UNIVERSITY
F.
PRESS
GERRISH
PURE MATHEMATICS
This twovolume textbook on Pure Mathematics has been designed to cover the whole of
the mathematics required for Part I of the
addressed primarily
student.
It
to
also covers
Diploma
in
Association,
of earlier
pupils
it is
suitable for
required by
preparing
for
grammar
scholarships
in
However, though
aimed to supply a
students at these
real
levels,
Mr
cram book
goes a
little
lias
he has treated
sense a
Gerrish
need of examination
book
for examinations.
is
his
in
no
Thus he
examination syllabus.
falls
despite
centres of gravity,
moments of
arclengths,
inertia,
and
coordinate geometry of
sions, in
when
which
calculus
illustrated
instructive.
Finally
the
book contains
many
sets
of
Answers are
a_
1*
FER.
NAME
This boob
is
last
date
shown above.
MANCHE8TER.
PURE MATHEMATICS
VOLUME
Uniform with
VOLUME
(his
Volume
nt ALGEBRA, TRIGONOMETRY
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
PURE
MATHEMATICS
A UNIVERSITY AND
COLLEGE COURSE
BY
F.
GERRISH,
VOLUME
M.A.
CALCULUS
1
+
1
\
S
w
w
CAMBRIDGE
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
1960
PUBLISHED BY
THE SYNDICS OF THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
13outloy House, 200 Eustoti
New York
22,
N.Y.
CONTENTS
page xv
General Preface
Preface to Volume
xvii
xix
Numbers,
p. 1
1,13 Functions, p. 3.
1.2
1.14
and variables,
The function \x], p. 5
1.12 Constanta
p. 3,
Simple inequalities
1,21 Fundamental results,
and bar monks means, p. 8
p. 6.
10
Exercise 1(a)
1.3
14
1.5
15
Graphs
1.41, 142
1.32 Cauchy's
Exercise 1(b)
1.4
Examples,
pp. 15, 19
Exercise 1(e)
1 J>
Types of function
20
1.52 Classification by
1.51 Classification by structure, p. 20.
properties, p. 22. 1.53 Inadequacy of graphical representation,
p.
1.6
27
Exercise 1(d)
29
Plane curves
30
1,61
Parametric equations,
p. 30.
34
Exercise 1(e)
Miscellaneous Exercise
1 (/)
35
CONTENTS
Vi
Chapter
2.1
page 38
Limits:
examples, p, 39.
2.2
Continuous Functions
Limits,
2.
2.13, 2.14
38
Other
40
limit
2.22 Formal
2.3
Some
2.4
Otlier
ways
2.5
Limits
2.6
Continuity
definition, p. 41
41
when x
> oo,
43
x >  oo
45
45
tinuities, p. 48.
tions, p. 48
50
Exercise 2(a)
2.7
m(m
p. 54.
p.
n+
ln\,m
55
Exercise 2(6)
58
58
Chapter
3.1
50
3.
60
60
variable
p. 61
3.2
The
62
rules of derivation
3.3
inverse functions
The
3.32
p.
inverse circular functions, p, 66
3.4
155.
Implicit functions
65
3.33
The
07
Exercise 3(a)
68
CONTENTS
3.5
Vll
page 70
>
1, p. 71.
73
Exercise 3{&)
3.6
maxima and
7^
minima
3.61 Function increasing or decreasing at a point, p. 74,
3.62 Definition of 'maximum', 'minimum', p. 74. 3.63 If f{x)
there,
is derivable at a. maximum or minimum, then f'{&)
p. 76.
3.7
80
3.8
A theorem
3.81
3.72
Summary, p.
81
81
suggested geometrically
The mean
and
3.82 J {x) =
3,83 Function increasing or decreasing
f
3.9
Exercise 3 (c)
8*
85
Exercise
87
3(c)
Miscellaneous Exercise 3
Chapter
4.1
4.
90
(e)
Integration
93
93
The
93
4.11
4.13
p.
4.16 Criticism, p. 98
99
Exercise 4{a)
4.2
Some
100
by parts and
reduction, p.
OS
Exercise 4(6)
104
Exercise 4(c)
1 9
CONTENTS
Vlii
4.3
page 109
114
Exercise 4(d)
4.4
116
functions
The exponential
derivation, p. 120.
important limits (log xjx,
log
x, a3/ e % (l
+ as/w),
Euler's
119
Exercise 4(e)
Exercise 4(f)
124
Exercise 4(g)
128
Exercise 4(A)
132
134
of standard integrals
4.5
Revised
4.6
list
134
130
4.64
for
4.7
${Ax+B)dxj(x*+bx\c) T',
p. 142.
p.
144
Exercise 4(i)
141
Exercise 4(j)
If
145
150
Exercise 4(h)
4.8
Integration of
LSI
Exercise 4(1)
156
Exercise 4(m)
163
CONTENTS
4.9
page 164
Generalised integrals
4.91
Tho problem,
second kind'),
p. 169.
p. 164.
p. 167.
4.94
4,95 Integration
by
The
parts
and
171
173
5.
Differential Equations
177
5.2
relation
Exercise 4(n)
Chapter
5.1
IX
5.13
from a function,
Some
177
p. 177.
Exercise 5(a)
178
Firstorder equations
180
5.3
Exercise 5(6)
181
Exercise 5(c)
185
Exercise 5(d)
189
Secondorder equations
100
5.31 Some simple special types, p. 190. 5,32 Linear secondorder equations, p. 192. 5,33 Linear secondorder equations
with constant coefficients, p. 194. 5.34 Particular solution,
in the ease of constant coefficients, p. 199
Exercise 5(e)
Exercise 5
5.4
192
(/)
198
Exercise 5(g)
201
The operator
calculation of
p. 202,
Exercise 6
5.5
201
p.s.
by symbolic methods,
p.
203
(h)
208
Exercise 5(i)
209
211
CONTENTS
X
5.6
Some
coefficients
Exercise 5
5.7
Some
210
{j)
217
geometrical applications
5.72 Orthogonal families of curves,
218
Exercise 5(h)
219
220
Two
6.2
Rolle's
03?
the Differential
223
223
224
theorem
6.3
Lagrange's
mean
226
value theorem
to f(x), p. 227.
6,33 Alternative
229
Exercise 6(a)
6.4
230
Quadratic approximation
tof(x), p. 230
6.5
231
6.6
236
6.61
Exercise 6(6)
240
CONTENTS
6.7
Xi
page 241
p.
244
247
Exercise 6(c)
mean
248
value theorem
6.8
Cauchy'a
6.9
249
Exercise 6 (d)
252
Miscellaneous Exercise 6
Chapter
7.1
7.
252
(e)
Theory of the
255
255
definite integral
7.11 'Area under a curve', p. 256. 7.12 The lower and upper
sums, p. 257. 7.13 Definite integral defined arithmetically, p. 258.
7,14 Properties; existence of an indefinite integral, p. 259
7.2
Some
summation
266
Exercise 7 {a)
7.3
Approximate calculation of
7.32 Trapezium rule, p. 266.
definite integrals
266
269
Exercise 7 (6)
7.4
262
269
Further areas
7.42 Area between two curves,
formula), p. 272
7.5
7.6
Volume of a
solid of
known
crosssection
273
Exercise 7 (c)
275
Length of a curve
276
7.7
Exercise 7{d)
279
280
7,71
Area of a conical
p. 281
surface, p. 280.
CONTENTS
Xii
7.8
The theorems
Centroids.
of
Pappus
page 282
7.9
Exercise 7(e)
286
Moments
287
of inertia
Dynamical introduction,
7.93
Theorem
p.
292
292
Exercise 7 (/)
Miscellaneous Exercise 7
chapter
8.1
8.
293
(g)
of the Calculus
296
296
8.2
Exercise 8(a)
300
Exercise 8(5)
303
(p, r)
304
equation
8.22 {p, r) equation from polar
8.23 Polar equation from (p, r) equation,
equation, p, 304.
p.
83
305
Exercise 8{c)
306
Curvature
307
8,32
Formulae
for
k or p,
p. 308
312
Exercise 8 (of)
8.4
Circle
8.5
313
316
Exercise 8 (e)
318
318
Exercise 8{/)
326
326
CONTENTS
Chapter
9.1
9.
page 329
329
Introduction
9.11 Functions, limits, continuity, p. 329,
functional notation, p. 330
9.2
Sail
Economy
9.12
in
330
Partial derivatives
9,22 Other notations, p. 331.
9.23 Geometrical meaning of du/dx, dujdy, p 331. 9,24 Partial
derivatives of second and higher orders, p. 332. 9.25 Partial
differential equations, p. 335
9.21 Definitions, p. 330.
Exercise 9
9.3
The
337
{a)
Small changes
338
9.4
Exercise 9(6)
341
342
derivative
equation dhjjdx*
9.5
= (1/c 3
dhjjdt*, p.
348
Exercise 9{o)
346
Exercise 9
351
(d)
352
Differentials
9.51 Definition, p. 352. 9,52 Principle of equating differ etitial
coefficients, p. 352. 9.53 Invariant of the expression for the
353
differential, p.
9.6
354
35"
Exercise 9(e)
see an do
1.1
9.62 Derivatives of
Exercise 9 (/ )
Akswebs to Volume
Index to Volume
35<
(1
xxi
XV
GENERAL PREFACE
This two volume textbook on Pure Mathematics lias been designed
to cover completely the requirements of the revised regulations for the
way
to further progress.
On
the
'
a,
com
Although written for the purpose just mentioned, this book will
meet the needs of those taking any course of firstyear degree work in
which Pure Mathematics is studied, whether at University or Technical College. For example, most of the Pure Mathematics required
for a oneyear ancillary subject to the
London
Special Degrees in
the
Grammar
School.
Much
of the material
is
GENERAL PREFACE
up
with
many
into
throughout each
who
many
all
may have
to
later reading.
the
way
thank the
staff of
met
my
F.
GERRISH
xvii
PREFACE TO VOLUME
This volume deals with Calculus and some of its applications to topics
like areas and arclengths, centroids and moments of inertia, and the
The
1,
on partial derivatives
numbers are
now
is
present treatment
may
dispel
this
illusion.
(The corresponding
PREFACE TO VOLUME
XVili
natural place in
Volume
II.)
Chapter
opens
but
it is
No
made
in a
hook of
this kind,
as a limiting
foe
able
to use it thus.
than
is
xix
12.73 denotes
12.73(2) denotes
(ii)
4.64 ex,
3
Ex. 12
(ii)
(6),
no. 6
wo
12),
section,
subsection,
part.
refers to equation
(ii)
ex
chapter (Ch.
(ii)
in the
same
section.
refers to
worked example
(ii)
refers to
worked example
(ii)
in subsection 4.64.
refers to
means
with respect
(6).
to.
text,
'
In an exercise
refers to
n0t 6
a 'starred' problem
or
is
later chapter;
matter in
[...]
matter in
explanatory comment.
Numbers,
1.11
Numbers
variables
and functions
how
arisen in algebra,
we meet
5, f
However, we soon find that these types of number are not adequate
for all mathematical purposes. For example, the theorem of Pythagoras shows that a rightangled isosceles triangle whose equal sides
are of unit length has hypotenuse of length x units, where x %
2. It
to a
'
irrational
is
denoted by
*J2
and
called
an
'
is
helpful to represent
'
along the
line; let
two
directions in
us agree (as in
all
hand one as positive. Choose a point / on this part, and let 01 be taken
as the unit of length. Then all rational numbers can be represented
uniquely by points of the line. Our remarks above about
<J2 can now
I
GPM I
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
be expressed as follows:
we
if
and lay
[1.11
off its
of the line, not every point on the line corresponds to a rational number.
To complete the correspondence between points and numbers we have
to admit irrational
numbers
(i.e.
o
1
3
2
/
hH
ifl
1
Fig. 1
The term
'irrational
(called surds)
. . .
314
and
and later
315,
theoretical
work enables us
(12.74) to obtain
and therefore
infinitely
Thus the
any two
rational
numbers
lies also
an
packed
in
lies
an
'irrational
point'.
title real
The reason
name
will
appear in 13.12.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.12]
(iii)
irrational
AND METHODS
 ^6, n).
'
real number
in the sequel.
1.12 Constants
and
variables
to take integral values only, or rational values only; in others they may
and
b,
endpoints included.
When
<x<
we
b.
1.13 Functions
a meaning.
The variable whose value we choose to .select is called the independent variable, and the one whose value or values are determined
thereby is called the dependent variable. The relation is expressed by
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
is
AND METHODS
[1.13
is
g(x), F(x),
<fi(x),
etc.
is
write
...
u = f(x, y, z,
. .
.)
In elementary work the relationship between dependent and independent variables is almost always expressed by a mathematical
formula (valid perhaps over a limited range). However, the general
concept of 'function'
necessary
is
is
all
that
is
y as a function of x as follows:
if x is
prime, then y
Further, a function
e.g.
0; if
is
defined as
if
shown
is
x >
in
x <
or if
fig.
1+x
if
1 ^x ^
lx
if
< <
1.
specify
it;
2 would have to be
0,
1.
4 y
l
l1
Fig. 2
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.14]
1.14
The function
The symbol
AND METHODS
jc
\x\,
Its
if
graph
is
if
shown
x ^
0,
x ^
0.
in
fig. 3.
Thus
i
The
properties
\
xv\
x \\y\
and
(y
Fig. 3
o)
\y\
The important
result
+y\ <
\%\
(i)
\y\
if
and?/ >
\{xy)
+ y\ <
\%y\ >
so
\xy\
that
+ \y\,
H \y\.
(i)
\y
x\ =
\x
y\,we get
> yM
\xy\>\\x\\y\\.
y in
Replacing y by
(ii)
(ii)
\y\
gives
by applying
a;
(i)
twice
we have
+ 2/ + z <
\x\
+ \y\ + \z\;
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
6
1.2
Simple inequalities
1.21
Fundamental
AND METHODS
[1.2
results
is
Some have
been given in
just
manipulating inequalities;
1.14.
many
is
positive.
>a
either that b
We
or that
ab
is
negative.
(a is less
The
than
statement
b) to
mean
<
> b + x for any number x. ('We can add
subtract the same number on both sides of an inequality.') For
>
If a >
given for
I.
(a
b,
then a + x
+ x) (b + x) = a b =
Corollary.
to the other
positive
or
b.
provided that
between
...an
positive
>
6 1 6 2 ...6 n
then
numbers can be
multiplied.')
For,
a1 ai aa
...an
>
b x a % a z ...an
>
b x b % a z ...an
>
...
>
6 1 6 2 ...6 W
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.21]
llq
lla
for
+ c) (b + d) =
{a
b) + (c d) =
positive number.
Observe that
(a) inequalities
a obd; for
cannot be subtracted: a
(a
>
and
c) (bd) = (a~b)~{cd),
which
may
be
negative;
(b)
bid; e.g.
take a
4,
Examples
(i)
If a
1+a
We have
+6
b
1+a
(ii)
If av a 2
. .
b+c
1+b + c
b+c
+b+c
b+c
b
1
n are positive
1+c
+ c'
1+a
>
!+_>!+
,
+b+c
+ r+ <+:
+
b
1+c"
is s, then
(l+a1 )(l + a 2 =
+a) n >
+ na
= an =
(a
>
0,
a,
we
obtain
= positive
integer),
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
8
With
(iii)
so
ar <
),
Prove that
(iv)
\x
\x\
\x\
\y\
sS \y\.
(\x\ + \y\)
+
Therefore
<
+ \y\*
x
\
For
(tja
G=
\{a + b),
a, b,
with
0,
only
a + b2j{ab) p
Since
with
a,
write
J(ab),
geometric,
when a =
0,
H=
0,
^b) 2 ^
\x\
A^
+ \y\.
x+y
A=
\x\.
(1)
immediately that
(1.14) it follows
Similarly
these,
(ii).
+ y\ ^
definition of
Adding
1,
From the
In
T+s'
For
[1.22
(ii),
i.e.
b;
if
b.
hence
A^
0.
b replaced
Examples
If a,
b, c
(ii)
Since
not
a2 + 6 2 + c2
2(a
>
+6 +c
3
3
)
bc + ca + ab;
>
bc(b
ft
+ c ^ 26c, etc., result (i) follows by adding. The relation is >
because in at least one of the three separate inequalities the relation is
certainly
>
Alternatively,
a 2 + b 2 + c 2 bccaab
Also 6 2 + c 2 be
be,
so b 3
+ c3 ^
results gives
%{(bc)* + (ca) 2
6c(6
(ii),
+ (ab) 2 } >
0.
More
(2)
+an
and
is still
^{a x a 2
true that
a n)
A^
jg
their arithmetic
mean
*s
=
This
a
a
A = + 2+
It
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.22]
a2
...
an
when
it
by
Cauchy.
By
direct calculation,
<(^PJ
if
with
occurring in the
second place
ax + a2
if
first
Similarly, if
all a's
is
a power of
4
1
we can prove
2,
...an
o 1 +g a +...+gn
<
^
is
step
by
step that,
(i)
of 2, say 2 m
the numbers a x a 2
,
<,,
...
i.e.
an
m
n together with the 2 n
k^ < fa +
glg2
...
gm
<
^4.
numbers
+ +g. + ()*r .
a' +
<^ =
(
giving
are equal,
a1 a2
If n
a x a 2 a z a <
have
unless
place if a x
a3 + aA
^ +  +a")",
Jc:
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
10
[1.22
Examples
(iii) Prove 9a 2 6 2 c 2 <(bc + ca + ab) (a 4 + b* + c 4 */ a, b,
By the theorem of the means applied to be, ca, ab,
${bc
+ ca+ab) >
^{bc.ca.ab)
ft
^(a2 6 2ca ).
c4 ,
4
,
+c >
4
>
If
If 2x + 5y
(iv)
unless fx
and y >
V**)MfyW<i(2a> + f&) = f
which case < is replaced by = Hence, provided that x >
%y, in
0,
(fa;)
(!)
(f)
is (f) 5 ,
(fy)
>
(f)
is
3 /(5 .2).
If x
and y
Exercise 1(a)
Find
what values of x
for
2 <
(i)
2x+l
<
x2
(n)
1;
<
2x
xB
The two
> am b n + an b m
a m+n + b m+n
(ii)
a x ,a 2
sets
ar
m<
< M (r =
o.
1, 2,
. .
...,a n ; b lf b 2 , ...,&
.,
Prove that
n).
a a
2+ " +a "
m< ^+"
<M m< J/
b
b
/\b b
...+b
1
4 If
If a
5
ex.
<
>
r s w,
prove r(n +
r)
3*
...a \
;"n
...bj
n,
<M.
(n!) 2
1/(1
> nn
+na). [Use
1.21,
(iii).]
In
nos. 6, 7,
6 If
<
[Method of
7 If s
no.
<
alt a 2
<
1.21, ex.
1,
(r
prove
.,
(1
an)
> 1 s.
(ii).]
(1
+ ax
(1
+ a2
(*
+ an) <
L 1  21 .
6.]
8 Prove
and
ar
a4 + &4
(a
>
2a 2& 2
+&
2 2
)
a 4 + 6 4 + c4 + d*
+ (c + d
2
2 2
)
>
4a&cd,
2(ab + cd)\
ex
>
(iii);
u86
'
+b +c >
6 c
be
ca
+ c) 2 >
10
(i)
(ii)
b+c
If a
12
(i)
+c
+a
ab
+ a a+b
If a,
b, c
0,
>
(b
abc(a + b + c).
+b+c
+ c a) (c + a b) (a + b c).
If x, y are positive,
and m, n are
xm n
+ y)
m+n
>
is
mmn n
apply
5s
(p + q) p+a
[(i)
2 <J(ab).
(m + ri) m + n
sin^d cos 2 0
(i),
%( a
11
(x
[For
(i/
(ii)
Abe, so 6c/(6
Prove
abe
11
2 2
T1
9 Prove
[(b
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.3]
Also prove
Consider
a1
x^z
a2
x* + y* + z*
(ii)
1;
x*
s$
1/1728
when
+ 2y 3 + Bz 3 =
1.
a9
and take
\x %
a3
a4
a6
&/
2
,
a,
...
Jz
2
.]
*15 Prove that the length of the shortest line which can be drawn to bisect
the area of triangle ABC is *J(2bc) sin %A, where A is the smallest angle.
.
1.3
We
quadratic equation
by 'completing the
CMC 2
+ ox + c
function.
(a)
If b 2
where a <
>
/?,
and hence
y
/?
Thus y will be positive for some values of x, zero for x = a and x fi,
and negative for others. For example, if a > 0, then y > for those
12
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
AND METHODS
[1.31
and y <
when the
Similar results
have opposite
can be stated when a < 0.
factors
= b/2a, and
signs,
i.e.
(c)
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.31]
If b 2
<
lac,
13
then
x 2 + x + a
a
AY
2a)
_ii2
b\ 2
lacb 2
la
Both terms
all values of x.
a<0
Fig. 6
a >
and
62
<
is
4ac, then
(c)
shows that
ax 2 + bx + cis positive
definite.
The two conditions imply c > 0, since a and b 2 are positive. Similarly
the two conditions c > 0, b 2 < lac imply a > 0. Hence the two sets
of conditions are equivalent. Conversely,
if
ax 2 + bx + cis positive
definite,
then a
>
0, b
<
lac,
and
>
0.
ax 2 + bx + c
is
negative for
all
values of x,
it is
>
0.
said
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
14
[1.32
a <
0,
<
b2
4ac
b2
or
<
kac, c
<
0.
(a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2
+ ...+a n b n
= a =
2
&1
<
+ (a 2 x + 6 2 2 +
For all x, y ^ 0; and we can have y =
ar x + br = for each r 1,2, ...,n, i.e. if
(a 1 x + 6J 2
Oi
It
only
if
there
(iii)
is
an x such that
_ _^
is then easily verified that the two sides of (ii) are equal.
Excluding this case, we have (after expanding the brackets in
L31
'
4(0! &!
(iii)
and
all x,
i.e.
+ (a n x + 6) 2
. . .
(not
an
...
n numbers
2
)
ax
unless
+ ...+ a n b n )* <
4(o
0;
result
+ ...+<)(& + ...+&),
Exercise 1(b)
2x
7x + 3.
4a;
+ 4a;+l.
2
5
7 (ajl)"(3).
2xBx 2
(x
+ 2) (x* 1).
8 x 3 2x* x +
3x*2x + 5.
6 (x9
3.
1)
^~
(+l)(a; + 4)
10 Find for
11
(iii)
13
is
attained
when
a;
= b/2a.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.4]
14 If a
>
>
0,
AND METHODS
15
15
for
5a;
is
5a;
x2 +
10a;
+ 7 = C(xp) z + D{xq)*.
'If Z 2
+m
+ n2 =
1,
prove
all
equal.
1.
Graphs
1.4
To
fix ideas in
a problem
it is
we used
sketchgraphs to
useful in graphsketching.
Examples
1.41
(i)
x
z*+l'
There
0,
i
Fig. 7
Ox from
below.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
16
AND METHODS
[1.41
= x+
3*
lxx\ =
\
2,
x)
(ii)
ce
xl
x2
There is one value of y for each value of x except x = 2 there is no point
on the graph corresponding to x = 2.
The graph cuts the ?/axis where x = 0, and then y = \. It cuts the a;axis
where y = 0, and then a; = 1.
:
Fig. 8
When x has values near to 2 but just less than 2, the denominator is small and
negative, and the numerator is positive; hence y is large and negative. Similarly,
when x is just greater than 2, y is large and positive. This indicates the behaviour
= 2.
When x is large, y =
x/x
and
yl=
9
Thus
for
x large and
positive,
x1
1
.
1 =
x2
x2
y 1
is
The graph
x
=+
x
(xl)(x+l)'
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.41]
just less
than
AND METHODS
17
+ 1,
number near +
(small negative
=
when x
large negative
number.
is
Fig. 9
Remarks
the lines x = 2 and y = 1 are each approached indefinitely
curve, yet are never crossed or even reached. They are called
asymptotes^ of the curve. In ex. (i) the teaxis is an asymptote; for although the
curve does actually cross it at O, it also approaches Ox indefinitely closely
(without meeting it) as x becomes large (positive or negative). Similarly, in
(a)
In ex.
(ii),
by the
closely
= 1 and Ox are
the lines x
(iii)
asymptote
(iv)
is
Find
that, as
we
Sx 2 + 2
2x 2 2x + l'
and use
If &
this
is
information
to assist
_
~
Sx 2 + 2
2x z 2x+l'
GPM I
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
18
(2ft  3) x 2  2kx + (k  2) =
i.e.
>
'6 2
4ft
i.e.
ft
>
i.e.
ft
>
4(2ft3)(ft2),
$s 2ft 2
Ik + 6,
7ft + 6
0,
(possibly coincident).!
lac''
[1.41
(ftl)(fc6).
This product will be zero if ft = 1 or 6, and will be negative if and only if the
factors ft 1, ft 6 have opposite signs, i.e. if ft > 1 and ft < 6. Hence we must
have 1 ^ ft
6, so the expression can take all values between 1 and 6 inclusive.
When ft = 1 or 6, the above quadratic equation satisfies the condition
'6 2 = 4ac' for equal roots; the root is then x = b/2a\ i.e.
l
 2ft
X
When
ft
1,
and the
ft
~2(2ft3)
= 1; and when
when x =
attained
ft
6,
least value 1
2ft3*
f Hence the
when x = 1.
.
greatest value 6
is
y.
y \\
i
Of
*
Fig. 10
To sketch
the graph of
92.0
^
OX
f"
2x*2x+l'
from the above work that the graph lies entirely between the lines
and touches these at the points ( 1, 1), (f 6) respectively; these
are the turningpoints on the curve.
The curve cuts Oy where x = 0, and then y = 2. It does not cut Ox since
we
y
see
first
l,
3# 2 + 2
>
6,
2x 2 2x+l
2{xl) 2 + \>0
for all
When x is large,
== 3o? 2 /2a; 2
^
^
2x
a;,
A closer approximation is
3a; 2
2
is
3a;
2x ~ 2(xiy
which shows that when x is large and positive, then y > f and that when x is
large and negative, then y < f Hence the graph approaches the horizontal
asymptote y = f from above when x is large positive, and from below when
x is large negative. It cuts y = f where x = J; see footnote f below. We can
;
now
t If
3a; J = 0.
Thus f
is
the
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.42]
19
The preceding examples illustrate the steps to be taken before sketching the
graph of a function of the type (ax 2 + bx + c)j(Ax 2 + Bx + C):
(a) Find where (if at all) the graph cuts Ox and Oy.
(b) Find how the graph behaves when x is large (positive and negative), and
how it approaches the horizontal asymptote also whether it cuts this asymptote
(c) If the denominator has factors, there will be asymptotes parallel to Oy
through the points which make the denominator zero. Find how the graph
behaves when x approaches such points from both left and right.
(d) Find the possible range of values of y, and where the curve reaches the
extreme positions (if any) these are the turning points.
;
The functions in the preceding examples were 'algebraic fractions', and the
steps (a)(d) just indicated can be taken before sketching the graph of any such
function, even when the denominator is not linear
or quadratic.
now consider some simple funcyA
We
(i)
<]x.
(ii)
= J{lx 2 ).
Exercise 1(c)
Sketch the graphs of the following functions.
2 x3
13
4 1/x 2
1/x.
x+1
x + .
X
l)(x2)
x2'
10 fa.
(xl)(x2)
(xl)(x2)
12
11
1
14
2
V(* i)
15
V(i* 2
(x  3)}
graph.
18 Prove that {(x 5) (5x 13)}/{(2a; 7) (4 11)} has no values between 1
4, and sketch the graph.
and
22
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
20
[1.5
Find the possible range of values of (x+ l)/(x 1 and sketch the graph.
x 2 ) j(ax 2 + bx + c) can take any value if b 2 > (a + c) a
( 1
2
21 Prove that (x + 2x + c)/(x 2 + x + 3c) can take any value if < c < 1.
22 Show that {(x a)(x b)}j(x c) takes any value if c lies between a and b.
*23 Prove that the maximum and minimum values of
2
19
20 Prove that
ax 2 + bx + c
Ax 2 + Bx + G
are the values of k (if any) for which ax 2 + bx + c k(Ax + Bx + C) is a perfect
square. [This is the condition for the line y = k to touch the curve.]
2
2
*24 If a
c, prove that (ax + bx + c)/(cx + bx + a) can take any value if
b 2 > (a + c) 2 [This implies b 2 > 4ac; use the conditions for positive definiteness.]
2
=(=
Show
Types of function
1.5
by
1.51 Classification
structure
. .
Thus
degrees
If
we
4,
by another polynomial
in x,
we
an algebraic
Thus
+V
'
Zx , + 5x + ^j 2
x'
2x + ln
these can
be any sort of number. The rules of algebra show that rational functions of x are generated by applying to x and numbers the operations
of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division in any finite
combination.
Similar considerations apply for polynomial and rational functions
+ 3y)l(6x
(2)
Consider
2xsy+5y3
now
is
is
if
the equation
y are independent
a polynomial in x
3a;
and
y,
and
y.
2x3y + 5y3 =
0.
This can be
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.51]
21
It will determine
is
we
an
we were
implicit function of x. If
terms of
an
of x.
explicit function
All the above types of function can be included under the heading
algebraic; that is, they can all be defined (explicitly or implicitly) by
polynomial equations in y whose coefficients are polynomials in x.
is
by
equation x 2 + y 2
1 ^ x ^
for
and
1;
0,
solving for y.
Similarly, the
y = + ^/(l x 2
graph by actually
in 1.42, ex.
(ii)
we sketched
its
y.
the equation
y
defines y as a function of x
xy+l =
explicitly
by
quotients (this fact can be proved, but we shall not do so in this book).
This sort of example shows that consideration of implicit functions
will
be necessary.
We may
obtained,
in this case that the defining equation can easily be solved explicitly
for
x in terms of v:
= V +1
y
Hence,
ones for
ofy;
if
a;,
(i).
and may
(b)
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
22
[1.52
as a polynomial equation in x
in y,
Our
method above amounts to sketching the inverse function
graphical
Any
function which
is
is
is
this
book) that log 10 a;, sin a? and the other trigonometrical functions are
and we
of this type;
(like
shall
meet others
later.
defined
by xy =
sin y)
and as
is
the function y of x
and smx/x
explicit
is
by xy =
sin?/.
numbers are
Irrational
^(2
+ ^3),
...
1.52 Classification
by properties
A different sort of classification (which may cut across the one just
given) can be
may possess.
(1)
values of
altered
is
is
x) =
For example,
sin a;,
tan
a;
a;
+ 3# 2 2,
is
(e.g. fig.
(e.g. fig.
12
(a)).
an odd function.
12
Its
graph
(6)).
4:X,
which some terms are even and others odd, are neither odd nor even;
also see Ex. 1 (d), no. 3.
(2) Periodicity.
If there
is
a positive
f(x+p)=f(x)
t It is immaterial whether
discussed. The relation between
1.52]
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
AND METHODS
23
and of sin nx
is
2njn.
The graph of a
X
(a)
(b)
Fig. 12
y*
'
~ 2n
E
d
\B
I
7T
P
'
7T
2n
3n
= cos x
Fig. 13
<x<
is
number p
is difficult,
and
will
not be
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
24
It is
known that
[1.52
is constant); (b)
therefore be transcendental.
Manyvaluedness. If
(3)
is
an nvalued function.
Examples
(!)
= ir;
3x + 4
The
OX
27T
according as
by OP' as
+ a,
4zr
+ a,
6n + oc,
we add complete
2n a,
47T
or
...
a 2n,
a 4tt,
a,
or
...
2n cc,
&
Cos
itf cc,
a, where n
= 2nn
is
and those
....
any integer
(positive,
cos 1 x.
(iv).
Given
x,
= /? (positive
1.52]
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
Fig. 16
AND METHODS
Fig. 17
25
FACTS, DEFINITONS
26
27T+J3,
AND METHODS
[1.52
of either
...
or
2n+fi,
...
or
nfi,
4tt+/?,
....
Snfi,
nfi,
2n/3,
which are included in (2m + l)nfi. These two expressions can be combined
into
mm +
(
1)"/?.
Hence
= nn + (l)n sin 1 x.
1
x
vi) For any value oix, tan y = x defines a many valued function y = Tan
whose graph, obtained from that ofy tana;, is shown in fig. 18. The principal
Sin
1
Fig. 19
Fig. 18
value tan 1 x
tan y
is
x; thus
nn + y; hence
and
'
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.53]
way
27
to cases of three or
more
x 2 + xy + 2y2
xy + z,
2, 1,
4 respec
tively.
f(te,ty)
t"f(x,y)
77
form
a(tx) p {tyY
tv+vaxvyv
naxv y*.
Hence t n is a factor of/(te, ty), and the other factor is clearly f(x, y).
The theorem generalises obviously for more than two variables. It
can be used to extend the concept of homogeneity to functions other
than polynomials.
Definition. If/(te, ty)
function
is
is
for
which the
in (x,y).
~ V*
x of
xy
+ y2
V
,
x*5 + x?y 2
y{x*y*
+ 2z% tanf)
*
'
\yj
1,
 2,
, 0,
respectively.
In 10.22 we
metry or of skewness.
1.53 Inadequacy of graphical representation
We may
function
(i)
is
_ x 2 9
~ x3'
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
28
when x =
AND METHODS
[1.53
3.
to
3, it
A more
complicated example
Its
is
by the rule:
when
is rational,
when
is irrational.
/3
3
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
(iii)
between
cuts
Ox
inclusive, the
0.
sin(l/a;),
which
is
defined
graph
lies
between the
nn, where
is
lines
any integer
1.
It
(positive
i.e.
the rest
is
0.
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.53]
29
usually helpful,
is
has
it
its
limitations,
Exercise 1(d)
1 Classify the following functions as (a) odd, even, or neither; (6) periodic
or not, and state the period if it exists.
(i)
(v)
(ix)
sin a;;
a;
V(l*
2 If an
cos 2x;
(ii)
+ cos(l/a;);
(vi) sin
(x)
);
is
a;
defined at x
sin a;;
+x
x + smx;
(iv)
cos x + tan 2 x;
(vii)
xj(lx*);
odd function/(a;)
defined for
(iii)
2
(a; );
(viii)
\x\;
(xii)
tan" 1 a;.
(xi)
J(l
0,
);
is
all
4 Verify that the product of two even or of two odd functions is even; but
that of an even and an odd function is odd. State corresponding results for sums.
*5 Construct polynomial equations in x, y which are satisfied
by the following
algebraic functions y.
i\
(i)
x+Jx;
i
(u)
i/
V(*+V*);
M
,x
,.
iv
J(x+1) Jx
//
6 Pick out from the following functions those which are homogeneous in
and state the degree in each such case.
their variables,
(i)
(iv)
xtZx^ + Sxy*;
(ii)
1/V(3a^);
V)
x 3 + 3x 2y + Sxy + y 3 ;
(iii)
I +1+1+1
a;
y*
z2
J{x* + y*z*) ;
(vi)sin(^;
\x/
(vii) ta,n(xy).
7 (i) Prove that every homogeneous function of degree n in (x, y) can be written
in the form x ng{yjx). [Take t = 1/x in the definition in 1.52(4); write
9(yM =f(hy/x).]
(ii)
of degree
be said about:
(iii)
respectively,
fix, y)
what can
g(x, y) ?
*9 If f(u, v) is homogeneous of degree n in (u, v), and each of u, v is a homogeneous function of degree
in (x,y), prove that when/(w, v) is expressed in
terms of x and y, it is homogeneous of degree mn in (x, y). [Let/(w, v) become
<f>(x,y); then <f>(tx,ty) =f(t m u,t m v) = (t m ) nf(u,v) = t mn $(x,y).]
by y5 xy+
by
first
11
why those in
(i)
arsina:;
(ii), (iii)
(ii)
a;sin(l/a;);
(iii)
sin (!/#).
and explain
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
30
1.6
AND METHODS
[1.6
Plane curves
In
1.5
possess
By plane
coordinates
curve
we mean
satisfy
for all
in
0,
and
call
(i)
point on the curve, and if also every point of the curve can be obtained
from
(i)
by giving t just one suitable value, then equations (i) are called
is said to be unicursal.
have used such a representation for some
simple kinds of curve; e.g. x = at 2 y = 2at are proper parametric
equations of the parabola y 2 = 4ax (see 16.12); and x a cost,
y = a sin t properly represent the circle x 2 + y 2 = a 2 Sometimes the
<j>(t), i/r(t)
The reader
will already
Example
The cycloid
The path of a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls without slipping
along a fixed straight line is a plane curve called a cycloid.
Let the circle of centre C and radius a roll along Ox, and let the tracing point
P start from O, so that the circle begins by touching Ox at O. Let the coordinates
of P be (x, y) when the circle has turned through an angle d. Since no slipping
as shown, we have
occurs, arc JVP = ON. After constructing
PK
x = OM = ONPK = arc NP PC sin d = a0asin0,
y = MP = NCKC = aacos0.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.62]
AND METHODS
31
From
the definition
we
a(6 sin#),
cos#).
a(l
G
j
/ l\
Q
Fig. 22
generating circle) and base of length 2na (the circumference of this circle).
The parametric equations confirm all this. An (x, y) equation for the cycloid
could be obtained by eliminating 6; but it is
much less simple and less useful than the
parametric representation.
Fig. 23
= a(6+8m0), y =
a(lcoad).
by coordinates!
(x, y)
P in a plane is
way available.
If
is
OX is a fixed line (the initial line), we may join OP and consider the
angle POX = (measured positively in the counterclockwise sense from
OX, as in trigonometry) and the distance OP =
(fig.
24).
Then to any
(r,
6) corresponds a
it
If we restrict r
who
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
32
[1.63
r,
it is
leave r
of P; r
is
the radius
13) it is desirable
usually convenient to
{r,
6) polar coordinates
vector,
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Hence
r cos 6,
P are seen
(fig.
25) to
r sin 6.
be
(ii)
if
uniquely.
Conversely,
when x, y
r==
are given,
^X
we have
+ y 2^
= Tan ! V
>
(iii)
This last formula will not determine 6 uniquely, even if the restrictions
are imposed, for
it
it <
we should require
6 < n;
x:y:r.
(iv)
relation F(r, 6)
some curve in the plane, and is called the polar equation of the curve.
As in the case of cartesian equations, it can be thought of in the form
r
r
= f(6)
= $(t),
or 6
g(r)
when
f(t).
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
1.63]
AND METHODS
33
its
is
circle
with centre
and radius
c;
=a
is
Examples
(i) The cardioid. Given a fixed point O on a fixed circle of diameter a, draw
any chord OP' and produce it to P so that P'P = a. The locus of P as P' varies
on the circle is called a cardioid (fig. 26). Since
is
the curve
(b)
as 6 increases from
as 6 increases from
(c)
is
\tt,
to
tt,
r decreases
r decreases
from 2a to a;
from a to 0.
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
c>
a,
(ii)
c in
\a(l
0. If c
<
a, r
+ 2 cos
It
ftt,
P is
= a cos 6 + c.
is
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
34
[1.63
face along Ox and rotate through angle tt counterclockwise, then mark off a
distance \a in the opposite sense, i.e. actually in the direction Ox. The curve is
completed by using the symmetry about Ox (fig. 27). It is seen to have a loop,
with a 'double point' at 0. The 'cusp' at
of the cardioid (the case c = a)
can be thought of as a loop which has shrunk to a point.
(iii)
The lemniscate
+ y2 2 =
(x 2
a 2 (x 2 y 2 ).
r2
a 2 cos 2d.
i.e.
(r 2 ) 2
lies
We
Exercise 1(e)
1
(ii)
(i)
y =f(x) + c;
^
1
2 Verify that
can those of
2at
circle
point
(at j(l
+tz ),
at 2 /(I
this curve.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
Transform
AND METHODS
35
5 x 2 ~y 2
a2
6 xy
7 (x 2 + y 2 ) 3
c2 .
a 2xy(x 2 y 2 ).
Sketch the curves given by the following polar equations. (Label the results
retain them for future use.) Negative values of r are allowed.
= acos0.
r = asin20.
r = asec# + &
= ad.
14 r = acos30.
(a > 0, b > 0).
9 r
13
16
10 r
11
r6
12 r 2
a.
15 rcos<9
and
a2 sin20.
= aeos 26.
graph r =f(6).
circle
n + 1 s n+1
[Apply
3
A > G to f
(n + l)/n
f f
and to
<n +
l.
their reciprocals.]
Prove
i(n+ 1) >
(i)
> (n+1)^"
w!
(hi)
[Apply
(i)
(iii)
Jn\;
(ii)
(nl) 3
<
(ii)
l 3,
n"{(w+
2
1)} ;
1).
A > G to
l,2,...,n;
l/( 1
2), 1/(2
3),
. .
.,
l/{n(n +
...,ra 3 ;
1)}.]
at 2
<Z.
eZ
*6 Prove
(a 1 b 1 c1
+ a 2 b i c i + ...+a n b n c n )*<
(a 2 +
...
+a 2
values of x.
is
(6
).
(x 2 + Ax+fi) 2 p,
show it
AND METHODS
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
36
and sketch
x 2 Zxl
the
graph of
3x 2 2x + 1
+ 8x+10
9
8'
x*6x +
x*8x2
x 2 2x + 3
2
2
can take all values if 1 < c ^
1 1 Prove that (cx + 3x 4) /(c + 3x 4x
12 Find the values of x for which (x 2 x 2)j(x 2  2) < 2.
13 Find the ranges of x for which (4a; 2 + 6x + l)/(x 2 + 3x + 2) > 4.
a;2+ 2
+6
14 Writing
(o*0)
/(a; =
x2 + 1
prove that there are two numbers such that/(x) is of the form
7a; 2
'
'
7.
A;
A;
(Ax + B) 2
D(x 2 +1)'
If these
numbers are k x k 2
,
<
(k t
k 2 ), prove
{{lkr )x + a} 2
Prove also that ( 1 k t ) ( 1 k 2 ) = a 2 and deduce that for all x, k x < f(x) ^ k 2
Sketch the curve y = f(x) when a > 0, indicating its position with respect
to the lines y = 1, y = k x y = k 2
15 Show that for all k 4= 0, the line y = k meets the curve
.
y(x 3) (x+ 1) = a# + 6
between 3a and a.
Sketch the curve when (i) a = 3, b = 7; (ii) a =
if 6 lies
y^l =
"
if
a i/
+ 3,
7.
0,
x to be
^t
(B<A
if K < 0, then
a) 2
(a;
(i)
Deduce that y
struct the
if
is
example
in no. 10.
abh2
u =Jax + hy + g) 2 + [y +
,
A=
where
and abh 2
4= 0,
show by
afgh\ 2
)
abc + 2fgh a/ 2 bg 2 ch 2
Hence show that sufficient conditions for u to be positive for all x, y are
a > 0, ab h 2 > 0, A > 0. (Given that a, ab h2 are nonzero, these conditions
are also necessary.)
If ab h 2 = 0, show that sufficient conditions are a > 0, afgh 0, ac > g 2
.
19 If a
4= 0,
ab h 2
4= 0,
A=
in no. 18,
show that u
is
of the form
{X 2 + (abh 2 Y 2 },
)
sufficient for
<
0.
FACTS, DEFINITIONS
AND METHODS
37
circle
which was
initially
where 6
on the
by the
21 Answer the question in no. 20 when the small circle rolls inside the large
one. (The curve generated is a hypocycloid.)
38
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
Limits:
2.1
= f(x),
early
work
in Calculus
is
concerned
is
by any one
of the symbols
fx
using whichever
is
Dx y,
By,
most convenient
y',
to zero,
(c)
f'(x),
f{x),
by saying that
and write
lim.
dx
and write
(ii)
sx+o8x
The statements
2.12
(i), (ii)
are equivalent.
wellknown limit
is
that of smx/x
when x >
(angles here
it is
made about
sin a;
<x <
tana;
the
when
'
'
< x <
\n.
(iii)
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.13]
39
It follows that
1
<
x
<
sin#
when
<x<
In.
(iv)
v
cosa;
'
1, by (iv). This will also be true when x approaches zero through negative values (x>0) because x/sinx is
an even function of x. We conclude that
x
>
when
x >
in
sin a;
i.e.
any manner;
in the limitnotation,
Urn t~~ =
a^osmx
1.
(v)'
v
a;;
or
even): there
which
is
is
_ x*9
~ xS'
3.
(i))
close to 3,
there
is
makes y =
6.
On the other hand, there are many functions whose limit is also
an actual value of the function. For example, if y = 3*2 then when
x > 2 we see that y > 12; and y = 12 when we put x = 2. Such functions (for which the limit is attained) form an important class which
2.14
will
be discussed in
2.6.
2.15
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
40
is
[2.2
the tangent
to
PQ
'
as in
fig.
29,
PQ approaches
approaches
P from
case there
is
whether
and in this
no 'tangent at P' in the
left or right,
ordinary sense.
2.2
limit
ex
by making x sufficiently
approaches or tends
to
close to the
number
We write either
j(x) >
when
,
lim f(x)
or
a,
I
x > a
I,
Remarks
By
(It was for this reason that we mentioned what happens when x >
"(a)
the words
'
'
down
the statement
(v).)
limit
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.22]
Moreover,
(y)
small as
it is
(but not
we can make
all)
41
this difference as
Thus from 1.53, (hi) the function sin 1 jx) is zero for all values x = 1 jnn
where n is an integer (positive or negative, however large), and is as
small as we please if we consider values of x sufficiently close to these;
but this function does not have as limit when x > because it does
not remain close to for all small x. In fact, the function oscillates in
value between + 1, and does not approach a limit when x > 0.
(8) As in 2.12, no mention is made off (a), because the function may
not even be defined when x = a. Hence when we speak of 'all values
of x sufficiently close to a', we mean all x in some small interval
a 7j< x<a + 7j excluding a itself; this is conveniently written
(
<
a;
\x
a\ <
tj.
2.22
Formal
We
more
definition
now
precisely.
can
give
for
accordingly as follows.
I when x tends to a if, given any positive number
however small, we can find a corresponding positive number rj
such that
\f(x)
1\
<
for all
x for which
<
\x
a\ <
tj.
