internet communication. These system can be configured with a variety
of external plug-in-sensors and transmitted data collected to a secure web server for accessing
the data. Wireless data nodes transmit real-time data from dozens of points to a central computer,
eliminating the need to manually retrieve and offload data from individual data loggers.
Bluetooth Smart enabled data loggers measure and transmit temperature and relative humidity
data wirelessly to mobile devices over a 100 foot range.
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), also often referred to as biological oxygen
demand, is a test performed to measure the potential waste water and other waters to deplete the
oxygen level of receiving water. In other words, the BOD test is performed to determine what
effect dirty water, containing bacteria and organic materials, will have on animal and plant life
when leave into a stream or a lake. When there is an abundance of bacteria and organic materials,

the bacteria will take in oxygen in order to breakdown these molecules. If bacteria are taking in
large amount of oxygen, this will have detrimental effect on the surrounding ecosystem. On the
contrary, when there are low levels of organic waste in the water, there are fewer bacteria
present, the BOD will be lower and the dissolved oxygen levels higher. In wastewater treatment
plants, they often calculate the percentage removal of BOD to determine efficiency of the
treatment process. For this reason, BOD is sometimes referred to as a water contaminant. The
BOD test involves taking an initial dissolved oxygen (DO) reading and a second reading.
Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by
microorganisms (e.g aerobic bacteria) in the oxidation of organic matter. Natural sources of
organic matter include plant decay and leaf fall. However, plant growth and decay may be
unnaturally accelerated when nutrients and sunlight are overly abundant due to human influence.
Urban runoff carries pet wastes from streets and sidewalks; nutrients from lawn fertilizers;
leaves, grass clippings, and paper from residential areas, which increase oxygen demand.
Oxygen consumed in the decomposition process robs other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they
need to live. Organisms that are more tolerant of lower dissolved oxygen levels may replace a
diversity of natural water systems contain bacteria, which need oxygen (aerobic) to survive.
Most of them feed on dead algae and other dead organisms and are part of the decomposition
cycle. Algae and other producers in the water take up inorganic nutrients and use them in the
process of building up their organic tissues.
Consumers like fish and other aquatic animals eat some of the producer, and the nutrients
move up the food chain. When these organism die, bacteria decompose the organic compounds
and release into the water inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate, calcium and others.
Some of these nutrients end up downstream or in sediments , but most of them recycle again and
again. Most of the bacteria in a pond is aerobic,. Thats mean they use oxygen to perform their
metabolic activities of decomposition. Dissolved oxygen exist in very low concentrations.
Natural levels of oxygen in aquatic system are always somewhat depleted by normal levels of
aerobic bacterial activity. In most cases, if dissolved oxygen concentrations drop below the 5
parts per million (ppm), fish will unable to live for very long. All clean water species such as
trout or salmon will die well above this level and even low oxygen fish such as catfish and carp
will be at risk below 5ppm.

Therefore, from the result obtained the most polluted water is drain water which have
high level of BOD compared to the other water sample. Drainage water is no different from any
other water supply and is always usable for some purpose within certain quality ranges. Beyond
these limits, drainage water must be disposed of in a manner that safe guards the usability or
quality of the receiving water for present established and potential uses.
CONCLUSION :
The drain water was high BOD level which is 0.963 mg/L while distilled water is the
lowest BOD level is 0.412 mg/L. From this experiment, we know that to measure the potential
of wastewater and other waters to deplete the oxygen level of receiving waters we could use
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) test and to collect the data from this experiment we can
use the data logger.The test for Biochemical Oxygen Demand is especially important in waste
water treatment, food manufacturing, and filtration facilities where the concentration of oxygen
is crucial to the overall process and end products. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO)
predict that oxygen uptake by microorganisms is low along with the required break down of
nutrient sources in the medium (sample). On the other hand, low DO readings signify high
oxygen demand from microorganisms, and can lead to possible sources of contamination
depending on the process.
ENHANCEMENT :
We could measure Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by using data logger at Lake
near the Dewan Besar Upsi used to determine the pollution strength of domestic and industrial
wastewater in terms of the oxygen that they will require if discharged into natural water courses
in which aerobic conditions exist to ensure that our lake is safe to used by the student and other
people.
Water quality issues influence human and environmental health, so the more we monitor
our water the better we will be able to recognize and prevent contamination problems. a healthy
environment is one in which the water quality supports a rich and varied community of organism
and protects public health. Water has 2 dimensions that are closely linked : quantity and quality.
water quality is commonly defined by its physical, chemical, biological and aesthetic
(appearance and smell) characteristic. When water was polluted, it will caused the death of

aquatic animals like dolphin, fish, and many others. This condition will affect human life too
because it will affect the ecosystem of the world.
To prevent and control the pollution of water quality improvement plan can include:

The identification of Environmental Values and Water Quality Objectives


Water quality monitoring
Decision Support Systems/tools
Agricultural Best Management Practice ( nutrient pollution )
Acid Sulfate Soils Mapping
EXTENSION
We also can use other material to apply this BOD experiment
1) Methylene blue can use to measure BOD. The technique is the time taken for the
methylene blue solution to turn colourless using a stopwatch. The faster time taken
methylene blue to decolourised the more polluted water. This because methylene blue
will turn colourless as there is no oxygen in the water. All the oxygen have been used by
microorganism in water.
REFERENCES :
1. Biochemical

Oxygen

Demand.

(1994,

December

9).

Retrieved

from

http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Environmental/BOD/coda.htm
2. Nutrient
Pollution.
(2015,
August
3).
Retrieved

from

http://www2.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/problem
3. Biochemical
Oxygen
Demand.

from

http://www.slideshare.net/hashimah90/bod-btl2-new

(n.d.).

Retrieved