1c
for all
lim f(x)
k.
x>a
2.3
perties of limits
just given,
some pro
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
42
Iff(x) >
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
a and
f(x)
g(x) >
wAen
/?
where k
[2.3
> a, then
a;
is constant)
+ g(x)+<*+fi;
f(x)g(x)**P\
l//() > 1 /a provided that a
4= 0;
provided that
a,/ft
/? 4= 0.
Proofs.
(a)
to
small, corresponds
a number
7j x
such that
/(#)
(b)
a <
number
to any
for all
ex
e2
>
0,
a;
for
<
which
\x
a\ <
n^,
such that
\g(x)
In
small,
fi\ <
for
<
which
a\ <
\x
(i)
\kf(x )
Now
for all
e2
<
&/(a;) ka\
fr au<
fr
\k(f(x)a)\
<
\k\e1
which
<
<
whenever
!(/(*)+?(*))
<
whenever
>
0,
a\ <
however
v.
\f(x)a\
&
ka.\ <
\x
n%
[a?
ex
\k\
\x
aj <
<
e.
a\ <
vx
',
Then
nx
(i).
(+0 =
</(*)a
<
ex
+ ez
+ fif(*)^
We can choose ex = e2
<
\f(x)
whenever
<
\x
a\ <
w,
(/(*)) {g^)fi)+a(g(x)fi)+fi(f(x)a)\

\cc\
 /? +
/(z)
 a
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.4]
43
whenever
< \xa\ <rj, where rj is the smaller of ij v w 2
choose e x and e2 so that \a\ e2 < ^e, /? e x <
and also ex e 2 <
.
<
/(#)sr(#)a/?
and
a*
/(*)
dition.
otf{x)
!/(*) *
f{x)
af(x)
Ml/(*)
0,
Now
when
+ (f(x)a)\ >
\a
f(x)
proving
ex
<
<
rj,
ex
\cc\
f(x)
'_1
f{x)
< \
a
ex
<
\x
a\ <
rj
x.
so that then
\<x\,
>
ex
when
requirement
a/(a;)a
also /(#)a
a(a ei
We
e;
can
then
follows.
(iii)
If
whenever
We
\a\
e1 >$\a\, and
<
e if this is
above; so that
<
<
whenever
\x
a\ <
tj 1}
(iv).
Result
(v) follows
from
(iii)
and
(iv)
a and
since f(x)
l/g{x)
if/?*0.
2.4
numerically large
x
is
large
and
positive.
however
that
is
\x\
big,
<
is
x 2 then when
;
x sufficiently close to
shall have Ijx 2 >
K if x
we
1/JK.
let f(x)
We say that
<
\\K,
i.e.
for all
x such
when x tends
to
0,
and write
= > oo
Remark (a)).
when
x >
0.
for
an asymptote
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
44
In the general
case, the
[2.4
statement
when
f(x) > oo
x > a
Similarly,
...
j(x) > oo
17
means
when
x>a
that, given
found so
oo
when
and
 > oo
x
when
x >
In 1.53, (iii) we saw that sin (1/x) takes all values between + 1 in
any interval however small which encloses the value x = 0. Since 1 \x
can be made as numerically large as we please for all x sufficiently
small, it follows that the function (1/x) sin (1/x) can take any value
however large, whether positive or negative. However, this function
does not remain large for all values of x near 0; e.g. it is zero when
x = I /nn (n being an integer). The condition (1/x) sin (1/x) > K is not
satisfied for all
infinity
when x
sufficiently
>
near
(nor even
0,
when x >
or x >
similarly it
and that
We
and
1)
when
unbounded near
is
+ 1 and 1)
because it
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.5]
If a function
is
bounded
interval, it is said to
be bounded in
45
some
Limits
2.5
when x
 oo,
this interval.
> oo
as
we
please for
when x tends
tend to
to infinity.
f(x )
00
when x
oo
',
etc.
for
himself.
Continuity
2.6
'
at a point like
Q where
(cf. 2.15).
fig. 30 is the graph of y = f(x), we now list some properties of
which must be associated with the point P at which x = a and
If
f(x)
the curve
is
'continuous'.
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
46
(a) f(x)
broken
must be
defined at
[2.61
there).
f(x)
and others later (6.1) when they are needed, but (a)(c) above are
sufficient on which to base a precise definition of 'continuity at a
point'.
Definition. f(x) is continuous at
x a
if lim f(x)
= f(a).
x>a
IP
S.
\/\
^/
y=/()
Fig. 30
y
j
Fig. 31
We can paraphrase this by saying that 'limits coincide with values '.
Using the formal definition of 'limit' given in 2.22, the definition
above can be restated as follows.
f(x) is continuous at x = a if, given any positive number e however
small, there is a corresponding number ij such that
\f(x)f(a)\
If we write x
\f(a
<
= a + h, we
+ h)f(a)\ <
for all
\x
a\ <
n.
dy+0
x for which
when
h for which
= f(x) and h =
Sx >
0,
or
Sx,
lim 8y
&e0
\h\
<
n.
0.
(i)
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.62]
Iff(x)
is
a < x
<x<
b,
47
we say that
<b
this way,
may
f( x )
2.62
Some
(1)
The sum,
difference, product,
is also a continuous function, provided that in the last case the denominator
is
The
results follow
at a point'
itself
f( u )^f(b)
when
x+a,
when
u>b.
when
f(Q{x)) >f(g{a))
Given
>
0,
there corresponds a
\f(
Taking 8 as the
u )f(b)\ <
x > a.
whenever
8.
Hence
b\ <
\f(g(x)) f(g(a))\
and the
whenever
<
ja;
a] <
whenever
rj.
\xa\<7],
result follows.
2.63 Examples of
some continuous
functions
n
(1) x isa continuous function for all values of x when nisa positive
integer; the same is true except at x =
when nisa negative integer.
The function f(x) = x is certainly continuous everywhere. Hence
by 2.62
1)
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
48
Hence, again by
continuous everywhere
0.
make
points which
the
denominator equal
to zero.
(2),
For
+ h) sin x =
sin (x
Hence, given
Therefore sin x
By 2
62
except
is
it
2cos(a; +
^)sin^
+ ^) ^
<
2sinA(
since
cos(a;
<
\h\
since
sin^
<
<
e.
%\h\.
we have
e,
sin (x
i.e.
is
zero, viz. at
all rational
(b)
is
[2.64
x.
\h\
when x =
(k
0,
(positive, negative,
or zero).
2.64
Removable
discontinuities
We
not defined.
a.
'
while f(a)
I,
we may define
by means of two formulae)
:
is
a by 'com
f(a) to
is
be
I.
then con
smaj
i;
continuous at x
/(0)
is
and be equal to
of the function
(defined
fix)
JX
'
then/(#)
exist
tinuous at x
may
when
=}=
0,
0.
On
see 1.53,
(iii).
below and
a,
on a continuous
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.65J
49
We
assume it because a
would deflect us too far
shall
rigorous proof
we apply
= f(x)  c, we
de
Fig. 32
duce the
c.
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
f
The reader should illustrate by a sketch.
The converse result, that 'if f(x) takes every value between /(a)
once.
fig.
b,
33 shows.
GPM I
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
50
[2.7
in a
as x varies from a to
6.
Exercise 2(a)
Find
do not,
function.
1
when x
xa
ax
/v.2
> a.
_i_
X3 X2 + X
hen
(i)
+ 1;
(ii)
oo;
^IZ^L when x
a? a
sin
a.
3a;
_ tan x sin x
7
sin 3 *
tan
2:
11
when
1cosa;
*2
13 xBin 
(iv)
+ 0.
sin 2*
cos 1 *
8 7~
V( 1 a;2 )
when x + 0.
rt
when g
when
12 ajsin*
_^ Q
(i) tc
> 0;
cos x
10
0.
a;
when
a?
> 0.
sinoa;
x *oo;
whena;0.
(iii)
(ii) a;
> 00.
14 cos i
when x
> 1.
when x >
when
when
0.
(i) a;
> 0;
0;
(i)
(ii)
(ii)
00.
> 00.
a;
15
11
sin when
sec
17
(a?

(i)
<;
(ii)
x>0.
16
when x
> 0.
> 0.
m( + *) + Bin( 8 ^2ain a
fr
h2
at x =
19 J//(x) = *sin(l/x) {x # 0),/(0) = 0, prove thatf(x) is continuous
(and therefore for all values of x by 2.62 (1)). Verify that the graph of/(a;) lies
Sketch the
in the angles between the lines y = x which contain the a;axis.
graph.
every20 If/(s) = * 2 sin(l/a;) (x =j= 0),/(0) = 0, prove that /(a) is continuous
graph.
where, and sketch the
2.7
2.71 Sequences
'
values.
integers
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.711
51
For example, f(n) may denote 'the sum of the first n positive
and is defined only when n is a positive integer.
'
Definition
/U)>
/(2),
greater than
...
/(3),
Even
if f(n) is
it is still
all
called a sequence.
Thus n 2 an sin {nl(n 2)} are sequences, the latter being defined
for all n > 2; but tan \mt is not a sequence because it is undefined for
odd values of n however large.
Remark (a). A sequence is not completely specified when its first
few terms are given. For example, although the simplest sequence
,
beginning with
is
16
9,
4,
1,
n2 + (n  1) {n  2) (n  3) {n  4) <f>(n)
n2 yet
,
'
1,
3,
5,
could be continued as 9, 11, 13, 15, ... or as 11, 13, 17, 19, ... according
to whether it is interpreted as the 'arithmetical progression' 2n~ 1,
or as the sequence of odd prime numbers.
If f(w) has a meaning when n is not a positive integer, we may regard
the terms of the sequence as the values of a function/(a;) when x takes
positive integral values; e.g. sin2rar could be thought of as the value
of sin 2nx when x = n. On the other hand, some functions are defined
only for positive integral values of the variable;
a:!
is
an example.
large.
Definition
Accordingly
(b).
we give
the general
The statements
lim/(w)
f(n) >
when
I,
> oo
each mean that, given any positive number e however small, there
corresponds a positive number
(which need not be an integer)
such that

\f(n)
1\
<
for all
n>
N.
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
52
The terms
Remark (/?).
If there
is
infinity', 'oscillate'
f(n),
minus
[2.72
2.4.
n>co
limit.
n>oo
2nx
.j.
between +
oscillates
true.
]j
m y^ _ ^
ij
m y^) =
\%
n> oo
x> oo
2.72 a"
< a <
First suppose
1.
Then
na n < a + a 2 +
and hence
...
...
+a n =
> an
a n +i
<
1a
n(la)'
If
1 <
shows that
then a n =
a <
<z
0,
all
then we have
n > 0,
for all n,
l<a<l,
if
lima" =
0.
>
If a
>
1,
(1.21, ex.
then a
= 1 +6
(ii)),
Since nb can be
an
made
where
(1
>
0.
By
Bernoulli's inequality
as large as
we please
for all
sufficiently large,
so can a n Therefore
.
if
a >
1,
a n >oc
when
n>oo.
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.73]
If a
even values of
n,
and
is
and negative
large
is
53
large
for
oscillates finitely
2.73
If
(between +1,
a//i
1 < a <
1,
then a n >
by
1 ^ a<
if
and hence
l)/w, and
2.72,
(
then
1,
lim
n>oo
If a
>
1,
then a
+ 6 where
f(n+l)
>
0.
certainly an jn
this also tends to
0.
tl
Writing /(w)
an [n,
=
7Sr ^i a ^n: (1+6)
>
n{l
if
+ 6) >
(n
1) (1
w >
Hence
and
for
+ lb),
+ 6,
i.e.
say,
\nb >
+ 6,
2+6
^ = iV,
say.
w > N, we have
an+1
n+ 1
so
>
^(
(1
If a
+ ^>^=2( 1 + i &
+ 6) w > oo by
if
for
a>
2.72;
a**
^ ao
1,
2
)
>>^(l + i&)^.
hencef
n even, negative values for n odd, and by the preceding case these
An
alternative proof
is
(vi),
12.52,
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
54
[2.74
2.74 a n \n\
>
First suppose a
0,
and choose
N>
a
a a
a11
ss
n > N,
T'2"'Nl'N"'n
n\
a
a a
l'2'"'iVl
\nN+l
Since
(\)
If a
<
case. If
n >
when n>co,
0,
an /w!
= a
then an \n\ =
then
0,
TC
/n! 
for all n.
2.75 wi(m
If
1)
...
(m /i + 1) an /nl,
<*,
lim
a*
*<
0.
m constant
1.
a
a #=0,
17
m(m1)
i
... (mn+l)
'o.
'J
v
.
rrtn
a = 
w+1
/()
m+l\
/
1
\a\
<
then clearly
1,
+ \a\)
k
< k <
1,
1)
<
fc
then k n >
\(\
$(l
1,
n > N,
\a\
as
we
please for
say. Writing
\a\),
/(7i2)
when
close to
+ \a\) <
for all
N we have
<
Since
<
\a\
a,
71+1/
ti
<
> oo
...
<
tr"\f(N)\.
and so
also
/(ti)
 0.
Hence
4*
if
 t1 < a <
1,
m(ml) ...(mn
+ l) a n = A
r
hm
0.
i
n>co
We
shall
1 <a<
\f(n)\ > oo
1,
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
2.76]
55
(i)
a> 0,Km$a=
1.
n*co
If a
>
1,
then #a
>
1 (1.21,
Then
made as
when n > oo.
tfa
1 
flb
= 1 + 6,
so that 6
>
0.
+ 6) n > 1 + no > no
(1.21, ex. (ii)). Hence 6 < a/n, and so
a
by Bernoulli's inequality
0<.tfal<.
n
small as we please for
all
sufficiently large,
hence
If
< a < 1, then 1/a > 1, and so by the preceding case with I fa instead
of o we have 1/tfa + 1 when n v oo, i.e. J^a
1.
If a = 1, then
= 1 for all n.
The function is not denned for all n if a < 0, and is zero for all n if a = 0.
The required result has thus been established.
If
(ii)
1 <
<
1,
r.
*
nb n
>>
+ &ni _
<
16'
na n/<r+1)
i.e.
Hence
nr+1a n <
and so
and
<
nra n <
l_ al/(r+l>*
1
(l_ al/(r+l))f+l'
1
n (l_ al/(r+l))r+l>
when n
> co.
all
increasing for
There are
increases:
all
(i)
it
(ii)
it
(so
is
bounded, 2.4
(3)).
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
56
[2.77
In case (ii) it can be shown that f(n) approaches some limit I when
n>co, where I < k. Although a strict proof of this assertion cannot
be given in this book, the reader may convince himself of its truth by
the following geometrical illustration.
L
1
i
P3
Fig. 35
OPx OP2
,
points
be represented by lengths
along a fixed line OX. Since the
f(n),
f(l), f(2),
...
measured off
OPn
P move steadily to the right, then either
,
...
(i)
pass beyond any point whatever which one cares to select on the line;
(ii)
there will be
may
1/n >
< k
allow
in general.
Similarly, if f(n + 1)
< f(n)
for all
(or
all
n > N),
n > N).
When
k'
where V ^ k'
results stated above are important because they enable us to
decide whether a monotonic function has a limit without our first
needing to know what that limit must 6e.f If the definition (6) in 2.71
and in
The
this
event f(n)
V,
at
n>oo
is
(see ex.
(ii)
below). Rather,
(ii)
and
4.43
(8).
Examples
(i)
>
0. (Cf. 2.72.)
n>co
Taking/(n)
f
a",
The
then/(n+
first will
1)
af(n).
be basic in convergence
LIMITS.
2.77]
If a
>
1,
then/(ra)
some
infinity or to
function
is
relation
and
lim f(n +
1)
lim{a/(n)}
57
limit
increasing),
I
The
is
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
al is impossible because
> oo.
>
alim/(n)
and
>
al.
Hence
1.
w?^en a
*(ii)
<
Prove &af ( 1
oo.
1,
oo
<a<
1,
e *S 3.
(This example
been
>
may
(12.1)
has
revised.)
The
(r
which
is
'nr
r!
1/
2\
1\ /
1
(for r
1, 2,
n)
/
1
(a)
positive because each factor is positive. Similarly, the (r+ l)th term
+ l/(n + 1)) B+1 is (for r = 1, 2, . ., n + 1)
in the expansion of (l
(b)
111
2!
n!
< 1+ + + + ...+
,
1!
Since n!
=1.2.3...n>1.2.2...2 = 2" 1
if
3!
n>
2,
therefore
g.p.,
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
LIMITS.
58
[2.77
than 3 for
<
all n.
Hence
(1
+ oo,
and
4, is
very
e s 3.
The number
e,
which we
shall
meet by a
different
approach in Ch.
its applications.
Exercise 2(b)
when n
n + (l).
4 n{ i
oo.
2 {n + (l) }/n.
rt
+ (!)}.
n{2 + ( !)}
+ (l) n
n{l + (2)}.
l
sinn7T
n 2 + (l)"w.
8 sin^wr.
sin n
sin n
12 +cosrwr.
11
10
13
+ 2 + 3 + .+n
16
n 2 jcos
rr
(n 2 l)sin.
n
n
3w
17
, 19
15
14
..
+ (~ 2 )"
3 n + 2"
3+5+
> oo.
+ (2n+l)
z
 cos
^
where a >
lg #( a n + &n\
..
when n
where 6
0, 6
>
is
constant.
0.
<=+>:.
n n+l
20 Discuss the behaviour of nra n where r is a fixed positive integer and \a\ > 1.
for any a, however
oo. [By 2.74, a"/w! >
21 Prove that ^j(n\) + oo when ra
large; so n! > a" for all n sufficiently large. Alternatively, use Ex. 1 (a), no. 4.]
*22
(i)
Iff(n)
is
o(n)
/(l)+/(2) + ...+/(n)
=
(ii)
What
I.
lim
Prove
2 If n
that
>
= (1
= 1 + a where a >
1)
r=
+o;+ic 2 +
then
> %n(n
1,
+ a) n
n+1 + na: B + 2
*(n+l)a;

...
+a;f" 1
a;),
0.
<
/
/
>y
a;
1.]
<
^i(n+l).
2
.
n 1
LIMITS.
1,
CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS
and
lim$(nf ) where
n*<x>
59
r is
a fixed
>oo
integer.
recur
if
(ii)
if
W+V
W n+1 + Va
*5 It
w2 =
is
4.
a/
n>
for all
1,
and that w x
as a function of n,
7,
and
7l00
6 If u n
>
1,
prove u
*>
oo
when n
 oo.
[Method of
n*oo
2.73.]
7 Iflim(w n+1 /w n )
where
1 <I<
1,
prove limw
n>co
10
6,
(a constant).
.
n ra n
0.
[Method of 2.75.]
n*oa
^.
a"
(a,
m constant).
constant).
(a, r
Find the behaviour of u = (x 2 + 2y) j(y*  2x) when x and y both tend to
(i) along the line y = mx; (ii) along the curve x*
+ y 3 = xy. [Use the parametric
equations x = t/(l + t*), y = t z /{l + t3 ) (Ex. 1 (e), no. 3) to express u in terms of t,
and observe that both x and y tend to when t > 0, + oo, or oo.]
*11
*12 If m (x)
<fi
and
lim
is 1 if
<j>
m {x)
which
is
a;
is
is
<j>
m {x)
is
always
if x is irrational,
when x is
irrational.
60
3.1
derivative of a function of
one variable
3.11 Definitions
8y=f(a + h)f(a),
The
f(a + h)f(a)
8y
8x
so that
(i)
h
can
follows.
If the ratio
(i)
tends to a limit
when h >
is
a,
in
and
we
a + h in
this limit
written f'{a).
The
a a+h
Fig. 37
Fig. 36
is
a.
a a+h
Writing x
any manner,
(i),
0' is equivalent to
so that
x+a\
f( )f(
JX
hm JX
xa
x*a
The reader
will
know
'
a ')
Jl
= f'(a).
\
(ii)
is
interpreted
see
fig.
36.
= f(x)
at
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.12]
APPLICATIONS
61
If the function f(x) were not onevalued, the difference f(a + h)f(a) may
approach a limit other than zero when h  (fig. 37), so that the ratio (i) would
not tend to a limit. To deal with a manyvalued function we must consider its
branches separately.
with respect
to
x (abbreviated to 'wo
is
The
a;').
itself.
Examples
Iff(x)
(i)
where c
c,
hm
Remark in
For
0.
= ,.0
lim =
cc
Km
h
A+0
see the
f(x
JK '
J + h)f(x)
'
A
limO
0:
h^O
hyOK
h+Q
2.22.
We are not yet justified in asserting the converse of this result; see 3.82.
Iff(x)
(ii)
..
lim
x, then f'{x)
f(x + h)f(x)
JK '
'
h>0
lim
2.3,
3.12
and
(i),
(x
= hm
limc
cf'(x).
1.
For
/(^+fe)/(^)
c]hn
h*o
= lim 1 =
limftH)"
f(*+ h )f( x )
h
h*o
is cf'(x).
If f(x)
is
derivable at
x=
a,
then
n+Km ^
We
+ h)x
~
=
A>0
qf(g+ft)o/(tt)
h>o
For
1.
(iii)
by
when
&^)_ / (a)+9>
.
h{f'(a)
+ ?/}>
a) tends to zero
when
h >
0,
when
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
62
[3.2
Kmf(a + h)=f(a)
i.e.
ft>0
The converse of
is
continuous at x
a.
examples
show.
Examples
5 is continuous at x =
(i) f(x) =
+ oo when h > + and to oo when h
which tends to
but {f(h) f(0)}/h =
 Hencef(x) is not derivable at x = 0.
0,
(ii)
f(x)
a?
is
continuous at x
0;
but
is
Let f(x)
continuous at x
zsin (1/as),
0;
a;
0,
and/(0)
>
Then
is
hsm(l/h)
Bin(ljh),
0.
Consequently/^)
but
f(h)f(0)
and when h
0.
this oscillates
between
Hence f(x)
1.
is
not derivable at
0.
In
all
point (the origin); but continuous functions of x have been constructed which do not possess a derivative for any value of x. It should
now be
its continuity.
3.2
The
rules of derivation
The following rules should be familiar to the reader from early work
in Calculus, but we formulate and prove them here for completeness.
Let u, v be functions of x which are derivable at x = a. Then
(1) the sum y = u + v is derivable, and has derivative u' + v'\
(2) the
product y
uv
is derivable,
and has
derivative vu'
+ uv';
and
(3) if v #=
derivative (vu'
when x
uv')jv
2
.
a, the quotient
u/v
is derivable,
and has
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.2]
63
Proofs.
and these
it,
APPLICATIONS
8y
(1)
(2)
(u + 8u + v + 8v){u + v)
(u + 8u) {v + 8v)
8u + 8v;
v8u u8v
= u + 8u u
v + 8v
v
8y
(3)
8v in
by
'
v(v + 8v)
x=
at
a,
8u/8x
u'
and
to a limit,
u'W,
(1)
0.
and by
given by
8v\8x
v',
and
m*'"*
vu' + wf,
(2)
3.12 8u
(3)
8v > 0.
'
V 0(0
xo =
*s
derivable at
$K*o)>
Proof. Since
and
if f(x) is derivable at
w prove
#=
is
<j>(t)
derivable at
write
=x
we
where
and
then as in 3.12
we can
8x
where
77
(depending in general on
8x
Similarly, as
y =f(x)
is
and
{f(t
<ft)
tends to
when
8t > 0; so
+ v }8t.
derivable at x
=#
(i)
^ = {/'W + ^7i}^
(ii)
From
(i)
and
(ii),
=
t
is
^ is undefined if
now
significant
0,
5a;
even
0;
if Sx,
+ to}
but
(cf.
given by
a,
2.64)
(i),
'
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
64
 = {f'(x
so that
^f'(x
Hence
0'( o )
exists
and
+ Vi)
(*o)
is/'(a;
+ V}
when
)<f>'(t )
[3.2
St
>
0.
) <f>'(t ).
The reader may wonder why we give this elaborate proof instead of the usual
one in the elementary books, which goes as follows:
By
properties of fractions,
8y
St
~8x
8x
X
~Si'
dy
dy
dx
dt
dx
dt
(i))
and
so,
many
*
is
derivable at
and
0,
^ (<) ~^ (0) =
= W) =
0'(O)
^sin(l/<)
(*<>),
\0
(*
0)
0; for
when
<sin (lit) *
(Ex. 2
(a),
no. 19).
However, there
is
no interval including
8x
vanishes infinitely
${8t)$(0)
throughout which 8x
skl
4= 0;
for
St
<
T, however small
may be.
(5)
The
Inverse functions.
inverse x
We
a given function
g(y) of
y
x
is derivable at
=y
where
).
g'ivo)
Proof.
at
As
t>
/'(*<>)'
in 3.12,
ox
=f'(x
Provided th&tf'(x
+n
ri
=1=
where
0, this
when
w>0
8x+0.
gives
8x
*y
f'M+v
(iii)
Asf'(x
4= 0,
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.3]
Since x
8y >
0,
g(y) is continuous at
and consequently v +
APPLICATIONS
y
^
i.e. gr'(i/ )
exists
and is
hence
0.
when
(2.61, (i)) 8x >
Letting 8y > in (iii),
\Jf'{xQ ).
some wellknown
3.3
Derivatives of
3.31
The function xm
Case 1:
when 8y +
65
functions
m is a positive integer n.
. . .
+ fcn1
!(?)"
= oix
if
1*
a
a
Taking 6
x,
+ h) n xn
jr
= # + h, we get
+
xnl + xnl +
71
Hence
Case 2:
+ (x + h) n ~2 X+...+ xn'x
(x + h) n
= nx
d
~x
h +
1
.
m ) = mxm~x
m is a positive integer.
when
(a;
m is a negative integer n.
y = xm =
x~n
ljxn ,
dy
dx
xn
nx
x^
= mxm ~ x
Case 3:
+xni when
(n terms)
11  1
.
rule
and Case
1,
= ~ nx_Hnl
m is a fraction pfq.
From y =
x^
qy
^.
= pxp \
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
66
dy
so
dx
= P xP
= v_x^
91
qy
q
= mx 1
Conclusion.
..
= P xVl
HxPla) a+1
m)
(x
dx K '
= mxm 
1
.
3.32
irrational; see
sin x,
8y
then
sin (x + h)
sin x =
2cos(a; + A)sinA,
.siniA
8y
so
17
Hence
^ sin x
dx
For y
dy
r
dx
cos
tana;
The
when
h>0,
x.
^ cos * =  sin
Similarly,
3.33
for
(d).
The
If y
[3.32
x.
cosaj.cosa; sin#(
cos
5
2
sin#)
cos 2 x + sin2 x
cos a2 C
a;
sec2 x.
exs.
(iv)(vi).
(1)
siay,
= cos v = J(lx
^
dy
2
).
1
Assuming that we are considering one branch of Sin a; (say that
whose values he in the range nn \n ^ y 4, nn + \n) so that the
function is continuous, we have by 3.2 (5) that
dy^
dx
V(i*2 )'
THE DERIVATIVE.
APPLICATIONS
67
If we consider only the principal branch y = sin1 x, then cos
y ^ 0,
3.4]
t
1
x
(sin*
*)
7
dx y
y
(2)
so on
V(l~*2 )'
'
=+
cosy, dxjdy
sin*/
ay _
1
dx~ J(i x zy
On the principal branch y = cos" 1 x, sin y ^
the negative sign:
0,
tan?/
we have
sec 2 ?/
= 1 +x2
Implicit functions
3.4
'
1+x2
dx
efc/<fo/
Examples
(i)
If x n + y n
= an
then
nxi + ny^
dx
(ii)
If a sin mx + b cos ny
c,
If xs + 6x*y + 2y*
dy
am cos mx
dx
bnsinny
dy
0,
then
dx
(iii)
\y)
_
am
cos mxbn am ny~ =
,
^
= iY'
dx
and so
0,
so
then
5x* + 6iy . 3a 2 + Xs
^) + 2
5y*
(tXj
and
dx
^=
0,
CMC
5x*+lSx*y
6xa + 10y*
'
and
derivability of implicit
52
THE DERIVATIVE.
68
APPLICATIONS
[3.42
${t),
y=
ijr{t),
we may
think of the
ehmination of
functions concerned,
we
require dyjdx;
it
result
the given equations are the parametric equations of a curve (see 1.61).
By
'function of a function'
dy
dt
dy
and so
andso
dy
dx
dx
dt
 dy l dx 
'
^' {t)
dxdtlitwr
Example
If x
a(d
sin 6)
and y
dy
dx
a( 1
_
~
dy ldx
cot \d.
ddj dd
_
~
sin 6
a sii
a(lc
cos0)
i
This result gives the gradient at P of the cycloid (seel. 61, ex.). If!Fis the other
extremity of the diameter along
(fig. 22), then
NC
= \PGN = PTN,
P is cot PTN = tan TPK.
\0
TPN =
rightangle,
Therefore
PT
is the
PN is the normal at P.
Exercise 3(a)
1
1/x;
(ii)
<Jx; (iii)
(iv) tana;.
(i)
(i)
(a 3
3) 10
sin" x;
(ii)
(ii)
V(a 2 + a; 2 );
sin mx;
(iii)
(iii)
1/(1 a; 2 ) 4 .
4 If v
5
6 Obtain the quotient rule (3.2 (3)) by applying the product rule to
(assuming that y so defined is derivable).
7 If u,
v,
u = vy
(uvw) = vw  + wu + uv
dx
dx
dx
dx
dto
.
8 If y =f(x), x = <f>{t), t F(u) are derivable functions, express the derivative of y wo u as a function of u.
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
69
9 Deduce the derivative of cos a; from that of sin a: by using the relation
= sin (x + \n) and 'function of a function '.
cos x
10 Calculate d{amx)/dx
8y
,
sin ft
,.
and using
cosa;sinft sina;(l
lira
cosft)
cos
ft
lira
1,
0.
ft
ft
and
sin (x + ft)
Criticise this
sinft 
sin x
ft;
hence sin(a;+ft)
and
cos a;
ft
> sina:+ftcosa:, so
(sin(a;+ft)
argument.
12
14
d
cot x
dx
16
Deduce the
13
x.
dx
cosec 2 x.
\n.
18 tan_1 (j^i)
19 a?sin 1 a;+V(l
s 2
21 cos" 1 
>
if (i)
20 sin" 1 a
).
0;
(ii)
<
if
(i)
{Put x
'
>
0;
(ii)
= tan $6.]
a
<
0.
22 tan"1 ,
a
0.
sec 1 a;
cos 1
^^
cosec 1 a?
sin 1
23
dx
xj(x*l)
sec1 a; = +
d
24 cosec1 a:
dx
25
cot"
dx
(a?
>
xj(x2 l)
1
l+a; 8
(x
1).
>
1).
^^
cot 1 a;
\ti
tan 1
a;,
THE DERIVATIVE.
70
APPLICATIONS
[3.5
tan  =
v]
u +v
dx\
I
is
28
a function of
"
33 x
(!)'
x, write
w+y =
down
*>*y
x.
x2y 3 wo
ct,y
3at
1+t 3
v
,y
,
= acos^,
32 x
c\t.
Bat
1
fcsin^.
+ t3
34 Find the equation of the tangent at the point (at 2 2at) on the curve
= ax, and interpret t geometrically. Also give the equation of the normal.
,
1,
= ma"1
m.
b*a
[If
m = p/q, put a = x ,b = y
a
limit
If
= s,
9:
x p yp
lim
+
y x x*y*
px v ~ x
qx* 1
....
then
limit
b'a*
(ab)
lim
sa8  1
....]
a2*
a'b* I
*39
a:
sin(l/z) (x
/'()
3.5
2a;
4=
sin ( 1/*)
is not
0),/(0)
 cos
continuous at
+ and to \n
,
0, *fcow *7ia*
1/*) (x 4= 0)
continuous at x
Derivatives of second
is
and
/'(0)
0.
when
3.51 Notation
The
= f(x)
%
and is
J& y
>
D% D* y
D2f{x)>
>
y wo
x.
"
{x)
'
V "'
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.52]
APPLICATIONS
71
(n)
When
Dy,
tf \
(*)>
t is
mechanics), the
first
few derivatives
y,
y,
etc.
is
wo t are written
y,
a,
and
is
/<n)
(tf),
~
a, then dn ~hf\dxn x
continuous at x
n>
and near
d^hjjdx11  1 is
existence near a also), and it is
must
exist at
3.53
(i)
Examples
If y
d 2y 2 dy
2 +  +
dx
x dx
0.
In cases like this it is easier to work with products than with quotients;
therefore begin by writing the given equation as
xy
sides
wo
wo x:
y+x
Derive again
we
dy
x:
d2y\
dy (dy
d\
+\
+ xr^\
~
dx \dx
dx2
'
'
+
d2y
n
2
 = k xy,
dy
y, dy/dx,
d 2y/dx 2
is
called a differ
5.
THE DERIVATIVE.
72
If x
(ii)
cos 3
t,y
dy
dy Jdx
dx
^y =
=
Calculate
(iii)
h sin
t,
APPLICATIONS
3a cos
c 2 1 sin t
= j^
jdx
j
dt
d2y/dx 2 ifyis
3a
a3
aty
x 2 + ay + (ax + y 2 )f
0.
(a)
wo a;:
2{x a
[
(a).
wo x:
i.e.
by using
Xs + 3axy + y s
Derive both sides
[3.53
dt I dt
(dy}j
ax+y 2
\ax+y 2 /
(ax+y
d 2y
^
dx 2
Hence
0.
a) (x2 + y 2 + a2 xy + ax + ay) =
0,
is
2
K(*  V? + (* + ) + (2/ + ) 2}.
which
is
is
zero.
isolated point
d 2y/dx 2
(iv)
is
Hence
either
(
= y = a,
a, a) and
0.
an inverse function x
d 2x
dzx
dy
d 2y
d3y
and there
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.53]
We have by
Hence
dy2
dx
1
_ (dyy
dy
\dx)
dy\\dx/
dx
\dx)
dx\\dx)
_^y/(dy\
iX
73
dy
\dx)
dx 2 / \dx)
=
~
Similarly,
dy*
~dy[dx*\dx)
_{ d^y(dy\~ 3
dx [dx 2 \dxj
dx
dy
(dyy*
\dx)
'
\dx2)
dx'dxfj \dx)
Exercise 3(b)
d yjdx for
Calculate
x3
s2 + 4
4 cos 2 a;
7 If y
8 If y
{x+l)(x2)
sin a;
sin a;.
"* 2
(x 4= 0).
(a
x)
dx2
9 If y
Vl 1
tan 1
x,
*x
dx
prove that
+2
o
*'>B *I=
10 Ify = tana;, prove that y' = 1+y 2 Derive this equation twice wo x, and
hence obtain the values of y', y", y"' when x = 0.
(i+
Write down expressions for the first five derivatives of the following functions, and
by inspection try to write down a formula for the nth derivative.
11
xm for
12 sinx.
* 16
(i)
m a positive integer;
13
(ii)
cos a;.
l/( 1
 *) + (
a;2
 1 )"
(iii)
m = 1.
is
+ a;)"!}.
THE DERIVATIVE.
74
is defined implicitly
19 x 3 + y*
4ax.
APPLICATIONS
[3.6
by
*20 x 6 + y6
Saxy.
of the parameter
from
Sax V
equations.
21 x
23 x
at 2 ,
22 x
2at.
a(cos0 + 0sin0), y
25 Ify
sinnd and
a:
acos0, y
6sin0.
6(sin00cos0).
24 x
x(t),
y(t).
/
*26 Writing
a, b for y
2/72!, y"'/3l and
1/3 !) d3x/dy s , express bt a 2 in terms of t, a,
,
r, a, /?
could
1215.
3.6
Increasing
is
defined at
and near x =
and
a,
if f(x)
< f(a)
We have
where n >
when h +
>
0,thenf(x) is increasing at x
a.
Hence
or negative), f'(a)
rj
0.
will
3.62 Definition of
(a) f(x)
has a
maximum', 'minimum'
i.e. if for
is
number n we have
f(a)
> f(x)
for all
for
which
<
[re
aj <
v.
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.62]
(6)
f(x) has a
/(a) <f(x)
for all
75
APPLICATIONS
= a iff{a) is the smallest value of
i.e. if
x for which
maximum
ij.
minimum
(c)
a gives a
or
value.
Remarks
Although in definition (c) we used 'point' for 'value of a;', we
are not implying any dependence on graphical illustration; but the
language is convenient and suggestive.
neighbour(/?) Since the terms 'maximum', 'minimum' refer to a
the same
=
necessarily
is
not
value
maximum
point
x
a,
a
hood of a
(a)
'
'
'
'
is
relative to
the values of the function over the whole range of x for which
defined.
may
is
it is
and may or
a similar distinction
it is no contrabetween 'minimum
diction that a function may have a maximum value which is less than
a minimum value; e.g. see 3.66, ex. (i).
(y) If f(x) is defined only for a < x < b, then the endpoints x = a,
=
x
b of this interval are excluded from the title 'maximum' or
The above definitions and remarks are given and illustrated graphically in most elementary courses on Calculus, and the following results
obtained from graphical considerations.
{A)
(B)
gives a
is
to these definitions,
(i)
(ii)
0.
f(x)
<
for
x <
for
x >
[3.63
(ii) we have
The reader should confirm
0.
this graphically.
we
there.
require the
following
Lemma. If<j){x) > for all xjust greater than a, and if'<fi(x) approaches
a number I when
+ then 1^0.
For if I < 0, then since <f>(x) can be made as close to I as we please
for all x sufficiently near to (and greater than) a, there would be such
values of x for which <f>(x) would be negative, contradicting that
x^a
> 0.
The necessity for allowing I =
<f>(x)
<j>{x)
is
by the
illustrated
case
<f>{x)
<
and
x>a+
or
a;
for
all
/(*)/()
xa
From
>
when
x >
a.
the hypothesis, this fraction has the limit f'(a) when x > a
(ii) of 3.11). Hence in particular it will
>
when x>a +
/'(a)
and
so
by the Lemma,
0.
Similarly, since
nf(
)
'
n,
xa
we may
let
conclusions,
x >
a and
)
'
<
when
x <
we have f'{a) =
a,
0.
0.
77
APPLICATIONS
occur where f(x) is not derivable. For example, if f{x) = x$, then/'(0)
does not exist (3.12, ex. (i)); yet x = gives a minimum.
minima are to
(y) In view of (a), (/?) we may say that maxima and
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.64]
be sought
among
A root oif'(x) =
'Change of sign'
3.64
If
(i)
(ii)
<
>
f'{x)
f'(x)
then x
is
a minimum point
by
(i)
(iij/'fo)
any x 2
for
increasing at x2
Thus in a
andf'{a)
a,
0,
i.e.
off(x).
<
for
decreasing at xx
f(x2 )
is
i.e.
Corollary
(ii)' f'(x) >
1.
sufficiently
i.e.
> f{a).
neighbourhood of a, f{a)
a gives a minimum of(x).
sufficiently small
value of f(x);
>
f'{x 2 )
Proof. Hypothesis
near
is zero or nonexistent.
test
and near x
f'(x) exists at
which f'{x)
is
Replacing condition
(ii)
is
the smallest
by
Corollary
2.
increases through a,
If
(i)
continuous atx
f'(x )
(ii)
f'(a)
(iii)
f{a)
exists
then
x=a
f{a) <
a,
0,
gives
and
is not zero,
a minimum of f(x)
if f"{a)
>
0,
and a maximum
if
0.
Proof. If f(a)
see that f'{x)
is
>
0,
increasing at x
a.
Since f'(a)
0, f'{x)
we
increases
THE DERIVATIVE.
78
APPLICATIONS
[3.66
minimum.
If f(a) <
then f'(x)
0,
increases through a,
i.e. it
= a gives a maximum.
Remark. If /"(a) = 0, the test is indecisive,
Corollary
1,
for
may give a
= for both
maximum, a minimum,
;
test
by 'change of sign'
3.66
(i)
(3.64).
Examples
f{x)
= x+.
X
f'(x)
and
f'(x)
when
1.
Fig. 38
As f(x)
is
easily found,
we can
by using
3.65.
We have
/'(*)=,,
oif(x), viz./(l)
2;
and x  I gives a
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.66]
The maximum
than the
is thus less
minimum
79
has no
Cf.Ex.
(n)/( * x)
It
lBx2 Sx+5
falte + S
{X)i
28(te2)(2s+l)
(6xi 16x + S) 2
'
except when 5#a 1 6x + 3 = 0, i.e. when x = $ or 3. For these values the function
when x = f or \.
itself is not defined. We have f'(x)
For testing these stationary points the 'change of sign' method of 3.64 is
obviously better, owing to the evident complexity of the expression for f{x).
Since the denominator of f'(x) is positive for all x except \ or 3, we need consider only the change of sign of the numerator.
11
'J
l
i
o
I*
13
l
Fig. 39
/(*) = !
Again the maximum
is less
fig. 39.
'
THE DERIVATIVE.
80
APPLICATIONS
[3.7
3.7
3.71 Definition
A point
and determination
of inflexion off(x)
is
turning value.
Geometrically, a point of inflexion of the curve y = f(x) is one at
which there is a tangent which has maximum or minimum gradient.
Applying 3.64 to the function f'(x), we get the following theorem.
If
(i)
(ii)
/"(#) exists at
then x
and near x
a,
andf{a) =
0,
is
a point of inflexion
off(x).
is
Remarks
(a)
is essential: roots
gives a
of inflexion:
it is
it is
either a
maximum
of f"{x)
if f(x)
may
= x*,
or
minimum
f'(a)
0,
inflexion.
Examples
= 6x 6 25x* + 9.
60x*(Zx z 5). Hence f"(x) =
when x = or VISince f"(x) does not change sign as x increases through zero, x =
is not a
point of inflexion. (It is in fact a minimum, by using 3.64.)
f(x) changes from negative to positive as x increases through ^/f and from
positive to negative as x increases through ^/f Each therefore gives a point
of inflexion.
(i)
Find
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.72]
APPLICATIONS
81
Summary
3.72
The
= f(x)
can be
classified as
follows.
^singular points
points of greatest
or least value (3.62,
does
not exist are
f'{x)
Remark
(y))
/maxima
to
to
+)
(from
turning points
(iff'(x)
Points of/
/'(*)
y=f(x)
where
changes sign)
=
\mimma
{stationary
(from
points) are
stationary inflexions!
general inflexions
/
/'<*)
(if
turning
points of f'(x))
(points of
increase or
decrease) are
ordinary points
3.8
3.81
tangent
(even
if
may be several such points P (fig. 42). If the curve is not continuous
the result may clearly be false; e.g. fig. 43 shows the graph ofy = ljx
for
AB is negative.
Let y =f(x) be the equation of the curve, and let A, B, P correspond to x = a, b, . Then we are supposing that/(z) is continuous for
a ^ x ^ 6, and that f'{x) exists for a < x < b. The property can then
be expressed as follows.
tff( x )
continuous for
a^x ^b
number such
w>=m.
6
and
a < x <
that
(a<l<b)
GPM
b,
THE DERIVATIVE.
82
APPLICATIONS
[3.82
This result (the first mean value theorem) will be established without
appeal to a figure in Ch. 6. Meanwhile we assume it, and use it to
Fig. 43
Fig. 42
a^x^b
for
/'()
0, this
shows
that/^)/^) =
# x2
constant for a
This theorem
^x
is
i.e.
0,
between a and
6.
satisfying a
^x<
Since
same
6; i.e. f(x)
s$ b.
(i).
The hypothesis that /'(a) is zero for a < x < b implies (3.12) that f(x)
continuous for a < x < b. If we do not include continuity at x = a and x =
the theorem may be false. For example, if
f(x)
then/'(a;)
=1
= 0for0<a;<
(0
<x<
1),
1(3.11, ex.
(i)),
/(0)
is
b,
= /(l),
<x<
1.
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.83]
APPLICATIONS
83
(a)
The function
an
interval
a < x < b if for any numbers xv x2 such that a < xx < x2 ^ b, we have
f( xi) <f( x 2) (&) If we have/(x1 ) >f(x 2 ), then f(x) is decreasing in the
interval a ^ x < 6. (c) In either case f{x) is said to be monotonic in
a ^ x < b (cf. 2.77).
,
converse property
//
(i)
(ii)
is
>
Proof.
*i
< x ^ x2
^ xx < x2
s$
b,
fM _ fM =
a ^ x ^ b,
< x < b,
x ^ b.
throughout a
^ ff{0
{Xx<i<
Since
> 0, and/'() > by hypothesis (ii), hence f(x 2 ) >f(x 1 ).
The result follows.
Corollary 1. Replacing condition (ii) by
(ii)' f'(x) <
throughout a < x <b,
we can prove that f(x) decreases for a < x < 6.
Corollary 2. Iff'{x) > Ofor a < x <b andf(a) ^ 0, thenf(x) >
for a < x ^ b.
For if a < x < b, then f{x) >f(a) > 0.
~~~~
Cobollaby
3.
Replacing condition
<x <b
(ii)
by
>
be undefined,
a^x^k, k^x ^b (sincef'(x) is required to exist only for a < x < k,k < x < b).
62
THE DERIVATIVE.
84
APPLICATIONS
[3.83
Hence f(x) increases for a s% x < and for k < x < b and therefore for a ^ x < 6.
For example, f(x) = x z is increasing for all x, although /'(0) = 0.
The result can be extended to allow any finite number of points h where
f'{x) is not positive.
Examples
Iff(x)
(i)
Deduce
f(x)
is
>
2a;/7r /or
continuous, and
<x<
>
\tt,
if
f (a?) =
If
c/sina; (x 4= 0),/(0)
that sin a;
then cos a;
0,
sina;
a;cosa; =
cos a; (tan x x)
sin 2 x
>
and
sin 2 x
tana;
>
(cf.
2.12, inequality
(iii)),
so that
>
If
<x<
see Ex. 3
(ii)
(c),
\tt,
sin a;
< \tt.
< f(in), i.e. a;/sina; < \tt, and conx = \tt, the two sides are equal.
< x (cf. 2.12, inequality (iii)). Also
no. 19.
= a + b + x Z(abx)* for x
a + b 2 ^{ab), and deduce that for c > 0,
a + b + c3{abc)*
>
0,
prove
^ a + b2j(ab)
a + b + x 3(abx)l
= a + b2*J(ab).
a = 6 (1.22(1)), we
Exercise 3(c)
Find
2a;
any
+ 3a; 2 12a; + 7.
2 x & + 6x3
(xl)(xB)
9x
(a;l) a '
5a;
+4
'
>
>
0.
when x =
1.
Find
its
other
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.9]
85
11
n,
If f(6)
12
Show that
0,
Bxy satisfy x %
y.
^2.
13 Post Office regulations require that the length plus girth of a parcel shall
not exceed 6 ft. Find the maximum volume if the crosssection is (i) rectangular
(ii)
circular.
AB, GD are cables of equal length. The strain which any section of AB
can stand varies as the cube of its distance from B, and the strain that any
section of CD can stand varies as the cube of its distance from D. The strain
that can be carried at A is four times that at G. The cables are now woven
together so that D coincides with A, and G with B. How far from B is the
weakest point of the composite cable?
14
15 A conical tent has a given volume. Find the ratio of height to diameter of
base for the area of canvas to be a minimum.
*16
Show
that y
(x %
2x + 4)/(x2 + 2x +
4:)
lie
{x2){x* + 2x + 4:)\2x
*2 =
17 If f(x)
12/(tf)
0.
satisfy
3(2,1).]
when x
cos x 1 + %x 2 , prove that f'{x) >
cos a; > 1 \x2 . What happens when x = 0?
x + 0,
18 Using no. 17, show that sina; > x \x z when x > 0.
19 Extend the result of 3.83, ex. (i) to the interval \tt <S x
Hence prove that
^. _
sin x >
for
^ x ^ n.
for all
<
>
it.
0.
Deduce that
[Puty
= n x.']
3.9
greatest
(Cf.
= f(x) is derivable at x =
a,
then as in 3.12,
;;
APPLICATIONS
THE DERIVATIVE.
86
[3.91
0.
i.e.
/( + *)/()
or (less precisely)
(")
4=
(J/U
(iii)
in
'
the
first:
see
Ex. 3
Referring to
By
fig.
no.
(d),
7.
PR =
36 of 3.11,
= PJRtan^ =
8x,
QR =
8y and
tan^ =
dyjdx.
The approximation is therefore equivalent to replacing the step RQ to the curve by the step RT to the
tangent; QT represents the error: cf. 6.42, Remark (/?).
Result (i) should be compared with that of 3.81 when b = a + h, viz.
(iii),
8y
JtT.
f(a + h)f(a)
J J
(a)
The
..
(a<<a + h).
.
=f(Z)
(iv)
to He
The approximation
while
a,
(iv)
(i)
Examples
(i)
Calculate f(x)
= 6x7,
f\x)
3a;
(ii)
(iii)
5.
Hence by
(ii)
above,
f(x) = $x, a=
= ^. Hence
125,
/(126)
Then
1.
# g+^ #
6075.
f'(x)
Jar*,
a small error Sb in
/(125)
5,
and
5 013
.
6,/'(2)
2*015.
Take
/'(125)
and/(2)
/(2015)
b.
(a)
8S
JO
A=
\bc cos
A 8A.
CLjCJL
(6)
8S
= ^8b =
do
icBinASb.
(iv)
87
APPLICATIONS
suppose there were simultaneous errors 8b, 8c, 8A in b,c, A. The
THE DERIVATIVE.
3.92]
In ex.
(iii)
error in
1,
Exercise 3(d)
1
[Use d{t&nx)/dx
= ^naeo^x,
x in
degrees.]
small h.
= uv/w,
prove
y
[Consider
wy =
'
'
uv.]
*7 Find the function rj in 3.91 when f(x) is (i) x % ; (ii) x3 ; (iii) 1/x. Verify that
m does not when
is
ij/h tends to a limit when h > 0, but that in general rj/h
a constant greater than 1; state the exceptional case in (ii).
3.92 Differentials
(1)
and so
separated,
when
The parts
dy,
dx cannot be
it in the 'operational'
towards splitting the symbol dyjdx is
form (djdx) y. We now define dy, dx separately, in such a way that the
to write
quotient
Sy=f'(x)8x + vSx,
where
i\
is
(i)
when dx >
8y=f\x)8x.
(ii)
88
[3.92
we have f'(x) =
In this case
ex.
1 (3.11,
dx
(iii)
is
(iii)
dy when y
is
the function
so that
(ii)),
Sx
(iv)
more symmetrically as
dy=f'(x)dx.
shows that dx
(iv)
in general dy
4=
8y,
8y
and
in general
= dy.
dy = tan
8y
In
ijr.
(i)
dy + v8x
The approximation
#= 0.
7)
36 of 3.11,
fig.
PR = RT.
(v)
is identical
because by
x.
PR =
Hence dy
is
dx
(vi)
(ii)
QR =
dx,
represented
tangent.
On
is
dividing (v)
by
two ways:
in
(a)
as
dx,
Mm8yf8x\
(b)
as dyidx.
No
confusion arises,
Sx>0
because the results are the same, namely, the derivative f'(x) of
V =/(*)
Definition,
dy is called the
differential of y,
of x.
In
(v), f'(x) is
for dy.
is
(2)
now
by
and so
By
(v) applied to
dy
<f>{t),
dx
<f>'{t)
3.2 (4)
dt.
Hence we
dy =f'{x)dx.
still
have
<j>{t)
3.93]
89
8).
/dx\ 2
see Ex. 3
(e),
no. 22.
is differentiable
at
a;
if it is
defined at
and
and
derivable at x
f(x)
is
is its
differentiable at
derivative, f'(x).
a point, then
it is
Conversely,
satisfied
by multiplying by
dx.
'
'
we
and
venience, which
is
'differentiability' are
90
cos
a + b cos x
4 sin 1 ,
b + a cos x
6 tan" 1
sin 1
(since).
(1
if
<
b.
^.
1
a;
1
2
x.
^/( 1 x ), and explain why the result is also the derivative of cos
2 8in
/t
Sj
has derivative
of the functions
2tan
ab
aJ
sinf
ax
^>t\
ab
x+
Prove
#3
10
4
11
sina?sin3a;.
(a:l)(a:2)
12 If/(a;)
is
divisible
a polynomial f(x).
by (x a) m
then/'(a;)
13
is
divisible
and /'(a;)
is
by
(a;
a) m_1
divisible
by
(a;
a) m_1
f'(x)
0.
[Suppose
a', b'
0.
20 If y
=
=
nyseox.
prove
0
and
* =
91
t is
*22 Assuming that d y has been defined so that d y = f{x) (dx) 2 where
y = f(x) and x is the independent variable, show that if a; is a function of*, then
2
d2x
dP
and
d2y
so
in general.
=
If x =
23 If y
24
tan0, y
If y
y" xy' +p 2y
and
(1
x 2 )PiZx^ + (n 2  1)</ =
2
sin {(a;
y)
0.
aa;
da;
da;
26 Find dyjdx
0.
+ ^)g = 2(%,).
and a;
sin n0/sin
f"(x) {dx) 2
prove
tanfcfl,
(l
25
x2
4=
is satisfied if
is
a polynomial of
}.
27
<
1+a?)a
a;) 8 *.
fit
30
CtX
28
(1
+6
+ ef
ca;
O COS iJ*
31
c+acosa;
a;(a;
sin(a;
29
+ a)
+ &)'
sin(a;
(6
> a),
minimum.
33 Prove that
8( \x
0.
2.]
34 If sin a > 0, prove that a; sin a sin 1 (sin a; sin a) increases as x increases
from to $7T, a remaining constant. If < a ^ \ir and a is varied, show that
the expression takes its greatest possible value when x = \tt and a is the positive
acute angle such that cos a = 2/n.
35
= sin x + sin 2a; + J sin Zx, find the stationary points of f(x) in
Over what part of < x < n is f(x) (i) increasing; (ii) decreasing?
> for < x < n, and find where it attains its greatest value in
If f{x)
<x<
n.
Prove f(x)
this interval.
and
< a < 1,
and occurs when
37 A horizontal ray of light from a source A meets the vertical plane surface
of a block of glass at P, and passes inside to a point B. If v lt v 2 are the speeds
92
before
and after entry, and a, ft are the angles of incidence and refraction show
vx
sin fi
v2
'
[Let
M,
AM = a, BN = MN = c]
b,
right circular cone of height h, base radius r, and slant height I has a
38
constant volume V. Show that the combined area S of its base and curved
surface is a minimum when I Sr. [Express S in terms of V and the semivertical angle 6.]
39 Find the area of the largest rectangle which can be inscribed in the
x 2 /a 2 + y*/b 2 = I.
ellipse
by
93
INTEGRATION
Methods of integration. The logarithmic,
EXPONENTIAL AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
(A)
4.1
The process
4.11
The problem
inverse to derivation
i.e.
However,
4.16(2).
<f>(x)
ijr'{x)
+c
if
will also
 <fi'(x) =
0,
so that
by the
corollary in 3.82,
ifr(x)
 <j>{x) =
c for
and
is
off(x)
J...
dx is to be regarded as a composite
process
the dots
We
is
called integration
...
is
wo
x,
is
continuous.
is confined to intervals
throughout
INTEGRATION
94
4.12
Some
For
standard integrals
brevity
chapter
f n 7
\x dx
jaec 2 xdx
xn+1
(1)
Some
jsiaxdx
sin x,
tajLX,
f,
Jvu X*)
V rom ded
nJ^Y
jcosxdx
4.13
[4.12
dx
Jcosec
dx
=f=
1,
= coax,
a;cfa:
= cot
a;,
tan _1 a;,
sin 1 x
or
cos 1 x.
jkf(x)dx
kjf(x)dx.
For both
sides
j(u + v) dx
(2)
= judx + jv dx,
u+v
(3.2 (1)).
//
jf(x)dx
(where a
4= 0,
<fi{x),
then
^f(ax + b)dx
^<f>(ax
+ b)
(4).
(3)
INTEGRATION
4.14]
95
Examples
,. v
Cx 3 + 5x+l
f
(")
da;
~17\
r can ^ e decomposed by
*J(1
+x) <Jx
J{V(
,.
(iv)
1
'
(
y
v)
'
first
J y/(l+X)+<JX
denominator by
(iii)
1\
f/
8
Jsin xdx
daj
f
I
a;
(l+a; 2 )
+ x)  V*} dx =
J"i(3
f/
II
dx
\.
ax =
J(
dx
3a;
(2a;
+ 3) a
tan 1i x + c.
.
l+a;2/
J \x*
a
J 10 + 12a; + 4a;
dx
+ x)*  fx* + c.
f( 1
= itan~ 1 (2a; + 3) + c.
V
'
4.14 Areas
An
Ox.)
Fig. 44
area
which lies in value between the areas of the inner and outer rectangles
PNMB, SNMQ. Thus
8A
lies
(y
+ 8y) 8x,
INTEGRATION
96
S
When 8x >
lies
by continuity
By
,
from which
When
of /
= /(#)
so that
fixed)
is
hence
&4 jBx,
y), also
> 0;
4
jf( x ) dx
(f>(x)
+ c,
say.
Hence
zero.
then By >
0,
[4.15
<fi(a)
+ c,
(j>{a),
A=
<j)(x)
and
<f)(a).
b:
area
To
AHKB =
<j>{b)
 0(a).
we therefore
down an indefinite integral <fi(x) oif(x);
find its value when x = b, then when x = a, and subtract.
(a)
(b)
write
This process
is
indicted
by the symbol
some
[0(#)]a
properties
constant of integration.
Definitions
(a) If f(x) is
a < x <
6,
continuous and
the symbol
f(x)
dx
if <j)'(x)
is
= f{x)
defined to
for all
mean
<fi(b)
x for which
<j>(a) and is
Ja
wo x from a to
6.
(6) The numbers a, b are the limits of integration,^ and the interval
a ^ x ^ b is the range of integration.
f Here 'limit'
is
2.
INTEGRATION
4.15]
97
Remarks
The
(a)
definition
P/(aO<fa
Ja
is
when
= #6)#0
<
and
a,
when f(x)
also
is
negative
Although
(/?)
f f(x)
Ja
any other
a, b, it does not
x,
letter; e.g.
b
\
Ja
= m)?a =
[b
rb
so that
f(t)dt
f(x) dx,
Ja
f(t) dt
Ja
is
a function of the
variable of integration.
fa
f(x)dx
0.
(2)
f(x)dx
I
'
b
<3)
a and
f(x)dx
i
b.
Using
(4)
4.13,
we have
Ja
b
(5)
+ g{x)}dx=
Ja
Ja
For if fr(x)
y>(x)
{ {f(x)
= jg(x) dx,
+ y^(#)]a =
f(x)dx+(
g(x)dx.
Ja
<p{b)
l)(5)
is
righthand side.
'
graphs.
7
GPMI
INTEGRATION
98
[4.16
we may replace
C
b (say)
a, b,
f(t) dt
Ja
altered
from x to
(6)
f(t)dt is
t:
see
Remark
above.)
(/?)
&.
J*
For
f{t)dt
j
(f){x)
(j)(a), and
<j)'{x)
Ja
definition
Hence 0(#)
Thus
(a).
<x<
continuous for a
is
6 because it is
derivable (3.12).
/a;
/(0
(7)
*5
with derivative
<; 6,
Ja
/(*)
/*#
(8)
>
Iff(x)
for a
<x<
then
b,
f(t)dt is
an increasing function
Ja
< x ^ b.
For it has derivative f(x) which is
from 3.83, Corollary 2:
of x for a
(9)
Iff(x)
>0fora<x<b,
then
In particular,
P f(x)dx >
0.
Ja
(10)
Ifm
<f(x) <
m(ba) <
b,
{f(x)
m}dx=
m(6 a) <
i.e.
>
(4)
and
(5),
rb
f(x)
dx
Ja
Ja
(11) Iff(x)
then by
(9):
rb
rb
Similarly, writing
< M(ba).
f f(x)dx
Ja
0<
then
mdx,
Ja
f{x)
f
Ja
dx.
g{x)for
a<
n
x
<
b,
then
rb
f{x)dx
>
Ja
(9),
and use
g{x)dx.
Ja
(4), (5).
INTEGRATION
4.16]
99
'
(2)
'
'
Our definition of
we can
find an
might be meaningless. Also we have required/(a;) to be continuous for a < x < 6,
but later in this chapter we show how this restriction can be removed in certain
circumstances
(3)
In Ch.
(4.9).
we
shall
summation ;f such a
y=
= f{x)
exists for
f(t)dt
Ja
We
such a solution.
should then be assured that an indefinite integral <f>(x)
off(x) exists, even if we cannot perform the inverse operation symbolised by
jf(x) dx to express this function in terms of those already known.
Meanwhile, we advance with the practical technique of finding a formula for
is
J*/(a;)
many
dx for as
Exercise 4(a)
Integrate by decomposition
2 cos 2 a.
5 cos's.
x
7,
sin 2 a?.
x*
4 tan 2 a;.
8
n
9
.
1+ar
<rt
.
10 sina;cos3a\
1+ic 2
V(l+a>)
1+x 2
l+x*
(ax + b) n ,
4=
1.
12 cos(ac + 6).
1
13 sin(aa: + &).
15
16
5:
y(a z x 1 )
14
a* + x 2
(l+X*)(4:+X*)
rl
=.
x 2 + 6x + Q'
18
r^
x* +
1
.
6x+l0'
19
<J(2xx 2 )'
J.
72
INTEGRATION
100
<
[4.2
<
3
\j(10 + x )dx
166.
J**
>
*21 If n
<
and
<
verify that
1,
joVa*
*22 Use the inequality sin a;
<
dx
f*
<
05
2 ")
<
and deduce
0524.
< jx
(0
<
<J(ainx)dx
<
132.
J(sm.x)
1,
<
far)
to prove
fif
1<J
Some
4.2
already
is
4.21 Integration
To
find jf(x) dx
by
known
we may proceed
c[x
g(t);
so that
Put x =
is
as follows. Let
= f^'
y =
Hence
jf{g(t)}g'(t)dt.
(i)
For a suitably chosen function g(t) it may happen that f{g(t)} g' (t)
is a simpler function of t than f(x) is of x, and may be recognised as a
standard form. We should then have y expressed as a function of t,
say y
i/r(t).
To
substitution x
g(t),
g'(t)dt.
to get
we
in terms of x.
Equation
x
(i)
we may
Examples
(i)
= $x(3x2) 7 dx.
INTEGRATION
4.21]
Put
3a;
 2, so that x =
2/
When
+ 2). Then
$(t
(<
i(i<
+ 2)<' =
9
101
+i
(<8
^< (4<+9)
8
)
+ 2<').
8
I ii(32)(12!r+l).
rationalise
(")
Put
dx
//
x3 =
'
2
,
so that x
+ S. Then
dy
dx
~ = dy
^ =
d<
.*.
2/
da; dt
f*
_2*
=
+ 6* =
+3n
2*
<sJ(xS)
2< 2
+ 6.
ff(^ + 9)
= f(*3)*(aj + 6).
Alternatively, using the 'rule' at the
dx
JV(*3)
(iii)
2
J*a:
Put t
end of
+3
2tdt
4.21,
r
(2
v
+ 6) <i< =
etc.
V(l+*3 )^.
1 + X3
so that
eft
3a; 2 da:.
\t*dt
The
%t*
integral
is
%(\+x*)*.
x2
= 1 + x e would
dt
integral
* dt
f f
2
J 1 +t
is
needed: the
).
first
leads to a result
INTEGRATION
102
(v)
[4.22
dx
mtegraI
J
x2 +
(l!t 2 )dt
or
x2 +
tdt
u2 =
integral
+ 12
so that
Cudu
udu =
f
tdt:
= \au = u
integral
Now put t =
sin 6, dt
j tan2gsecg
fcos0
^dg.
7fl
cosddd:
xtegral
=
J
^=
= ~" V(* + U.
as before.
(vi)
JV( I*")**
The integrand
Integral
J*cos0.cos0cZ0
ji( 1
= j cos 2 Odd
+ cos 26) dd =
(0 + J sin 26)
^(lx^dx =
However,
[ftsm^ + aVaa*)}]} =
^(sin"1 1
 sin"1 0) =
is
sm^x + x^ilx2
6 + \ sin 26
when 6 =
0, \n,
so that
\tt.
+ 8*120]^**.
INTEGRATION
4.22]
103
(vii)
*J(l
x 2 )dx.
Jo
Putting x
from
to
dx
Bind,
J{lx*)dx=
=
(vm
x*J(x* +
saw in
integral. As x
Write
t
and
to t 2
sin20)]f
i(iTTO)
(ua
reduces the
in.
l)
<fi(x)
t
increases
where a
inclusive,
g(tx )
and
from
to
g(t2 ).
By equation
to
p. 100,
(i),
Jm*)}
so that
9'(t)
${g(t)}
jj(x) dx =
Then
l/ 2 ) decreases
Suppose first
tx
[i(0 +
from 1 to ^/3, u
Thus, using the working of ex. (v),
function of
+ cos20)<*0
(l
dx
We
2/^/3.
6 increases
1,
Jo
Jo
f V3
....
cos0.cos0<20
Jo
to
Hence
\ti.
ftb)
dt
say,
f{t),
ft(t).
 <j>{a) =
<j>{g{t )}
2
 <f>{g{tx j\
= ^(y^i)=
f{gng\t)dt.
Jfi
tl
into
( f(x)dx
where
when x a
and
f{g{t)}g\t)dt,
t2
when x =
b,
varies
+ 1
_i
dx
l
+x
=
i
[tan1 x]t\
\n
INTEGRATION
104
The
substitution x
ljt,
which gives
_ C+ 1 dt
"Jil + * 2 ~
dx
Jil + *2
f+i
is
+1
as
will
g(t)
t increases from 1
matter
[4.22
in
1/t
be taken up again in
'
to
(6),
7.23.
Exercise 4(b)
Integrate each of the following functions by use of
{x+l)(x5)*.
(a
+ 3) 3
substitution.
.
'
4 * (1 **>'
V(* + 3
(EiTT)(4a 2 + 1) 3
'
)'
+ c4 )'
V( 1
10 \ 2
9 + 4a;
(,=9,,.
13
14
(a:
tc
1+a: 2
V( l)'
20 cos3 x
<J{x(2x)}
19
tan 1 a;
17
<i=2f.
x6
15
+ l) 3
xj(x*l)'
V(94z 2 )'
12 (9+a;2 )*.
(9a: 2 )*.
11
'
sin* a;.
22
hj^) p*m
23
f1
Ac
24
=r.
J_lV(* + 5)
26
<J(x*
f1
+ 2x>)dx.
25
Jo
a;
Jo
V( 1
 2
Jo
ri*
27
Jo 9 cos
Some
x + 25
dx
of the properties
7r
sin
[Put
P* ff
28
tana;.]
r+l
a;*
applied to
cfcc
appears to give
+1
(Za:
p&dt = 0.
J*
What is the value of the integral? Apply the change of variable process correctly.
INTEGRATION
4.23]
105
rn
Show that
*30
By
31
cos 2 a; da;
Jo
putting x =
\ir
show that
t,
[in
a;
sin 2 x da;
tj
=
rin
f
cos 2 x dx
2 Jo
tin
hence evaluate
cos 2 a; da;.
and
a;cos 2 a;da;.
Jo
IT
fin
cos 2 x dx
2j
Jo
Deduce that
sin a;.
f*
I
a;aa;
y
7T
Jo
Jo
ra
C+a
*32 Prove
f(x) dx
{f(x)
r+a
r+a
f(x)dx
f(x)dx=
s:
Cn
XBsin a: ,
dx
Prove
,
cos 2 a;
Jo l+<
.
.j
4.23 Integration
sina;
(1)
Jo
a
i ff 2 sua x
this result to
show that
Jo
Jo
_
*34
ra
f(x)dx.
[a
ra
I
f{x)dx
J a
*33 Prove
Jo
J a
n*
+ 3 cos
+ cosa;
a;
aa;
57T
by parts
is
by
product formula.
is
that of the
From
v (uv)
dx
vu
+uv
= jvu'dx + juv'dx.
is
is
known, we
juv' dx
uv jvu' dx.
(ii)
Examples
(i)
Jxcosxdx.
Take u
x, v'
\,
sin a;.
ldx
INTEGRATION
106
[4.23
Had we taken u = cos x, v' x, the integral on the right would have
\x 2 sm.xdx, which is more complicated than the given integral.
2
(ii)
J*c
been
sin3a;efcc.
Take u = x 2
v'
sin
3a;;
then u'
2x, v
= \ cos 3a;.
1,
isin
3a;,
7
Ja;(3a;2) da;
x, v'
\x sin 3a;
(iii)
3a;&e.
x, v'
and
jx cos 3a; dx =
Take u
\x cos
(cf.
sin
4.21, ex.
= (Bx 2) 7
Ja;(3a;
3a; da;
= ^(2 9a; 2
cos
3a;
(i)).
then u'
1,
gz{Bx 2) 8
 2) 7 da; = ^(Bx  2) 8  8 dx
J^(3a; 2)
= i x{Bx2)*^{Bx2)*
= ^x2f{21x{Bx2)}
= sh(Bx2)*{12x+ 1), as before.
(2)
Taking v
x in equation
(ii),
we get
ju dx = xu jxu' dx
= xu jxdu,
where we have used the formula (i) in 4.21 for change of variable, x
being supposed a function g(u) of u. Hence, if the integral of
g(u) wo u can be found, then so can the integral wo x of the function u
now
inverse to x.
(iv)
Jain
1
Take u =
a; da;.
1;
then u'
1/^/(1
jsin^xdx = x sin 1 x
=x
by using the
substitution
sin 1
x or x
2
x+
sin 0.
2
),
x.
a; )
2
)
INTEGRATION
4.24J
107
dx
1+W
2J\
1
= Jx2 tan a; Jx + tan1 x
= \{x 2 + 1 tan 1 x \x.
*
dx
Examples
transcendental
a new integral
that
(v) indicate
(iv),
function as u.
an
then integration by
integer,
may
corresponding to n
integral
may
or
or
value,
and
this last
be known.
Example
Consider c
x n cos axdx, s n
is
a;
n sinaa;<a;,
where a
is
constant and
a positive integer.
In cn take u x n v'
,
xn
am ax
a
n
a
nx"' 1 , v
s,
Similarly,
x'.n1
cos ax ^
a sin ax +
n1
c,
.n1
na;'
cos ax
n(w 1)
o2
INTEGRATION
108
This
is
[4.25
is
= j cos axdx
(if
is
even)
or
cx
=j
cos axdx
(if
is
odd)
reached; and these integrals are respectively (see Ex. 4 (c), no. 2 for the latter)
1
To
calculate
c5
smax
 sin ax,
1

a2
cos ax.
[f(x)g(x)jf'(x)g(x)dxj
a
b
= [f{x)gW\l
\
Ja
f'(x)g(x)dx.
Examples
(i)
x cos x dx
[x sin a;]*"
Jo
smxdx
Jo
(%7T0)lcoax]*"
tt(0+1)
= inl.
(ii)
If c
ft*
a;"
Jo
c
[a;
n sin a;
f*
Jo
The case n =
(i7T )
1
n(n l)c_ 2
if
n>
1.
(i).
a;"
2
cos x dx
INTEGRATION
4.3]
109
Exercise 4(c)
Use integration by parts
xsiax.
a;
2 xcosax.
cos *.
6 x{lx) n (n
a;
7 cos 1 <c.
u=
sin 2 a;
= 1  cos 2
a;,
v'
JO
for
sn
_1
C a;sin a;
V(l^ 2
f
* 19
17
a;
tan 1 x dx.
and substitution.
r
"
(8in la; ) 2d:r '
* 20
cos 3 xdx.
Jo
calculate
fin
15
JO
Hence
16
*21
(iii).)
sec 1 a;.
sinar.
2).
^a
a;
10 sin3 *. [Put
*11
(c+l)(a;5)
a;
1
tan
* 1,
3
6
J^sin 1 *^.
integrate
twice
wo
4.3
4.31
The
x.
integral fdx/x
)x d*
because
(i)
<
>>'
it
1/a;,
then Ex.
3(e), no. 18
shows that
INTEGRATION
110
[4.32
taking for granted the existence of the integral (see 4.16 (2)); or equivalently, the existence of anumberwhich measures the 'area' (4.16 (1))
shown
We
case
in
45.
fig.
Fig. 45
We write
#) =
(i)
(*>0),
fig.
45,
and
is
not defined
^0.
4.32 Investigation of
We now
<f>(i)
<j){t)
which
will
supply enough
is
I fx is
continuous (4.15
(2)
From equation
Also, since
(6))
and increases
as
(f>(t)
>
0.
<j>{t).
where in
Proof.
Putting x
= pjq(q even),
By definition,
=
zn ,
x varies from
nf(t),
(ii)
~
we have dx = nzn x dz,
(j)(t
n)
=  1, we have
nz = n z = n<p{t).
I
Taking n
Ji
=
<j>{t).
(hi)
INTEGRATION
4.32J
111
i.e.
 dx
x
lies
<j>{\
+ u)
lies
between u and
1
between
+u
#= 0,
then Ijx
u
u and 
(iv)
+u
<
0(2)
<
(v)
1.
Fig. 46
Fig. 47
<P(x)
by
(ii)
and
(v).
the inequality
>
0(2),
710(2)
<f>{x)
> \n
<j>{x)
> oo
also will
when
x > oo.
x),
and
(vi)
112
By
<j>{ljx)
equation
> oo,
(iii), <j)(x)
by
> oo
<j>(x)
<fi(x)
[4.32
ljx > oo
when
with those of
results
x >
(vii)
we have:
(1),
oo to + oo as x increases from
^(1) = 0, we can now sketch the
Recalling from
that
(1)
The number
Since
<f>(x),
as in
fig.
to
+ oo.
general
47.
e.
<fi(x) is
and so
Hence
(vi).
Combining these
INTEGRATION
= (f>{\jx). When
all values,
therefore
effectively defined it
by
re
#0 = ^=1.
(vhi)
The reader who has done any work on approximate integration may consider
the following way of estimating the numerical value of e. By using Simpson's
rule for 10 ordinates of the curve y = 1/x, equally spaced at intervals of 01,
we find (7.33, ex.) that
2
0(2)
=
J
Hence
x = 0693.
= n<f>(2) = 0693ra.
if n = 1/0693 = 144. Thus <j>{x) =
x = 2"* = 2 1>5 = V8 == 28.
0(2")
1 if
(Use of tables for 2 1 44 would give x = 271. In 6.53, example, we shall find the
value more accurately as 2718282, and in 12.72 (1) it will be shown that e is an
'
irrational
number.)
(6) Identification
If x
ev ,
where y
of
<f>{x).
is rational,
</>{x)
we have by
<j){e
v)
y(j>{e)
(ii)
and
(viii)
that
y.
(j>{x)
loge x
(x
>
(ix)
0).
'
INTEGRATION
4.32]
113
(ix)
all
logc
(^),
[*dt
J
iT
[*
du
=
i/
loge x ~ loSel
loge 
Similarly,
we
On
log 10 a;.
get
J
(4.15(3))
loge x + loSe V
hJ P)
loge x  loge y.
[Wdu
C*du
10y then
,
by the 'elementary
(ii),
= ?/loge 10,
loge a5
loge x
i.e.
this
_ loge e _ 1
io^ioiogc io
Since
that
<f>'(x)
Cx dt
l/x, i.e.
(log*)=i.
X)
(8) j*i<fo.
From
equation
(x)
X = log x +
(x
>
(xi)
0).
\jx.
INTEGRATION
114
If x
<
0,
= y;
put x
[4.33
then
= log( x) +
Cdx
so
dx
log
The results
of
+c.
[c
(xii)
(xi), (xii)
list
(xi)'
0).
(xi)'
%
<
(x
of integrals
is filled.
An application to integration
We can generalise (xii) as follows.
4.33
= f{x),
du
f'(x)
then
J^cte = log
Hence
Thus any
If u
(xiii)
Example
Since
tana;
sin a;
cos a;
tana;eZa:
= j^ (cosa;)J
= log cosa; =
cos a;,
log
seca;.
Exercise 4(d)
Write down the derivative of the following (use properties of logarithms
the expression before derivation whenever possible).
1
log (2a;).
5 log sin 2 a\
9
log a;
2 log (a;2 ).
to
simplify
log(l/a;).
+x
log1 x
/dx
x = log(a;
).
INTEGRATION
115
sina;
13 logtan^x.
15 log;
sin a;
16 log (1
17 Find the
is
>
is
l) n_1 (n 1) l/x n
Deduce
1.
*20 The result (vi) of 4.32 is not obvious from a figure'. Verify that y = l/a
for x >
has a graph generally similar to that of y = 1/a; for x > 0; but that, if
'
111a;
x dt
then
i/r(
x)
**
when x
> oo.
21
3aT
22
x*
25
6a;
26
7.
1+a:4
33
7
.
3a; 2
30 
29 tan 3a;.
7a; + 5
sin 2a:
and deduce
a;
OT
loga;
(m
4=
28
cota;.
tan*
.
32
a;
loga;
J"coseca;da;.
1), and
36 tan 1 a;.
31
12a; + 7
l+tana;
1+a;2
"
2 a;
3a;
24
1a;"
3 + 5cos 2 a;
sec 2 \x
r~,
tan %x'
"
_
27
23
1+a;'
37
the integral of
35 lqg(x llx ), x
deduce jlogxdx.
(a;
log a;) 2 .
38
a;
>
0.
tan2 a;.
39
40
tan2artfe;.
J3
Jo
42
7
43
dx.
Joi+x
45 If u n JV"(log a;)"
ci!a;
dx
41
+ 3a;
44
f \ogUx)dx.
Jl
where n
is
ft" coax
,
dx.
Jo 1+sina;
:
f a;log(l +x)dx.
Jo
a positive integer and m
+ 1,
obtain
n
xm+1
{l0 X)n
U
U =
mri
mVl *
t
Hence
calculate
a;
(loga;) 8 d!a;
i:
*46 If
simplify
C=
aC +
"***.
f
J acosio + osina;
and
S=
da;
f
J acosa; + fesina;'
calculate
cos a; (fa;
'o
INTEGRATION
116
*47 Find numbers A,
fi
which
for
7 since + 4 cos a;
Hence
[4.4
A(sina;
+ 2cosaj)+/t(cosa; 2sino;).
f7sina: +
calculate
<
z
^r
J sin* + 2 cos x
dx.
4.4
4.41
(1) If x
to
oo as
logy, then
y, increases from
xx + x2
ex i +x *
so
= yx y2
ex i
Similarly
(2) e? is
log yx + log y 2
j
ex *
logy
is
ex increases from
to
oo
when x
continuous for
Proof. Write
log(/
ex
all values
and
let ex+h
0,
1
t
(2) also
>Lj,
y + k'
so
A;
by
J
for
oo to + oo.
increases from
but that
of x.
v+kdt
+ fc)log?/ =
then by
if
= y + k. Then
e^i.e35 *.
(6),
< y2
since
4.32
ex i~x *.
an increasing function of x:
xx ^ x2
ex i +x z
i
by
log (yx y 2 )
>
7~} T =Z J v
0.
If /
4.15(10),
<
I'
< y + k we have
h>
y + k'
We
have
INTEGRATION
4.41]
When
1/*
>
by
(2),
l\y,
^>^ = m.
1*1 *r
J+*
of y
117
0, also
& >
<
0; i.e.
is
continuous.
of Ox to restore righthandedness.
(5) Derivative
Ify
ex
x
of e
then from x
logy
we have
dy
dx
_
=
dx/dy
l/y,
and hence
(xiv)
y;
i.e.
(xv)
so that ex is
own derivative.
The corresponding result for integration
its
ex dx
is
ex .
(xvi)
Remarks
(a)
The property
(xv)
is
is characteristic
equal to
its
(xiv),
of ex
i.e.
ex is essentially
the
can be shown
stated,
INTEGRATION
118
and solving
it
for
y in terms of
the equation
m is
where
x.
More
[4.41
generally,
we
will consider
~ = my,
To solve
wo y:
constant.
and
write
this,
~
emx mc
as dxjdy
it
1.
1 Cdy
= logy +
mjy m
I] (my)
and
c,
= m(x c)
logy
hence
(xvii)
= A e
emx e~mc
00
,
where A,
m are constants.
physical example is Newton's law of cooling: 'the rate of decrease of temperature of a body is proportional to the excess of this temperature above that
denotes the excess
(supposed constant) of the surrounding medium'. If
temperature, the law is expressed by dd/dt = led, where k is some positive
constant.
The function ax
Except for the case when a = e (see (1) above), ax has been defined
only when x is rational. Suppose now that a is any positive number,
and let x be any rational number pfq. (If q is even, there will be two
(6)
values
oiaPl*', let
log a
a;
4.32,
(ii),
log a,
(?
SO
exloea
exloea
(a
>
(xviii)
0).
Then
(a)
(b)
For
and, writing b
^ax )y
(e
log a
ex 108 a e v
exloga
xloe a v
.
ax+v
x+y^ log a
e^
(ax ) v
ax+v
e(a;l/)loga
aF.
bv
yloeb
ev xloSa
'
= axv
'
INTEGRATION
4.41]
(c)
^d
For
Hence
119
a* log a.
(ax )
(e*
log a
)
also
(log a) ex log a
(log a) a*.
la^da;
log a'
(d)
m (x >
m_1 to irrational
0).
ft
(e^iogx)
jf
em\ogx
rl
(a) =
For
x __
3.
<
>
function of a function
= xm x m
.
Exercise 4(e)
1
(i)
e~ x ;
= Ke^ + e  *);
(ii)
(iii)
\{e x e~ x ).
e Zx .
e cos 3.
7 logfe*).
10
2*.
xe x
xx
11
e*
8 e
(x>
10 **.
e 8a! sin2a;.
e^ 10 *
2
.
0).
13
16 e slna! cosa:.
x
14 Je
v
17 logfe 3 *
15
+ e~*
).
je x cosxdx.
19
J*
20
u n = x
11
eax
n _x .
m if emx satisfies
dx2
is
2x dx.
23 If y
n u
dx
a function of x, prove
d2
(d 2 y
dy
e x sin 2 xdx.
and a
is
a nonzero
INTEGRATION
120
[4.42
24
25 xe x .
when y =
26 a*
eax smbx,
(a
>
0).
result in the
form
d
Hence
{eoa!
= e~ x
*.
Sketch the
curve.
points of inflexion
What
32
is
the
(x*
+ +
Xs
++
1+iC
2!
is
>
xn
2!
w!
> l + x + +...H
By writing x =
e',
+ \jn) n <
>
x n e~ x
e.
x n\
n\)
0),
when
>
0.
4= e"
*36
(1
Deduce that
0.
x*
is 0,
*35 If?/
3l
0)?
dx
d
tfpt3 + Bx 2p!2 + x l = 24x 2
dx i
dx
becomes d3y/dt3
24e
2<
Hence express y
dx
(i)
as a function of t;
(ii)
as a function
of x.
The
log y
i
.
u + log v.
log
,
Then derive each side wo x, using the rule for function of a function
'
Ay
y dx
1
,,
Multiply
r J by
J w
*
dy
uv:
frta;
1 du
u dx
v dx
du
dv
arc
dv
dx
'
INTEGRATION
4.43]
similar
functions.
log y
Idy
du
Idv
udx
v dx
du
dx
dy
fdx
7.
y dx
and
Cf.
121
1 dw
wdx'
dv
dw
dx
dx
= vw^r+wu^r + uvz.
UjUz ...un
Examples
(i)
logy
dy
=e
= 2 +
sin
a;
cosa;
cos a; log a; 1
Although in 4.41
(6)
2\
we have denned a x =
11
+ log
2s a; 3
dx
its derivative, in
a;
a; a;
tana: +
auog;
jga;)
e xloga
powers as follows.
(ii)
(iii)
(a
>
0).
logy
arloga,
>
0); cf.
ax
= xx
logy
(x
.'.
Ex.
.'.
*y
4.43
The logarithmic
'
'
^ = aa!logo
'
aloga;,
dy
dy
~^ = lo g a
dy
= loga;+
dx
inequality.
dy
1,
.*.
j <log(l+u)<w.
(iv)
of 4.32, since
a;*(l
+loga;).
ctcc
Some important
(1)
limits
INTEGRATION
122
(2)
^$JE
>
w/&ew
Put w = *Jx
in
a;
>
oo.
Then
(1).
if
log *Jx
so that
positive.
yp in
(2).
Then when y
plogy
Hence
slower than
(4)
a;
a;
when
is
4= 1,
*Jx,
When x >
1,
(logx)/x
is
\ogx
^
/>oo.
Thus
togra;
toncte
to
infinity
log a; 
a;
and
>
Write x
Put
x >
(3)
[4.43
in
M>&ew
(2).
a;
>
>o,
i.e.
2/log?/>0.
plogy
logx
>o,
\\yp
i.e.
yp logy >
(6)
>
0.
w/&en
co,
ir
ey
Thus
(7)
(k>gg) w
TAe exponential
a;
limit.
+
n)
e*,
/or aZZ
a;.
INTEGRATION
4.43]
If n
>
and
n+x >
0,
then by
(1)
123
with u
njx,
x
rc
+a
n/
On multiplying by n we get
<log
wa;
n+x
na;/(n
x\ n
<x
+
n)
a;.
nj
Hence for
all
sufficiently large,
K)"=
Since ex
when n  oo.
where >
and hence
x\
H
is
> ex
when
w  oo.
jb
1,
(1+)
lim 1
n> 00
+ + + ...+ logn
n
Write
f(n)
Then /(n)
decreases as
/(n+l)/(n
Euler's constant.
+logn.
n
for
=
+log =
n+1
n+1
+
1
<
1,
+log
/
\
logr log(r
1)
so
<0
< ^
r 1
n + 1/
in (1)
down
(ii).
= l ++ J+
n increases,
e in alternative
by(l)with = l/(n+l).
Now put u =
1), where r >
If we write
e.
(8)
x+ > ex
,
(3)), e
lim
This result
continuous (4.41
In particular, with
is
1.
n^r,
1
2, 3,
. . .
n,
and
INTEGRATION
124
[4.43
2.77,
f(n) tends to
The number
can be proved to be
approximate value
is
0*577,215,664,9
irrational; its
....
Exercise 4(/)
Find
the derivative of
(x+l)*(2x + 3)*
(3*5) 3
V(l* 2 )'
3
(a?2)*(3a; + 2)*(2a: + 5)
5 e
xe x tanx.
2(x>0).
0.
12 If y*
/&e
e x sin x (log x) a .
>  1).
> e).
(x + n) has the value
10 (log a?)* (x
e*,
1 ) (x
+ 2)
^ = &/ /log
2
prove
. . .
13 log x
< n{$x 1)
14 e*
15
<
16
8 (1 +X) 1'* (x
when x =
J7se
e ".
9 \ogx
11
if
for all x,
eU*
<
a;
>
0.
and
if
e*
>
<
1/(1
x)
ifx <l.
1.
lim^=i.
a.j.iccl
l0g(a;
17
lim
+ y~ l0ga;
18 Calculate lim
W* +
.
*)
+ W>V****
[This limit
is
d(logx)fdx.]
ft>0
J
19 Prove lim
1.
[This limit
is
when x =
x>
20 Prove lim
C*0
Assuming
I
a* 1
log a (a
>
0).
35
2\~"
down the
1\"
limit
when n
* oo of
(n
+ 2) n
0; or
INTEGRATION
4.44]
/
24 Prove limllH
*25 Iff{x)
>
and
1
1
l\
J
is
125
e.
<
continuous for
log/(a;)<fo;
<
<
prove
1,
log
J**
J J*
*
f(x)dx
1.
1,
Jo
so
x
log/(aj)
Jq
<
dx
J^/(aO dr
log
j J*
limit, calculate
c,
= f(x) /c]
n>oo
1
*26
n+1 n + 2
I
1
"'
*27
2n
H
being any
+ ...+
n n+1
pn p
*28
*29
qn+1
4.44
2n+l
2n + 2
I
3n"
positive integer.
qn + 2
q.
(1) Definitions
In the broad sense, log x and ex and any function involving these
are 'hyperbolic' functions, because log a; is the measure of an 'area'
under the hyperbola y = l/x, and ex is the inverse function. However,
the
name
is
defined as follows:
chx =
%(ex
+ e~x
),
shx =
\{ex
 e~x
(i)
).
These, sometimes written cosh a;, sinha;, are called the hyperbolic
sine
and
hyperbolic cosine of x.
The name
to the hyperbola x2 y2
all
ushz u =
%(eu
functions possess
many
other pro
Thus
INTEGRATION
126
[4.44
directly
(so
that
cha; is
(so
that
sha; is odd).
The reason
be given
in 14.68.
tanh x)x
sha;
=
cotha;
cha;
cosecha;
secha;
cha;
sha;
tha?
cha;
sha;
in terms of powers of
e.
The
chO =
(ii)
1,
shO
0,
char,
(iv) sh( x) = sha;,
=
(vi) ch2 a; sh2 a; = 1,
tha;,
(v) th(
x)
2
2
ch( x)
etc.,
for
exactly as in trigono
we
shall
now
functions
(a)
is
chx I =
so that ch x
(b)
x >
cha; sha;
oo,
\{ex
2 + e~x =
)
\{(>\*
 erk*)*> >
0,
for all x\
e~x
>
0,
so that cha;
>
but when
to
+ oo.
With
this guidance
and the
INTEGRATION
4.44]
127
(fig.
50).
Fig. 49
(3) Derivatives
From
Fig. 50
and
integrals.
the definitions,
d
cha;
dx
= \ ^L (ex + e~x =
)
2dx
\{ex e~x )
sha;,
d^
dx
d_
dx
and
th
/sna:\
ch 2 a; sh2 a;
ch 2 a;
dx \chay
coth x
similarly
dx
jahxdx =
Jsech2 xdx
tha;
johxdx =
Jcosech2 xdx
dx
sha;
cha;
similarly
sech 2 a;,
are:
(cha;)
cha;
Jthajda;
log cha;;
coth a; da;
log
sha;,
= coth x.
d_
Since
= cosech2 x.
cha;,
th x,
ch2 a;
'
sha;.
INTEGRATION
128
[4.44
(4)
(1)
formulae quickly.
Osborn's rule.
general
angles
of
or
limits, replace
function and change the sign of every product (or implied product) of
two sines.
Thus from
tan x + tan y
_
*
"=
we may
J infer that
tan x tan y
th (x
+ y)
v
s
th x th y
r.
l+tha;th/
The
sin
(tt
tanw
cos x cos y
sines.
x) =
sin a;;
and to
sm (x + \n) =
.
and
sin x sin y
(sin x
+ cos x)
J
=  since. A complete
justification
Exercise 4(g)
Prove the following formulae.
1
chas + sho;
2 sh 2x
3
ex,
chx ahx =
e~ x .
= 2shx chx.
4 th.2x
2tiiX
5
l+th?x
6 c\i(xy)
8 Express as
ch.xch.yshxah.y.
+ 2sh 2
cc.
ah(xy) = Bhxchychxahy.
7 th(x + y)
th x + th y

sums
or differences
(i)
sha; sh?/;
(ii)
+ tha thy
shxchy,
(iii)
cha; ch.y.
INTEGRATION
129
9
10
11
12
13
a;
a;.
15
2t
.
1+T a
by expressing it as a quadratic
in e x ;
(cha; + sha;) n
17 Prove
and
(chaj + sha:)
(chy + shy)
chraj + shna;,
(l+thx\ n
= ch 2na; 4 sh 2nx.
1th xj
;
21
= th y,
sh(loga;).
in halfangles.]
th 2y.
24 cotha;.
23 cosecha;.
secha;.
26
all
28 tan
27 logth&c.
31
x cbx
25 logsha;.
(cotha;).
32
(cha;)*.
33 If y
34
36 sech 2
35 sh2a;.
e a! (tha;
38
3a?.
+ sech 2 a;).
37 thfcc.
39
^chbx.
Using the formulae of 4.44 (1) and nos. 115 when necessary, calculate
the integral
of
40 sh 2 a;.
41 ch 2 a;.
44 sh 3 a;.
42 th2 a\
43 sha;ch3a;.
46
ch(loga;).
47
jx ch x dx.
50
By
51
48
jx sech 2 xdx.
e,
jx 2 sh x dx.
49
2 tan 1 (e x )
+ c.
by using
show
i.e.
Tan 1 (e x  Tan" 1
)
by a constant.
by use of the definition;
52 Obtain
9
J*cosecha;<ia;
(i)
(ii)
from no.
27.
GPM
INTEGRATION
130
[4.45
4.45
The
lira
cf. 2.12.]
...
that
Since x
(1)
steadily
from
hence shy takes every value just once; i.e. to any given
value of x there corresponds a unique value of y, written y = sh1 x
4.44(2)
(c)),
(4).
Fig. 52
Fig. 51
If y
Also
a;,
).
sh" 1 x
This shows that sh_1 a;
is
is
log {x + V(z2 +
continuous for
1 )}.
all x, since
\og{x + J(x 2 +
= chy
1)}
(2)).
Since x
is
INTEGRATION
4.45]
>
given value of x
when x =
1, y
twovalued function y
by ch1 #.
0;
is
is
that of y
'thick' curve in
ev
chy, shy
= chy + shy =
ev
2
= x + <]{x
l)
v
Ch" * =
1
i.e.
ch 1 ^
and
Since x
= thy
or
The complete
= x*(x2 l) =
,/
1)
(a
1),
{x
1).
x^
for
1,
x + j(x2
 1)}
log{a; + V(^
52.
x<J(x2 l).
hence
fig.
= Ch1 x.
From y = Ch 1 a; we have x =
Since
131
1.
a continuous
is
oo
to
value between
x(
<x<
sponding
there
1),
a unique corre
is
th1 x.
y, written y
th 1 x,
tht/
From
i/
so
t>2y
_ l+x
e2y
e2
v+V
1+a;
and
ITlIogj^,
Fig. 53
thi*
i.e.
which
(4)
is
continuous for
= ilogi^
all
a;
<
(H<1).
1.
The functions Sech_1 a;, cosech _1 a;, coth 1 a; are seldom used
because
Sech 1 x
= Ch"1
They could be
cosech" 1 x
sh" 1
(&),
coth" 1 x
nos. 3840.
th"1
INTEGRATION
132
and
(5) Derivatives
[4.45
integrals.
= sh 1 a\
From x = shy, dxjdy = chy = + A/(l + sh 2 i/) =
(i)
+ x 2 ), the posiHence
s sh
1
~la;
=+
{aUx)
v(rb)
= ch
Since x = chy, dxjdy = shy = + yj(ch2 y 1) = + /(x 2 1), the posi1
tive sign being chosen because the values of y = ch a; are not nega(ii)
a;.
and hence sh y
tive,
(hi)
is
th1 a;.
From x =
thy, dxjdy
The corresponding
seoh2 y
= 1 a;2
So
integrals are:
last
two
results of 4.12.
Exercise 4(h)
1
expressions.
down the derivative of the following, stating any restrictions on the values ofx.
Write,
2 sh 1 ^).
5 thiftan^).
6 coth" 1
8 th 1 (sina;).
9 ch 1 (sec a;),
10 Calculate
J
r
11
Calculate
By writing x/a
f
12
dx
rr
(a
4 th 1 (2).
ch x (2a;l).
J^^+^J
dx
7 sh _1 (tanaj).
by the substitution x =
V(l+* 2
sh t.
x
v(* i)
(j
>
(x
>
1)
by the
substitution x
cht.
 = sh 1  + c.
13
C
dx
I:;
 = ch"
,
+c
(x
>
a).
INTEGRATION
dx
;
15
x2
,a
=th~ 1  + C
a
133
<o).
(\x\
by using
stitutions.
16
V(a 2 + x2 )
and
12
is
c, c'.
V(
}+25)*
*
21
24
18
v^
By
22
putting
2
)
dx
20
, ]
V( 4a;2 + 25 )'
 )'
V( 36 aj8
1
23
r..
V( 2 + 2a; + a;2 )
a sh and using ch a t
a:
19
.
By putting a; =
} 36
,
)'
V(4a 2 9)
V(*
25
ix J{x 2 + a 2 )
J(ch 2t +
1),
J(2x + x*)
prove that
>
if a
0,
+ ia 2 sh" 1 (a/a) + c.
>
0).
[Contrast 4.21,
ex. (vi).]
V(9# 2 4) da.
27
y/(9x 2
< 1, what is the substitution to be used in no. 11? Show that the
log{ x + *J(x 2 l)} + c. [As ch$ is never negative, the substitution
required is x = chtf.]
*30 If a;
result is
12
*31
(i)
(ii)
Evaluate
dx_
t/
2
13y/(x 25)
x
substitution
= y.
by first reducing it to
34 ash 1 *;.
x
= sh ax
a
fx
n ah.axdx,
n
a
by the
(i).)
the integrals of
33 th 1 ^.
J12VOS 2  25 )
= 5 ch
*_i,
35
where a
xn
ch ax
a
aHh 1
and n
is
*:.
a positive
n
a
c n _,.
if
tana
<
the result when tana > 1? Show that both results are given
arithmic forms log tan ( %x + \n) = log sec x + tan x
j
1.
What is
by the
log
INTEGRATION
134
38
[4.5
Verify the results stated in 4.45 (4), and state for what values of x they hold.
Use these
results to
prove that
sechijc =
ax
(l)
cosechia =
ax
(ii)
coth^ =
(iii)
(0<a;<l);
xj(l x 2 )
1
(x
x*J(l+x 2 )
#= 0);
(H>1).
(ii)
Sech 1 a;;
(iii)
coth 1 a:.
(u)
sechi*
log
cosech 1 ^
Jlt^Z^J
log
if
I
(iii)
coth" 1 *
ilog
(B)
4.5
Revised
list
<
(0
<
>
1);
0,
log
if
<
0;
(a;
JiJ
>
1).
Systematic integration
of standard integrals
i<fcc
(m
m+ 1
loga;
ex ;
section (A)
#  1):
"
(i)
(ii)
F.
ex dx
jsinxdx = cos x,
f
The
(iii)
cos x &x
~ sm x
>
a b
>
INTEGRATION
4.5]
2
Jsec xdx
2
Jcosec xdx
tan x,
jsh xdx = ch x,
jsech 2xdx
J*ch xdx
dx
j j(x*l)
The
(v) a, b
sh x\
(vi) a, b
= coth x;
(vii) a,
tan_1 x;
JvuW^
lj(iTx*)
cot x;
Jcosech2 xdx
th x,
jiTx*
135
dx
8*11
(vm)
"1
(ix)
&
Bh lx
>
dx
Gh ~ lx
(aj>1 ^
J^cfe  log/(*)
result
Jtan xdx
= log
Jth xdx =
exs.
(i), (ii))
Jcosec xdx
Jcoth xdx
log ch x,
Jseco;cia;
jcot xdx
cos x\ ,
log sh x\ .

(xii) a,
(xiii) a,
that
log sin x\
or
(xiv)
(xv) a, b
The reader should know all of these, and should be able to quote
when x is replaced by any linear function
px + q (p 4= 0). Thus by writing xja for x in nos. (viii)(xi), we have
when a > 0:
the corresponding results
f.
dx
\~n~r
CI
J J{a* + x*)
dx
ah
2\
~1 x
=  tan 1 dx
(xvi)
sin"1 ;
g(a; + V(
(xvii)
+ a;2 )};
(xviii)a,6
INTEGRATION
136
and
if
< a<
C
^ ==Ch"
J V(^
Similarly,
[4.6
x,
a 2
fcgfc + VO*
xby px + q in.
on replacing
a2s
because
= J f
2a\x
 02 )}
(xix)a,&
(ii),
x + a/
4.6
All rational functions of the form Jcf (x) \f{x) (where k is constant)
by
fclog f(x)\,
4.33.
(2)
it
When
the function
is
we decompose
is
less
'proper' fraction.
Examples
_^!_
(i)
x+\
x%
hence
= *_!+.
dx
\x 2 x + log
(u)
o
,
x3. 3x+l
.
4.62 Digression
We may
on
x+V
\x
a;
3* 2 3
=2xl+
+1
3a:+r
is
partial fractions
INTEGRATION
4.62]
137
know
where there
(10.53),
is
full
coefficients' (10.13).
1 (a)
(b)
(c)
xc
'
==rz
Ax + B
A.
or equivalently
.r
,
'
C2
C
+ 7 3 \s
(x c) 2
(x c) 3
,
b) 2 assume a sum
x b) 2
(
and
+
xb
(x
(x
(xb) 2
'
c) 3 assume
or equivalently
'
Ax2 + Bx + C
(x c) 3
so on.
(a)
assume a fraction
x
(b)
assume a sum
+ bx + c'
A x x + Bx
.
x2 + bx + c
and so
A 2 x + B2
.
(x2
+ bx + c) 2
'
on.
n 1
whose numerator
tion
Rule
1);
Having followed the above procedure for all factors of the denomin
or
a
mixture of these methods. The following examples should revise
(ii)
and
(iii)
INTEGRATION
138
[4.62
Examples
ABC
(i)
x z +l
x(x 2 4)
+ 2= + 2'
x x
x+
0:
Put x =
2:
x2 +l
;.
Put
Put
a;
= 2:
a:
Hence
a;
SB,
so
B=
f.
8C,
so
C7
f.
15
+l =
a;(a:
5=
ABC
7cc4
+2
+ 2) a?l (a;l) a
7a;  4 = A(x  1) (a + 2) + 5(a; + 2) + C(x  l) a
(a;l) 2
3=1:
Put x =  2:
coefficients of
a;
(a:l) a
+ 3a?+l
^ a ,
(a;
o,
(a;2) 3 (a;3)
=
+ 2)
so
before.
so
x1
2.
5=1.
C  2.
so
= A + G,
lx~ 4
2a; 2
a;
Hence
(a;
= 35,
18 = 9C,
Put
Equate
8(x + 2)'
S(x2)
4x
/.
5
(
4)
+ 2*
CD
(a;l) 2
a?
B
A
^
+ 7
^ + 
+x%'
(a;2)
(x2)
a
a:2
The
method should
be noticed.
2a; 2
Put x
Hence
^(a;2) 2 (a;3) + 5(a;2)(a;3) + jD(a;2) s
=
=
=
2z 2 + 3a;+
+ 15(a?3)
+ 18a; 44
(a; + ll).
2
4(a;2)(a;3) + 5(a;3) + i)(a;2) = 2a; + 22.
5 = 26,
Put = 2:
and hence
A(x  2) (x  3) + D(x  2) 2 = 2x + 22 + 26(x  3)
= 28(a;2).
A{x 3) +D(x 2) = 28.
/.
Putting x 2 gives J. = 28, and x = 3 gives Z) = 28.
2a;
2(a;2)
.*.
a;
WAen
method (equivalent
to repeated division).
it is
INTEGRATION
4.62]
Putting y
139
y*(yi)
Nowf
ss
15(yl)26y(yl) + 28y
15

so the fraction
is
y*
28
26
28
h
yi
y\
26
15
(x2)*
(x2)*
28
x2 x2
28
x+4
(1V)
x(x* + 2)
_ A Bx + C
~ x + x* + 2
'
Put x =
0:
a;
(a;
a:
a:
is
.4
a;
2
,
we
2?
+
+ 4) (2/ + 9) ~ ^+4 ^+9'
from which we find A = $ B = f as in ex. (i). Thus
(2/
x1
(a;
+ 4) (a; 2 + 9)
9
5(z 2 + 9)
5(a:
+ 4)
x* + x 3
(vi)
x3 l
'
Here the fraction is not 'proper', so that first the division process must be
applied. It can be combined with the work for finding the constants in the
partial fractions as follows. Since the quotient is of first degree in x, it has the
+ + 1) of x3 1,
a;* +
A
Bx + C
T
= ax + o\
+
#1 x* + x+l
a^1
x* + x* = (ax + b)(xi \)+A(x l + x+l) + (Bx + G){xl).
Equating coefficients of x* and of x* gives respectively 1 = a, 1 = 6. Put x =
2 = SA, so A = f
form ax + b;
so,
1)
(a;
a;
.'.
by long
division of
1:
15+ lly + 2y 2 by 1 +y
INTEGRATION
140
Proceeding as in ex.
(iii),
first
[4.62
little
calculation that
so that
Equating
coefficients of
C = I.
Hence
3
x gives
xi + x
.
B =
,
x*l
= x+l +
2x+l
2
3(a: + a;+l)
B(x1)
but
= A
Xl
x+3
{X1)(X 2 +1) Z
(Vll)
a+3
(l)(a: 2 +l) 2
xl
x+ 3
/.
Put x =
X*+l
I:
(X 2 +1)*
Write
it is
Dx + E
Bx + C
1
f{x)
(a;
+l) 2
'
A(x*+l)* + (xl)f(x).
4A,
A=
so
1.
x+ 3
1
_
+l) 2 ~ ixl)ix 2 +l) z ~ xl
f{x)
"
ix
_ x 3 x*3x2
~
ix + l) z
2
after
fix)
and
or
this
by
1.
We now have
either
by inspection
= x x 3x2,
z
division
by x 2 + 1.
/(*)
+ 1)
= ( 2x  1) + ( x  1) ix* + 1).
therefore
x+1
2x+l
(viii)
(*
We find
'
xix*2)
xjx + ^2)ix^j2)'
result in the
form
A+ B
x + y/2
C
x^2
xix*2)
_A + Bx + C
x
x 2 2'
INTEGRATION
141
and by the visual methods we should find A = \, B = \, C = 0. Then immedi4.63]
ately
dx =
2
J x(x 2)
Jlog
Exercise
Using
x*+l
2
x(x
4)
4(0
the integrals of
lx 4
2x 2 + 3x+l
(xl)*(x + 2)
(a;2) 3 (a;3)'
X+4:
x*(x+l)
x*_
x(x 2 + 2)'
(a;
+ 4) (a; 2 + 9)'
'
x*l
x+3
*7
(a;l)(a; 2 +l) a
and hence
l
2
CK +1
a;
11
7a;
20
2a;
18
'
2a?
21
3a;
*23
+ 22a; 2 + 7a; + 54
+ 3) 2
(l2a;)(a; 2
+7
(aj+l)(aj+2)(2aj + 3)'
3a;
19
(xl)(x + 2) 1
+ 12a; + 2
(a;+l) 3 (a;2)'
+13
6a;
16
a;(a;+l)
a;(a;3) 2
2
2a;+l
(a?l)(4a;l)*
15
a; 6
'
13
x(x+l)'
a;+18
17
(*l) 2
2x3 + a; 2 + 4
2a;a;
a;+l
10
x2
12
'
+l
x*l'
(a;2) 3
14
a;
+3
22
xJx^+Ty
2
2
3a;2
(a;+I) 2
x* + 4a; 16
24
'
(2a;
coefficients,
and
25
(2a;
4.63
It
x+2
+ 3) (a; 2 3)
Summary
will now be
4a;
26
+3
(a;2)(a; 2 + 4a;l)
we can
27
2x* + x 2 2
a;
4
resolve the
'
denominator
into linear
A
(xa) m
'
Bx + C
(a* + bx+c) m
'
INTEGRATION
142
for
m=
where x
1, 2, 3,
+ bx + c
[4.64
Integration of the
type yields
first
r~i1
\m(x a)
>
if
oil
4 log
or
1,
=f=
a\
la;
m=
if
1.
4.65.
"j*
'Zx
+ 5x* + x2 2xl
{x*x+lf
is
dx
'
in fact
x+V
Ax + B
dx
bx + c
(1)
A=
0).
in
Examples
dx
dx
_ r
x 2 + 6x4~ J (x + 3) 2 13'
f
Jx a
Since
J
C
therefore
integral
dx =
x + a/
2a
^~ (
2a\xa
xa
log
8
x+a
ka
= log
(x + k) z a*
2a ^Ix + k + a
dx
\x +
is
1
aj
;log
e
2V13
dx
+ 3Vl3
^
+ Vl3'
1
* + 3
_lf
dx
dx
{x + 2)*
~.
Since
dx
)x* + a*
 tan
1 x
integral
a'
dx
J (x + k)* + a*
 tan
+ 2\
1,x + h
is
11
+2 . tan 1,
= tan 1
1
4 1
t
li
2a;
+4
Hermite has shown how to find the rational part of any such integral
ff(x)
/
J 9(P)
g(x).
dx
INTEGRATION
4.64]
Alternatively,
put x + 2
sec 2
4j
143
11
6j
In practice the middle step of the working in each example is done mentally.
(2)
.
Linear numerator (A
#= 0).
A (derivative
Hence
split
of denominator) + fi.
sum
of the form
rf'(
J5jf<falog/(x)
the second
is
covered by case
(1)
above.
Examples
Zx  5
Write
Then we
find
A=f
fi
The
2a:
A(4a:
+ 2) +/t.
j*
4J
13
+ 2a: + 41
dx
*
2 J
2a;
+ 2a; + 4l'
last integral is
= tftan 1
= JjS.^tan 1
is
8
+ 2x + 4 1 
tan" 1
2x+ 1
7
(1V)
iiteax*
^
2*7 = A(34tB)+/t;
Write
then A =
(i
W and
_i
34x
is
ii r
+
2 J 11 3a: 2a; 8 * ~2 J ll3a=2a; 8
The
'
last integral is
11
/*
dx
11
1

s+fW97
is
iloglllSa^l^log
4a;
+ 3V97
4a + 3 + V97
first is
INTEGRATION
144
Ax
xx +rD
B
As
by
finding
[4.65
^ /
...
2
n
J (x + bx + c)
numbers
A,
(i
for
dx
'
which
Ax + B =
X(2x + b)+/i.
Ax
B
r
2x + b
r
+
dx
dx = A f 2
dx + u
n
^ J (x* + bx + c)
J(x + bx + c) n
J (x* + bx + c)
_A
1
n1 (x* + bx+c) n  1+llUn
Then
'
dx
where
6aj + c) n
jTsvJ;
{(a + i&) + Ci&*}
jjTZTTixirh.
2
+ B
= c 6 2 Writing the numerator of the integrand
!
jfc)
t = x + \b and
+ k) (l/k) t 2 we decompose the integral:
on putting
as ( ljk)
(t
A;
I f
_1
+
1*n ~ i1 H
on integrating by
2&(n 
parts.
1)
* 2cfe
J* 5 {(! +
2k{nl)(fi + k) n  1
2k(nl)
Hence
2(nl)k
2w3
(P + k)" 1
2(wl)fc
Example
2x 1
{x*
+ 2x + 5) i
dx.
2x 
Write
Then A =
and /* =
X{2x + 2) +/i.
C
J
+ 2o; + 5)
^ 3
(a;
* 2 + 2a; + 5
/*
cite
a
2
J (* + 2 + 5)
3 f
J {(*+
<fo
2
1)
+ 4}
INTEGRATION
4.7]
Putting x +
145
f 2sec 2
4
J 16sec
dd =  f coa
J
6dd
(l+cos20)d0
16
1
'
Since
the expression
tan
16\
1
is
and
,,
V{(a;+l) 2 + 4}
f
1t
*+l
integral
cos 6
2(x+l)
;
^+1)2 + 4}'
,
\
J
(x+l) + 4j
is
^tan ,x+l
2
16
x* + 2x + 5
3x+ll
A
16 tan
8(x* + 2x + 5)
3
x+1
Sx 2 + 2x + 5
x+1
1
'
Exercise 4(j)
Integrate each of the following functions.
1
7^
A
4
+ 2) 2 +16'
^
5 4a;a;
g:2
'
a:
+i
(a;
25) 2
2a;
(a;
*il
(a;
a; 2
*13
+^+ 3
(l+a:)(l+a; 2 )'
10
1
.
+ 2) 2 16*
3a;
2a;10'
_
2
(3a;
rr.
(3a:
3a:4
+ 4) 3
x2 + 2a; + 2'
6x + 5
 18a; + 25'
3
8
a; + 7a;  3a; + 4
4
+ 2 +l
+2
*
2
2
(a; + 2a; + 5)
9a; 2
a;
*12
'
"
t
1+a;
*14
a;
*15
1+a*'
l+a; 2 + a^*
4.7
Examples
(i)
xdx
C2ts dt
=
=
$t*t2 + 2t21og\t+l\
fa;*a; + 2a;*21oga;*+l.
INTEGRATION
146
C
....
To
both
Jt* + t*
>
put x
roots,
and
3).
The
becomes
C6t6 dt
[4.72
dx
rationalise
integral
<
t*
t+1
6(i*
2a;*
dt
* 2 + *log*+l)
as in ex.
(i)
jxT^Y) = frnwt
where 2*~
so that *
= * 2+ 1}
2feft
:
+ l)
2 f
by
 1 <ft
partial fractions,
2{log+l+^
21oglV(2a;l)
(iv);
V
^ =
Ja;^(a;8)
f
3* 2 eft
J*
3 f
Jt*
The
1
i\
dt
partial
by
3 y
+ 2]
2 + 4
variable
fractions,
+ 2)
fI
Ti ilog
<
+ 2.
tan
J(*l)* + 3V3
The
ilog( , 2 _ 2, + 4)
last integral is
+1
J(t + 2)(t*2t + 4)
t+2
p1 /
1)
J eft
3 f
j6\<"2< + 4
2J \
+8
+V(2a; _
x 8
where
,
f 3
( + 8)*'
J(*
+ l
"73'
(x 8)*.
is
useful at
INTEGRATION
4.73]
some
stage.
proved that
We
if
by a few
illustrate
R(x, y)
is
147
*J(ax
where
y,
+ bx + c),
i71
If
Ax + B
we remove the
factor
\a\
sign,
we
obtain a
Ax + B
aX
dx
)J(x* + gx + h)
Ax + B
aX
dx
)j( x * + gx + h)
>
'
Examples
(i)
*!
2
JV(* + 4a;+13)
(i)
dx
dx
r
J J{( x + 2)* + 9}
 J_
= 3h^ +2
"
dx
a; )
da;
V{W(*+f) 2}
V3
6ar
+5
11
da:
J V{a?(3 + 2a;)}
J V(2aj +
3ar)
^2 J V(* 2 +t*)
da;
V{(* + l)
(2)
Linear numerator (A
Since dUf(x)}/dx
in the
=j=
i9}
ch
4a;
V2
+3
'
0).
%f'{x)j<]f(x),
form
root)
+ ji,
split into
the
sum
"*/'(*)
dx
p.V/(*)
the second
is
as in case
y/f(x);
(1).
IO2
INTEGRATION
148
[4.73
Examples
+X
(
iv )
Jvax + x
I
2,
%
dx.
1+ x =
Write
Then A =
and /* = f the
;
A(
integral
 1 + 2x)
is
r_i (^l)_
fd
dx
x + x2 )
dx
= V(i^+^ 2 )+
J V{(^4) 2 +e
<v>
by
,to
/,/<*!'+>*'
= ;
Then A =  and
1
2J
\l{2x* + xZ)
(i)(v)
A(4a; + l)+/t.
the integral
(4a;+l)
=
Examples
is
da;
_5 f
~l) J{2x* + xZ)
5
4a;
+a;3)^chi
^V(2a;
4
we
Putting x + J
 ch u, the integral
is
J*(chw
~"~
v
4V2j
From w =
ch
1
f (a; +
i)
ch 1
*,
l)<Zi*
= ^^(shw m).
"~4V2
+ we have
4a;
y{(^
2V2
B
5
1
^)
~ 1 = iV(16 2 + 8a;24)
}
V( 2a;2 + a;
 3 );
INTEGRATION
4.74]
149
dx
k74
Jo{x  k) ^{ax2 + bx + c)
1/f
to the form
considered in 4.73.
Examples
J(a+i)V(i+** 2 )'
Put x + 1
The
integral
is
J(i/).(i/<)V( 2 +3i)~
J V{f(f)
=  sin" 1 =
sin" 1
>
j = sin
1
x+1
J(xl)J(4x* + l)
_
~
The
(xl) + 2
J(xl)J(4x* + l)
dx
JV(4a; +l)
2
stitution
a;
1 =
1/t
JV(5<
dt
a
J(*l)V(4z 2 +l)'
the second
is
to
_ _ J_
dt
r
ch _1
ch 1
2*V5
V5
^{ax* + bx + c)dx
4.75
By
forms
The
dx
\l(t* + W),
<J(k*t
is
2
2
),
V(*
^ 2
)
+ a 2 )dx = jachu.ach.udu
a2 Jch2 udu
\a2
+ ch 2u) du
J(
'
INTEGRATION
150
We
<J(x
[4.76
+ a2 by
putting #
atan#; the
would become
integral
is less
easy to calculate.
veniently by x
= a th u) and j*J(x2 a2
;
The
Example
By putting x =
2 tan 0,
[_dx__
dx
_
2
J a V(a
+ 4)
2 sec 2 Odd
1 f cosfldfl
lCi
~~
2
J 4tan 0.2sec0
V(a:
4sin#
"
4 J sin 2
+ 4)
4a?
Exercise 4(fc)
TFnfe down or calculate
(if possible
2a+l
X
V(*+i)'
1
1+^z"
V(* + 4)'
V(2+l)V*'
V(i+*)^(i+*)'
V(2*
+ 4a;7)'
+2
a;
V(* +i)'
+7
V(6a;a;
a:
+l
17
V(* + 6a;+13)'
2
J (^l)
20
V(* +i)'
6a;+13)*
1
12
15
^ 2
J{(x + B)(2x)}'
3x5
V(2B + 4a>7)'
18
a;V(*
V(* +i)'
2
+ 4)'
21
a?V(2a;
3a;2
xj{3x 2 + 2xl)'
V(a
V(6a;7a; 2 )'
V(*
a;
2 )'
22
a;
16
19
11
14
2a;
2 + yfx
j/xl'
10
x + Jx'
13
)
23
(a;l)V(* 2 + 9)*
26 V(* 2 a 2 ).
+ a;)'
1
24
(a;+l)V(l
27
+ 2a;a; 2
V(3a; 5a;).
INTEGRATION
4.8]
28 V(* 2  5* + 6).
* 30
* 31
op+^+W
(^t.4)V(^ + 9 )
32 If a
151
l).
p t=W(^+9).]
Pprt >M]
will
convert the
integrals of
integrals
33 If a
4.8
Integration of
some transcendental
and
very wide;
is
yff
functions
we
but see
4.85.
( 1 ) The integral of any rational function of sin x and cos x can always
be reduced to the integral of a rational function oft by the substitution
For
sin x
coax
=
=
t&nx =
2 sin \x
cos 2
\x
2
,
2
cos 2 \x
2 sm 4x
2
sin
dt_
^L =
i sec
da;
This substitution
is
2 sin he
cos he
2
2t
f = 1 + Sf
sin 2 a; + cos 2 a;
cos
r
2
a;
sin2
,
= (1
+ 2
.
a;
so
),
,
rfa;
JcosecajcfctT.
taxi^x,
we have
=:
Jsh^
Hence
'
Examples
t
tz1 + *2
l
2(tt
dx
(i)
'
Putting
2t
a;
cos a;
and
tan \x.
J^rr^ = j7 = Iog
J*cosec a; da;
log tan %z

<
form
INTEGRATION
152
(ii)
fsecxdx.
Since sec a;
we have by
sec a; do;
As
and
[4.81
tan(7r + a;)
ex.
that
(i)
+ \x)
log tan
cos $x + sin %x
+ \x) cos \x sin \x
1+ sin re
(cos \x + sin a;) 2
sin 2 a;
cos x
cos 2
sm.(\n + \x)
cos
\ir
seca + tana;,
/l
/I
+ sina;\
I,
V \1 sina;/
:
1
\
log
+ sin x
 log
or
2dt
r
dx
_ C dt
_ f
j5 + 3cosa;" j5(l+* 2 + 3(l< 2 ~ J 4 +
= tan 1 ^ =  tan* 1 ( tan a;).
(iii)
(iv)
J 3 + 5cosx
J 3(l
+ * 2 + 5(l* 2 ~
)
_
~
J{log2 + log2*}
dx
sincosa;+l
J
C
(v)
_
~~
The
2
2+*
ilog
2t
'
2tania;
f dt
2dt
J 2t(lt*) + {l+t*)
J("r+i)*
log*log*+l
log
tan \x
tan \x +
log
logl+cota:.
integral
a cos x + b sin a; + c
into
two
integrals
A (derivative
It then
4* 2
+ tana;
Acosx + Bsinx + C
is first split
2 + </
J4\2J
(vi)
+ sina;
sin a;
dx
of denominator) +p (denominator)
+ v.
becomes
dx
A cos x + B sin x + G
and the
last integral
can be reduced by
tan %x.
INTEGRATION
4.81]
153
(2)
tan \x is sometimes
= 1 sin2
it
re,
jsdx =
js(sinx) cosxdx
= js(u) du.
Example
( vii)
J*sin
x cos 3 x dx
J*sin
x cos 2 x cos x dx
= ju2 l v?)du
(
(b)
If the integrand
cos a;,
is
Example
sin6 * sec*xdx
(vm)
J
smxdx =
8
J COS *
\(z6
J \w
J
Bu6
=
(c)
u=
//
integrand is
T^du
w8
u + 4
w
7
l
2_
Su3
where
du,
u=
sin a,
an even function of
both sin a;
tana;.
By
writing sin a;
is
+ tan2 x
= jT(t&nx)dx =
jlldx
T^tana;),
and
JV(t*) ^j^2 .
Examples
C
(ix)
 dx =
J sin
a;
cos 2
dx = f 1+w
fsec 4 *
I
J tan *
tan x cot x.
2
T
du
INTEGRATION
154
Alternatively, the integral
is
dx =
(sec 2 #
2
2
J sin a;cos a;
or it
[4.82
+ cosec 2 c)cia; =
tana; cota;;
can be written
4
/*
X^
dx
2
J sin
cosec 2 2xdx
= 2 cot 2a;.
da;
2a;
sec 2 a; da;
2
2
2
J a + ft tan a;
2
2
2
2
J a cos a; + 6 sin a;
du
on dividing top
and bottom by cos 2 x,
Ja 2 + 6 w 2
2
= tan 1
a&
\aj
1
/&
\
=
tan 1  tana;
,
ab
C
(xi)
dx
J a + o sin x
cos 2 x + sin2 x = 1 to
The integral is
2
\a
make
the
(x)
by
first
using
dx
2
2
2
J a cos x + (a
+ 62
sin 2 x
a.
A cos m ax sin"
'
sum
of terms like
ax cosn bx
sin' bx
where the indices m,m', n,n', ... are positive integers and the multipliers a, b, ... are any numbers, then by the formulae of elementary
trigonometry each such term can be expressed as the sum of a number
of terms of the types
A cos {(pa + qb +
. .
.)
x],
ji
sin {(pa + qb
. .
.)
x);
...
and
m,m'
may
...
else
a reduction formula
is
used
(see 4.84,
and
INTEGRATION
4.83]
155
Examples
J*sin 2x cos xdx
(i)
= 2 J*w 2 dw,
where
coax,
= $w8 = $ cos 3
This example
(ii)
jsinx
is
1
 f{1
J(a;
cos2a; sin3a;da;
f
I
{sin 2 3a;
3a; cZa;
J sin 6a;
J
4a;).
J*cos
sin 8 2a; dx
= J*cos 2 x
8
J*
8 sin8 x cos8 a; dx
it 2 w 5 cZw, where w =
)
cos a;,
J*(
= fw* + w8 =
(i)
i
j
cosecharaa;
dx
= C  =
Jahx
J*~
=
=
\
r
(ii )
*
j
i~
sechxdx
(vi), (vii)
dx
fisech
=
J2sha;cha;
2
where
Aacfa;
thfa
th^x,
logthr.
,
= C dx
= C dx
= fsechHa
dx
Jchx J ch 2 %x + ah 2 $x Jl+th 2 c
2<^T
i1+T
where
= 2tan 1 (tha;)
th \x,
'
INTEGRATION
156
[4.83
Alternatively,
C
seen a; ax
2dx
)ex
e~x
= 2tan 1 (e
C2ex dx
r
Je *+1
2
2du
= r
)u*+V
u=
where
ex ,
a:
).
It can be shown (see Ex. 4(g), no. 51) that these two results differ
by a constant.
The substitution r th.\x (cf. Ex. 4(g), no. 15) will convert the
integral of any rational function of ch x and sh x into that of a rational
function ofr; but often the substitutions u = 8hx,u = ch.x,oru = thx
are more convenient, as in 4.81 (2).
Expressions involving powers and products of ch ax, sh bx, ... can
be dealt with by the formulae of Ex. 4 (g), nos. 24, 8.
In general,
As the
we
Exercise 4(/)
Integrate the following.
1
cosa;
1
.
cosa; + sina;
5,
^ sina; cosa;
sina;
+ sina;
L^.
+ cosa; + sina;
cota;
+ cosa;
=
2cosa; + sina; + 3
5cosa; + 7
2 cos x + sina; + 3
1+cota;
io
5 3cosa;
*n
x+8hlx
1
+ cosa;
14
15 cos 3 x cosec 2 x.
16 tan3 a;.
17 cosec 3 a\
_
19
cos 2 a;
18
+ sm 2 a;
sina; cosa;
ri
ir
sin2 a; cos'a;
sin* x cos 2 x
6a;.
*24 Find constants E, a for which a cos x + b sin x R cos (x a). Hence give
a method for integrating l/(acosa; + &sina; + c). Apply this method to nos. 4, 5
above.
*25
(i)
If a + b
>
0,
show that
is
^tan
^Itania;)
/(
if
>
b,
INTEGRATION
and
is
b + a cos x + *J(b
2
)
157
sin x
if
a + booax
<
If a + 6 =
If a + b
(ii)
(iii)
0,
0,
what
is
<
6.
(i)
dx
2
acos
sina; + csin 2 a;
a;
ftcosa;
+
J
*26 Calculate f
cos
xsinx
*28
m 4= n, prove that
If
(i)
=
ma
m n
m n
(ii)
*29 If
dx.
0;
/:
(ii)
are zero
if
*30 If m,
sin mx sinna; dx
and
Jo
Jo
m + n, and
7r
if
m = n.
and
Jo
Jo
(ii)
J
is
2ra/(m 2
2
)
or zero according as
m n is odd or even.
*31 If
f(x)
and
is
A;
^a
r2n
j
Jo
[2w
f(x)dx
= na
Jo
P2v
cos kxf(x) dx
= nak
Jo
zero.
sinfca;/(a;)(fa;
INTEGRATION
158
4.84 Jsinm
(1)
[4.84
This integral
is
It
can be treated as
First
m + n 4=
we suppose
Write
0.
um,n Jsinm #
fsinm x
As
ooaxdx
write
so that
u'
^sinm+1
ra+
(m
a;
we can
coa n xdx.
u=
coan
= in 1
v
~1
x,
v'
m+l
'
and integrate by
um,n
mn
m+
t cos
711
x sinm+1 x +
Jm+1
TO
Jsin x( 1
m + \lj sin
1.
=
(i)
m+ 2 x
12
cos*
mx
J*sin
x dx,
(i)
m+
^m.n 2
um,n
m_ =
^m,n*
m+
rc
um
n_ 2
m,n
=}=
sinm_1 x,
= (m l)sinm2 a; cosa;,
v'
'
ooa n+1 x
^
(n
1
(n)
v
Similarly, taking
u=
xdx
Putting this in
sinm+1 x,
parts:
m+ l
provided m
1),"
4=
=f=
1),
INTEGRATION
4.84]
and
um,n
mn =
m+n
159
m 1U
m + n m_o2,n
m
m
m
(lv)
v
'
(ii),
(iv) will
If
> 0, n < 0, then (iii) numerically reduces ftoJ/i. indices by 2.
If
< 0, n > 0, then (i) numerically reduces both indices by 2.
If
< 0, then 2 is numerically greater than and the integral on the
right of (iv) involves a higher power of sin a; than um n does. In this case the
formula can be reversed by putting
+ 2 instead of in (iv), and then solving
for
um
Um,n =
right.
~ SmW+1 X COS"+
.
r i
Similarly, if n
<
we obtain from
0,
wm
=
(ii),
X+
m+n+2
m + I Um+% n
+ 1:
if4r
w+ +2 u
m> n+a
rT
sinm+1 x cos n + 1 a; +
~
w+ 1
(v)
w+
^
vi)
m<
and n < 0, then (v), (vi) numerically reduce the powers of sin a;,
by 2.
When m and n are integers (positive or negative), the integral is reduced
eventually to one in which the indices of sin a; and cos a; are 1, 0, or 1; this
If
coscc, respectively,
is
easily calculated.
The preceding
vm
jta,n.
tanm_1 x vm_ 2
m
This
is
If
if
m#
1.
<
0,
then n >
formula similarly (n
0;
the integral
is
jcotn xdx,
and we obtain a
4= 1).
(2) Alternative
To
we
begin
by
p 1
is
INTEGRATION
[4.84
two indices of sin x and q 1 is the smaller of the two indices of cos x.
160
For
^
and
x cos 3 x)
(sin?
p sin '1
is
result.
Example
Find the formula relating wTO> n to um> _ 2
The index of sin a; in both is m, so p =
.
cosa; is
n 2,
(sin"1
1
*
dx
so q
m+ 1.
x cos" 1 x)
= cos n_1 a;.(m + l)sinm a;cosa; sinm+1 a;.(n l)cos n2 a;sina;
= (m+ l)sinTO cos n o? (n l)cos n2 sinm a;(l cos 2 )
= (m + n) sin" a; cos" (n 1 cos"~ 2 sin"* x.
silL m+i x cos i * = (m + n) w TO  (n  1 w m _ 2
a;
a;
Integrating,
a;
a;
(3)
The
indices of
= n 1.
mx
definite integral
siri
positive integers
Jo
or zero.)
By formula
umn=
f **
(ii),
m X CQ8n xdX
SlD.
JO
n_1
[1
m n cos
a;
sinm+1 #
Jo
m + njo
rc1
...
In particular,
if
would give
um,n =
^Vu>
m=
we have
cos w #da;
Jo
and
if
n=
n Jo
if
coa n
~2
w>
xdx
(viii)
1.
(n
>
1);
(ix)
0,
amm xdx =
Jo
smm  2 dx
Jo
(m >
1).
(x)
INTEGRATION
4.84]
By means
or
161
n can be reduced
is
m,n both
ulx =
odd:
m odd, n even:
m even,
Pi"
sin a:
fl
cosxdx
[sin 2 a;]^
u 10 =
n odd:
to
sinar^ar
cosa;?a;
=1;
1;
=
J
m,n both
^=
even:
^r.
J
If there
is
is
sinm x
.
cosxdx
= T
becomes a multiple of
sinm+1 x
Lra+1
Jo
Jo
m+ 1
/0
u.
Examples
(i)
sin 4 a? cos'icefo?.
Jo
Selecting the
odd index
W4.7
7 for reduction,
6.4.2 f* ff
11.9.7
6.4.2
sin* x cos 6
and
6.4.2
9 7
ft
sm *]T
16
1155'
= =
=
4
= Ma = .^ =
4>
Jo
Sm x coaxdx =
11.9.7.5
(ii)
we have
M4,6 =
5.3.1.3.1
m4
n_
10.8.6.4.2 2
Jtt.
3tt
512'
  4
.
INTEGRATION
162
(iii)
J
sin 8 x cos 2 x dx
Jo
The
dy) =
Jo
Jin
Therefore the given integral
2
is
2.1
2
proceeding in this
way
4
15
5 3
Jo
By
sin3 a; C0B*xdx.
Jin
Jo
substitution x
[4.85
Pn
r\n
/w
lowing rule.
To evaluate
Jo
write
down
the expression
(ml)(m3)...(nl)(n3)...
(m + n) (m + n 2) ...
where
all three
reached; if m,
as
'
an even number).
(iv)
f x 2p ( 1
Jo
Putting x
sin 6,
where
<
<
becomes
[in
Civ
sin 2 * 6 cos 2
cos 6d6
Jo
Jo
2j9(2j?2)...2.(2g+l)(2gl)...
OT
Jaj
(cos
_1 x) n dx,
Jaf^tan
1
x) n dx
putting
by a reduction formula
INTEGRATION
4.85]
163
Exercise 4(m)
Calculate the integrals of the following by using
1
cos 6 a;.
sin4
a reduction formula.
2 sin 5 a;.
x cos
5 sec
x.
sin3 x cos 4 x.
a;.
r\n
cos 6 a:dte.
fin
sin 8 xdx.
Jo
Jo
sin4 a;cos 5 a;<fo;.
10
11
Jo
+ cos x) 6 dx.
(1
cos 4 \xdx.
sin8 x( 1
12
f x*<J(lx*)dx.
13
14
JO
ra
15
I** a;
Jo
xm (a x) n dx, where
V(*
Jo
sin8 a;a5a;.
17
JO
Jo
a:<Za:,
sin x cos" 1 a; + (n
18
JO
19 If c n
nc
ft*
f2?r
16
prove that
ns n
a;.
Obtain reduction formulae for the following integrals. (Some of these examples
have already been given.)
20 fx n e*dx. (Ex.
22
Jsh n a;cZa\
24
JV
36.)
26 J>*sin B &a:da;.
28 If um
21 J*ch B a;<fo;.
25
Ja;
B shaa;da;.
45.)
and
calculate
Jo
n 2 obtain a formula relating um
29 Assuming m* #
,
. Hence prove that
J*sin
mx
um _t
(m 2 n 2
= m(m 1)
Jo
and
calculate
sin 2 x aianxdx,
Jo
I
Jo
30 Prove that
J*cos na; sec a; da;
INTEGRATION
164
and
calculate
% n sin
[4.9
sin x
8a;
dx.
cos a;
If
31
2(n 
prove that
1)
um
*32 If
where
xm dx
J (x*+l)"'
m 1
mto _
2>
_!
^2+1)w _
J^aJ"(la?)"(fa,
(i)
= wn m
[integrate
by
parts,
2/
1x];
m~+n+T Umn
~1
um
Deduce that
Fir
33 Prove
[put
Wm>n
(")
(iii)
_
=
n'
a;
mini
(m + n +
= ^n 2
1)
[Put y
it
x.]
Jo
34 Prove
xf(sm.x)dx
= \n
*35 Write
down
deduce that
(for
f(amx)dx.
Jo
JO
w>
sn
J*a;
= jx n e ax sin 6a;
cfa;,
0),
ac bs n + nc n _ x
x n e ax cos bx,
as n + bc n + n5_ x
a;
bs =
as
+ 6c =
e ax sin
6a;.
[See Ex. 4(e), nos. 28, 29.] (The pair of reduction formulae will determine
and s n when n is a positive integer. Also see 14.66, ex. (iii).)
4.9
Generalised integrals
4.91
The problem
cn
C+^dx
Ji^'
For, the integrand of the
C1
p_ dx
dx
JoVU*
first is
)'
Jo
+ x2
is
discontinuous
INTEGRATION
4.92]
and
1;
165
infinite.
or generalised integrals.
infinite,
continuous for
is
all
x ^
a,
X >co.
when
dx^l
f{x)
kind*)
first
/*O0
Then we define
f(x)dx to be
I; i.e.
rx
r<*>
dx
f(x)
Ja
is
f(x)
dx
X>oo J a
exists.
not defined.
Similarly, if f(x)
is
continuous for
f
f{x) dx
J co
lim
lim f f(x) dx
X>coJX
is
continuous for
all
f(x)dx,
x and if
ra
f(x)dx
J oo
Ja
a,
then
we define
f(x)dx+
f(x)dx=
J oo
J co
f f(x)
J 00
dx by
r^dx.
Ja
we have
( f(x) dx,
Ja
["fWdx^
rf(x)dx;
Ja
f f(x) dx + [ f(x) dx
Ja
Jb
letting
we define
/*
and by
b,
exists.
Finally, if f(x)
x ^
all
X > oo we obtain
b
f{x)dx+
Ja
Jb
( f(x)dx + f f{x)dx=(
f(x)dx.
J oo
J oo
similarly
Ja
Hence
f*>
_J(x)dx+J^f{x)dx =
fa
f&
/(a:)(fo;
J
/(o;)da:
J oo
/oo
+ f{x)dx.

Ja
f>b
f(x) dx
/(cc)cfo;
J
INTEGRATION
166
[4.92
Examples
If a
(i)
>
0,
then
1/a:
continuous for
is
J a x*
If a
(ii)
>
0,
then 1/x
is
continuous for
[log*]^
(iii)
 dx does not
all
a;
log
a,
and
X log a
X > oo.
when
oo

X > cc.
dx =
Hence
2X 2
2a 2
when
2a 2
Hence
x^ a, and
2a;2j
L
>
00
all
exist,
Ja x
cosxdx
[sina:]^
sinX.
When
>
oo,
sinX
oscillates
between
Jo
1.
Hence
exist.
J'
Jo
/X
(lv)
J,
(ftp
x /1
JS+IT Jx
=
(jjpt)***' "^* 1 *
iog
s^]r
=iog
log =
> log 1
xfi" io8i
when
log 2
C" dx =
Hence
(a)
oo.
log 2.
Had we
it
(v)
when
<fo
Jo o
* oo, if
>
,af*
= Tltan 1 =
La
+aJ*
0.
aJ0
Jo
Similarly
and hence
f
I
a 2
when
Hence
dx
da;
,X >.1 7T
 tan 1
tan 1
f
I
a* + aT2
_ n
~ 2a'
1 /
>
tt\
n
dx =
oo,
INTEGRATION
4.93]
Therefore
if
>
167
0,
n
+
= .
2a 2a
a
it
exists
and
is
rx
xe~ x dx
(vi)
Jo
= [ xe  a>yf+
=
it
e~ x dx
Jo
Xex +le*]X
(4.43 ( 6)) .
x e~ x dx exists and is
Hence
Jo
4.93 Discontinuous integrand ('integrals of the second kind')
(a)
f(x) >
b,
'bh
when
f{x)dx*l
we define
f /(#) da; to
be
I,
A>0 +
i.e.
Ja
J'bf(x)
[bh
f(x) dx
A>0+Ja
= Km
dx
not
exist.
(6)
Similarly, if f(x)
is
<x<
continuous for a
lim
and if
/(a;)<fo;
h+0+Ja+h
Ja+h
exists,
(c)
we define
f(x) dx to
be this
a<c<b
the integrals
/(a;)
dx to mean
<x<
f f(x)dx,
Ja
/(a;)da:
limit.
and
if for
f /(a;)<fc
Jc
both
b,
As in
a ^
a;
<
b,
we define
/(a;)
cite
to
mean
Ja
e
f(x)dx+ ( f(x)dx
I
Ja
Je
exists.
c satisfying
exist,
4.92(c), it
Ja
Ja
Je
that this definition is independent of c.
{d) If f(x) is
some
we
define
can be shown
c within the
range
INTEGRATION
168
Finally, iff(x)
(e)
is
[4.93
number of values of a;
which
intervals for
in
Then
(d).
sum
Ja
these exist.
all
Examples
f1 l
dx =
(i)
Jh s x
C
Hence
1
r
Jo 4X
[2h
r2
Jo
f
(iii)
1
efcc.
Hence
j
*00
2
Jo a
To
dx
f3
dx
consider
dx
=A*^f
does not
Jl x*'
exist.
Hence
does not
Jo*
f
J
1
exist.
*
,1C^dx
<fe;
J 1
h dx
* =
as
*_U
Jo* 2
Jl*
3.
dx.
C+ 1 dx
when
> oo
we must
#(*2)
Ja* 2
(v)
2,
Jo*'
so that
h>0 +
when
dx
J^^^__
=h>.oo
2 ft
12ft
exist
f2
(i
2.
\( x ~ 2)
the range of integration.
the integrals
and
dx does not
2)
ate
h^0 +
= 22jh^2 when
(ii)
Hence
[_2^x]\
[loga;]l*
Jo
logh,
h^0 +
INTEGRATION
4.94]
and
rl
dx
=[\og\x\]\.
Jh' x
Thus neither
However,
169
logh'.
and so by
r+idx
(d)
does not
exist.
J I x
C~ h dx
fldx
Jl"^ J*'^
T ,
=1 8
,
h"
and if a special relation is assumed between h, h', this expression may tend to a
limit when h and h' > 0+ e.g. if h = kh' (k being a positive constant), the
result is log k. In particular, by taking h = h! we obtain log 1 = 0; Cauchy called
;
J
verify that
(vi)
An
ri
dx
la
written
f1
dx
For
f1
I
dx
Ji 2
Ji*
dx
does not
Jl * 2
integral like
exist.
r
J_ 5 V(a 2 9)
interval of values of a; in the
is still
is
an
is not
denned.
4.94
(1)
The
relation
Application
When we
j /(*) dx
= <f>(b)  <f>(a)
to generalised integrals.
Thus
J i
'evaluated' as
which by
l/a^lx
by an incautious
not
exist,
would be
application.
On
the
which is correct by
at x = 2.
dv
4.93, ex.
(iii);
this is because
<f>(x) is
continuous
a^x
<l>(x)
(4.93(a)),
f(x)dx
Jo
by continuity of <j>(x) at x =
0(6)$5(a)
ft>0+
b.
is
the exception.
INTEGRATION
170
If a
<
<
b,
[4.95
f(x) dx
rc
f(x) dx +
Ja
Ja
rb
f(x)
Jc
dx
A0+
=
=
by a special method.
<j){x),
yet
depend
essentially
on the
fa
(6),
definite integral
relation
/*a
f(x)
dx
f(a x) dx,
=
Jo
Jo
proved by a substitution;
(ra,
positive integers)
Jo
was found in 4.84 (3) by reduction; also see Ex. 4 (ra), no.
nos. 26, 27 and Ex. 4 (o), nos. 79, 80.
Calculation of the definite integral
32,
Ex. 4 (n),
<j>{x).
4.95 Integration
by parts and by
substitution
(vi),
Example
Find
'
dx
by using the substitution x = a + (6 a) t 2 t > 0.
4{{xa)
(bx)}
Ja
When x increases from a to 6, t increases from to 1. Since the integrand is
discontinuous at both ends of the range of integration, we consider (see 4.93 (c))
the transform of each of the integrals
*
dx
Jay/{(xa)(bx)}'
Cb
)c
dx
<]{(.xa){bx)Y
INTEGRATION
4.95]
where a
<
<
171
Now
b.
Cc
dx
2(ba)tdt
)a+h<J{(xa)(bx)}
J ti (ba)tj(lt*)
_
~
dt
/*'.
} k J(lt*)*
where
so the integral
is
2[sin 1 ]*j
when h
>
since then
tx
>
also.
Hence
dx
sin 1i ts
T77
"Tr;
JoV{(*)(6^)}
Similarly,
ft
A
da;
"777
^r
f.
tt,
where
When A > +
2sin 1 l2sin 1 /a
since
t3
7r2sin 1 <g
77
* 1. Therefore
,ft
da:
2 sin 1 1%
Exercise
4(/i)
rdx
r<dx
rxt
Jl
5
_a .
e*da;.
f 00
JO
of
9
7.
00
1,
j ,
sechada;.
10
Jo
dec
.
* 2 l
+4
o
8
xe*da;.
00
.
,
xamxdx.
_
12
flda;
11
da;.
f
I
Jo
J _oo
fcosK
Joe*
.
exists.
dx
Jo *
Jl V*
00
<
rr~.
Jo$z
da:
a;
co^+l
fid*
Jo x
xlogxdx.
17
r:
Jo ^jamx
19 Prove
dx.
a;
n loga:da;
Jq
Jo
r
dx
,
.
2
Jo a + 6 2a; 2
,
7T
= ttt
if a, 6
2a6
d*
t,
f*
20 Prove
Jo
Ifn> 1, prove
18
(a;
have
= _
)
7r
2o6(a + 6)
B
/;
like signs.
(a?
+a
if aft
da:
)(a? 2
+ 6a
>
0,
and find
(n + 1) 2
"
INTEGRATION
172
 =
2ab
Prove
21
if
if
cr cos 2 x + b 2 sin 2 x
J o
>
ab
What
0.
the value
is
if a, b
*22 Prove
{Top
jQa + bcosx
What happens if 6 a >
f*
*23 Prove
ff
Jo
24 If a
>
v( a
>
>
[Use Ex.
0.
no. 25.]
4(Z),
")
0?
P = V(
a + fccosx
da;
lb
1
*
f 0
e
* cos
prove
0,
JT
= ,
log
,v
+ Jlb 2 a 2
bx dx
Jo
if
+6
>
>
0.
and
a
)\
;
00
e ax smbxdx
a2 + 62
Jo
7r < a <
25 If
and a
it
prove
4= 0,
da!
2
Jo x + 2x cos a +
If
a =
0,
integer,
*27 If
um
sin a
(which
is 1
is
the limit of
CO
t*
_ a
dg:
> 0).
/*
*26 If
g f
2
J o # + 2# cos a + 1
when a
a/sin a
Jo
deduce that u
>
prove w B
0,
(n/a) w_i. If
n is a
positive
n!/a n+1 .
wTO
no. 45.]
28
y putting y 
, prove
da;
29 Calculate
j
_
~
<
^+
2;c
cos a + 1
by putting x =
t* It
r1
>
do;
a;
+ 2a; cos a +
1*
0).
Jl (1+aOV*
f 00
30 Prove
da;
^ox
/
//
(x
3)V(*l)
31
Show
00
7\
Jl
Jxdx
2
Jl (l+)
a;" da;
JoVC
/
33 Calculate
<
tan 6,
34 Prove
= i + hr.
co
*
xm dx
if
Cb
<
2
,
<
<>
0.]
n and 2w w 2
da;
;
4.95, ex.)
Fmd
a;
sin 6,
<
<
7r.]
JaVtt^aM 6 ^)}
35
[Put
Put ~
2
Jo (1+a; )"
6 ^ 7r.]
C^
32 Calculate
xdx
JaV{(*)(&*)}'
= n by
putting
a;
a cos 2
+ b sin 2 0.
[Put
(Cf.
INTEGRATION
173
may
try
a random
selection
from
2a? + 7
"
(2x+l)(x* + 2)
4
xdx
/: (a; 2 + l)(a;+l) 2
2
'!
15
a;
+ a:2 2*
+l)(* 2 + a;+l)
da;
14
f
4
Jx a;(l+a; )
17
f 1 a;da;
<
f_^_
J a;*V(l+*
19
da;
MSK
* 24
2 )'
dx.
x 4a; 2 x 3
Jo 1+V*'
23
(a;
dx.
f_=*L
a;  2x +1
fi^>.
dx
(a;
*25
a;V(l
l)da;
+ 3a; 2 +
a;
4 )'
11
26
sin 1 a; dx.
/15
l 5
3)V(* +
J8
30
a;V(l
1)
dx
xj{5x 2 4x+l)'
32
a;da;
xd:
28 Jcot~
x*(l+x* )'
dx
29
cos 2a;
+ 2a;a; 2
00
33
36
31
38
dx
Jo
Jo
e~ x sin
e*
sm.Zxdx
Zx dx.
37
a;
log ( 1
a; )
dx.
J
*]tan
39
da;
V(6*8a; 2 )
a;
f
J
35
xdx.
40
Jo
sec 8 xdx.
JO
r\n
cot x dx.
42
<
Jin
43
(i)
a;)
dx
*(ii)
Jo
rt*
44
sina;(l
c 2 sin 2 a;)da;,
<
c2
<
Jo
45
aw. 1 (*Jx)dx.
dx.
da;
a;
4
a;
xH&+\)
Ji
f
3
J ^(l+aj+^+a! )
11
da?,
+ 4)
"
Jra
2a; 3
l) 2 (* 2
da;
Jo(i+* 2
r
xz2 5* +
(*:l)(aj + 2)'
13
x2 dx
a
da;.
10
j*3
i"
46
dx
3 + 5cosa;'
INTEGRATION
174
C
47
An
49
rn
50
f* ff sin.ctsin.xdx
;
rr.
ri2
2
Jo lsin asin
sin* a; cos
+ 5cha;
sha;
xdx
ft" sins^xdx
*54
fi*
56
20 svnQdQ.
+ acosa;
sec i xdx.
Jo
r
f*'
f*<
58
tan7 xdx.
Jo
/*a
XAj(2ax x 2 )dx.
60
x\a x)~*dx.
Jo
Jo
and deduce
Calculate Jlogaida;,
62 If a tan
and
6 + 6 a cos 2 0)
if
>
0,
>
T+ 1
63 Prove
J _j
ft
cos 2 0)
2#cosa+a;
=
a
Ja;
B+ *
(2n 1)7T
a86 8
<a<
n
(abcosd)dd

=
1  / H
I
2a \
a positive
2)u n (2n+l)au n _ 1 +x
fna*,
and
66 If I(m,n)
cos"*
7(4, 5).
where n
according
6
2a
2
integer,
calculate
Jo
(m 2 n 2 )I(m,n)
and calculate
Jo
Jo
nzr,
~&
a + 2aocos0/
2
[2a
x % ^{2ax a; 2 ) dx
0,
n  1 (2axx*)l
r2a
Hence prove
a=
2nn, or
2
2
J o a + 6 2a6cos0
J(2a x) dx where n
(n +
d<f>jab.
\n, \it or
_
65 If w
a 26 2
sinaaa;
b.
Cn
b,
+ 6 2 sin 2 0) =
+ & 2 cos 2 0) 2 ~
<
0,
(a 2 sin 2
Jo
(a 2 cos 2
dd/(a* sin 2
Deduce that
(a 2 sin 2
b,
0<a<6.
+ cos a;)
cos*
/2a
2a
>
,
(2
a>l.
Jo
as a
dx
+ 2cosa; dx.
i" l
_^
a;aa;.
j~
52
a;
/lOg 2
Jo
61
<
Jo
55
59
Ja C Vl( a;a )( 6 x )s
Jo
mm
57
sina; +cos a;
dx
 in 5 + 7cosa: + sina:
53
dx
48
C+i"
J
51
dx
J sin a; cos a;
1
J
prove
0.
x 3 *J(2ax x 2 ) dx.
INTEGRATION
175
nit
67 If I(m, n)
r\n
and J(m, n) ~
(m+n) I(m,n) =
and when m >
Jo
Jo
mJ (m l,n 1),
sin n7r
2coB n  1
=
2).
sin ( w _ 2)
sec Odd,
f* ff cos50sin0
<*
69 If w B
x p( 1
JO
6'
cos a
Jo
a; 5 n dx where n, p,
+ a 2 )'
(a 8
J"
If u n
*71
of n.
cfcc
nl
Jo
when n is a positive integer.
Vn + Vnt
Ca
is
a positive
+ V2)}.
1,
(a;a) n
a)" 1
r Sin*
.
:
terms of
COBX.
(nl)\
n\
prove
integer,
{xa)* n Hmxdx
(a;
in
If n
+ a 2 )* n da;
Ja4{7 V2 + 3 log ( 1
n*
I
a
J*(aj
a2
a 2n
a*
= (l)i(2n)!jcosal+  + ...
(
73 If c
74 Calculate
75
If/X (x)=
f(t)dt,Ux)=
Jo
Jo
(n
l)!/(x)
/_!(<)
<ft,
prove that
Jo
(a?*)1 A.
J**/(<)
[Integrate repeatedly
by
The
parts.
a single integral.]
ra
/2a
76 Prove
f(x)dx=
Jo
Jo
[2a
(i)
if/(2aa;)
f(x), then
f(x)dx
0;
Jo
r2a
(ii)
if/(2a
/(*)da;
Jo
(m)
f(ainx)dx
Jo
Jo
/(sina;)daj;
pa
/()aa;;
Jo
INTEGRATION
176
(i
Cn
/(cos x) dx
v)
fin
function of
11 Prove
or 2
J
an odd or even
Jo
Jo
t.
/(sin2a;)sina:<iC
Jo
78 Iff(a + x)
*J2
Jo
=n
prove
f(x) dx.
Jo
Jo
rwt
/(cos 8 x) dx.
Simplify
Jo
79
(i)
By putting 6 =
\ti
<f>,
prove
log ( 1
+ tan 6) dd =
Jo
r1
(ii)
Calculate
'
80 Prove
ios(i+x)
I
Jo
f**
Jo
dx.
+ x2
/l+sinaA
log (\l
+ cosa;/
dx
0.
\n log 2.
177
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Construction of differential equations
5.1
from a function
If y is a function ofx, an equation involving at least one of the derivatives dyjdx, d 2yldx2
and possibly also x, y, is called a differential
,
equation
how
(i.e.
give some
which arise from the process of eliminating parameters from a function. The results will be helpful when we turn to the problem of solving
(a).
Examples
Eliminate a from y 2 = 4ax.
To eliminate one unknown we must have two equations. The second one
obtained by deriving the given equation wo x:
(i)
2yy'
Eliminating
a,
4a.
we have
2xyy'
2xy'
i.e.
4ax
= y2
y.
Fig. 54
NT
(ii)
To
twice
Eliminate A,
cc
from x
wo
we
t,
dx
= Ansm(nt +
at
12
is
<Px
cc),
2 = An
dt
GPMI
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
178
[5.12
given one,
'h
dsx
dx d 2x
dt 3
dt dt 2
'
Exercise 5(a)
1 If y = a log x, eliminate a.
2 If x 2 + y 2 = a 2 prove dyjdx = x/y, and interpret geometrically.
2
2
2
3 If y = A cos nx + B sin nx, prove d y/dx = n y.
,
4 Eliminate
9
10
*1
*12
0; interpret geometrically.
8 If y
0.
5.12 Definitions
All the preceding differential equations involve functions of only
one independent variable, and are called ordinary differential equations. In Ch. 9 we shall construct differential equations in functions
of more than one variable, called partial differential equations.
When an ordinary differential equation in y contains dnyjdxn but
no derivative of higher order, it is said to be of the nth. order. Thus in
exs. (i), (ii) and (hi) the equations are of first, second and third order
respectively.
an ordinary differential equation can be expressed as a polynomial in all the derivatives which occur in it (but not necessarily as
a polynomial in x or y), the degree of the equation is the highest power
If
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.13]
(a),
179
(i)(iii)
is
are
of
all first
first
order,
second degree; in nos. 710, second order and first degree; in no. 12,
second order and second degree. Had the equation in no. 12 been
written
+ y' 2 )% =
(1
purposes,
cf.
y" (as
8.32(1))
5.13
Some
first
may
it
we should have
to rationalise
dyjdx
it
by squaring
y]xj(*Jy
+ x)
is
general conclusions
The above examples and Ex. 5 (a) all suggest that the result of
n parameters from a function is in general a differential
equation of order n: from the given function we obtain n further
equations by deriving n times, and from the total of n + 1 equations
we can in general ehminate the n parameters.
(1)
eliminating
This statement
only true
from y 2
is
y  X fx)
{y
 ax)
so that y x dyjdx
in either case;
2.
and
>
(2)
an
Conversely,
we should
is
of the form
arbitrary constants.
Given a
number of
arbitrary constants
is
its
We
truth
full
Any
complete primitive.
equation
is
called
from the
g.s. for
be obtained
also 5.27.
122
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
180
We now
[5.2
equation which
differential
in
arise
geometrical
and physical
problems.
5.2
Firstorder equations
a relation
always
5.21
(1)
g(x, y)
exists,
One
If y
solution
it
variable missing
is
is
is
where the symbol j...dx implies the presence of one arbitrary constant: cf. 4.11. Thus all the integrations in Ch. 4 could be interpreted
as solutions of differential equations having this very simple form.
missing, the equation has the form dyjdx =f(y), which
can be written dxjdy = ljf(y). The solution is
(2)
// x
is
dv
i.e.
Each
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.22]
It is
181
of differentials
as
and then integrating throughout. Compare exs. (i), (ii) following; the
may set out the work in either style, although we shall use the
reader
former.
Examples
+ yz
) :
wo
f
J 1
x,
+ y*
dy
x'
f  dx,
J
ilogl+^ 3 = logx+c,
.:
\+y* = Ax 3
i.e.
since
may
dy
+ y a dx
Integrating
\x\ e e ,
and we
(ii)
sin x dyjdx y %
"
f
J
+ yz
sin x,
dy
dx
l+y*
sina:'
dy
y=
and multiply by
da;:
f COSeCa *
1^2=J
tan 1 y
/.
+ c,
+ c}.
Exercise 5(6)
Solve the following differential equations.
i
1
^5*2
5x
dx~
9
2
1 +a?4 if
dy
~w
Sy

dlC
When
t Cf. 4.11,
x=1
'
where dx
is
not a
dy
dx
~ = tana;
differential.
8y
2
'
cot*/,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
182
9
+x =
y%
aa;
=y
ax
logcc if
when
a;
e.
Solve dy/dx
(*
dy/dx+P(x)y
is
+ y) 2 by putting 2 = x + y.
= 2xy by writing p =
a;^+i/=l.
ace
10
2.
ace
dy
11
= l whena =
if$^
[The equation
1/x
is
y = eSPdx (A con.
<%/cJa;
Sy 2 dy/dx
and
factorising
= d(xy)/dx.]
2
.
5.23
[5.23
if
when
0,
Homogeneous equations
g(x, y) are
dx
Forf ${x,y)
fy)
Putting
<j){x,
g(x,y)jf(x,y)
y) for all
va?,
t;
homogeneous of degree
1/x shows that
is
0,
i.e.
+*
in
\x/
taking
then ofy/ox
(4)),
5 '().
Example
dy
xy = x 2 ~y
z
.
dx
o
,
8(ii).
2,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.24]
i.e. (if
'
dv
0)
V*
+ XV = 1 V 2
ax
v
1
dv
2v 2 dx
so
logl2v
ie.
x\l2v = A,
)
and
a;
..
since v
loga;+c,
2V = A
y\x.
homogeneous type
Examples
(i)
^=
da;
g +y3
3a;
y 1
This equation
is
Y = x+y3, X=Zxy~l
=
dx
dY ~ dY dX 1+ y'
l
=
dX dx/ dx Zy'
now
dY = l+Y/X _
(a),
X+ Y
is
homogeneous; putting
Y = vX gives
V+
i.e.
1+v
X dX = 3=v>
<Zv
= v*2v+l
X^dv
dX
Zv
Zv
dv
{vl)*dX
on separating the
variables. Integrating
.
'
X'
wo X,
= /{(^Ij5^l}*
2
v1
logt>l+c,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
184
hence
, %1
logX(t;l)+
=
,
Using v
= Y/X,
[5.24
c.
this is
log\YX\
and from the formulae
2X
+Y^ =
(b)
c;
X, Y,
for
log \2{yx
l)\
y
=c
+_
x+ y _ l
(c)
and 3x yl =
x+y3=0
which intersect at
we take new
If
(1, 2).
then dx
= dX,
dy
y=Y + 2;
= X+l,
dY _
X+Y
dX~ 3XY'
whose solution
is (6)
above. Using
X = x Y = y
1,
becomes
2, (6)
" 1)
=e\
logy a; l+
xl
y
2(a;
(d)
It
is
=
4x +
dx
a?
(ii)
v
'
2y +
= 1 log 2 + c.
Owftena;
0.
in ex.
_ dz_ 2
dy
dx
dx
..
25a;
i.e.
n
2
dx
i.e.
"
dx
dz

dz
a;
+ 25c =
dz
5zl
dx
22 + 1
2g+l
5zl
0.
_2 +
5
5(521)'
+ c = f2+^log52l,
10(2a;
10a; + 5y  1
= 5xl0y + 25c.
+ y) + 7 log
when a; =
7 log
3
2z + 1
z
71og10a; + 5t/l
or
hence
c'
The method
4x + 2y+l
2x+y;
"*"^
(c), (d)
enables us to determine
1 =
1
25c,
= 5x10y.
c:
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.25]
Remark.
185
Exercise 5(c)
Solve the following.
1
x = xy.
dy
2 (x + y)
dx
xy
if
when x =
3.
ax
=  + tan 
5
aa;
a;
11
da:
if
= i7r when
a;
x*
1.
a;
^ = y + J(x
6 a;
dx
_ dy
7
+ y 22X
).
dy_2x + yl
x + 2y+l'
dy
dx
4(a;2) 2
{(x
+ l)* + (y2)*}
2x 2 + xy + y*
x* + xy + 2y2
dx
dx
dx
_ x + yl
x + y+l'
d
?
ax
first
order
0.
is
said to be linear in y.
y can therefore be
+ P(x)y =
Q(x),
(i)
can be written
12
is
fD
the case
when Q =
verified since
E&""*)
,M
(i+^)
0;
the solution
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
186
[5.25
R^ + RPy = RQ,
and if the left side is now an exact derivative, it must be the derivative
of By, as the first term indicates. Since
d
/T>
dR
~dy
dR _
R~dx~
satisfy
ie
so that
log \R\
'
= jpdx,
(i)
by multiplying both
sides
by
efPdx .
dx
following.
Examples
(i)
If
dyjdx + 2y
e Sx .
Re**
dx
must be
dR
dy
d
(Ry) = R + y
dx
dx
dx
identical with
And
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.26J
Hence
so that
,.
mT>
R = e2x
dR
dB
187
e 6 *,
..
ye 2 *= e 5 * + c,
..
= ie^ + ce 2 *.
is
always
ekx .
side of
dy
R
+ 2Ryt&ax = i2sin
8
CvZC
must be
(Ry) R + y
dx
dx
dx
identical with
2R tan x =
Hence
ldR
R~dx~
and R =
sec 2 x.
2tana;
logJB
'
dx
= 21ogcosa;,
(ysec x)=:
dx
cos
2
a;
.*.
sec 2 a:
f sin x ,
rdx
cos 2 a;
J co
I
u2 l
du, where u =
u
u\
he
cosa;
cos a;,
+ seca; + c.
form
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
188
As a first
by y n
sides
As a second
[5.26
=
x ~n
,
so that
ln)y.
which
is
linear in
+ {ln)P(x)z =
(ln)Q{x),
z.
Example
This
0.
dy
r+y tana;
dx
is
= 2y 3 sec x,
1
I dy
Htana = 2 sec
i.e.
t/
Put
(i)
I/?/
3 aa;
t/
a:.
2 dy
2
,
so that
z
y dx'
dx
+ z tana; = 2 sec x,
Then
2dx
dz
2 tan a;
i.e.
4 sec x.
dx
dx
(z
cos 2 x)
zcosa a?
and
since z
(2)
1/y
Change
2
,
so
4 cos x,
4sina; + c,
4sina; + c
Example
(ii)
i.e.
(x
+ 2y 3
dy/dx
3
dy
=
y
2y*,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.27]
which
is
linear in
Hence
otherwise).
189
and
+ cy.
y=px+f(p),
(i)
where p denotes dy/dx, is not of first degree unless f(p) is linear in p. To solve (i),
derive both sides
wo
x:
dp
dp
dx
~=
and so
dp
(.+/<!.!.
or
x+f'(p)
0.
(i),
f(p), y=f(p)pf'(p),
and elimination ofp gives another solution. Since these equations do not involve
an arbitrary constant, nor will the solution obtained from them.
Nos. 1619 of Ex. 5(d) illustrate that:
(a) the second solution cannot be obtained from the G.s. by assigning a
special value to c; it is consequently a singular solution (s.s.) (see 5.13 (2));
(6) the G.s. represents a family of lines which are tangents to the curve
represented by the s.s. (see no. 20). This fact is confirmed geometrically: for
at the point of contact of any tangent to the s.s., the curve and tangent have
the same x, y and dy/dx; hence the tangent satisfies the same differential equation (i) as the s.s., so this tangent must be included among the lines in the
G.s.
of
(i).f
Exercise 5(d)
Solve the following, finding
1
dy
3
dx
sin a;
y =
dy
dy
2 f+ycotx
dx
ycosx
dy
sui 2x.
^
dx
+ 2xy =
= sa\2x.
2x
if
when x =
1.
21oga;.
e x.
ax
dy
5 xlogx
+y
an
show that
but see
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
190
dx
*6 If L at
c e~RtlL
+ 2
+ L zp 2
it
If p
and
7 ~r + y
jR/L
aa;
is
positive,
prove x
when
> 2/.R
dy
xy~3y 2 =
[5.3
3x 3
dx
dy
10
2a;
aa;
R cos pt).
oo.
?/
dy
+ ?/tana;
dx
13
(2x5y 3 )^ =
dy
12 * 2 t
3
y aec*x.
dx
14
y.
when x = .
v.
2/
= xy + y.
+are v )^
(1
if
a;
sin a;
aa;
11
prove
e*
aa;
aa;
^y + dy =h
15
dx 2
Find
dx
the g.s.
and
s.s.
*16
2/
= pa; + i.
*18
2/
= px+p 3
*19
?/
= >a: + sinp.
0/ the following.
*17 (ypx) 2
.
Also find
all
solutions for
which y
= p 2 + 1.
when a; = 7.
*20 Verify that, in nos. 1619, the G.s. represents a family of straight lines
which are tangents to the curve represented by the s.s.
*21 Find the differential equation of a curve such that any tangent makes
with the coordinate axes a triangle of constant area 2k 2 Hence show that the
curves are rectangular hyperbolas xy = k 2
.
Secondorder equations
5.3
Some
5.31
y, x.
(2)
p=
If the equation
is
d 2yjdx2
dyjdx, so that
d 2y
dx 2
Then
(dy\
d (dy)
\dxj
dx\dx)
*tj
dp
dx
_dpdy _ dp
dydx
=M
'
dy
= f(y),
put
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
and by integrating wo y,
5.31]
2
iP = jf{y)dy =
<f>(y)
191
+ c,
Thus
say.
^=
{2<f>{y)
+ 2c}* and x =
j{2<f>(y)
+ 2c}* dy.
Example
d 2y/dx2 + n2y
Putting p
dp
l
i.e.
+ 4M2
(p2)
.'.
%p
+ $n2y 2 =
constant
2=p2 =
'
(i;)
da;
+6 =
0.
n 2a a ,
say.
n2(a2_2/2) '
1
= +
dy
/.
^^
+

= sin^,
?/
asin(wa; + &).
(cf.
aco8(nx + b'),
5.11, ex.
(ii),
and Ex.
5(a), no. 3)
(3)
The
substitution
p=
(1).
it
to a firstorder
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
192
(4)
[5.32
isf
J \dx^dx ,y
'
Putting
p=
dy/dx as in
becomes f(pdpjdy, p,
(2), it
y)
0,
first
order equation in p.
Exercise 5(e)
Solve the following.
= a2
3 y" = nhf.
= 2 when = 1.
4 y" = Zy'.
5 xy" = 3?/' if y = f and
2
a
3
6 y" = 6yy'
7 2/" = 1 +
when = 0.
8 Solve 2y" + 2 = 4y, where y = 1 and dy/dx =
and cfo//<2a: =
9 Solve d(y dy/dx) /dx = 6t/ with the conditions that y =
when = 0.
1
x*y"
=1.
2 y 3y"
a;
2/'
t/'
a;
a;
Given that
u=
1/c
10
P = /m
11
d2 u/dd 2 + u
and
0, sofoe
constants
P = fiu*.
P/(h 2u 2 )
(the
P = nju.
12
The general
.d 2y
x)
.dy
d^ + q
x)
^y =
.
+r
dx'
d,
It
&'
g{
+ (*)^ +
(i)
=*/(*)
constants.
(1) The complementary function.
Let y u be any particular solution of
however obtained. Then
d 2u
aW +
The function y =
dH
d^
d 2u
.du
a{x)
dx'
...
.dz
+ S? +a(x) Tx + a(x)
,
...
+{x)u= f {x)
+ u will satisfy
(i)
(i),
if
'
and only if
.
7/
E +<*)+*<> 
f This includes
(2).
/./v
/<*>
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.32]
i.e. if
and only
the equation
if z satisfies
_+
which is simpler than
The general
193
a(a;)
_+6
(a;)s
(u)
>
(i).
solution of
will containf
(ii)
of equation
G.s. of
(i)
c.f.
of
+ p.s.
(i)
of
(i).
Example
:.
\.
The
G.s.
y
(2) c.f.
I.
by
is
<fi(x),
ifr(x)
is
therefore
A cos Zx + B sin Zx + \e x
Ifz
0;
A(j){x)
(ii),
then so also
(ii).
is
+ Bxjr{x)
so that
+ af + bf =
(ii)a,6
0,
=
=
A(<f>"
0;
ft"
(A<f>+Bft)
QfOC
and
A<fi
+ Bft
i.e.
versely
II.
A<fi
If
<f>,
ft
(ii),
then
any
From
GPMI
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
194
y[+Pyi =
we have y^y^ =
Proof of
0, i.e.
y'2
Q,
d{y i jy 1 )ldx
0,
then y2
[5.33
= Ayx
+Py 2 =
0, i.e.
yjy x = A.
II.
i.e.
Similarly from
(ii)
a and
(ii)
0,
0.
b,
^(ifr<f>'<f>f)
+ a(f<t>'<f>f) =
0.
 zf =
d_
dx
{t)
4 = A%+B
yr
so that
 <j>f),
A{f<f>'
dx{f)'
and
A<b + B\lr.
ifr
Hence
the G.s. of
(ii)
is
solutions.
If
and tjr are not independent, i.e. = krjr for all x, then A<f>+Brjr = Cfr
where G = Ak + B, which involves effectively only one constant C. Thus a
knowledge of a single particular solution will not give the G.s. in this way;
but see 5.64 for a method applicable in this case.
(f>
g + ag +
where a and
fc,
0,
(iii)
ky),
(iv)
6 are constants.
The equation
i.e.
^{y'ky) =
l{y
0,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.33]
will
(k + l) =
i.e. if
and only if k,
Case
z
(i):
= Cete
=
,
suppose
y'
ky,
and
if
and only
kl
if
b,
(v)
m
Put
(iii)
195
k,
+ am + b =
0.
and k^l.
(iv) becomes dzjdx
exist
so that
so that
Iz.
y'ky = CeVe
(vi)
= CtH**,
j{yekx )
dx
y e1^ =
 el*
where
A=
0/(1
= Ae^+Be**,
symmetrical in k and
I,
+ B,
ic
1/
:.
is
also equivalent to
(vi), (vii)
{kl)y
so that y has the form
C'ekx
gives
= C'eteCJ*,
A eu + Bekx as before.
ky = A ekx
.'.
Cf.
9.
(vu)
ye
it
kx
is
8.
equivalent to
(vi)'
becomes
= AX + B,
y=(Ax + B)ekx
Cf.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
196
[5.33
roots.
we write equation
y"
This
(iii)
as
0.
(viii)
justified
is
(iii) cannot be
However, taking our clue from Ex. 5 (a),
(iv).
a 2 46 <
0, i.e.
z'
Hence
(viii)
(y'
+ %ay) e^ ax and
becomes
z"
.*.
and
Conclusions.
z"
+p 2z =
(y"
0.
= A coapx + Bsinpx
^ (A coapx + B
sin^a;).
two arbitrary constants; and that the form of the solution depends on
the nature of the roots of the quadratic
m + am + 6 = 0,
2
called the
auxiliary equation.
Examples
y"6y' + Sy
(i)
This
is
0.
equivalent to
^ (y'fo/) = l(y'ky),
y"(k + l)y' + kly =
i.e.
0,
 6 and kl  8.
2 6m
Hence k, I are the roots of m
+ 8 = 0, viz. 2 and 4. Taking k =
have dz/dx = 4z where z y' 2y. Therefore z G eix and
y'2y = Ce4 *,
k+l
if
'
..
{ye
d\
~ 2x) ==Ce2x
'
= %Ce + B,
y = Ae ix + Be* x
ye~ 2x
2<e
where
A=
<7.
Alternatively,
by the symmetry in
k,
y'4y =
Elimination of y' gives
2y
we
have
also
Ce
2 *.
= C eix C e 2x
2, 1
4,
we
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.33]
so
as before, where
(ii)
A=
= Ae + Be
ix
\G and B = tyC'.
y"Gy' + 9y =
0.
 6m + 9 =
^Z
dx
y'
found to be
is
0,
where
197
2x
ye**) = A,
{
= Ax + B,
=
(Ax
y
+ B)e3x
ye~ax
and
2/*6y , + 25y
(iii)
0.
z'
Hence
and
(2)
z e3 *, i.e. z
0,
which has
).
e mx (m 2
+am + b) =
0,
m + am + 6 = 0.
If this quadratic has distinct roots m = k, m =
2
i.e.
I,
y
If the roots are equal, say
(2),
the g.s.
= Ae kx +Be lx
is
numbers: see
14.66, ex.
(ii).
The reader may feel that, when it is applicable, the trial method is quicker than
that in (1); but he may wonder why only the exponential function is selected
for a trial p.s. The direct calculations in (1) make clear why exponentials
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
198
[5.33
are involved, without a priori assumptions about the form of the solution.
Both methods can be applied to linear equations with constant coefficients
and order greater than 2: see Ex. 5 (I), no. 56.
(ii)
of
restriction
(i);
nos. 918.
Exercise 5(f)
y"Ay' + Sy
= 0.
y"y +y =
of the following.
4 y"Ay
7
0.
= 0.
y" + 3y' = 0.
5 y" + Ay
0.
0.
^+10^ + 26^=0.
By
C for
0.
= 5;y = A.
= 6a;; y = Ax + B.
y" + 5y'2y = Ax 2 y = Ax2 + Bx + C.
y"3y' + y = 7e 2 *; y = Ae 2x (cf. 5.32, ex.).
y" y' + 1y = 8 sin 3a; + cos Zx;y = A cos 3a? + B sin 3a\
9 y" + 3y'+2y
10 y"2y' + Sy
11
12
(This is reasonable
13
because terms in sin Sx and cos 3a; can arise by derivation only from similar
terms.)
.)
5.34]
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
*22 y5y' + Qy
x*e x
y"5y'+Qy
*23
e 2x
(Ax* + Bx +
= (Ax3 + Bx 2 + Ox) e ix
*24 y"by' + y
lOe^sin 2x; y
*26 y + 3y' + 2y
10e a 8in2a;.
13t/
e 3x
199
C)e x .
.
Ax*e* x.
13.
= e Sx amx.
18.
The
(1)
results of
for finding
when f(x)
p.s.
of
y"
trial
methods
+ ay' + by=f(x)
follows:
(i)
degrees unless 6
Ax2 epx
Iff(x) = A cos^a; + /* simpx, a p.s. is usually A coapx + B sin px;
p.s. is
(iii)
is
e 3*"
(2)
it is
Hence the
order of procedure
(a)
Find the
(6)
Inspect
above.
(h),
nos. 1
(ii),
(ii).
is:
c.f.
it,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
200
[5.34
+ P.S.
(C)
G.S.
(d)
C.F.
boundary
conditions.
(3)
types
When/(#)
(i)(v),
sum
consists of a
we can
of terms
fx {x), f2 (x)
of the above
+ ay' + by = fx (x),
y = u z is a p s f V" + aV' + ty = hix )>
a p.s. of y" + ay' + by = fx (x) +f2 (x) is y = ux + u 2
If u = ux + u 2 then
u" + au' + bu = [u x + u'2 + a(u'x + u'2 + b(ux + u 2
= ux isa p.s.
If
and
then
Proof.
of y"
(u'i"
= A(*)+/i(*).
= u satisfies the original equation, i.e. ux + u 2 is a p.s.
= 2x x2 we should not apply this theorem with fx (x) = 2x
= x 2 because it is easier to make the trial y = Ax2 + Bx + C
Therefore y
Itf(x)
and/2 (a:)
(or
is
following example.
Example
y"6y' + 8y
when x = 0.
Solve
y'
e 2x
which
is
which y
and
y"6y' + 8y
0;
J
Qy , +8y
4y
= sin 2x,
e ix
it is
2x .
i.e.
,
Hence a
p.s.
\x e x +
and the
G.s. is
From
is
ix
._,
this
y'
= 4Ae3x + (2Bx$) e Sx +
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.4]
= A+B+&,
from which A
201
0:
= 4A + (2B
f
Exercise 5(g)
Find
= 6.
2 2/*2 + 3?/ = 6a;l.
3 y"y'2y = \x*.
4 22/" 5j/' + 32/ = 4e2 *. Also find the solution for which y = and
=
when x = 0.
5 y"y'\2y = 2e4 *.
6 j/"  2</' + 2*/ = sin Zx.
7 2/" l^k/' + SOy = 2cosa;.
8 y" + 16y = cos 4a;. Also give the most general solution which vanishes when
x = \tt.
9 y" + 8y'+16y = 6e~ 4 *.
10 y" + 6y' = 4a;.
11 y" + 4y = sinx sin 3x.
12 y" 3y'+ 18y = sh 2x.
13 y"6y' + Sy = e cos2a;.
*14 y" + 3y' + 2y = e~ x Bmx.
2
*15 3j/*%' + 22/ =
e*.
*16 j/" + 6j/' + 9?/ = (l+a;)e*17 y"+y' + y = e x (x + oosx).
*18 </"4i/' + 4t/ = 8a;2 e 2 * sin 2a;.
1
y"Zy' + 2y
2/
4a!
3a!
a;
5.4
The operator D;
calculation of a p.s.
trial
methods
calculation.
The
or
or briefly
where
for first
linear equation
as
We now
= f(x),
F{D)y=f{x),
F{D) =
D + aD + b.
2
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
202
When
the coefficients
a, b
D, because
F(D) can be
were an algebraical polynomial
if it
by the
D(u + v) = Du + Dv
'
[5.42
rules of deriva
(distributive law)
and if h
integers',
is constant,
= hDu
D(ku)
(index law)
(commutative law).
Example
If x 2 + ax + b has factors (x k) (x I), then k + l
preceding laws,
{D _ k){D _ l)y
= {D _ k){Dy _
= a and
kl
b.
By
the
= D(Dyly)k(Dyly)
= D 2y(k + l)Dy + My
= D*y + aDy + by
=
F(D)y.
integrations
that
wo
Dn {D~n
in x with
fails for
x,
y,
= y + a polynomial of degree n
negative indices.
F(D){epx u}
the product rule,
Ifu =
u(x), then
Proof.
By
D{epx u]
Repeating
this,
evx
An operator is
epx F(D+p)u,
Du+pepx u =
epx
epx
where p
{Du+pu) =
B\epx u) =
\
{D + p) {{D +p) u}
epx
is constant.
{D+p)u.
we get
epx
(D + pf u.
it.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
F(D) {e*> x u) = (Z> 2 + aD + b) {&> x u)
5.43]
Hence
e* x F{D+p)u.
by symbolic methods
If f(x)
p.s.
%+
and add the
% + hy=fr{x)
We
results.
203
by
we can
5.34(3)
raBl 2
seek a
).
Case (i):f(x)
is
to be considered
is
yx =
Method. Write
=
by
j^ p
Df>{c
+ ct D + c2 D2 +
. .
.)
by resolution
by use of a relation like
a D
which
s% /i
verified
is
<
2,
a2
progression).
Hence
yx
D* + aD + b
(/t
D(D + a)
(6
= 0,/*=
{a
D"/'(c
+ cx D +
. . .
0),
1),
0, pu
+ cm Dm
P is a polynomial of degree m.
We have to show that yx constructed above is
=
P. Write
F{D) = 2>#(D),
and
2).
P,
Justification.
of F(D) y
Here
F(D) =
since
a\
of l/F(D) into
G(D)
where
+ bt D +
. . .
<
/i
+ b^B*",
+ b 1 x + ...+ b^x*".
2,
p.s.
204
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
By long division,
or otherwise,
c
+ c 1 x + ...+cm xm +
"0rlr
=
is
fractions,
1
~,
On
(c
values of
all
by
it is
an
identity
between two
replacing x
that polynomials in
+ c1 x+...+ cm xm + R(x).
0{x)
'
^G{XY
G(x)
where R(x)
[5.43
equivalence of operators
G(D)
(c
(cf.
5.62):
+ Cl D + ...+ cm D m ) + B{D).
Operating on
. . .
. . .
. . .
= F(D)yv
Hence yx does
Examples
(i) Find a p.s. of y" + 4y = x 3
Rewriting the equation as (D 2 + 4) y
.
D +4
k.3
x3 a
p.s. is
given symbolically by
41 + > 2
= i(llD + ^) 3
(D 2 + 3D4)?/ = a;3
Here J'(D) =  ( 1  D) (4
(ii)
D), so
by partial fractions
1/
5\1D + + d)
=  l{(I+D+D* + D* + ...) + %(lkD+&D hD 3 + ...)}x3
D + 3>4
a
4:
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.43J
Case
(ii):f(x)
epx P,
where
From F{D)y =
Method.
epx
_
by an
P is a polynomial.
P we have, proceeding symbolically:
epx
F{D+p)
The
rational functions of D.
Case
205
calculation
is
now
formally reduced to
(i).
Justification.
F(D+p)
P:=U
sothat
'
By
(i)
gives
P = F{D+p)u.
epx u satisfies
F(D)y =
epx P.
F{D){epx u]
epx
F(D+p)u =
epx P\
since the
P=
k),
#= 0,
we have
1
F(x+p)
F(p)
the
+ c x x+...
0.
p.s. is
Examples
(iii)
{D*3D + 2)y =
A p.s.
8eix
is
Se4 *
e48
(
D+4
)a
3(i) + 4) + 2
I>2
+ 5> + 6
61 + (2> 2 + 5>)
=
=
...}8
'extension' of 5.42,
(i.e. if
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
206
16 12 + 2
6,
Seix
p.s.
(iv) (D 2 3D + 2)y = 3 e 2 *.
= (D 1) (> 2), and ^(2)
Here
applicable. We have
[5.43
fe
0,
4 *.
is
not
(D1)(Z>_2)
3e 2iB
e 2 *l{l
D +
= e^D^Z =
by
(D+1)D
...}
3xe**,
y"6y' + 9y
p.s.
being sought.
20a; 8 e 3 *.
F(D)
so
p.s. is
^20x
e 8a! j^
(D3) 2
20x*
Z> 2
6D + 9 =
(D3) 2 ,
e Zx
by extension of 6.42,
'
'
{Hi). lff(%)
eie
cos 6 + i sin 6,
e~id
cos d i sin 6
work
formally to Cases
Examples
(vi)
is
y" + 4y
cos 2x.
+4
(Z>
Z> 2
e
2t) a
+4
D(D + 4d)
e 2ix ,
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.43]
= i e *<*Dil =
4a
\.e
207
u *x
4*
p.s.
Alternatively, using
is
p.s.
D +4
2
D2i\D + 2i
=
D2i (ii
e 2ix
36
e2i
'
'
")
^j
by the
e six
03 before.
4t
(vii)
(D 2  6D + 13) y
p.s.
> 2
^
6D + 13
e8 cos 2a.
e 3z cos 2x
(D + 3) a 6(D + 3) + 13
cos 2x
(u
cos
2a;
=
(viii)*
e 3x a;sin2a;
(D
as in ex.
(vi).
 3D + 4) y = asinx.
3D + 4) y = x e ix
Considering (D 2 
p.s.
3> + 4
1
(D + i)*3(D + i) + 4
1
D* + (2i3)D + 3(li)
3(1*)
e<*
+
l
8(l<)
+ (2t3)D
~ 3(10 \
3(1=0
2t3
/
3(101r" 3(10)
3(T=o
= ie (l+0{* + i(* + 5)}
<!e
""r
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
208
The required
p.s. is
[5.43
the symbolic
method the
p.s. of
some
of the differential equations in Exs. 5 (/), (g); e.g. Ex. 5 (/), nos. 1628
and Ex. 5 (g), nos. 1318 are best done this way. Ex. 5 (h) includes
Exercise 5 (ft)
2
dx
+ n x = a cos pt.
dt 2
(i)
menon known as
2
(ii)
Find x
if
(i)
If p =
n,
resonance.)
when t = 0.
= Acoant + Bsmnt + (a/2n)tsin.nt.
and dxfdt
prove x
(The amplitude
of the forced oscillations therefore increases without limit when t > oo.)
(ii) Find x if x =
and dxjdt = when * = 0, and verify that the result
the limit when p  n of that in no. 1 (ii).
+n x =
d^cc
dec
dt 2
dt
r + 2k
is
0.
2
2
3 If w 2 < k 2 , prove x = Aexp{kt + J(k 2 n 2 )t} + Bex.p{ktJ(k n )t}
(which represents a nonoscillatory motion). (Here exp u denotes eu .)
= k2
n2 > k2
4 If n 2
5 If
senting
damped
x
prove x
prove
oscillations).
If
A;
is
(repre
would be obtained
if
0).
(Hence smaH damping changes the period only slightly, but diminishes the
amplitude of successive vibrations in geometrical progression.)
(i)
p.s.
dx
nr
+ n 92x =
+ 2k
a cos pt.
a{(n 2 p 2 ) 2 + 4k 2p 2}*
and
tan a
2kp/(p 2  n 2 ).
(This represents the forced oscillations; if n 2 > k 2 , the free oscillations are given
by no. 5.)
(ii) If a, k, n are constants and p varies, prove that b is greatest when
p = \j(n 2 2k 2 ). If also k is small compared with n, show a == \n,b = a/{2kn)
(resonance again).
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.5]
209
+ 2k +
Show that
+p
(k 2
at
Cur
)x
and
force,
a e~ kt coa pt.
this has
the
p.s.
maximum value
(Thus if
bounded.)
and applied
d 2x
motive force:
+R
d^
9 Find the
When
10
_,
= Ec
apt
4L.
the form x
d^
6.)
when OR 2 <
p.s. in
dx
b cos (pt
+ a).
away. Ignoring
J(LC)
x occur when
1/p.
If F(x)
11
electro
is
a polynomial in
x,
prove
F(D 2
cos ax
F(
a2
cos ax.
a rational function,
is
D+
D +D+l cos 2x
2
D+3
 cos 2x = d3
 cos 2x =
cos 2x
_4
9
+ > + i
D+2
 cos
2x
*13
{<fi(D
2
)
<fi{x), yjr(x)
5.5
coefficients
related
by
Examples
(i)
Solve
dx
+ xy = 2Ue\
dt
Using
nr,
2y
dx + dy
~=
dt
25 e l
dt
As
J4
we
(i)
(ii)
GPMI
We
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
210
[5.5
(D + 2)(D+l)x(D + 2)y
(D* +
i.e.
Now add v;
(ii)
and
(iii)1
v
From
t
,
3D + 2)x(D + 2)y
^
(D 2 + 2D + 2)x = 25(3< + 2)e,
= 25(D + 2)te
= 25(3*+ l)e<.
x.
The
c.r. is e
<
(iii)
p.s. is
(i),
and since
(D + 1) x =
e' {(
+ e {(15*2) + 15 + (152)}
= e*(B cos  A sin J) + e'(30* + 1 1),
y = e'CBcos^^sin^ + e^+ll).
t
..
(i)
with D, on
(ii)
with
D+l, and
(ii )
dx
dy
2 37 + 3T
Solve
dt
dy
+ dt =
dt
5x + y + e
(2D l)x + Dy = 0,
(D5)x + (Dl)y = e~K
To
dt
dx
=^
eliminate y, operate on
(i)
with
D 1, and on
(ii)
(i)
(ii)
with D:
= 0,
(D*5D)x+D(Dl)y = erK
(D* + 2D+l)x = e~K
Subtract
The
c.f. is
*,
Before finding
dx
= 4x "y
dt
y
*
dx
by
subtracting:
t
e %
A
e~*.t
4x
dt
+ {4A. + 4Bt + 2t 2} + 1]
= e {(3A+B+l) + (3B+l)t + ^}.
t
f In full this means deriving (i) wo ', and adding twice (i) to the result. Thus
symbolic methods are convenient but not essential in examples like this.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.6]
211
wo
t.
Exercise 5(0
Solve the following paira of aimuttaneow differential equations.
dx
37 + 2/
sin*,
dx
dx
+ 2x+y =
0,
at
dy
+X =
dy
dx
dt
~dt
ix
Z2x + Sy =
0.
and y
when t =
0.
0.
e<
dy
dx
+ x + 2y =
= h
dy
dy
+, = 0.
cos t.
dt
dy
+ 2^lx5y* =
dt
dt
dx
3
^
e**.
dx dy
3
+f + 2a?= 3cos<,
at
dx
37 +
dt
dt
dy
2~
+ 3y = 7cos<4sin*
if
and y =
when
dt
Hence
find
x and y.
by the method of no.
8 Solve no. 3
d x
dy
at*
of
6 3^T + 3T + 2a;
9 Solve
7.
4cos,
dx
+ y = 4*cos*.
dt
du
dv
= eE evH, m = euH,
m
dt
dt
*10 Solve
e, E,
are constants (the equations of motion of a particle of mass m
and charge e in perpendicular electric and magnetic fields of strengths E, H).
If also u = x, v = y, and x = y = u = v =
when t = 0, prove
where m,
x
where
5.6
(0
(1
moves along a
5.61 Euler's
is
Some
This
'homogeneous* equation
of the form
142
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
212
where
a, b are constants. It
stant coefficients
by the
* (fi
dx \dx)
dx 2
[dt 2
substitution x
dy
dx
and
[5.62
_
=
dy jdx
dt/dt
_
=
_ dy
dt'
Um \%
(*
e.U^eM
dt/} / dt
\dt\
dt 2
dt J
dt}*
Examples
/.v
(i)
4a;
2
d
y
2
dx z
Put x
e*;
dy
y = x + logx.
dx
dt)
\dt*
The
c.f. is
A e* + B e 
*',
(ii)
The equation
(px + q) 2
a(px + q)
+ by =f(x)
dx
5.62
Remarks on
dzdx
dz
is
= px + q,
for
dx 2
dz 2
3.2 (4)
is
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.63]
t)
(as
213
it,
we must
avoid writing the second operator as (d/dt) e~l this expression already
denotes the function which is the derivative of e~~*.
\
dx2
as before.
will
be illustrated
in 5.63.
by a given
substitution
Examples
(
(i)
Solve
by putting x
tan 8.
We have
dy
l+x*dd'
so
(a)
wo x,
obtained from
(a),
to
i.e.
Hence from
either (6) or
(c)
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
214
and
since
tan 6,
we have
n = tan 61
= smnn#cos
~9w
*
<Z0
sec
2
dy
The
c.f. is
.'.
(ii)
cos20
Solve
is
found to be
cos a;
x2
13(1 +Z 2 )'
1
'as.j.^gStan
2cos 2 0l
dy
+ sina; + 4wcos
dx
dx

sec 2
d2y
a;
 1.
1+x 2
2 cos 6 a;
sin1 u.
fy_dydu_ <fy
dx
so,
^ cos 20.
= Ae + Be +&cos2e
by putting x
= cos 20.
s9
30
= ^ e3tan
Lee
by using equivalent
dudx
du
ooax
_ dy_ui_ u 2y
du
operators,
dx2
(1
v
'duy
du)
u2 )2 u
'du
du
V(i{(i')g} + {vn'}+4<i. i y =
)
d2
y
4
+ 42/ = 2(1m
aw 2
i.e.
2
).
(iii)
Transform
the equation
e*
x 2y' + 2xy
z'
and
x2y" + 4xy' + 2y =
+ 3z' + 2 = e x
= A e x + B e~ 2x + \e*. Hence
z"
and the
G.s.
of this
is z
y
is
= (Ae
+ Be* + ie)
2
x
z".
S( i
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.64]
(iv)
215
From
^^^
it.
which
is
solution
is
coefficients
whose
known
u{x) of
and
y'
vu'
+ v'u,
y"
linear
one of
0,
i.e.
{vu"
v{u"
Hence
= f{x),
i.e.
where
v'
w=
otherwise.
v'; this
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
216
[5.64
Example
x 2 y"  (# 2 + 2x) y' + (x + 2) y
= x3 e x
Putting y
0.
* (2v '
which reduces to
i.e.
Integrating,
v'
v =
ex
and hence
where
i.e.
= 1 + c e  *,
^ (v e~ x )
a*
= x ce~ x + A, v = (x + A)e x c,
y = e x (Ax + x 2 + Bx,
e^v
.'.
+ c,
B = c.
Exercise 5(j)
d 2y
dy
x 2 ^3x~
+ 4y
dx 2
dx
9* 2
2
dy
n d y
2 x 2 ?2 + xfy
dx
dx
x 2 logx.
dy
dy
 + Zx? + y = log*
dx
a
2
4 x i Ll2
a*
<
(l
if
dx
2xjt  y
dy
and f
dx
= x2
when* =
1.
* 3 + 21og*.
da;
+ 2*)2^6(l + 2a;)^+162/ =
8 log (1
+ 2a;).
d 2x
dx
dt 2
dt
d 2y
dy
dt 2
dt
d 2y
dy
dx
dx
(lx 2 )Axr
+y =
2
(l+x 2
dx
10 * 2
^+
dx 2
sin0.
3(8h 1 x) 2 ;x
^ + 2x(l+x
dx 2
2a;(2a:
ahd.
dx
2<
)
x;
2
)
^ + 4y = 0;x = ta,nid.
dx
0;
zx~3
Show
reduces
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.7]
12 x3y"2xy' + 2y
0;
14 xy
16 x
0;
ex.
15 xhf" + xy' 9y
V+ V
a;
x.
(x+l)y"2xy' + (xl)y =
13
217
e x.
'homogeneous' type.
is satisfied
by y = e^ifandonlyifa + + csO,
ft
0.
*18 Riccati's equation dyjdx = P(x) + Q(x)y + R(x)y 2 Prove that the suby = u'jRu reduces this to the linear secondorder equation
.
stitution
* 19
0.
0.
5.7
arise geometrically.
5.71 Definitions
PN
tangent akid
cinrve at
NT
NO is the subnormal to the
P. Also PT,
Since tan ^
fig.55
(where
y',
it
that
NT = yly', NO = yy\
PTy^l+y'^y',
PG = yJ(l+y'*).
Fig. 55
In tne general case these results are obtained from the equations of
the tjangent and normal at P by finding the intercepts on Ox the lengths
are signed magnitudes. Thus, the tangent at (xv yx ) has equation
;
and
yx =
y(a;
ajj), i.e. xx x =
and
Example
For the parabola y 2
NG is 2a.
is
subnormal
It is often stated that 'the subnormal of any parabola is constant'; but this
true only iN, G are understood to be points on the axis of symmetry.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
218
[5.72
we thus
individual
members of the
obtain
a,
ot
repre
sents a family of concentric circles of various radii; y 2 = 4tax represents a family of parabolas situated as in 5.11, ex. (i). The curves of
the family may not all be of the same geometrical 'type': thus
x 2 + oty 2 = 1 represents ellipses for a > 0, hyperbolas for a < 0, and
a pair of lines for a = 0, as will be shown later.
The
angle of intersection of
tangents at the
Two
common
two curves
is
point.
trajectories of
one another,
if
Let F(x, y, a)
y,y')
0.
gradient y' at
y'
P(x,y)
eliminating
is
(5.1);
We
is
first
<$>(x,y).
therefore
This
When
by
is
will
its solution,
family.
Examples
(i)
x*
Find
+ y* =
aa
the
orthogonal trajectories
of
the
family of concentric
circles
The
circle
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
5.72J
(ii)
219
y2
x2
+A
+A
where A
is the parameter, is identical with the orthogonal system. (For a geometrical interpretation see Ex. 18(d), nos. 18, 19.)
To form the differential equation of the family we must eliminate A. First
clearing of fractions,
wo x
X(x + yy')
+ (b x + a
b
A = 
and
,
2
+ A=
(a 2 6 2 )a;
x+yy'
yy')
0.
0,
x+a yy'
2
x+yy'
62 +
A=
a2 )yy'
~x + yy'
[b 2
a*b 2
yjx + yy')
{b 2
a 2 )y'
(x+yy')(xfy
=a2 b*.
\\y',
the orthogonal
Exercise 5(k)
Find
Subnormal
OP = PT.
OT = kPN.
is
xy
=a
14 x* +y*
2
.
= a*.
constant
k.
OG = OP.
PG = k.
2 Subtangent
6
10
is
OT = OP.
PG = kPN
 4ax.
3
3x2y =
y
15
constant
ON = NG.
a being
13 ay 2
16
a.
Tc.
Tc.
12 y2
is
constant
and hence
y=
the parameter.
x*.
axe x
17 (i) Prove that the system of parabolas y 2 = 4a(x + a) is identical with the
orthogonal system.
*(ii) Show that the curves corresponding to a = a
lt a 2 will intersect only
if o x , a a have opposite signs. [Consider y 2 = 4a(x + a) as a quadratic in a.]
18 Prove that in general there are
equation
(dy
and pass through a given point. Prove that these curves coincide
given point lies on the parabola y = x 2
if the
if
and only
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
220
Ox
(3, 5)
which
20 Find the locus of a point such that the two curves through
cut at rightangles.
it
satisfy
in no. 18
= A cos 1 x + B.
= A cos 1 x + B sin 1 x, and explain why the result is the same as for no. 2.
= Ax sin (a; 1 + B).
4 y
2 y
cch(/c).
all
all circles
all
1.
is (, l/<).]
may
a random
solve
selection
from
the following
l+y
=
dx
1+x
dy
10 (x + y)
dy
.
2
2<
^=l.
11
dx
(l4y')y=(4 + y')*.
2xy.
dx
*24 y
dx
a;
2x 3y*.
dy
21
px + %p z
23
7a;32/ + 2.
xy.
1.
27
0.
dv
dx
(xy 3 + y)^=.
sin x y cos x
dx
29
1.
31
0.
e* sin 2 x.
= px + e p
= 0.
+
+
a#y" + xy' 2 + yy' = 0.
y"V + y = 0.
*25 y
30 y"y' + 2y =
2/"'
dy
+ y = y logx.
32 y"'Zy"
1)^ =
dx
dx
28 yy' + y' 2
+ y.
1.1^ aw =
+ %xy =
26 y" + y' 2
34
(3 + 52/+
10/(a; 2 +l)19
22 x
*33
15
dy >V
+dx x
dy
20
(xy) 2
17
a;
^ = (xyl)
13
a; = y xcos 2 .
dx
iq
18
y.
*
aa;
14 (x2 y 2 )^
16
(<sy)^ =
cto
12
xy
0.
Zy" + 3y' + y
y"3y'fy =
[put
10 cos 2a.
u = ye x and
calculate
w'"].
35 y"  5y' + 6y
4x 2 e x
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
36 y"4y' + Zy
= xK
38 x 2y"  20y
7a;
a;
*42
a;
44
.
45
39 x 2y" xy' + 2y
= e sin 2a;.
= x log x.
a;.
dx
+ 2x = 2y,
46
at
47 ^ + 5x2y
dx
*^ =
d 2ic
+% =
0,
^ + 3 ^2x + Gy =
0.
2a;
dt
dt
dt
=
fx+Qy
dt
48<
dx
dv
3 +
dt
= 3*.
^+y
a*
^ ~
221
5*
40
43
V
40e*,
27e*K
dx
dv
dy
dz
J=
dhj
dv
"
*.
dx
52 x(l+ x) y"
0; particular solution
1)
1/(1
by the
e x.
+x).
substitution y
zx~i,
and
p=
is
d
^{y"{k+l)y' + kly} = m{y"(k + l)y' + kly}
Mm
if and only if Jc + l +
= a, Im + mk + kl = 6 and
= c, i.e. k, I, are the
roots of t3 + at 2 + bt + c = 0. Putting z = y"  (k + 1) y' + kly, show that the
solution of the given equation is reduced to solving one of second order in y.
*57 If J/(ar)<fo
*58 Verify that cos nx and sin nx are both integrating factors of y" + n 2y = f(x)
first integrals. By eliminating y', obtain the a.s. and express
Cx
/(tf)sinn(a;
t)dt.
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
222
*59 Solve y" + y
also
when f(x) =
sec x
58,
*60 (i) If u, v, w are functions of x, and constants a, b, c not all zero can be
found such that au + bv + cw = for all x, prove that the determinant
W=
(the
Wronskian of u,
v,
w)
is
W=
u'
v'
w'
u"
v"
w"
zero for
all x.
Conversely, if
0,
223
Two
Iff(x)
least value
Property
is
continuous in a
continuous in a
when x varies in
(1) means that,
this range.
bounds for f(x). It can be proved that, of all numbers which serve
as upper bounds for f(x), there is a smallest such number, say
i.e. f(x) ^
for all x for which a ^ x <. b, but if
is any number just
less than M, there is at least one value x of x in the interval such
x
that/^j} >
Similarly, of all lower bounds iorf(x) there is a largest,
say m, which has the property that f(x) ^ m for a ^ x ^ b, while if
h is any number just greater than m, there is at least one value x = x2
in the interval for which f(x2 ) < h. These numbers
m are called
the upper, lower bounds of f{x) in a < x < b. Functions other than
continuous ones may possess upper and lower bounds in a given
interval; on the other hand they may not. Property (1) implies that
for a continuous function these numbers always exist.
Property (2) asserts that, for continuous functions, these bounds
are actually values taken by the function for suitable values of a; in
the interval
is the greatest and m the least value off(x) for a < x ^ b.
224
The property
is
usually expressed
by saying that
[6.2
'a continuous
its
yi
Fig. 56
The properties
(1), (2)
closed interval
a ^ x ^
defined only in a
at x
b;
demand
^x ^
b,
is
as
much
as
if f(x)
a or
we can
off'(x).
Rolle's theorem
6.2
6.21 If(i)f(x)
(iii)/(a)
and
is
b for
< x<
is
continuous for a
<x<
is at least
f (& = 0.
(figs.
57, 58):
a continuous curve
cases.
6.22]
(a)
M>
By
0.
Property
(2)
of
6.1, there
225
is
a;
6.
Then
since
M+h)M) <0.
h
Letting h
+ , we have /'()< by using hypothesis (ii) of the theorem
together with a variant of the lemma in 3.63.
Similarly, if h >
and h lies in a S cc S b, then /( A) </(), so that
/<*)/()
2* 0.
0.
0.
Fig. 58
(b)
M
0,
but
m < 0.
There
is
to the above.
(c) If
= = m, then /(#) = everywhere in a < x < 6, so
=
everywhere in a < x < b; any number in a < x < b would do for .
Secondly, suppose f(a) =f(b) = h in (iii). Apply the result just proved to
the function <}>(x) = f(x) k, which clearly satisfies hypotheses (i) and (ii) and
also 0(a) = 0(6) = 0. Then Rolle's theorem follows.
Definition.
a < x <
b,
If f(x)
we say
is
continuous for a
that f(x)
^x
4
and derivable
a < x ^
number
may
for
b.
not be a
which hypotheses (i), (ii) respectively are not satisfied; but fig. 61,
which neither is satisfied, shows that the result of the theorem may
still be true
the conditions are sufficient but not necessary.
in
x5
GPMI
[6.23
y.
b
Fig. 60
Fig. 59
Fig. 61
(1)
is
Between two
Further
(2)
(cf.
roots off(x)
Ex. 3
(e),
a, b
lies at least
of 6.21 to be roots of
0.
no. 15)
roots a, fi off'(x)
root of f(x)
can
lie
between consecutive
0.
examples. Finally
(3)
// f'(x)
has s
roots,
thenf(x)
s+1
roots.
Lagrange's
mean
0,
by
(1).
value theorem
A
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: THEOREMS
6.31]
<x^
b,
227
<b and
f(l>)f(a) = (ba)f'().
<
We may
error obtained
#)=^o+^i(*)
p
Hence
g(x)
(Geometrically, g(x)
of 3.81
and
=f(a)
= f{a)+
is
=f(b), so that
p +p 1 (ba) = /(&).
f(b) ~ f(a)
(xa).
ba
AB
in
fig.
41
b,
f(x)
g{x) is
<j>{x)
satisfies
follows. Incidentally
case
6.32
when AB is
we have
theorem
is
the
parallel to Ox.
We may set out the preceding proof as follows. Consider the function
</>(x)=f(x)f(a)
Clearly
<p(a)
0;
we choose A
+ A(xa).
so that also
<p(b)
0=f(b)f(a) + A(ba).
0:
(i)
f(b)=f(a) + (ba)f'().
(ii)
228
[6.33
result
(ii)
+ hf'(a + 6h)
Since 6 h
a,
we
(0
(ii)
(hi)
1).
Remark), hence
(6.21,
have from
also
< 6 <
in (hi)
that
f(b)=f(bh) + hf'(b(l6)h).
Putting h
= hv l d =
d1
(so
< 6X <
that
1)
and rearranging,
Example
Take f(x) =
log a;, a
>
0,
>
a+h
0.
log(a + h)
log (1
i.e.
Then
(iii)
= loga+
becomes
h
a + cw
+ J = ^27,
a + Oh
a/
=
log
Put w
7&/a;
and
Since
0< <
1,
<:
w
log ( 1
1+U
u > 1 and w
=}=
0,
and
i.
log ( 1
0, also
+ w) w
+ u)
<1+,
u
<log(l+M)<M,
6.33]
229
were given in
equalities
3.83.
Ex. 6 (a).
Exercise 6(a)
e a sina: in
<
2n.
integer.
(x a) (b
x) 2
in
^x^
6.
4 Iff(x) satisfies the Rolle conditions in a < x < b and/(a) = = /(6), prove
that for any given number A the equation/'(a;) + A/(a;) = has at least one root
between a and 6. [Consider eXxf(x). Cf. Ex. 3 (e), no. 16.]
Find when
Find 6 when
7 x
9
the
<
\tt.
a;
w in
<
8 x3 ,
<
1,
1.
when h
> 0.
e".
why
mean
the
value theorem
12
a;
mean value theorem is applied for the interval a < x < a+h to
Explain
< a + h.
11
<
cobx in
the
Iff(x)
when
fails
f{x)
continuous in a
is
<
9.
x~ x and
<
6,
apply
[X
the
mean
for
which a
<
< b and
/(a;) <fo
/() dt
(6
to
 a)/().
is
a number
13 If f(x) and gr(a;) satisfy the Rolle conditions in a ^ x < 6, prove that the
functions ^./(a;) +Bgr(a;)
constant), f(x)g(x), f(x)/g{x) do also, provided
that in the last case g(x) is never zero for a ^ x ^ 6.
14
If/'(a;) satisfies
<
<
6,
[See 3.52.]
*15 If f(a)
ditions in a
= f(c) f(b), where a < c < b, and if f'{x) satisfies the Rolle con< x ^ 6, prove there is a number for which a < < 6and/"() = 0.
satisfies
<
<
and /"() =
*17 If a;
>
*18 If
<x<
19
<c
>
If/(0)
1,
prove
0, (i)f(x)
y,
Interpret geometrically.
0.
a; + 2 + loga:
xf'{dx),
2.]
prove
and f'{x)
>
is
is
an increasing function
0<6<1;
(ii)f(x)
increasing for x
>
0.
<
for
xf'(x);
(iii)
>
0,
d{f(x)/x}/dx
>
0,
and
230
6.4
6.41
An algebraic lemma
first
mean
mean
[6.4
By using
other polynomials,
we
obtain
Any polynomial
degree
of degree
n in (xa).
aQ + a x x + a 2 x2 +
. . .
+ a n xn
= a + y and expand
putf x
Po +PiV +p*y
which
is
a polynomial in x a
+p n yn
= y of degree n.
For given
a,
= p +p x (x  a) +p 2 {x  a) 2
g(x)
We
Po =/(),
Po +Pi(b  a) +p 2 {b  a)
and
= /(&),
(i)
since
The
 a), p x = f'(a).
function {x) = f(x) g(x)
=p x + 2p
g'{x)
'
error '
2 {x
clearly satisfies
0(a)
0(6).
<x^
]_
<fi'(a)
to
f
0,
is
a number
we may apply
E,
Rolle's
for
for
10.53.
6.5]
(j>"{i)
0.
by
f(b)
6.21 to
^x<
we may
in 6.33(1),
<
<
a;
in a
a;
we shall require
< x ^ 6.
= a + dh (0 < 6 < I)
<
write 6
= a + h and
6. Hence
6,
^ x ^ a + h,
then
1,
<p'(x)
between a and
f(a + h)
<
where
be
(ii)
b and by
As
therefore
^'(#),
231
(hi)
h.
Remarks
The result
(a)
^x^
a+h <
< a,
We
(hi)
if
as a + h
a.
From fig.
(y#)
For, the
36 in 3.11
l
we see that
(i)(iii)
of 3.91.
The
first
the following
i//(n_1) (aO
< 6<
and
Proof. Choose the
9(x)
cases of
where
by a polynomial of degree n
^n^
A2
hn
depends in general
coefficients in the
a ^ x ^ a+h, then
ona,h and n.
polynomial
= Po+Pi(*  a) +p 2 {x  a) 2 +
. . .
+pn {x  a) n
232
[6.52
so that
=M,
9(a)
If
i/r(x)
(x
g^\a) = /<%),
g(a + h)=f(a + h).
9'(a)=f'(a),
a) m where mis a
verified that
[ml
and hence
p1
=f{a),
Write
<j){x)
a < x
<:
f^(x),
Since
+ h) =
<f>(a)
11
1
(ii)
w 1
its first
(n1)
<f>'(a)
= ^(a) =
...
0.
...,f(x),f(x).
<fi(a
Since also
0"(g 2 )
(hi)
(i)
+ h) =
0.
(ni)
<j>\a)
0,
,x
there
< a+h
and
^'(i)
0.
is
0.
and
(TC)
()
we may put
NoW
0(a), there is
a <
so
(niy.Pnx^P
</>(a
for
r\pr
m.
n
p +p 1 h+p 2 h?+...+p n h =f(a + h).
and
2\p 2 =f"(a),
=f'(a),
....
it is easily
11
&r\a) =
It follows that
(i)
...
(a)
0,
there
is
and
which
for
a number
0. We know that
<
<
< a + ^>
/<n) ()
hence
(ii),
as in
= n\p n
Remark
(a)
n,
by using
(iii).
we
replace a
following.
by
and h by x
in Taylor's theorem,
we
get the
'
6.53]
V/
(n1)
f{x)
where
<
233
x, then
= /(0) + z/'(0)+^
< 6<
and in general
depends on x and n.
we could apply it to
^ h and arrive at Taylor's
f(a+x)
in
<$ t
theorem:
g(x)
^(0)
= /() +
*/>)+f*/>)
dr
r
g< \x)
since
+ .^
When
satisfied,
we can apply
mation
is
measured by the
size of the
B = ^fW(a + dh),
1.
'remainder term
or
^F
n) (dx).
Keeping n
n\Qx) is
suppose
f(
\Rjxn
= /(0) + s/'(0) +
. . .
+ ^^/<^i>(0) + 0(x"),
or
f{?)
=f
fiO)
+ xf (0) +
. . .
+ ^finViO)
(n
1)!
correct to order
n1.
234
[6.54
Example
If/(a;)
e x,
gives
ex
ex
and/
x2
= 1+X +  + ...+ex
(0)
n_1
C
(n
2!
Hence
(r)
TT,
1)!
for
each
xn
n\
2!
(n
all orders,
Maclaurin's theorem
(0<0<1).
+ , edx
= 1+X + + ...+
r.
(i)
1)!
n can be
as large as
we
please;
e= 1 +
,
1
1
1
+ + ...+
2!
3!
(n1)!
Successive terms in this expression are easy to calculate, because the (r+ l)th
term is 1/r! = (l/r){l/(r 1)!} = (1/r) xrth term. With n = 11 we find that
e = 2718282, correct to 6 places of decimals.
much rougher result was
obtained in 4.32 (5).
n ~ x and im,
(6) When n is given, the approximation (i) is correct to order x
1
6x
proves the smaller
becomes; for e < e ! when \x\ < ij.
some elementary
of
theorem to
hold 'for
We
all
when we
discuss
expression
where
F(x)
we could begin by
f(x) = F(x)A(bx)P
like
>
0),
f^(x)
mf{x)z \^r\x).
{
235
6.54]
=
By the
<x
Rolle conditions in a
a <
<b and
n1
n*) = /'(*)+ s
b.
0.
(h
_ ~\rl
*>
r=l
is
i/r(x)
satisfies
the
(h
_ yV
s y^f(x)+pA(bx^
*
r1
n1
Lfr+1) ^) S
r=l
(fr
^r%
(J
+^(6^1
+1) (z)
^1
^^
/7
x , (
(6*)*i{
From ^'() =
n1
/<>(*)
*)
r=l
Hence there
Now
n2(h__ T \r
= 2
F{a)A{ba)*>.
"
(6a;) TCf/<^(a;))
.
 4=
we now have
(6
'
(nl)!#
and so
Fla)
Writing b
= a + h and
a, h, n, p),
we find
{nl)\p
= a + 0h (where
,
n .. _ 8 n _^
F(a) =
(nl)\p
g
+y
will
depend on
/(a + AH/(a)
in general
(a)
+ ...+
we have
^
Ji
n1
An _ fl\nP
taking
&*(l_0)i
(711)!
which
(2)
will
be used in Ch.
fW(a + 6h),
12.
From
236
If we suppose f \x)
(n
continuous for a
is
^x<
b,
[6.6
then
= F(b)
F(a)
Putting 6
( F'(x)dx
Ja
(^^! Jo
(1
6.6
xm Here
f'(x)
...
(n)
(a)
In particular,
if mis
a positive
integer,
(ml
#"  n
(m n)
f(n)(x)
(w
<
n),
(n
=
>
m),
ml
(w
.0
m).
cZ
n_1 /1\
1
\ay
(n1)!
da;"
(iii)
*.
/<n) (a;) =
Clearly
(iv) sin(aa;
+ &).
/'(a;)
a cob (ax + b)
+ 6).
will
asin(aa; + 6
add \n
+ 7i
Similarly
f<
n \x)
(vi) e ox sin6a;.
e* (a sin 6a;
e ax Raia (bx
/'(a;)
e ax
).
/(*(#)
a" e ax
+ 6 cos bx).
+ d),
i.e.
cos 6a;)
6.51.
),
and
is
determined from
= a:b:R.
f(x)
with the same R, 6 as before since the equations for determining these are
independent of x. Hence we see that
/<">(#)
dn
{e ax cos bx}
Similarly,
theorem.)
Since
= I^.
Now
1
hence by
(i)
a;
2*
_
(
v
\a;
= ^(TT3i)
+ i/
U,
a;
= /0cos0,
theorem,
j
.
(x
= p sin
t)
/> B (cos
d" 1
n
f< \x)
<j>
<
\
>
(x + i) n)'
<j>
<f>
cot 1 ^.
By
de Moivre's
= (l) n1
(n1)!

pn
sinnoi,
Y
Theorem of Leibniz on
If
W''2i\(xi)
),
Tin,
1
dx"'
1+x2;
'
i.e.
and
(n
x+i
Write
6.62
/'"'<*>
(6)
dxB1 l+a! a
so that x
d"1
/'<*>
uv,
derivatives are
Then
(uv) n
= un v + *C?i
2,
. . .
3 in Ex. 3
+ uv n
(b),
no. 17.
238
[6.62
true for
is
say
n,
n = m. Then
{uv) m
and
(uv) m+1
= ^(uv) m
=
Vi + Vi) + mCi(^mi
+ mCrl Wmf+1 vr +
^2
+ Vi) +
vrl)
= Um+
lV+ (1 + m
<?l)
),
mC _ + mC = m+1 (7r
r
r 1
since
(r
1).
It does hold
. .
(uv) n
ur = ar e,
vr
br ebx ,
(uv) n
+ b) n e(+w*
{a
e{a+b)x
&a;
r=0
,\
{a
(cf anr6r
).
r=0
+ b) n = Y {cr an rbr ).
l
r0
binomial expansion of (u + v) n
6.63]
239
Examples
Find the nth derivative of x 1 sin x.
Taking u = sin a; and v = x % we have
(i)
ur =
Hence
dn
sin(# + \rn),
(x 2 sin x)
vx
2x t
v2
vr
2,
>
for r
2.
(ii)
We
first
find
a relation between y
By
derivation,
V\
i/i
 ^\_ x
V( 1
cos
81x11 *)
a 2 = P cos
sin 1 x).
Deriving again,
:.
a;
2
)
y %  xy x +p*y
0.
(a)
+p*y n =
This
0,
ie
is
it
holds for
n>
0.
(6)
0.
from a recurrence
relation
Example
Obtain the first 4 terms of the Maclaurin expansion of sm(psin~ x x).
(6) of ex. (ii), put x = 0, and denote yr when x
by ar ; then
In equation
<*n+i
+ (P 3 n 2 )a =
0,
0.
a4
0,
i.e. all
coefficients
1
t Had the given function been sin ( sin x),
to avoid using n in two senses.
we should say
'derive k times',
240
Also
ax
therefore
a3
s
a7
and so
on.
[6.63
= p cos (p sin 1 0) = p;
= (l i p )a1 = (l 2 p 2 )p,
= (3 2 :P
= (&p*)(l*p*)p,
= (5 2 p 2 )a5 = (6p)(3*p)(lp)p,
!l
sin (p sin 1 *)
+ a 1 x + ^x 2 + ^x 3 + ... +fW(6x)
= px +
p*)p ^ + (3 2 p 2
+ (5 2 p 2
(3
p
) (
) (
2
)
 p2 p ^ +
)
. . .
+ ^/ (n
W
it
sufficiently small'.
Exercise 6(b)
Calculate the nth derivative of the follovnng functions.
1
cos 2 *
sin 8
*4 e*.
[first
a;.
8 * sin 2 *,
10 If/(*)
11
12
=
=
n>3.
14
15
6 Xs /e x .
7 a4 log*, n
* 2 + *2
>
4.
e^sin*, prove
(n)
(0)
= 2* n sin(w7r).
= ( l)"n! {log *  1  
 1/n} ar"" 1
(x)
2
*
If y = f{x) = (sin *)/.^
prove that
1  x 2 y x  xy = 1
and /< n+1) (0) = w 2/< n (0).
If y = sin (log *) prove x2y 2 + xyx + y =
and deduce that
a% +2 + (2n + 1) *2/ n+1 + (n 2 + 1) y = 0.
If y = e taa_la! prove (1 + *2 y n+2 + {(2n + 2) *  1} y n+1 + n(n + 1) y, = 0.
1
If y tan *, prove 1 + * 2 y 2 + 2xy = and deduce that
2
1 +x
y n+z + 2(n + 1 *y n+1 + n(n + 1 y n = 0.
If/(*)
n)
. . .
),
13
3 ch*.
Hence calculate the first four nonzero terms of the Maclaurin expansion of tan 1 *,
assuming that an expansion of tan 1 x is possible.
16 If y = (sin 1 *) 2 , prove (lx 2 )y n+2 (2n + l)xy n+1 n 2y n =
(n^l).
find the values of all the derivatives of y when * = 0, and write down a
few terms of the Maclaurin expansion (assuming this exists).
Hence
6.7]
why
17 Explain
241
mx
2
18 e mx
= 1 +mx\
m n x n ~
1
...
2!
19 log(l+a;)
x6
\
3!
a;
21 cosa;
2!
.
a;
...
5!
.,
22 (l+a;)"m
(n1)!
e m0x .
n!
x
= x
sina;
20
m nx n
H
T
x*
+
^
4!
2 * 1
x 2k+1
+ (l)* 1
h(l)*
K
'
(2Jfcl)!
h(D*
K
(2k2)r
'
m(m
= l+ma; + i 1)
'
(2k+l)\
cos(0a;).
K
'
(2k)l
(w1)!
m(m 1) ... (m n+ 1)
+ _i
xn
+ 7&) =
h 2 " 1
(2n^
cosa; h sin
Ji
C S
"+(
h 2n
 1)n
W!
1)n
h2n
= x + %x + ^x [See Ex.
= a; + ^a; 3 + ^a; 5
29
seca;
C08
sina;...
" 1
to h 2n+1
27 sin" 1 *;
+^
3!
8in(aJ
cos aH
h
+  1)B (2^ljl S^^ +
26 tana;
2n+1 .
2!
+ dx) m ~ n
h3
ft1
sinaj
a?* 1
(l
nl
sin(a;
'
2*
2!
*23
cos(0a:).
V
m(m 1) ...(m n + 2)
V +
'
x 2k ~ 2
y
^+
x sufficiently smalV.
= l + $x 2 + &c*.
28 e"
30
sina:
ix 2 + g$xi ).
e(l
= l + ^+s^x*.
*31 Prove the second mean value theorem by one application of Rolle's
theorem to the function ifr(x) =f(b) ~f(x)  (bx)f'(x) A(bx) 2 choosing
A so that
r/r(a)
0.
6.7
mean
value theorems
J6
hf'{a)
+ lh 2f"(a + dh)
(0
<
<
1).
GPMI
242
h
for all
/'(a)
can be so only
otherwise the righthand side would change sign with h. Hence
0,
f(a + h) f(a)
[6.71
a to give a turning value off(x), f(a + h) f(a) must have the same sign
For x
"(a
if
+ Oh).
all
such
sufficiently small,
h,
about f"(x)
(2) Definition.
bourhood of P,
curve
it lies
Fig. 64
Fig. 63
Near P we have by
6.42,
Remark
(fi)
that
and
Corollary
For by
is
same
continuous at x
sign as
a.
f{a)
\h2f(a + Oh),
for all
(i)
sufficiently
1.
3.71,
inflexion.
//f'(a)
atx
a;
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS: THEOREMS
6.72J
ifnis
(ii)
/<>(a)
>
even, there is
a maximum atx
if /
(n)
(a)
<
243
and a minimum if
0,
0.
= f<\a + 0h),
f(a + h)f(a)
nl
of the deri
a, then
is
= JL^/(n) (a + ^).
f'{a + h)f\a)
Hence/'(a;) has a turning point at x
a if and only if n
1 is
even,
i.e.
n is odd.
definition in 3.71.
= a, the
= f(x) to the polynomial approximating curve
...
+ ^""^V ^frO
If
a,
we now
consider
(cf.
have a point
g(x)
how their
\{xaf
particular,
closeness near
(")
/"()
equation
(i)
mea
above).
P in common where
P can be defined. If
intersect at
but
#=
^m +1>(a).
Remarks
(a) If/(x), g(x)
the conditions
(iii)
show
(e),
f \x) = gf^ix)
^) = g<m  x\x) has a double root x = a,
a,/*
{m
theorem
for
n = m + 2.
244
'
(/?)
The above
P is parallel to Oy,
similarly.
Theorem. // two
qI
A/
i
!//(*)
i
j
a+h
Fig. 65
is
QB=f(a + h)g{a + h)
m
hm+1
7>r
hm + x
m+
1,
(m+1) (a;)
gr(
i.e.
by Newton's method
continuous in a
<x<
(2.65) there is
b,
by
a root of/(#)
= 0ina<#<&.
6.73]
Let x
245
theorem gives
(o<e<
o =f(c)+hf(c)+$hy'(c+dh)
i).
0,
we may
0=f(c) + hf'(c),
so that h
the root
= f(c)/f'(c). Thus,
= c/(c)//'(c).
now be repeated,
c 1}
is c x
and leads
(in general) to
/(ci)
and
(2)
is
Geometrical interpretation.
curve y
= f(x)
at the point x =
The equation
c is
yf(c)=f(c)(xc).
It meets
Ox where y =
the approximation
is
and x = c /(c)//'(c),
i.e.
at x
cx
Hence
(3)
approximations. Then
C2
and
Cl
~~
C3
^2
/(c 2 )
C2
/'(c 1
"
+ A)'
246
where h
[6.73
Co ficj+hficj+w^+eh)
f'{ci+h)
f'(c 1
+ h)
/'(<a)
Fig. 67
by the assumed
continuity
The expression
(i)
will
slowly
(c)
small,
the curve
is
is
2{/'( Cl
)}s
the
approximation
if
first
h,
(i)
'
if
i.e.
is
good;
is
changing
The method
"
be small
most
the curve
effective
is
when
this.
6.73]
When
is
required,
c 2 is the
and
247
(i) is
small
approximation sought,
Example
Solve x + sin x 15 correct to four places of decimals (x in radians).
Trying x = 1 as a first approximation, we find
sin 1
/^ =
08415
/'(l)
and
8 415l5
+ 05402
cos
05402,
= 0j415^
15402
W<
'
"
_
~
07783 + 0702215
17120
^~
A '*
Similarly,
' 0114
'
and a
(4) Refinement of Newton's method. % By using a quadratic approximation for h we can improve the linear one = /(c) + hf'{c). For
0=/(c)+A/'(c) + pr(c),
and
since
=  hf(c)lf'(c), we have
c/(c)
*1 cosa;l.
*2 sinxx.
*3 cosa:l+
2!
xxxvn
(1953), p. 96.
248
[6.8
3
*4 sin X X + .
*6 sinaj a; +
its
x
x
'
\x.
mean
value theorem
6.8
Cauchy's
6.81
by t
and the gradient of a tangent
{/(&)/()}/&(&)
principle
is
for
6.82 //
(i)
(ii)
and
f(x)
and
=)=
is
= f(t),
a, t =
b is
is f'(t)lg'(t).
a value
We now
the
prove this
a < x ^ b,
same value of x in a < x <
(hi) g(b)
g(t),
The geometrical
(/).
b,
g{a),
and
f(b)f(a)_f'()
By
hypothesis
(i),
and
0.
Since
<fi(x)
is
<f>'{x)
now
satisfies
at least one
number
for which a
/'()
/(&)/(<*)
g(b)g(a)
<
<
Remarks
(/?)
we should have
=
=
/(&)/()
and
g{b)g{a)
(&)/'(&)
<&<&),
(ba)g'{t )
(a
<
mf(a) =
from which
9(b)g(a)
<
b),
m.
g'(Q
6.9
g{x)
limit
x,
when
0.
If
> g{a)
0,
(h)/'(a)
and
=# a,
and
g'(a)
0,
/'()
/(*)
x+ a g(x)
Proof. If x
g'{a) exist
then by hypothesis
/(*)
= /(*)/()
g(x)
g(x)g{a)
(a)
(i)
=/(*)/() j g{x)g{a)
xa
+f'(a)lg'(a)
by hypothesis
(ii)
and the
xa
when
x>a
(ii).
then
250
=j=
\f{x)jg{x)\ > oo
[6.93
that
is
when x > a.
Example
1 cosaj
sinO
=  =
lira
C>0
Second rule
6.93
If
(iii)
0.
f( a )
(i)
lim
0,
g(a)
exists,
(ii)
0,
a,
then
Proof. Hypothesis
/(*)
/'(*)
(iii)
some
exist
=f=
a ^ x < a + h: condition
f(x), g(x) are therefore
thesis
(ii)
for
(i)
mean
continuous in a
a; conditions
(ii),
^ x ^ a + h,
(iii)
by
g'{x) 4=
and /'()/<7'()
When h> + also
Hence f(a + h)jg(a + h) >Z when h^0 +
x+a +
,
(i)
tends to
i.e.
its limit,
f{x)jg(x) >l
say
I.
when
f(x)jg(x)
when
oo
x >
a,
.Reraarfcs
(a)
T^e conditions of
=f=
/'(*)
tt
2a:
sm 1
(x)
and
251
so
cos,
this does
when
1,
because cos
(1/x)
oscillates.
(/#)
are satisfied;
Examples
cosa;
hm 1
=
...
(i)
sina;
lim
x>0
x*0
first
sina;
lim
since
2a;
rule to
circle'.
We
first
1.
xio
3.32) :
we should
because this last limit has not been employed fundamentally in finding
d(tana;)/c2a\
....
a;cosa;+7r
,.
Jim
(u)
x*n
.....
2logaecxx 2
..
km
(in)
x+0
&
coax
1
=
1
1.
first rule.
2taxix2x
lim
x*0
lim
x _+ n
scsina;
cosa;
,.
sina;
4a; 3
sec a a;
Inn
by the second
rule again,
x+Q
lim it0
/tana;\ a
I
by trigonometry,
6\ x
tana;
lim
since
x+0
1.
lim
(iv)
lim ( 1
= lim 2tana;sec
sec*a; 1
 x) tan \nx
(the
form
a;
oo)
X+1
lim
x^cot^nx
lim
x>i
(the
form
cosec 2 nx
n'
0/0)
....
lim
(v)
a;
Put
tan)
m=
/tant/X
I
lira
1 /"
log u
y^'ytanyX
and consider
= lim(^ (
t/sec 2 2/
= lim
l/x.
/tansA
log
^
yy
j
.
a
tany
2y 2 tfmy
y *0
4t/tant/ +
y^0
limlogu
where
2?/
sec 2 t/
tan
after reduction,
lira
y _> sm.2y + y
2
sec y
2cos22/+l
lim
2,^
Hence w
when y
>
> 0,
i.e.
when a;
00.
Exercise 6(d)
1
Find
terval
i,
x 2 in 6.82,
<
is 1
cos 5a;
when x
x2
log(l
+ a!)
sina;
10
ex e x
>
Xs
g(x)
a;
and the
rt
2a?tana; Trseca; (x >
,
\it).
'
lQg(1+a:2 + a;4)
.
+ 6a;)
log(l
tan x x
(a:>l).
e a_ 6 o
x smx
11
(cos*) 1'*.
12
e x_ e sin
x smx
:
03(6* 1)
13
(cosaj
+ 2sina:) cot *.
14 cota;
*15
1/a;.
1/a;
cosec 2 a;.
xcotx = l^gsx*.
log
(^^J
in
lO^e*
cos 2 *7ra;
when
(/?),
2.
Remark
^^ x
5
i
.
ex
= l$x+&x 2
253
4 Prove that the nth derivative of cos nx is n n cos (nx + \nn). Show that the
derivative of a a cos7ra has the value ( l) m+1 n 2m  2 (n 2 + 2m 4m2 ) when
2mth
1.
If
m =
and
...
x m .x n
...
e siax
when x
lx
x 2 shx
(i+a
2a?2a; a log(l
'
cosec nx
10 {COBx) coi
nx,
if
is
(a;
n\
zi
>
+ 2a;)
x 2 tan 1 x
)*(ia;3 4
0,
> l+x(x
4= 0)
4=0);
while for
a;
<
the inequality
reversed.
In
nos. 13
and 14
$(x)
f(a)
g(a)
h(a)
f{b)
g(b)
h(b)
f(x)
g(x)
h(x)
*13 lff(x), g(x), h(x) satisfy the Kolle conditions for a < x < b, apply Rolle's
theorem to <f>(x) to prove that there is a number for which a < < b and
f(a)
g(a)
f(b)
g(b)
/'(
Deduce
* 14
(i)
the
first
h(a)
h(b)
=0.
*'(
(ii)
Cauchy's
<x
s$ 6,
and a <
<
6,
F(x)
(x a)(xb)
rr^
^t
a)(c
o)
< f < 6 and
c)
(c
that there
*15
is
0(e) = *(ca)(c&)0"().
By taking g(x) = and h(x) = 1 in no. 14, prove
mf(a)
f(b)f(a)
ba
Ubc)f(E).
The value off(x) is known when x a and when x = b, and the value at an
intermediate point x = c is calculated approximately by the 'rule of proportional parts' (see 13.71). Prove that the error in the value thus found does
not exceed (& c) (c a)
numerically, where
is the upper bound of
\f"(x)\ for
<
<
b.
254
*16
(i)
which a h
<
=f(x)Ax Bx*
that there
is
< a + h and
f(a + h)2f(a)+f(ah)
J
h%
[Choose A, B so that <j>(a h) = 0(a) = 0(a + h), and apply Rolle's theorem for
a h < x ^ a and for a < x < a + h.]
(ii)
If also/"(a;)
is
continuous atx
lim
*17 Apply Cauchy's
a,
deduce that
mean
0<p^n,
255
INTEGRATION AS A
SUMMATION PROCESS
7.1
Theory of the
definite integral
strips
x
where
= f(x)
between x
a and x
b is
=x
1}
x%,
...
..,
xn_ 1}
b.
(The points need not be at equal distances apart.) It will be convenient to write x for
Referring to
fig.
a,
xn for 6.
suppose
68,
and
N to
Hence the
M corresponds to x = x
strip
and f(xr+1 )
and
n1
2 f(xr)(Xr+i*r)
r=0
n1
and
r =0
f(xr+i)
Geometrical intuition leads us to expect that, as we make the division of the given area gradually finer by increasing the number of
sum
oo
to a
common
rectangles
and f(xr )
limit
PMNR,
(xr+1
xr );
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
256
ment
still lies
[7.11
(i),
essentially unchanged.
is
For a curve like fig. 44 of 4.14 (a mixture of parts like figs. 68, 69)
some of the strips will be like that shown enlarged in fig. 70. The area
of this strip still lies between the areas of the inner and outer rectangles
R'MNR, SMNS', although their heights are no longer f(xr ), f(xr+1 )
but the least and greatest values off(x) in the range xr < x ^ xr+1
.
Iff(x)
is
continuous, we know
at points x
7jr
(6.1,
in the range,
/
/5?
f(7f r )
xr+l
yi
xr)'
R
S
MN
M N
Fig. 69
Fig. 68
The
n 1
S Mr)
xr+l ~ Xr)>
r=0
n1
f(Vr)
Xr+1 ~ xr)>
r=0
We pause
(cf.
we know what
is
meant by
'the
area of a strip' and 'the total area under the curve'. Although in
elementary work
figures
we have
bounded by
definitions of the
straight lines,
we have not
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.12]
r\
have areas
xr+l ~ xr)
>
257
"*r \
xr+l ~ xr)
r is
not
is
now
rectangles
>
= S
{xr+1  x
r
r ),
r=0
which
may
the range a
n 1
S=
il^Or,^  av)
(iii)
r=0
be called lower and upper sums for the function /(a;) over
a;
<
6.
5"
J2'
Mrir
gr
Fig. 70
N
Fig. 71
7.12
There is nothing vague about the sums (iii): we have obtained them
by (a) taking a subdivision of the range a ^ x ^ b by n 1 points
xx < x 2 < ... < x^; (b) taking the lower and upper bounds mr M,.
of /(a?) in xr < x < xr+1 for each of these subintervals; (c) adding up
the products like mr (xr+1 xr ) corresponding to each subinterval, to
obtain the sum s, and similarly for S. We may therefore consider these
sums quite independently of any notions of 'area' (although we may
visualise them geometrically as sums of areas of rectangles associated
with the curve y =f(x) and the points x = a, xx x 2
xn _ t b).
,
We
GPMI
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
258
[7.13
by Riemann
(182666),
and we
shall state
numbers
j,
J such
that,
J, then f(x)
is
of the sub
said to be integrahle in
^x ^b
limit, viz.
J. It
is
like s
then natural
(in
'
'
function
with
it
denned arithmetically
satisfies
total area
AHKB
(fig.
44)
was
(iv)
f(x) dx.
Ja
close connection between the common limit of the upper and lower
sums of a continuous function, and the definite integral of that function.
We remind the reader (cf. 4.16(2)) that our definition (iv) of a
definite integral has a logical defect: it depends on the concept of an
indefinite integral or primitive function
function
<f>(x)
whose derivative
is f(x).
<f>(x)
Unless
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.14]
259
we define
b,
f(x) dx to be zero,
and
if
a > b we
define
Ja
( f(x)dx
=
Ja
(This agrees with 4.15, properties
With
f f(x)dx.
Jb
(1), (2).)
an
We now prove
be established.
programme outlined in
4.16
(3).
indefinite integral
^ x ^
m,M.
f f(x) dx lies between
(1)
Ja
First suppose b
nl
s
>
r)
M ^ M and m
Since
m for each
r,
both
between
>
4.15 (10).)
hence
n1
m (xr+1 x
= ^
a.
(Cf.
and
r=0
S= 2
il^(;rr+1
 #r
lie
r=0
the
m(ba) ^
f(x)dx
< M{ba).
Ja
If b
<
a,
inequalities
definition of f f(x)dx
when
<
a.
Ja
We get
M(ba) ^
If a
6,
the result
is trivial.
Corollary. If \f(x)\
For
^Kfora^x^b, then
f(x)
\J
dx ^ K{b  a).
[If .
172
'
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
260
(2)
Ifa<c<
= ? f(x)dx.
Ja
sight rather obvious)
Ja
[*f{x)dx
f(x)dx+
b,
[7.14
(Cf. 4.15(3).)
Jc
first
a ^ x ^
b.
proved by taking
omit the details.
We
is
function/(x) depends on a
(fi)
We
of 4.15.
function
rx
Ja
where a
I.
regarded as fixed.
is still
F{x)
Let a ^
<
continuous in a
is
'c+h
rc+h
fc
f(t)dt+
f(t)dt=
Ja
Ja
f(t)dt,
Jc
rc+h
F(c + h)F(c)=
so
in c
<
mh <
+h
<
(V)
f(t)dt.
< Mh.
When h > +
this
endpoints.
II.
atx =
c,
F'(c) =f(c).
> 0, there
( )/(c) < e, i.e.
/(
Given
is
(Cf.
4.15
c,
(7).)
_ e<m<f(c) + e
tj
f(t)dt
lies
between
h{f{c)e}
he between
/(c)
and
+ e},
h{f(c)
lc
so that
by
(v)
F(c + h)F(c)
Mesbetween
+ n,
"c+h
4. t
me>
e. If
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.14]
F(c + h)F(c)_
i.e.
to *<!zM
Hence
III.
<
fic)
=/(c)
f(t)dt
= /(#)
is
bounded in a ^ x
<fi(x)
By
e.
261
^6
<f>(a)fora ^ a; ^
6.
is
II,
J" (a:)
a < x <
b.
Hence
Remarks on Theorems
Theorem II shows
b;
0'(a?)
for
A (x) of 4.14.)
(4)
a < x <
for
F'{x)
that,
II, III.
when f(x)
is
continuous in a
<x <
b,
then
f(t)dt
Ja
jfe
if /(a;) is
= f( x
i8
continuous);
satisfied
by
i.e.,
F(x).
jj(x)dx =
0(6)
0(a)
[<f>(x)?
a
jx^dx
(i.e.
t~ dt.
Ijx)
we
first
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
262
[7.2
illustrate these
7.2
^x ^
Cq
CI
<
Xy
3?2
summation
Xj^ }
and let r be any number such that xr ^ r ^ #r+i for each r = 0, 1, ...
Then, if mr il^ are the bounds oif(x) inxr ^ x ^ xr+1 we have
n 1.
^ /(r ) <
rar
so that
n 1
n 1
r=0
r=0
n1
r=0
i.e.
E /(&.) (Xr+1  X
r)
<
fl.
r=0
If/(a;)
is
integrable, then s
f(x)
dx
Ja
all
^0. Hence
(ni*r)
i.e.
n1
/*&
f(%)dx.
Ja
r=0
to grasp
7.22
Some
chapter)
is
a definite integral.
sums
rb
(i)
xdx, b
>
a.
Ja
is
simplified
x1
and
= a + h,
x<l
= a + 2h,
nh b a.
xn^
= a + (n l)h,
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.22]
Again
considered
xr in each
263
interval.
to be
is
nl
2x
.h
h[a + (a+h)
h[na + h{l + 2 +
...
h[na + %n(n
h]
1)
+ (nl)}']
by summing the
a.p.,
= nh^a + %nh(l J
= (ba)[a + ${ba)
(6
J
J
> oo.
nl
'6
xdx
= lim S
a?r fe
(&a)(6 + a)
(&
a 2 ).
r=0
(u)
x i dx.
Ja
nl
ajfc
fc[a 2
r=0
= nh a2 + ara^l 
^2 
> oo.
nl
= lim 2
2 <fo
aA
r=0
(iii)
is
the limit of
h[e ka + e#+A>
fte* a [l
^ e fco
a
^

since
kh
+ 0, since lim
by summing the
=
rb
Ja
g.p.,
= A
em 1
when 7&
+ e *{Hi)A}]
gfi*&
. . .
a+nh,
1
e^dx = (e k * e ka ).
*
Hence
$(b s a*).
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
264
C
(iv)
[7.22
sinxdx.
Ja
it is
most
= a + (r + i)h.
Then
nl
sin
(a;r
+ &)./& =
h[sin (a
. . .
+ sin {a + (n ) h}]
r=0
[cos a
cos (a + w&)J
sin/&
by
12.27
(1),
(cos a cos
6) >
cos a cos b
when
> 0.
sin/&
sin a;aa;
cos a cos 6.
Ja
(v)
xm dx, ml?
1,
<a<
6.
Ja
in G.P.,
where b
nl
2 f (s+1  xs )
ar,
x2
ar 2
x n _r
ar n (Wallis's method).
Taking s
= ar n_1
= x (s =
0, 1,
. .
.,
n 1),
s=o
+
_
mr 2n, (ar3  ar 2 )
am+l( r _ J) J
. . .
_}.
(*l)(ro+iyj
_ y(m+l)
_ am+i( r _ J) __ ___
by summing the
= am +Hr 1) Jl 
j{lrm+1
G.P.,
/I _
then r >
by 2.76,
Hence
a m cfa:
(i),
and
m+ 1 (b
(1
r^+^^l r)
>
m+ 1
(e.g.
by
m+1 a m+1 ).
These examples show that even the simplest integrals require quite a lengthy
The practical importance of 7.14 (3), Theorem Illf is that it relates
calculation.
integration (a
summation
we know a function
calculation from
f
The
<f>(x)
first
principles avoided.
socalled 'fundamental
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.23]
7.23
Formula
265
f(x)
Ja
dx by the substitution
g(t).
Let a
= g(cc),
a,
ft,
assume that
in
a ^
<t n _x
<fi,
an increasing function
into subintervals by tx , t.2
t^x where
g(t) is
...
a <
By the mean value theorem
xx
<
<
rr
< tr+x
Let r
definite integral
/?.
Divide a
=S
< /?
(tr+x
f(x)
dx
x n _x
 tr
xr
x n _x Since
<
<
g(t)
increases,
b.
g'(Tr ),
(i)
r=0
The
<
...
g(jr ); then
"]
<
x2
xr+x xr
tr
< /?.
where
S/{9r(Tr )} sr'(Tr )
r=0
(r+1
 tr
is
).
sum when n
> oo
and all the differences xr+x xr >0. Since g(t) increases, g\t) >0ina<</?,
and hence g'(Tr > 0. Therefore, if either of xr+x xr tr+1 tr tends to zero, so
does the other, by (i). From the hypothesis, f{g{t)}g'(t) is continuous; hence
)
Mt)) 9'(t) dt =
lim
 *r
r=0
when n
> oo
and
all
of ir+1
0.
Thus
fi
( f{g(t)}gV)dt.
J a.
Ja
Itg(t) decreases
a <
corresponds
and since
tr
<rr <
tr+x ,
< tn _x < f}
b > xx
... > x n ^ L > a;
we now have xr > gr > xr+x
tx
f(x)
...
/
J
< t2 <
> x2 >
fi,
dx
n1
limj:
r)
(xr
xr+x
r=0
=
M
(
J
(tr+1
 tr
fi
f{g{t)}g'(t)dt
at,
f{g(t)} g'(t) dt
by
definition.
The proof emphasises the need for g(t) to be steadily increasing or steadily
decreasing in a ^ t ^ /?, otherwise the points xr corresponding to tr would not
be in order, nor would the statements xr+x xr *0, tr+x tr *0 imply one
another since g'{jt ) might be zero. Compare the Remark at the end of 4.22.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
266
[7.3
Exercise 7(a)*
rb
dx
kf(x)
Ja
rb
2 If f(x)
for
<
<
then
b,
f(x)
dx
0.
Ja
be negative.]
rb
If/(a)
+ h{x),
g{x)
then
rb
/(#)&
rb
gr(a;)da;+
Ja
Ja
rb
4 Iff(x)
5
I
&t
<J <
f /(*)
Ja
g(x) for
<
f \f(x)
Ja
a;
<
b,
prove
[For
rb
f(x)
Ja
I
if or
[Use 7.21.]
/&(#)<&
Ja
dx
g(x) dx.
[Use nos.
2, 3.]
Ja
/(.) (av +1
 *r and
)
(7
<
o"
because
dx.
6 Prove thatiL
~
ve
all
J*
f(t) dt
f(x) for a
<
those of
cr
b.
JX
isK{/ ( + ^) +/ (
<
all
<,+
?)
+ ' +/<a+
'' )
}]
^r
/<a,)<fe 
(This generalises the idea of the 'average of n numbers' to that of the 'mean
value over an interval' of a function of a continuous variable x.)
8 Prove lim
7.3
7.3 1
n
r
=02 +r2
In.
*
E a
w +ra
=S
l
+ (r/n) a
>
Jol+* 2 J
integrals
When the indefinite integral off(x) is not known, we may resort to approxi
f(x) dx,
where
a, b
Ja
definite integral measures and is represented by a plane area, we may conveniently give the following discussion in geometrical language.
The crudest method of estimating areas is by counting squares ; this requires
the curve to be drawn on squared paper. The method is useful when the curve
itself is given but its equation is not known. When the equation of the curve is
known, the following methods are less tedious.
'
'
Vi>
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.33]
267
by
straight
lines, viz.
+ %h(y n + n+1
HiiVl + Vn+l) + (Vi + Vz +
)
=
Hence the
rule
+ 2/n)}
is:
Divide the given area into strips by any number of equidistant ordinates. Take
the average of the first and last ordinates, and add this to the sum of the other ordinates.
Multiply the result by the distance between consecutive ordinates.
When the curve is concave do\m (6.71 (2)) the rule clearly underestimates
the area because the chords lie below their arcs. For a curve concave up, the
rule overestimates.
PM,
QO,
ordinates to points
PM
RN
= ah 2 bh + cA
y% = c,
y3 = ah2 + bh + c.)
yx
(i)
j
rh
j
From
equations
(ax2 + bx + c)dx
fah
+ 2ch.
(ii)
(i)
yi
+ y3 =
2ah 2 + 2c
2ah 2
so
t
2ah2 + 2y z
yi + ya 2y 2
Thomas Simpson
(171061).
by Ex.
16(e), no. 4.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
268
Hence by
(ii)
i%i +
2/s
[7.33
is
(hi)
This area
is
yaxis along
M(2/l
Hence Simpson's
+ 2/2n)}.
rule:
To
the
sum
Example
f2 dx
Calculate
using
(i)
Jl *
is
1/x.
x
1
2/i
will
Simpson's
take 10
rule.
strips, at intervals
calculate y x , y 2 ,
of 01
y u as follows.
and
last ordinates
We
we
(ii)
Even
Odd
ordinates
ordinates
11
y2
09091
yt
07692
12
13
14
7/3
08333
2/5
07143
y6 = 06667
15
y1 = 06250
16
17
ya
05882
y10
05263
18
y9
19
2/u
05556
05
34595
15
27282
The work has been set out so as to be used more conveniently with Simpson's
rule.
(i)
area
(ii)
By Simpson's
area
The value
0694.
rule,
+4x
34595 + 2 x 27282}
is
==
0693147.
0693.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.4]
269
Exercise 7(6)*
From
the formula hr
,
Jo
(i) by the trapezium rule;
5 ordinates.
mals
(6)
+x
(ii)
%n to four places of
calculate
by Simpson's
rule,
(i)
f00
Prove that
dx
differs
from
Jo
(ii)
dx
o 1
rio
(iii)
Calculate
dx
;
is
(a) 3 ordinates;
exact
when f(x)
by less than i x 10 3
is
Jo
Calculate
f 10
I
using
deci
dx
11 ordinates.
ordinates.
J2
(iv)
7.4
Hence
00
dx
.
Jo l+x*
Further areas
The reader
will
result
f(x)
Ja
We now
consider
some
extensions.
7.41 Sign of
an area
when a < x ^
<
b,
A=
f{x)dx
Ja
as negative.
Itf(x)
is
g(x)
throughout a
^x<
rb
= f( x
)>
9( x ) are respectively
between them
is
The
g(x) dx.
f(x) dx,
Ja
6.
areas under
rb
Ja
n
{f(x)g(x)}dx.
(i)
Ja
This formula gives the correct area whether or not the #axis cuts
the curves.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
270
7.43
[7.43
Example
Find
Sx
0.
2/3
5s
O
Fig. 74
0.
y 2 then
,
=
+ to +10),
+ 2/2 = * + 2,
2
= Vl + y 2  yx y% = x(4  a;).
(y,  y 2
2/i
hence
\x{4,
x) =
0, i.e.
These are the extreme values of x for the curve. The area
when x =
or
4.
is
x(4 x)}dx
(ViV^dx
Jo
=
by putting x = 4 sin 2 6.
32 Cin
V 5 Jo
^ = ij
^ >
when
x^
X > oo,
whose value is
1,
represents
the 'area' under that part of the curve y = 1/a;2 for which x > 1
(cf. Ex. 4(d), no. 20). This region is unbounded, and its 'area' has
been defined as the limit of the area of the bounded region enclosed
between
when > oo.
f(x)
dx
exists,
we may
Ja
= f(x)
for
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.45]
7.45
271
Given a plane curve r = f(d), where f(0) is continuous for a < ^ ft,
find a formula for the area of the sector bounded by the arc AB
we
and the
radii
OA,
OB
given by
a,/?.
0,
angle
by
radii of inclinations
n_ x
<on = p.
o
OPQ be a typical
Fis 75
bounded by
=
radii
r 6r+1 Construct two circular
arcs with centre
and radii r =f{6r ), r + 8r = f(0r+1 ), forming the
circular sectors OPM, ONQ whose areas are
Let
sector,
(or+1 0
2
r ),
The area of
lies
OPQ
lies
w+*rndr+1 e
r ).
OAB
between
r=0
r=0
When n > co and the differences 6r+1 dr >0, these two sums tend
rfi
to the
common Mmit
2
${f(6)} dd.
Hence
Ja
area of sector
If r steadily decreases as
OAB = 1
Cfi
r*dd.
(ii)
^ Ja
increases
increases
47r,
the area
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
272
[7.46
Examples
(i)
Gardioid r
The curve
is
2\br*d8=
Jo
a( 1
+ cos 6).
initial line, so
the area
is
a 2 (l+cos0) 2 *0
Jo
a2
(l
Jo
f*i
r*dd
$a 2
e 2 *0<20
x,
r2
is
[e 2fc
0$
7.46
>
Formula
(ii)
x2 + y2
xy
tan#
and
= ,
xyyx
2\
^L,
B correspond to =
t
area of sector
OAB =
, t2 ,
0(),
?/
^(),
then
1
r*dd
=
/*
d#
r 2 ^<ft
The change of variable is valid if ddjdt, i.e. xy yx, retains the same
sign for t x < t < t 2 If it does not, the range must be divided up and
.
(hi)
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.5]
273
Examples
(i)
Ellipse
a cost, y
as
a;
&sinf.
increases
from
y = a&(cos
qai
dec
at
at
area
to 2n. Since
2
+ sin 2 1) =
1 r8
 I
abdt
2 Jo
ab,
nab.
after simplification.
Fig. 76
Volume of a
7.5
Fig. 77
solid of
known
crosssection
function <j>{x).
a,
b (fig. 77).
GPMI
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
274
%cy
slices
* *
[7.5
by planes through
*^ti
^*
The shoe determined by xr xr+1 lies between inner and outer cylinders
xr ), where mr r are the
with volumesf mr (xr+1 xr ) and
r (xr+1
least and greatest values of <p(x) for xr ^ x ^ #r+1 Hence the total
volume lies between
,
n1
n1
 %r
^(V+1  x
and
r)>
r=0
r=0
and when w
the
> 00
and the
common limit
differences
b
<f>{x)
Thus
dx.
Ja
F=
f 0(a)
Ja
(i)
<fo.
ny 2 dx.
(ii)
Ja
Example*
Find the volume of the
ellipsoid
xi
yZ
c2
z
+ +
1.
z
iL +
62
c2
xi
ellipse (see
Ch. 17)
a2
constant,
(iii)
The area
The
<f>{x)
(i)).
The volume
(iii)
by x 2 = a 2 Hence when
.
X = a, we obtain half the volume of the ellipsoid, viz. %nabc. The total volume
is
fnabc.
Remark.
cylinder
is
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
275
Exercise 7(c)
Find
the area
enclosed by a
= x 2 (a2  x 2 ).
under
one arch of the cycloid x
2
1
>
a(l
cos 0).
=x y =x
h 2 , prove that the area enclosed by ax2 + 2hxy + by 2
4 If ah
is
nly](abh2 ).
Sketch the following curves {allowing r
enclosed. (Cf.
Ex.
1 (e),
5 r
a(2 + cos0).
6 r2
7 r
asin20.
8 r
cos 20.
11
r 2 sin
10 r
12 r
= e"0, =
< < %n.
2tt
(ii)
the area
= a2 sin 2(9.
= acos30.
and find
nos. 1215.)
asec 2 0,
to
to \n.
J7r,
20
and r =
a( 1
a2
for
/r
which
to %n.
<
(i)
<
\n\
is
x = aBm 2 t, y =
16
acht, y
baiiit coat.
17 a;*+2/*
a*.
Show
18
= 0,tu.
Find
the
= t(t 2 1), y =
/(l
+ t3
is
traced as
about Ox.
22
23
24
x{a x) 2 , x
= to a.
21 x = acos 3
x~ a(0sin0), y  a(lcos0), = to 2n.
l/r = 1 +cos0,
= to a (0 < a < n).
The area between the parabolas y 2 = ax, x 2 = ay.
20 Say 2
*,
asin8 *,
to \n.
14.
= f(x) from x =
a to x
6 is rotated
about
/ft
02/
is
2n
xydx.
Ja
= a,
182
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
276
7.6
[7.6
Length of a curve
7.61 Definition,
'
P ,P^, ,Pni
Pn B is
. . .
nl
sn
~ 2
PrPr+l>
r=0
for
AB.
measured from the fixed point A to the variable point P. The direction
along the curve in which s increases can be chosen arbitrarily in one
of two ways.
If the equation of the curve is of the form y = f(x), we measure s to
increase with x; if x = g (y), with y; if x = </>(t) and y = fr(t), with t;
if r =f(6), with 6; and if 6 = g(r), with r. The direction of increasing
s may clearly be different for alternative representations of the
same curve.
Fig. 79
Fig. 78
of 7.61
cr
f
{{xr+1
Pr have coordinates
Pr Pr+1 (fig. 79). Thenf
(1) let
(xr ,yr ),
 xr f + (yr+1  yr f$.
and
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
277
If the curve has equation y = f(x), then yr = f(xr and yr+1 = f(xr+1
7.62]
).
from
Vr+l Vr=
f'ilZr)
(*r+i
~ *r)>
cr
(xr+1
and
sn
).
r=0
all
differences
xr+l xr
Jc
/
The limit
If
first
Thus
them.
Similarly,
9(y)
nT*
For the curve defined parametrically by x = <f>(t), y = ifr(t), first
<f>(t) steadily increases from a to b as t increases from t
to t 2
suppose
(so
that dxjdt
which
s is
is
not negative).
By
(i)
(in
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
278
If
<j){t)
steadily decreases
from b to a as
[7.63
from
increases
to t v then
ta " ft
"f(TS"j:("*fflT*
with the minus because now dxjdt is nonpositive. This formula applies
increases.
Example
Cycloid x
a( 1
cos 6).
dy
dx
_ = a(l+co
8+
^=,
B 0),
(^) =
(^)
=
Hence in fig. 23 of 1.61, the
arc
2a
2
(
+ cos 6) = 4a
cos 2 \d.
OP has length
rd
2a cos #<20
4a sin $6.
JO
7.63 Polar formulae for arclength
From x
=
r cos
cos
eft
6 and y
we find that
r sin
=7
f sm v jT
eft
eft
and
"
and hence
'
sin(97
+ rcos07
eft
eft
eft
"
'
'
'
"
"
and
t,
if
the arc
is
traced as
(iv)
from 6
where
s is
(by putting
s being
is
l(
r.
6.
g{r),
1+r2
= /(#),
0)
(*))*'
r x to
(Ti)
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.64]
279
For a given arc AB, the cartesian and polar formulae always give
s, but the signs may be different. For
example, this will be so for (i) and (v) when x and 6 do not increase
the same numerical value for
together.
7.64 Derivative of s
(where
and by deriving
this
wo x,
=
Similarly,
[i
from formulae
ds
^={ i+
W]* =
(ii)(vi)
/dxy\l
1+
(
ay
f.
we find
ds
y HU)
t/dx\*
/dyY)i
(u)
(i)}>
'
(m)
(vi)\
(iv)', (V)',
Exercise 7(d)
1
c ch (x/c)
measured from
(0,c) to (x,y).
2 Sketch the astroid x = a cos 3 t,y = a sin8 , and find its total length.
3 Sketch the curve y = log sec a; for \ti < x < \it. Prove
*
= logtan(Jw+^ar)
V(l
+ 9x/4a). Find
the
5 If 8
^ 2 COS2
jo
where a
tan 1
Sin2
.^2.]
dd
(2
Jo
S2 ^
Sin2
^ d +
f"
2 0S2
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
280
7 If 8
is
prove 3s
4a;
+ Sy
2
.
= x{lx)
[7.7
of the curve
(x, y)
2
,
+ cos 6).
= ae k0 from (rlf d x
a( 1
Kr
to
11
tan t
2asec,
( \n <
3na.
by
<
Check
this
Find the
]* sec
Odd.
V(*
*15 s
+ 2ar).
7.7
7.71
so far
a cos 0.
*14 a
[{/'(#)
we have
discussed
'
area
= OT.
[Use formula
(ii).]
'
We
first
con
and
We
'flattened out')
(i.e.
p*t\r%
/
/
7
p.
of
r
*
\
\
bounded by the
fig. 80, let
7Tr^l x
Fig. 80
viz. nrl.
Now
77T 2
VP1 =
and
x,
VP2 =
since rx r %
Trr x {l x
Z )
2
hx
2,
this expression
+ nrSx ~ h) = n
ri
can be written
+ r z) (h ~ h)
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.72]
281
continuous arc
P1 P
polygon'
...Pn _ 1
PV P
Sn
Let
Sn
tends to a limit
Pr+
Pr
yr+i
xr+1
xr
Fig. 81
yr );
let
+ yr+1
7r(yr
cr
Hence
n1
$n = I>(2/r + 2/r+l)<Vr=0
Since cr
arci^+1 =
==
sr+1
7T
r=0
Because
sum is
(Pr
sr+1
sr
tends to zero
P Pr+1
AB' shows
all
arcs
c\
j
Pr Pr+1
(and thereforef
The
all
tend to zero.
sum
%y
r=0
all
2nM [oxg AB
r=0
chords
<>r}
2nM
The
If
)
r=0
cr is the
are positive.
this
<j>'{x)
>
for
x>
a.
AP
can
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
282
[7.8
Since %(yr +yr+ i) lies between yr and yr+1 then by the assumed
continuity of y this expression is a value of y taken at some point of
the arc between r and r+1 (2.65, Corollary). Therefore when n^oo
,
and
all
arcs
P
P Pr+1
r
cr
sum
first
at B), which
is
Umit of Sn Thus
.
2n
yds.
Jo
By
Example
Find the area of the surface obtained by rotating the cardioid r
through angle n about the initial line.
By
+cos#)
=r 2 +
/dr\
= a2 (l + cos0) 2 + (asin0) 2 =
/_J
2a 2 (l
+ cos0);
angle
a(l
7.64 (v)',
(ds\
also
it
is
Cn
2tt
Jo
da
yr^do
d&
2n f aaind(l
Jo
2<j2na2 J'sui^l
+ coad)a*j2(l + coad)idd
+ cos0)*<20.
7.8
Centroids.
= ^TTa 2
The
centre of
mass of
{x z ,y 2 ), ...,(xn ,yn ) in
(x,y),
particles of masses
where
m m
v 2 *,mn at {xx y t ) }
defined in Statics to be the point
,
^ ^
a plane
is
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.82]
By regarding a
tary masses dm,
we
xdm
I
body
is
sum of elemenby
dm
* = ~r
If the
283
ydm
y=
[
I
zdm
dm
^
I
(ii)
dm
dm are proportional
the same as the centroid of the figure, a point defined independently of statical considerations. Thus the ^coordinate of the
centroid of an arc, an area, or a volume is respectively
(x, y, z) is
\xdA
\xds
J
jds
\xdV
J
'
jdA
'
(m)
jdV
these.
7.82
Summary of wellknown
results
integration.
TJNirORM BODY
CENTEOID
Rod
Midpoint
Rectangle
Intersection of diagonals
Intersection of medians
Triangle
Circle
Centre
Midpoint of axis
'shell')
base
t This definition involves reference to a system of coordinate axes. It is important
to show that, relative to the body, we obtain the same point whatever axes are chosen
i.e. that the definition is actually independent of the choice of coordinate system.
This will be done for a lamina in Ex. 15(e), no. 7.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
284
[7.83
Theorems of Pappus
7.83
and
and volumes.
rotates about an axis in its plane, and
arc
a
curve
an
If
of
Theorem I.
the axis does not cut the arc, then the area of the surface generated is
equal to the length of the arc multiplied by the length of the path of
its
centroid.
an arc AB of length
Ox and measure arclength from A
Proof. Given
By
by the
<r,
(fig.
82).
If
is
the centroid of
is
2n
yds, which
is
equal to 2nycr;
Jo
and 2ny is the length of the (circular) path of G in the rotation about Ox.
Fig. 83
Fig. 82
Theorem
plane,
and
II.
If a closed curved
is rotated
about an axis in
its
own
closed curve
a,
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.83]
2/1) &x
strip
285
>
(y2 yi)dx
Ja
Cb
by 7.43.
The volume generated
areas under
is
AQQ'B, APP'B',
viz. f n(y\
Ja
 y\
dx,
and
by the
this is equal to
Examples
A circle of radius a is rotated about a line in its plane at distance b( > a) from
(i)
the centre.
Find the surface area and volume of the anchor ring (or torus)
so formed.
Find
(ii)
a semicircular arc;
radius a.
The centroid in each case will
as shown (fig. 84).
(a)
By Theorem
surface
I,
lie
(b)
a semicircular area, of
a sphere of radius
is
2a jn.
(b)
By Theorem
solid is
is 2ify.\iTa % .
This
2ny %na2
.
%nas ,
and
y=
4a
Bit
(iii)
sector of
initial line.
a plane curve
toith
is rotated
about the
Show that the volume generated is ^njr3 sin 6d6. taken between suitable
We
t
exact,
by
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
286
[7.83
7rr 3 sin0<J0.
6.
Fig. 85
Fig. 84
For the
cardioid, the
%na? [
{\
+cos0) s sin0<Z0
half) is
= %na s P u3 du = %naa
Jo
Jo
on putting u =
+ cos 6.
Exercise 7(e)
Find
= a to +a.
2 Bay 2 = x(ax) 2 x =
3
t =
to \n.
3 x = acos *, y = asin
4 x = a(0sin0), y = a(lcos0), d = to 2tt.
to a (0 < a < n).
5 l/r  l+eos0, 6 =
1
x2 + y2
a2 x
to a.
t,
6 solid cone.
7 conical surface.
8 solid hemisphere.
9 hemispherical surface.
circular arc,
(ii)
ellipse
a circular sector,
a.
13 Find the polar coordinates of the centroid of the area of the complete
cardioid r = a(l + cos 6), and deduce the volume formed by rotating it about
the tangent x = 2a.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.9]
287
and deduce the area of the surface formed by rotation of the curve about the
tangent y
2a.
two loops of
17 (i) The area bounded by an arc of a curve and two straight lines through
the origin is rotated through angle 2n about Ox. Prove that the volume
generated is

%n\y(xyyx)dt,
taken between suitable limits.
(ii) If the area bounded by the ellipse x = a cost, y = b&uit and the radii
to t = 0, t = a is rotated about Ox, prove that the volume generated is
f7ra2>
7.9
Moments of inertia
7.91
Dynamical introduction
2 sin a
^e.
By
limit of a
sum
its kinetic
energy is
of such particles,
we
see that
since
Fig> 86
J
is
called the
moment of
about the
form
Mk
2
,
axis of
where
Tc
is
axis.
7.92 Examples
An
axis along
(fig.
87)
M = 2ap.
perpendicular bisector.
and PQ
fa px dx = pa
2
since
its
OP = x
= pfa2
8x,
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
288
(ii)
Let
Rectangular lamina;
AB =
by
Since
ex.
2a.
(i)
m.i. of
m.i.
[7.92
each strip
of rectangle
Y.\a
8m
parallel to
AB.
W,
8m = \a 2 T,8m = \Ma 2
PQ
8x
i
Fig. 87
(iii)
Fig. 88
Divide the disc into concentric rings, and consider the ring bounded by
circles of radii x, x + 8x. Approximately, the mass is 2nx8xp and the m.i. is
(2mx8xp)x 2
.*.
m.i. of disc = hm.T>2npx 3 8x
.
ro
M = na
since
2npx % dx
Afa2
p.
Fig. 89
(iv)
fynpa1
J o
Fig. 90
Divide the sphere into circular discs perpendicular to Ox. The disc of radius y
at distance x from
and of thickness 8x has mass ny 2 8xp. Hence by ex. (iii),
its m.i. about Ox is
\(uy 2 8xp)y 2 = inp(a 2  x 2 ) 2 8x,
since x 2 + y 2 = a 2
m.i. of sphere = lim 2 \np(a 2 x 2 ) 2 8x
\7Tp{a 2
\
x 2
2
)
J a
=
since
M = %na
p.
ffnpa*
= fMa2
dx
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.92]
jx2 dm =
=
about Oz
m.i.
jy
a;2
The
result
+ ^2 +
(fig.
By
the symmetry,
dm = jz 2 dm.
2
(x 2
)dm
+ y 2 + z 2 )dm
2 r
 a 2 dm
I
= \Ma2
_ q^z + z %  OP 2 =
91).
joN dm = j (x2 +y
since
289
a2
Fig. 91
Fig. 92
/a
m.i.
.'.
of ellipse
z
%py dx
a
fa
On the ellipse, x
a cos
<f>
and y =
s
\py dx
3
3
f/o& sin 0(
21
JO
asva.^>)d<j>
Jin
tpab3
i7t
sin 4 <f>d(f>
ipab 3
JO
=
since
by
7.46, ex.
Similarly, m.i.
(i),
Inpab*
= 1Mb 2
M = nabp.
3.1
472 2
of a
is
body about a
\Ma2
certain axis is
down without
further integration
GPMI
by
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
290
7.93
The m.i.
of a body about
any axis
[7.93
is
Mh
2
,
where h
is the distance
between
two axes.
Proof.
of the
OA
body
from
to this axis,
and Oy
Fig. 93
Let the particle P of the body have coordinates (x, y, z) and mass 8m.
Then, with the notation of the figure, the m.i. of the body about Oz is
IG
Since
OA =
h,
= jpQ 2 dm =
^(x 2 + y2 )dm.
is
j{(x2 + y 2 ) + h 2  2hx} dm
= j(x2 + y 2 dm + h 2 jdm 2h jx dm
)
=
as
jxdm =
0; this is
+ h2 M
so that in particular x
from
(ii)
of 7.81.
is
the origin
(0, 0, 0),
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
7.94]
291
Example
Bod of length 2a about a perpendicular axis through one end.
Here h = a and I G = \Ma* by 7.92, ex. (i). So
about an end
m.i.
which
is easily verified
The
by
direct integration.
about a side of
length 26,
applies to
is
true
7.94
for a lamina
Proof.
of
94,
fig.
Examples
(i)
By
(ii)
\M6 a
.'.
(ii)
its centre.
the m.i. about axes through the centre and parallel to the
.
m.i.
= $M{a* + 6 2
).
and parallel
to sides 2c.
By
and
By symmetry
the m.i. about any two diameters are the same, say I. Since
the m.i. about a perpendicular axis through the centre is \Ma z (7.92, ex. (iii)),
hence
(This
I+I
is
similarly
by
= lMa\
when 6 = a
i.e.
= \Ma\
direct integration.)
+ 2/a /6 a + z*/c 2 =
Divide the solid into laminae by planes parallel to yOz. As in the example in
7.5, the section at distance a; is an ellipse of area nbc(lx z /a 2 ). Hence the mass
192
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
292
=
m.i. of ellipsoid
about Ox
j
since
inpbc(b* + c*)
M = %nabcp by
77p6c(6 2
[7.95
using
+ c 2 (l~^8x.
is
{\^dx = %7rpbc(b
),
example.
7.5,
This summarises
to
a useful aid
memory.
If Ox, Gy, Gz are perpendicular axes of symmetry^ which cut the body
at
X, Y, Z,
then
GY + GZ
2
m.i. about
Gx = mass x 
3 or 4 or 5
is
4 for a circular or
elliptic disc;
its
plane
is
zero;
and
all cases.
Exercise 7(f)
Assume in this exercise that each body has mass M, and is uniform unless otherwise
stated. The results of 792, exs. (i), (iii) may be quoted.
Find by
1
direct integration the m.i. of the following bodies about the axes stated.
1 Rod of length 2a; axis meeting it at distance c from the centre and inclined
to the rod at angle d.
3
Lamina bounded by
b;
perpendicular axis
through centre.
4 Solid right circular cylinder of radius a; axis of symmetry.
5 Isosceles triangle of height h; axis through the vertex and parallel to the
base.
f If a
this
O.
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
6 Solid right circular cone of baseradius
7 Segment of parabola y2
r;
293
axis of symmetry.
b;
(i)
about Ox;
(ii)
= b.
8 Solid formed
about
in no. 7
Use
11
to its plane
(i)
of the following.
a diameter;
(ii)
an axis perpendicular
line
its
plane.
15
its
16 Isosceles triangle of height h; axis through the centroid parallel to the base.
[Use no.
5.]
17 If IA
the m.i. of a body about an axis through A, show that the formula
will give correctly the m.i. about a parallel axis through B, at
distance h from the first, only if either (i) A is G, or (ii) GAB is a rightangle.
is
= Ia + MW
18 Solid right circular cylinder of radius a and height h about (i) a diameter
of an end; (ii) an axis through the centre perpendicular to the axis of symmetry;
(iii) a tangent to an end.
;
(i)
(ii)
a tangent
m.i.
*21 The density at any point of a circular lamina of radius a varies as its
distance from the centre. Find the m.i. about (i) a perpendicular axis through
the centre; (ii) a diameter; (iii) a tangent.
*22 Find the m.i. of the area enclosed by r 2 = a 2 cos 20 about a perpendicular
axis through the pole. [Divide into sectors, regarding each as a rod whose density
is proportional to the distance from the pole.]
2 into
two parts
2 Sketch the curve y 2 = a 2x/(2a~x), and prove that the area enclosed by
the curve and the line x = a is (n 2) a 2 Also prove that the volume obtained
by rotating this area about Ox through two right angles is flra8 (log 41).
.
= a cos 2 1 sin
t,
= a cos t sin 2
/,
and
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
294
= g(6) are closed curves surrounding the pole, and the second
4 If r =f(6), r
lies
between them
first,
is
Show
5 Sketch the curve r = ath0. Find the length s of the arc and the area
a(s r).
of the sector measured from 6 =
to 6 = a, and prove 2
such that
c.
is
is
if x
and y =
point where
i/r
when
rjr
\tt.
is
i/r),
c sin
c;
prove
i/r
\tt.
x{a x) 2
is
x=Zat 2
represented parametrically
= a(t3ti
by
),
is
*11
x2
a2
b2
c2
_ +y
for
which x
12
is
semicircle
ellipsoid
z2
line
\~n.
Sketch the curve y 2 = x 3 /(a x) (a > 0). Find the area between the curve
asymptote, and the volume obtained by rotating the area about this
asymptote. Hence obtain the coordinates of the centroid of the area.
15
and
16
its
this
INTEGRATION AS SUMMATION
295
A A A9
= aainz between
(0, 0)
and
(it,
Find the
(assumed uniform).
20 Rectangular lamina of sides 2a, 2b; about a diagonal. [Use Ex. 7 (/), no.
2.]
2 1 The density of a solid sphere of radius a varies as the square of the distance
from the centre. Find the m.i. about a diameter. [Method of 7.92, ex. (v).]
296
We
7.6. It is desirable
to introduce
(2)).
Q
Fig. 95
(a) The positive tangent. A line drawn from P along the tangent at
P in the direction of increasing s is the positive tangent at P.
may
(7.61 (2)),
The angle
ijr.
i/r
by n + fr. For
either sense,
(tt
we
still
tan ijr.
is
equivalent to
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.12]
297
From formula
(i)'
of 7.64
we have
(i)
dx
\dx
so that
and hence
ds2
on converting to
(ii)',
(hi)'
7.61
dsjdx
differentials.
tan ijr,
ds
By
(ii)
of 7.64.
Since dyjdx
(a)
dx2 + dy2
(2), s
0;
is
and
(i)
also
{1
shows that
i}r.
x.
It follows that
in the direction of x
is
Hence the
dx'.dy.ds
(hi)
reversed
is
(hi)
owing to
then cos^r,
(e.g.
are unaltered.
They are
= dximdBT =
= PR 2 + RT* =
dy,soby(ii)
ds
PT*,
dy
/?\
i.e.
PT =
ds.
Although 8x
xlr
dx, in general 8y
H=
dy
F r
chordPQ _
arcPQ "
{(8x) 2
8s
2
when
8s > 0,
i.e.
when P
(l)T
dx
+ (8y)*}i
=(
Fig. 96
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
298
[8.13
Remarks
(a)
when
(8x) 2
Ss is small,
as follows:
(ii),
+ (8y) 2
== (8s) 2 .
(/?)
26 at
theorem &
gives
a
sin0
.
hm 5 =
Compare
about
2.12,
where
this result
1.
'area'.
A relation between s
to a variable point P)
at
and a
and
fixed line)
is
of the curve
i/r
i/r,
and
Examples
(i)
tan yr
of the cycloid
= ^d + rnr; and n =
Hence
By the example in 7.62, we have
8
(ii)
The
a( 1
cos 6).
4a sin ijr.
naturally, as in ex.
(ii).
catenary.
by a uniform
r/r
ifr
Sometimes the
smd
n
= tan id.
+ cos o
= when 6 =
since
dx
dy
Let
Fig. 97
unit length of the chain (w is constant
because the chain is 'uniform').
of the chain is in equilibrium under the three forces T,
The part
and weight ws. Resolving vertically and horizontally,
AP
T sin
^5r
ws,
T co&ijr = T
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.13]
By
tan^ = ws/T
division,
i.e.
where
to find
parametric equations.
sin
i]r.
=
77
dyr
dy ds
77 = sm w.csee
yr.
ds dyr
2/
+ constant.
c sec yr
= c when yr =
then y
0;
csec yr.
= cos yr,
dx
rr
dyr
dx ds
7
tt
2
Gosyr
r .csec \If
T
ds dyr
= jc sec yrdyr =
if axes
tan ijr,
= TJw.
(iii)
299
c sec yr.
r
c log (sec yr
+ tan yr)
= when yr = Q.
we may obtain a; as follows, working with s instead
Alternatively,
= COS^r =
dx
<fc
V(*
V(l+tan 2 ^)
2
+ ca
"
1 (tan
c sh
c log (tan yr
c sh
1
of yr:
V(*
I
+c 2 )'
constant
^) + constant
+ sec ^) + constant
when ^ =
0,
Remarks
z
c 2 sec 2
^=
(a)
(A)
^ = tanv^ =
Integrating
c2
+ c2 tan2 ^ =
^V(2/
c2
c 2 ), by
+s 2
(a).
ch^ = * + 4.
c
= c when x =
0,
then
4=
and
= cch,
c
which
by
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
300
[8.14
Exercise 8(a)
1
Find the
curve
f=
3
0, s
0.
Show that
= log tan
can be written
log sin y.
logchs by
first
proving sin^
ths
From x =
dx
rcosd, y
rsin#
we have
(ii)
of 8.12
ds2
we deduce
dy
(v)'
(iv)
of 7.64,
and embodies
(iv)'
and
there also.
We now
introduce an angle
similar to that of
Definition.
<f>
<f>
whose
^ in cartesians.
is
tangent at P.
Fig. 98 is the simple 'standard ' case;
fig.
r is negative.
We may choose
<p
to be in the range
<$>
<
e+0 = 4
to within an integral multiple of 2n.
cos (j>
cos
cos
{ft
Hence
6)
te*
as r
+ as
fy_r
_ xdx + ydy
rds
by8 .i2,(iii)
.
'
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.14]
Since r
+y
2
,
therefore rdr
301
= .
cos 6
ds
Similarly,
sin <f)
sin
(ip~
6) =
sin
\jr
cos
cos
dy x
ds r
ds r
rds
i/r
sin 6
'
Fig. 100
sec 2 0dd
(r
2
lx )dd,
so
sin
dd
<p
ds
is measured to increase with 6, this last
and r have the same sign:
^ n when r >
(Since s
sin
<j>
when r <
<j>
By division we find
cot0
The
shows that
and n ^
^ 2n
result
0,
results
dd
can be summarised as
cos <f> sin 0:1
:
= dr.rdQ: ds,
(v)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
302
[8.14
Fig. 101
Examples
Find the curve for which
(i)
Let k
cot a; then k
<f>
is constant and
(l/r) (drjdd),
8
If r
a when 8
0,
then
^logr + c.
k
= (l/fc)loga, and 8 =
= ae k& = ae &eota
Find
(ii)
the
i.e.
ad
(spirals of Archi
First
If <J>'
is
so(ifa*7T)
tan <p
= tan0tana =
where k
variables
r
c is
<j>
a, and
kd
we find
c(d
+ k) kt + l eM,
an arbitrary constant.
then on the orthogonal curve we have
\tt,
cot 0'
= tan
Idr
from which
(iii)
If a
get
6+k
where
We
rdd/dr
rd0
r2 =
= 6,
<j)
= 6
'
c e~6 *.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.14]
= tan
cot <j>'
(r, 6),
(j>
\tt,
303
so that
=
g{r,ey
curve(s)
1
we have
dr
rdd~~g(r,e)'
and therefore
This
is
f{r, 6,
r2
j^j =
0.
(iv) Reflector
property of the
SP+S'P =
ellipse.
2a,
S'P =
the relation
is
r + r'
Deriving
wo
2a.
s,
dr
dr'
ds
da
.*.
= cos
cos
i.e.
Fig. 102
0,
<j>'
cos (n 0')
and so
7r 0'.
Hence the angles between the focal radii and the tangent at P are equal; i.e. the
and normal at P are the anglebisectors of SPS'. Cf. Ex. 17 (6), no. 14.
tangent
Exercise 8(6)
1
Find
rn
a(l
cos 6) makes
angle 0
= acosd,
= a(l cos#)
and
find their
angle of intersection.
for
which
<j>
= nd.
perpendicular to OP meets
the tangent and normal at U, H, then U, OH,PU,
are called the polar subtangent, subnormal,
tangent, normal respectively. If r' denotes drjdd,
prove
PH
5
OH = r'.
PU = r<J(r
6
2
+ r'*)/r'.
OU = r*/r'.
PH = V(r + r'
2
2
).
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
304
Find
9
Find
OH =
which
10
OU = a.
11
OH = OU.
13 r
a(l
+ cos0).
14 r 2
16 r
a(l
+ 2cos#).
17 #2 + 2/ 2
18 x 2 + y 2
[8.2
ax.
= a 2 cos20.
=
a(:
15
y)
[first
12
a being
r3
PH = a.
the 'parameter.
a 3 cos 30.
convert to polars].
+ y 2 + a{x 2  y 2 = 0.
for which rr' = k 2 and 6 =
a(a; 2
19
curves.
8.2
{p t
r)
equation
8.21 Definition
p=
Since r sin $
r sin <f>.
r 2 dO/ds
increase with 6,
it
and
is
measured to
s is
follows that
when
polar co
never negative.
of the curve
is
Fig. 104
called
cm
Write u
\jr;
then
du
__
dr
dd~~7*dd~
Since
p=
r sin
(J),
1 _
p*~
cosec 2 <ft
r
_ 1 + cot 2 ^ _ 1 + 1 (dry\
~
~r 2 [ r 2 \dd) /'
r2
f
(duy
W
....
(i)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.23]
305
Examples
(i) Equiangular spiral. Since (j>
equation is p = rsina.
(ii)
Lemniscate r 2
Derive
wo
(i)),
the (p, r)
= a 2 cos 26.
2r
0:
/dry _
~
= 2a
^
ad
sin 26.
a4 r4
a 4 (lcos 2 20)
a* sin 2 26
\dd)
Hence by equation
(i),
ai  ri
I
p'
so that r 6
(iii)
=
=
\\
(
\
?"
^
r6
'
r3 = a 2p.
a*p 2 andf
Cardioid r
Since r
r2
2
7*
a(l
f
cos0).
2a cos 2
*"
r^ =  tan ^'
= tan 0 = cot (0 + \tt),
= 0 + 7T.
= rcos0, therefore p 2 = r 2 cos 2 0 = r3 /2a, andj
cot
and
As# =
(iv)
rsin$6
Rectangular hyperbola x 2 y 2
= a2
= a2
Hence by equation
r3 .
i.e.
a 2u%
wo0:
du
= sin 26.
d6
(ii),
/sin20\
= u +l\
a u
1
>
,
2
= u2 +
.*.
p2 =
la w
a*u 2
sin 2 26
a*u 2
a*u 2
a4 /r 2
andf
pr = a2
(p, r) equation
= w 2o +
a*w 2
from
relation of the
a2u
2op 2
(\\r)drjdd, elimination of
= f(r)
(j) gives a
which, on integrating, leads to the
20
(p, r)
(i)
of 8.22, where
equation,
is
is
a known function of
GPM I
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
306
[8.23
Example
Find
= r2
2ap
Since
sm
r2
2 =
=p
<p
4a 2
cosec 2 d>
4a
and
and
found from
1.
do
= 2asin(0 + c).
When
4a
cot 6
Therefore from
cot 2 d>
is
the
it.
Exercise 8(c)
Find
rd
4 xy
is
2 r n sinn0
a.
an
5
x /a
+y
\b
Ztt=l + ecos0.
8
6 Prove that the tangent at the point t to the curve x = acos 8 <, y = asin
x sin t + y cos t = a sin t cos t. Hence find the {p, r) equation wo O as pole.
Find
7
p2 =
ar.
2ap 2
9 r2
r3 .
op.
to prove that dp =
Use p = r sin and sin <fidr = r cos
Deduce that dp/di/r = rcos<j>.
Definition. The relation between p and rjr for a curve is
* 10
r cos
56 (<20
+ d<fi).
ijf)
Prove p 2 + (dp/di/r) 2
r2 ,
r dr/dp.
cos tjrf'dr)
+ sin ff(fjf)
and
sin ftf'tfr)
 cos ^/(^).
[Use no. 9 and x rcos# = rcoa(ifr $) = ....] (The results are parametric
equations of a curve whose (p, tjr) equation is given. Elimination of ijr gives the
cartesian equation.)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.3]
307
Curvature
8.3
8.31 Definitions
i.e.
arises
The mean
105) {fQ
PQ
is
Fig. 105
(6)
The curvature
Fig. 106
at
P is
lim *Q~*P
QKP S Q SP
P is
d\Ir
hm ~^ = f.
as
Sfs +Q os
we have
'
ds
Remarks
k does not depend on the point A from which s is measured, nor
line Ox from which
is measured; but its sign depends on the
sense in which s is measured.
at points where \Jr is stationary. These
(ft) We shall have k =
(a)
on the
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
308
(8)
^  B
8s,
and
This
is
and equal to
at the centre.
1 jB.
Then
8i]r
^.q8s
symmetrical,
same
at the
ss
8ifr
^  B
 Hm
8s
circle is
subtend angle
[8.32
it
bends everywhere
rate.
Because the curvature of a circle is conwe may compare other curves with
stant,
the
circle
of their rate of
respect
in
Fig. 107
bending.
The radius
of curvature
radius of curvature at
P
r
i.e.
= ~ = jTdyr
k
Bemarks
(e)
()
circle
a:
small curvature,
we may
has a
8.32
Formulae for x or
The
definition
di/rjds
convenient formulae.
(1)
Curve y =f(x).
From
and
l =tan ^
K
"1
^ = tan
(l)'
f
fJf = [^m\*co
dx
S
ds
dx ds
d 2y
dx*
\dx) J
8.32]
the positive
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
sign being chosen since cos ft = dxjds ^
x.
309
because s
is
Thus
dx 2
=
+
1
[
{dx
i
Remarks
k has the same sign as d 2yjdx2 it is positive if the curve is concave upwards (6.71 (2)) at P, negative if concave down.
(^) At a point of inflexion k vanishes and changes sign; for d2yjdx2
has this property (see 3.71).
(a)
(y)
At a point where
ft
0, i.e.
dyjdx
we have k = d 2yjdx 2
a particular point P we
0,
Curve x
g(y).
d 2x
dy 2
i+
,
Curve x
x{t),
_
(4)
is
correct if s
(dx\ 2
yj
is
y(t).
xy xy
Curve r=f{6).
Since
ft
= d+
and
<j>
f^
tan0 = ?/,
/
dft
=
 =
dO
ds
ds
d<
ds
ds\
ddj
do
y.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
310
Now
/dry
tan
dd
jdr\\
/dry
d 2r
drV
+ r2
\dd)
(dr\ 2 \l
ds
Also
d*r
\d6]
[8.32
Id
(dry
d*ri
Hmi
"
+r
&)
See also Ex. 8 (d), no. 14, and Ex. 8 (g), no. 20.
now
it is
simplicity of the
best to start
by
(p,r) equation.
_df_d6
~~
sin
also
A
<p
ds
ds
dd
A
cos0
^j>
1
.'.
64
ds
dr
ds'
= &m.6 +
.
~
cos
dr
dd>
1 d
as
=  r (rsino)
,
r dr
__ldp
'
r dr
Examples
(i)
Find p
4a cos w.
dyr
At the
vertex,
rjr
0,
and hence p
4a sin ft.
4a.
d)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.32]
Find pat
(ii)
12
y
*
At
(3,4),
t/'
=
x
dx
.
= f and
(iii)
xy
I2
so
= asm o,
,
/>
y
y
24
= (l+W/f =
= a cos <j>,y =
of the ellipse
12.
^
and
x%
=f
y"
311
b sin
W
<j>.
dy
= 6 cos.
dq>
d%x
da;
% d x*
2
d 2y
d *V
/daA
/dw\ 2
d0 d^ 2
and
This result can be written p = OD 2 /p, where p is the length of the perpenfrom the centre to the tangent at P, and OD is a semidiameter conjugate to OP: see 17.64, ex. (i).
dicular
Find pfor
(iv)
First
the cardioid r
we find the
a(
1+ cos 6).
2op 2
From
4op
this,
p=
r = r lap = 4a
dr
dp
*(v)
3r a
dr
dp
lr s
since
*<J{2ar)
/
2a cos 2 0,
< 7t).
Pind tfie
We
wo a; as in
02.02/
2
Zx
+ Zy 2y
3.41:
:.
At
viz.
r8 .
Yr*jTa
= V(2a.2a cos 2 0)
= fa cos 0 (7r <
(a)
(iii),
Deriving (a)
shows
wo
y'
{3y 2 + x) y'
,
o
2x
y xy
=
=
2x  y  3s2 .
(a)
=  1.
x:
= 2y'6x,
then y" = 2.
(6)
1 , 0),
Equation
sides vanish.
(a)
1,
and
y'
1,
p = Ji+il!
= _ ^2.
when x =
and y =
because both
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
312
[8.32
If x and y are small, then the terms x , y are small compared with x(x y),
the
so that the given equation is approximately x{x y) = 0. Hence near
curve has two branches approximating to x = 0, x y = 0.
Th# given equation can be written x = (x 3 + y3 )/(x y),so that on the branch
3
for which x =
we have x = (y s )/(y) = y z which gives a
mation to this branch. To get a still better one, consider
,
x + y*
x3 +xy 2
+ y2 =
x 3 + y3
xy
xy
^ 2^
x+
y
closer approxi
x = y
y
2
,
this gives
~zTy~
= ys
Thus x = g/ 2 + y 3
on the branch
for
Ty =
n
'
d 2x
dy*
n
= ~2
SO
>
that
{1
}*
=2=*
and
d 2y/dx 2
yy
V
Fig. 108
Exercise 8(d)
1 Find the radius of curvature of the catenary s = ctan ft at the vertex.
sla
2 Find the radius of curvature of the tractrix e~ = cos ft in terms of ft.
3 If p 2 = c 2 s 2 find the intrinsic equation of the curve.
,
6
7
and
*8
cch (a/c).
<fe
dK
*9 Prove that
10 If p 2
ar, find
r
ds
/?
\ds 2 }
ds 2 /ds
/(fe
dx d y
~
rr
ds ds 3
j
\ds*J
dyd3x
ds ds3
in terms of r.
a.
that 9p 2 + s 2
16a 2 for
<
<
n.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.4]
u',
313
rcosd, y
= mind
twice
ijf
sin
ijf
(b)
(c)
(<Z)
By
rjr
ijr
xjr
Prove
Ks
,s
and
(a)
r2
(c)
^+
(6)
and
(d),
2>
in 8.32 (4).
Find
x 2
*16
at (,1).
2/(x 2
+ 2/2 ) =
a;
?/3 at
(0, 0).
*17 2x 3 + y z
x 2
= y3
11.]
= a cos 0.
*22 Find the cartesian equation of the curves for which k times the radius of
curvature is equal to the cube of the normal (see 5.71).
8.4
Circle
Suppose a curve y
= f(x) and
a point
P on it are given,
and
also
family of curves y = g(x, a 1} a 2 ...) depending on a number of parameters. If the parameters are chosen so that the corresponding
,
member
6.72)
with y
= f(x)
at x
xQ
viz.
f(x
These give b
= f(x x
)
ax +b,
f'(x
a.
is
yfM =/'W
i.e.
at x
=x
This line will not in general have contact of order higher than the
first;
but
if f"{x
0,
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
[8.41
Osculating circle. The three constants
R in the equation
314
cc, /?,
(2)
= Rz
(x<x)* + (y/3)*
can in general be chosen to satisfy the three conditions for secondorder contact with y =f{x) at x
/(*o)
where
y',
/'M =
2/o>
viz.
f"M = Vo>
2/o>
by
0,
+ (2//?)2/" =
0.
(x*) + {yP)y'
l
2/'
in x for convenience)
suffix
(x*Y + {f{x)py =
If /"(#)
R*,
0,
+ {/'W+r(^){/(^)A} =
0.
(xcc)+f(x){f(x)/3}
we require
4=
1+/' 2
r
X OL
which are
sufficient to
determine a,
/?,
'
R 2 uniquely.
at P(x,y).
The
of curvature at P,
circle just
and
its
determined
centre
is
C(<x, /?) is
is
normal at P. (This
lies
(i).)
on
that
lies
is
the
Intui
the
i.e.
so since in deter
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.41]
mining the
As
we
circle
concavities at
chose y"
= /"
315
= (l+/ /2 )t//",henceby(i)
Since/'
a =
x psmtfr,
fi
y+pco8i/r.
Fig. 110
Fig. 109
If f{x)
(ii)
(which
is
R cannot be satisfied:
equations for a,
Fig.
In general
HI
Fig. 112
in the
theorem of
vature
is
The
6.72.
P;
m=2
Formulae
(ii)
are
still
valid in
fig.
112, since
is
negative there.
write
for
down
An
easier
/?
method
quickly (see
is
fig.
given in 8.53.
and used to
113).f
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
316
[8.42
PR
p
= %]imPR =
Q+P
since
PN > 0.
XCL
Fig. 114
Fig. 113
As we are
we
may first choose P to be the origin, taking Py along the inward normal
at P and Px along the tangent. Our result then becomes
This
is
Remark
(y)).
we have /(0) =
Hence
0, /'(0)
0,
and k =/"(0)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.42]
and
317
lim
x>0
=
if xf"'(dx)
when x >
>
lim
happens
0; this certainly
iff"'(x) is
bounded
Examples
(i)
Find
\p\
We have
xz
= lim  =
lim
J'md
2a.
y+Q 2y
x^O
Since
4ay.
/)
a;
Ipl
=
=
>
when x
COS
 = lim a sin 20 cos
= lim 2rsmd
2sin0
/"
1/
lim
x y
(/
> 0.
Hence
2y
_+ o
lim (a cos 0)
6 +o
a.
0O
\p\
touching
(iii)
Find
\p\
x6
+
a~i
y6
b*
9
/
i*
1.
r^ + fr
Fig. 115
referred to axes Ax, Ay'. The tangent at the new origin is not Ax but Ay';
hence we must interchange x and y before applying Newton's formula. We obtain
\p\
lim
= lim {b> l
b
xaA = lim
K\ = *
(2) To justify the assumption made at the beginning of this section, let Z
be the centre of the circle PQR. Assuming the continuity and derivability of
f(x), the distance r from Z to points of the arc PQ is also continuous and derivable, and is such that ZP = ZQ. Hence by Rolle's theorem there must be a
point Px of the arc between P and Q such that ZPX is a stationary value of r.
Taking Z as pole, we now show that when the radius vector of a curve is
stationary, it is normal to the curve. For drjdO =
gives cot
= 0, i.e. = $n.
Hence ZPX is normal to the arc at Pv and so Z is the meet of normals at P
and
Px
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
318
[8.5
+ {x _ g) = 0>
This cuts x = 0, the normal at P, where y =/() + //'(), and this is therefore
the ordinate of Z. When Px > P,  and/() +f(0) = 0, while
go
1
i
is
Our
m{y _
Z  G.
original
the point
Exercise 8(e)
1
(3, 4) for
the curve xy
12.
x2
v%
a2
62
+ =
1.
a xy
xyxy
(a,
be written
ft)
ellipse
is
given parametrically
by
y+x
xy xy
(x, y)
can
dx
Use this result to prove that the centre of curvature at the point 6 of the cycloid
x = a(8 sin 8), ?/ = a(l cos0) is a = a(0 + sin0), ft = a(l cos0). [First
show that rjr = \n
5 Find \p\ at the origin for x* + 3t/a = 2y.
6 Find \p\ at the origin for x i /a2 + (y b) 2/b i = 1. Interpret the result in
terms of the
7 Find
*8 Find
= 1.
= a sin 3d.
at the origin for y 2x 2 3xy + 4y 2
ellipse
\p\
\p\
x 2 /a 2 + y 2 /b 2
8.5
is
required as
far as 9.42.
8.51 Definition
(1)
depending on a parameter
(cf.
5.72).
a.
As a
varies,
Ca
we obtain a family of curves
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.51]
If,
for
each
Ca
curve
a, the
319
is
Ca
Let
touch
x
<f
Pa
The
coordinates of
Pa
x(oc),
y{cc).
x
it
at
(at present
Then
touches
Oa
x{t),
y{t);
a.
Flg 116
we now
(2)
The coordinates
(x, y)
f(x, y,
Proof.
<x)
it.
of any point on
and
$ satisfy
^f(x, y, a)
f(x(a),y(a),a)
for all a. Deriving this
"
on
0.
Oa
hence
(i)
!*'<*>+!,+! =o.
Since
cf. 9.42),
\dx
by
therefore
(dy
i.e.
touches
definite tangent at
on
<^
9.42,
Thus at
(ii.
at
otj
x '(a)"
(x(a), y(afj
on
Ca at
(#(a), 2/(a))^
L^/92/Js=s}r
we have
!*<)+!<) = o.
p)
0,
^f(x, y, a)
0.
0.
(iv)
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
320
The
from equations
is
[8.52
found by ehminating a
(iv).
obtained by solving
(iv) for
loci of
A singular
0. At such
and dfjdy
a point, equations (i) and (iii) are satisfied, and hence also dfjda, =
by (ii), so that equations (iv) still hold. To ensure that we have found
the genuine envelope we must verify that our solution of (iv) actually
point
(x,
y)
on
touches CL at
a.
8.52 Examples
(i)
x ocy + a 2
xocy + oc 2
2a and x
The parabola x oc 2 y
thepointais
from which y
is
has an envelope,
y + 2oc =
0,
it is
given by
0,
= oc 2
= 2oc is actually the envelope because its gradient at
.
da/
which
doc
oc'
xccy + cc 2
(fig.
117).
(v).
(0,<x)
Fig. 118
Fig. 117
(ii)
The family
(y
a) 2 x z =
_ a)2 =
{y
_ 2 y  a) = 0,
and the only points satisfying these lie on x = 0, i.e. the yaxis, which does not
determine
it
are
touch any member of the family (the reader should verify this by finding the
gradient of the given curve at (0, a)).
The yaxis is a locus of singular points of the family, for such points are given
by
= =3x 2 and
8x
(0, oc).
See
~
= 2(yot),
oy
118.
fig.
from which
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.52J
321
The first solution corresponds to the line x y = f which touches the curve
at (a + f , a + ; this should be verified by the reader.
The second solution corresponds to the line y = x; this does not touch the
curve at (a, a), and in fact is the locus of the singular points (cusps) of the
family (fig. 119).
,
Fig. 119
(iv) Find the envelope of a family of coaxal ellipses for which the
semiaxes is constant.
Choosing the
common axes as
x2
a~*
y2
a + fi =
where
last two,
<r
8 /a 8
the
a,
yff
(a; t
the envelope
is
detennined
dp~
from which
a+p _
+ y$
x$ + yt'
x*
in terms of
ellipse,
c,
dot
p da
2
8 Hence by
using properties of equal
y //?
a _ p _
x*
is
c.
yd/3
From the
we have
of the
a3
sum
x and
* )a+
2/
y.
^_ i(a;i +
x* + y*
ratios,
l )a
2/
1>
c*.
Since an ellipse has no singular points, we may conclude that this locus is in
fact the envelope of the family.
Alternatively we may begin by eliminating ft, and then proceed in the usual
If
has an envelope,
a?f{x, y)
it is
a,
the parameter.
+ ag{x, y) + h(x, y) =
+ g(x,y) =
0.
ft.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
322
i.e.
In general
this will
[8.52
4/A.
a2f+ag+h =
to
have equal
13).
The equation
roots.
is
y=f(p)pf'(p).
f'(p),
This singular solution is the envelope of the family of lines represented by the
general solution.
For the envelope is obtained by elimination of c from
y
i.e.
and
cx+f(c)
x = /'(c),
from
y =/(c)
x+f\c),
 c/'(c).
The curve thus determined is a genuine envelope since its gradient isf
dy
_ dy
dx
which
(vii)
is
Idx
_ f'(c)f'(c)cr(c) =
dcj dc
f(c)
= cx+f(c).
f{x, y, a)
f(x, y,a +
0,
Sec)
0.
and
f(x,y,a)
i.e.
Ca Ca+ $ a
and fa (x, y, )
0,
for
When
f{x,y,a)
and
^f(x,y,a) =
0.
Hence if neighbouring curves intersect, the limit of these intersections lies on the
envelope or on a locus of singular points of the family.
Remark. The envelope of a family used to be defined as the locus of the
limiting intersections of neighbouring members. This definition is not consistent
with the concept of the envelope as a curve which touches all members of the
family, because an envelope (in our sense) may exist even when neighbouring
3
curves do not intersect. For example, no two curves of the family y = (x a)
t
We
(cf.
is
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.53]
323
The
8.53
evolute of a curve
Definition.
The
sponding point
as the corre
this curve.
If the curve
is
The
a=
;.
normals
Proof. If P(x,y) is
(8.41,
to the curve.
equations
(ii))
= sin i/rdp,
and
similarly
dfi
dj3
.*.
^ = cot
ijr
cos
rjrdp.
P to the curve.
at C.
to the curve
C to the evolute.
is
C lies
Since
CP 2 = p 2
Examples
(i) Find the centre of curvature at the point t of the parabola x =
The normal at (at2 2at) is (see 16.31)
,
y + (x2a)tat*
Its envelope is given
by
this equation
(x la)
Hence
2a + 3at3
0.
and
Zat*
and
0.
= 2aP.
at2 ,
y=
2at.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
324
[8.54
and are
found by eliminating
Also
(7pa
_
=
*,
is
(2a + 2a*
2 2
4a (l+<
2
Find
(at
2at),
cartesian equation,
21ayK
+  2a*  2a*) 2
3
2 3
on factorising, so that
(ii)
4(c 2a) 3
The
\p\
2a(l
+* 2 )*.
x = acos<j>, y = osin0.
The normal at (acos^, bsmtj)) is (see
<f>
of the ellipse
y b sin 6
17.51)
\ tan^( acos0),
o
b sin <p
a2
sin <p =
.
62
Fig. 120
a
sin0.
by this and
xsec 2 ^
a*
from which
cos <f>,
l
We find that
V
COS 8 0.
a 2 6 2
sin 3
a
y cot <p x
,
a
cos
2
o2
<p
afresh.
sin 3 0]
= (a
2
ft
)*.
8.54
Provided that p steadily increases or steadily decreases along the given curve,
the arclength of the evolute is equal to the difference between the radii of curvature
corresponding to its extremities.
let
C C be
,
da
= sin ijrdp,
dfl
cos ijrdp.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
8.54]
Therefore
by
8.12, equation
(ii)
d<r*
325
d**+dfi*
dp*.
When s =
0, <r
= and p = p
s, i.e.
so c
Fig. 121
at (constant) distance p from this fixed point; i.e. the curve is a circle.
Corollary 2. The circles of curvature at neighbouring points of a curve do not
intersect.
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
326
Exercise 8(f)
Find
=  +ol 2
2 y
= x tan a
gx
..
+ fa,3
ocx
4 x sec a + y cosec a
a p
x2
a.
y2
h^
where
1,
cc
sum
+B =
is
c.
constant and
(0, c).
a cardioid.
9 Show that the envelope of y = a(x a) 2
member of the family for which <x = 0.
is
0,
and that
this is the
12
c2 ( 1
2a)
0.
11
is
(x
a) 3
do not
intersect.
What
*13 Verify that the process for finding envelopes applied to the family
u 2f+2ctg + g = 0, where/, g are functions of a; and y, leads to g(fg) = 0; and
that g = 0, fg =
are the members of the family corresponding to a = 0,
a = 1 respectively. Assuming that g Q,f <7 = 0do not touch, verify that
no other members of the family touch either g = or/ g = 0, so that the family
has no envelope.
Find
14 x
16 x
*18
a;
= at y = at
= ach<, y = 6sh.
= acos 3 y = asin8 .
3
t,
and
15
17 x
the evolute of
= ct, y = c/t.
= a(t tht), y =
aaeoht.
is
a(l
zero.
= a 2 sin 2a,
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
4 The tangent and normal at P to the curve r
O perpendicular to OP at A, B. Prove OB OA =
(dr/dd) 2 : r2 .
0.
Find
its
(i)
OB/OA =
equation,
327
r  oo
(ii)
5 If cot $ varies as the ordinate of the point of contact of the tangent, prove
that the curve concerned is a conic having a focus at the pole and eccentricity
equal to the value of cot <f> when 6 = \tt.
x,
y in terms of \Jr.
A curve is given by
if axes
Show that
a;sinf0 ycosffl
is
sin 40)
a(4 sin
5asin$0.
With O as pole, prove that the (p,r) equation is r z = 9a2 + fp 2 , and deduce
the radius of curvature at the point 6. Find the arclength from 6 = to 2n.
With
for origin
x
where
and
= 3acos0 acos30,
3a sin
a sin 3d,
is
equation,
(p,r)
10 If p
yjr,
formula.
13 If a;
14 If r
15
t/
vi
16 Find the (p,r) equation of the curve r n = a n sin nd, and prove that
pr* 1 = a n f(n+ 1). Prove also that the length intercepted on the radius vector
by the circle of curvature is 2r/(n +1).
dy
If
divides
is
a, 3a).
dx
acos 3 (<), y
GEOMETRICAL APPLICATIONS
328
19 Find the equation of the normal at the point d of the cycloid x a(6 + sin 6),
y = a(l+cos0), and hence the centre of curvature. Show that its locus is
another cycloid having the same dimensions as the given one.
20 Prove that 1/p* = w 2 + w' 2 , where u = 1/r and u' du/dd. Hence prove
P
21
_ (u z + u'*)*
~ uz (u + u")'
of curvature
is
normal
is
circle or
is
half
the normal.
circles
whose centres he on xy =
c2
329
Introduction
In 1.13 we discussed the concept of 'function' for a single independent variable, and mentioned that it extends to more than one.
any way. If one or more values of u are determined when values are
given to x and y, we say that u is a, function of the pair of variables (x, y),
and write u = f(x, y). We call x, y the independent variables and u the
dependent variable.
we
independent variables.
As in Ch. 2, we can define the limit of a function of (x, y) when these variables
tend to given values, and the meaning of continuity in {x, y) at a given point.
Thus, if a positive number e (however small) is given, and a positive number
ij can be found such that, whenever
\f(x,
and we write
y)l\<
to the limit
hm
e,
when x tends
to
a and y tends to
6,
f(x,y)l.
(x, y) >(o, 6)
and
is
equal to
I,
then f(x,y)
is
330
9.12
Economy in
[9.12
functional notation
V =f( x )> u
new function
viz.
ample,
if
u=
u=
x*
we
9.2
Partial derivatives
tj), y(i,
when we
+ y2
then
find
u(x(g,
would be wrong to
It
w)).
call
tj)
+ w2
by and y by
replace x
2
,
2
7j
and
n.
For ex
2gw,
2
.
9.21 Definitions
We
the derivative of
a function u(x, y)
any way. How
wo x,
or of
u wo
y, as follows.
8u
^
so that
y),
u(x + 8x,y)u(x,y)
Similarly,
Um
u(x,y + 8y)u(x,y)
independent variables as
if
9.22]
331
In particular,
variable.
all
Examples
(i)
u = Xs + 3a;
If
if it
V+
5xy*  ya ,
were constant)
du
ox
and
(treating
a;
as
if it
were constant)
du
 Qxhj + 20xy*  3y
1
(ii) If u = tan
(y/x), put z
of a function' is
= y/x so that u
du
du
8x
dz dx'
dz
^
= J_(_^ =
dx
l+z
x
so that
!L_.
x 2 + y*
=
\ = 
l+z*\xj
x*
Similarly,
8y
+ y*
du/dz because
z
ux
ux (x, y),
value of ux (x, y)
Similarly,
9.23 Geometrical
curve
1 .6),
P
P
plane x
a.
'
332
[9.24
Fig. 122
The
may
partial derivatives
wo x and wo y,
d_(du
(du\
d_(to\
dx \dz)'
dyydx)*
written
dx2
'
viz.
dy\dy)'
dx\dy)'
dxdy'
dydx'
or
themselves
u.xy>
dy*>
U,
VV
and
so on.
Examples
(i)
In
9.21, ex.
(i)
we have
=
8x*
2
6x + 6y
y ,
= 12xy + 20y
dxdy
Remark.
dydx
u =
82
3
,
I2xy + 20y\
6rz 2
+ 60xy*  6y.
dy*
'
'
'
9.24]
If u
(ii)
assuming
By
(a)
3i
xn
d 2u
du
du
the
mixed
/t4
d 2u
dhi
and on putting z
1J
8x \x)
d
= f& = Jf
dzdx
_L Jf >{y\
(_y\ =
3
(z)
K
'
x)
x*
Hence
g = nx^/^j
Similarly
= ^(t\ I = ^It)
dy
\x} x
\x)
= nloga + log/^;
logw
x:
\x)
nw.
',
_n
ldu
u 8x
IS/
x f dx
Hence
d 2u
8hi
dx*
dxby
x+y*
Multiply the
first
u +
d2
dx
result (a).
8u
8xz
8x
8 2u
d 2u
8 2u
d 2u
8y
2
dxdy
= (nl)
du
8hi
\v
y
dy 2
'
dy
(n1)
\x
y
(n \)nu
d 2u
<
du
= n
dy
8x'
2
[y
9
2xyy
8xdy
du
'
dx'
* dy 2
^8u
= (n 1)
v
_ U 8u
8xdy
\v
8y8x
of these equations
x 2a
by
8 2u
wo x, and also wo y:
dy2
du
'\ dx
{V
y
du\
dy)
I
(6), it
334
(2)
[9.24
By definition,
u v (x, b) =
tlx
i
u(x,b + k)u(x,b)

lira
..
u xv (a, b) = lim
.
rj
If,.
[k>0
lim
fc>0
u(a, b
j/7 ,
<p{h, k)
lim  { lim
ft0
where
and
+ k) u(a, b)\
'
k),
w(a, 6f&)+'u
>
6)
.
hk
Similarly
k*0
ft>0
Thus, in calculating the two mixed derivatives, we are considering the limit
of <J)(h, k) in two ways: (i) when k > 0, and then h > in the result; (ii) when
h > first, then k > 0. It is easy to show that these two limits may be different;
for example, if (J>(h, k) turned out to be {h + k)j{h k), then
h+k
h
 = lim 7=1,
h k h^oh
,.
lim lim 
A.0&M)
h+k
lim lim  hk
= lim
fc*0
k
~k
=

1.
Write
f{x)
Then
u(x,b + k)
u(x,b)
*
hk
= f(a + h) f(a)
= hf'(a + dh) (O<0<1),
$(h y k)
6,
SinCe
,
f'(x)
we have
<p{h, k)
= u x (x b + k)ux (x,b)
f
hk
u x (a + 0h,b + k) u x (a + Oh, b)
k
 u yx (a + dh,b + d'k)
by the mean value theorem applied
b
(0
<
9{y)
<
to the function
< y < b + k.
Similarly, writing
6'
u(a + h,y)
u(a, y)
hk
'
1),
u x(a + 6h,y) of y
in
9.25]
we have
<f>{h,k)
g(b + k)g(b)
kg'ib
y {a,
= u mJa + 0'1 h b + Ol k)
t
1)
b + 6^)
{0<d[<
Hence
(O<01 <
+ d^k)
335
1).
b+
k).
If uw uxy are both continuous at (a, b), these expressions tend to u yx(a, b),
uxy (a, b) respectively when h and h tend to zero; therefore u yx (a, b) = u^fo, 6).
,
Their construction.
(1)
function
itself, is
first,
(cf.
Examples
Eliminate a and p from y
(i)
= ae pt saipx.
is
a function of two
We
Hence
(ii)
Eliminate a,
b,
cfrom u
a(x + y)
+ b{x y) + abz + c.
= a + b, =
By

dx
Since
(o
+ 6) 2 (a6) 2 =
is
4ab,
336
(2) Solutions
[9.25
Examples
u +
T
(m) If
J
'
v
d2
dr 2
r8r
8u
u if (a) u
n is constant.
If u u(r), the equation becomes
where
(a)
Writing v
dujdr,
From dujdr =
(6)
If u
Bjr,
8 2u
r 2 dd 2
a function of r only;
is
dhi
ldu
dr 2
r dr
0,
jn(w 
r nf(d)
Bjr.
~2
+ nr
+ i {r nf"(d)} 
B x
trivial case r
0,
J/(0)
Excluding the
u=
r nf(d), the
i.e.
(b)
0.
0),
= 0,
=
Acoand
Bavund
+
f(d)
u = r n A cos nd + B sin nd)
f"(d)+n*f(6)
so
and
*(iv)
ex.
(iii),
When u =
/d2
a function
ldR\
"
orily.^
Rd @
7*dd 2
'
R \dR\_
1 d2
2+
R\dr r~dr)~ 'dd 2
r 2 /d 2
\dr 2+ r~dr)
1,e
of
becomes
'
The lefthand side is independent of d; the same must therefore be true of the
righthand side. Since the latter is also independent of r, it must be constant.
Hence each side is constant, say equal to n z
From the right,
j2
_+
and
(if
From
= Acoand+Bainnd.
4=0)
the
!e = o
left,
d2R
dR
dr
dr
+ rr^r^
2
an equation of Euler's type
(5.61).
The
n2R =
substitution r
n R =
d2R
dt 2
so
(if
R = Ce nt + De~ nt =
4=0)
f
0,
e*
reduces
0,
Cr n + Dr.
it
to
9.25]
337
When n =
is easily
(n
4= 0).
found to be
u = (Ad + B)(Ologr+D).
Exercise 9(a)
Calculate 8u/8x, du/dy for the following functions u[x, y).
Zx2 2xy + 5y 2
Calculate
x/y.
u xx u vx u n u yy and verify
,
6 aP + Sxty + y*.
In
a%3
sva. x {yjx).
log(a 2
+ y2
).
that
8 e xv
7 xsiay + ysinx.
a function
9 chccch?/.
when
necessary,
assume
that
u
u
If u
If u
If u
10 If
If
11
12
13
14
a 2
If w =/(), where z
15
c 2 3 / ,0u\
is
a function of x and
5 2m
and
I8z\
prove
8 2z
16 If
ex. (ii)(a).]
17 If t*=/(a;2 + ya ),prove
du
...
(l)
du
=
x
ox
0;
8y
(n)
'
[Method of
18 If
,.
8x
8x8y
h#
8y
8x
hv
y
8y
u=
82u
(x
(ii) (6).]
+ y)f'(x + y),
l(x
x
x 2u xx + 2xyu xy + y2u yy
calculate
19 If
2 2vy
xu* +yuy
and
9.24, ex.
d 2u
)f(t)
where
M
mm
xy, prove
8 2u
fiPMt
338
t /
z2
23 If
(x +
b)
if
F cos px
if F sin px
satisfies
*28 If r
dx
Find u in terms of r
8 2u
if
dx
= / + f'(r).
r
82u
+rr2
0.
8y
If/(c, y)
_
8x~
(x 2
8f
y 2
\x 2 + y 2
and
4x 2y 2
(x 2
+y
8J_
2 2 ]'
8y~~
x 2 y 2
(x 2
0,
+ y2
2 }'
)
hence calculate
/,(ft,o)/,(o.Q)
lim
=At(M)
/.(o,
i;
)/,(o,0)
lim
=/TO(00)
*30 Iff(x, y)
/(^0)=/(0 >2/)=/(0,0)
prove that/^O, 0)
9.3
4x 2 y 2
\x 2 + y 2
hm
(u) calculate
(iv)
find
8y
d u B u
tt + ^t
dx*
oy*
(iii)
=f(v).
8r
= y
r
and
(i)
c 2 8 2 u/8x 2 .
=
*29
8u/8y
_ = <^_ + _j,
satisfies
00)
(2p ctpx).
27 If
[9.3
8z
=
(8z\
yz\
\
prove
',
e~ vx sin
The
0,
4= 0,
and
0,
=  l,fvx (0, 0) = + 1.
Small changes
8u
w(a;
9.32J
8x,k
8y,
339
we have
= (x+h)*(y + k)*x
= {x* + 2xh + h*) (y* + 3ky* + 3k2y + 8  x
= 3y + 3*^* + a 8 + 2xy3h + 6a*/ 2M + 6xyhk* + 2xhka
+ y*h* + 3y*h*k + 3yh i k* + h2ks
= 2xy* 8x + Zx*y* 8y + 8x{6xy*k + 6xyk 2 + 2xk* + y*h + 3y*hk
+ Byhk* + hk*} + 8y{3x2yk + 2W}.
Su
2y*
A: )
a: fc
jfc
is
of the form
A8x+B8y+e1 8x + e2 Sy,
where A and B are functions of a; and y, but not of 8x or 8y; and ej, e, are functions
of x. y, 8x, 8y which tend to zero when 8x and 8y both tend to zero.
The function u =
u(x, y) is said to
if
Su
u which can be
(i)
The work
values of x and y.
a?V
is
a differentiable function of
the function denned by
8x and k
0, is
not differentiable at
= u[h,k)u(0,0) =
(0, 0).
For,
^^,
+
h2
if u(x, y)
for all
8y,
8u
and
(x, y)
x*+y*
were differentiable at
k2
we should have
(0, 0)
'
hk(h + k)
fti
+ fei
=^ + Bk +
A ,
el h
+ ei k.
relations for
> 0,
we get
340
Identification of A,
In equation
(i)
B in
put 8y
(i).
then
0;
8u
where e 1 is a function of
We have
[9.33
= A8x + e 1 8x,
x, y,
when 8x >
0.
8u
Tx
= A+e
A. The lefthand
side tends to dujdx by definition of this symbol (9.21). Hence
A = dujdx. Similarly, B = dujdy, and so (i) becomes
and by
8u
but
if
a function
the converse
not differentiable at
t*(0, 0)
(0, 0),
Urn
may
is
(ii)
differentiable,
be false, as in the
then
it
possesses
example above:
but
= hm
'
h>0
h+0
0,
and similarly m(0,0) exists and has the value 0. See also Ex. 9(6), nos. 8, 9.
Thus (cf. the end of 3.93) derivability and differentiability are not equivalent
'
'
'
'
concepts.
Equation
(ii)
Su
when
(iii)
8x,
du
du
dx
dy
.....
R
= ^8x
+ ^8y
(ni)
it
for a change 8x in x,
keeping y constant;
(The constancy of
y,
x respectively
(cf.
is
3.91) these
indicated
by the
partial deri
We thus obtain
9.33]
341
(i.e.
the total
in these changes.
Example
Estimate the possible error in 8 calculated from
8A in b, c, A. (Cf. 3.91, ex. (iv).)
S = ^bcsmA when
there are
= \c sin 4, = iosin^L,
= hoc cos 4,
oA
bince
ob
dc
:.
Division
error
S = b + 8c + cot ASA,
8b
u=
and using the
x 5 x 2 sin 30
dS
from which SS
= .
S
illustration,
where 6 and
30,
Su
fact that
As a numerical
A=
log^S
^
~
/<M)6
+ ~2
01.
in
(M)6
is
S is given by
ttV3 \
T080/'
004.
Exercise 9(b)
1
Ifpv
by small changes
2 If y
8p,
ST in p,
= uvlw, prove
T.
$y^8u 8v_8w
+
u
v
w
y
'
'
If T
Sg in I,
3
81,
2n*J(llg), find
g.
342
[9.4
7J
sm(a+yo)
*8 If u(x, y)
prove u
is
+1,1
respectively.
9.4
w(0,0),
but that u
is
not
differ
9.41 Function of
Ifu =
u(x, y),
two functions of t
where x
x(t)
u=
is
and y =
y{t),
then
u(x(t), y{t))
= f(t) of one independent variable t, and its derivamay be obtained directly. However, this substitu
a new function u
tive du/dt
= /'()
tion for x
and y
is
we proceed
indirectly
as follows.
Assuming that
all
functions of
Sy >
0.
y(t)
x(t),
t
du
du
R
= ^Sx+^Sy
+ e^x + e^Sy.
oy
ox
(3.12
and
Therefore ex >
Su
3.93);
and
e 2 >
when
= duSx duSy
St
Sx
>
0.
0,
also
Sx>
and
Now
Sy
di^d^'St^^Si^^W
ea are not defined when Sx, Sy are both zero. To cover the case when
(e.g. x = y = ${t) near t = 0, with $(t) as on
Sy for some values of St +
when Sx = = Sy.
p. 64), we may 'complete the definition' by taking ex = 0, e2 =
f ex
Sx
and
'
9.42]
and when
Hence
8t
+
0,
343
du dx
du dy
dx dt
dy dt
i.e.
du _dudx
dt~dxTt +
dudy
(lv)
dydi'
(iv)
du dx dudy
+
f =
dx
dy
dt
0.1
dt
+ 0.1 =
is
0.
not differentiate at
(0, 0).
u(x, y)
du _du
dx
dx
where y
y(x); (iv)
becomes
dudy
dydx*
the derivative of u(x, y) wo x, carried out asify were constant, where the
substitution y = y(x) is made after derivation. Thus du/dx symbolises
a 'formal' derivation wo x. Similar details of interpretation apply to
(iv);
In particular, suppose y
1.
0.
du/dx
Then
__du
dx
dy
dx
t
no.
is
Assumed
u[x, y{x))
for all x,
and so
dudy
dydx'
du Idu
dx/ dy'
differentiable.
(vi)
344
[9.43
Example
Find dy/dx and d 2 yjdx 2 if x 3 + y 3 = 3xy.
We will find dyjdx (a) by the elementary method of
Derive both sides
(a)
..
(y
Taking u
(b)
by
dx
= xz + y3 3xy,
dy
yx 2
dx
y2 x
dujdx
(v),
Methods
3a;
dy
x2 y
dx
y2 x
(a), (6)
yx 2
x)~ =
and
fore
3.41; (6)
same
by formula
(vi).
(defined implicitly):
Zy and
du/dy
3y 2 Zx. There
1
_ yx
y 2 x'
process, as the
but we
u=
to the function
dyjdx*
dx \v 2 x)
dx 2
dy\y 2 x)' dx
{x 2
+ y 2xy 2
to
(y
d y
dx 2
2xy. Hence
2xy
~ (xy 2
'
If
u=
u{x,y)
it
is
two functions of (,
and x =
x(,i}),
find du\d
and
du/drf (or,
this stage.]
tq)
y(i,i),
To
yx
l
y x
2xy(3xy x 3 y 3 l),
shows that
9.43 Function of
tj,
where
u(x(,ri),y((,7i)).
more
precisely, f^,tf)
and /,(,?/)), we
observe that provided all three functions are differentiable, formula (iv)
9.43]
still
derivatives:
o
du
o
du dx
o o
du
dy \
du
du dx
du dy
dx dq
dy dr)
345
(vn)
}>
dij
we
are keeping
(vii) is
(iv):
to
tj
,.
Examples
(i)
Ifuis a function
,
By
du
of x
du
vii )>
du
du
du
du
du
du
du\
(a).
du
* dy
Similarly
du
du
du
+ (e^in^)
by x, the second by
,
2y,
and add:
fiw
=
dy
dx
du
cHA
i.e.
du
du
du,
= (e^cosi;
'S
dx
To
e 2 Ssin ij,y
^ = (2eamj)+(2e*coBi)
which proves
and y, and x
8tt
,/
2
so that
Stt
2e*s
'
.
'to}}
Remarks
(a) After observing what has to be proved in
to begin directly with the formula
du
dx
(b),
_dudg du dy
~ Mdx + d?idx'
1 log (*
+ 2/ 2 )
tan 1 (x/y),
direct calculations.
We emphasise that in
346
[9.43
general dg/dx 4= IKdx/dg), etc., so that the preceding steps cannot be shortcut;
here, for example,
= ^e _ ^ssin7/,
dx
x*+y 2
while
dx\d
2e*
a
iecosec?7.
2
'
2e 2 siniy
When
from which
dx
2g4
2e4
V(<^2/
2e 2 fcosec9/.
If u
(dx/d) y respectively,
++ =
8x 8y
0.
dz
du
du
du
du
dy
formula
(vii)
du
* ,+ * 0+ se< l
Similarly
By
~di
>
du
du
du
d7i'
dz~~drf
du
du
di'
(6)
St 2 ,
4xy, prove
2t s (a)
by
direct substitution;
x5 + y 6
5 f(%y)
^^
dx*
intersect,
2xy(x*y* + 3)
(xy*)*
0.
so at
'
0,
347
prove that
fyfxx ~ %fxfvfxv +/'/y
_
Show that the curvature
off(x, y)
at
fyfxx
(x, y) is
Qfxfvfxv ~^~fxfyv
(+/>*
9 If u
is
10 If w
= ( a +?7 2 y =
rcos0, y = rsin#, prove
and a;
a;
du
du
du
^ by
X
dx
dr
...
du
(1)
13 If w
w(2c,
<ii)
and a;
^)
(m)
v
'
du
du
(U) (
2
t?
2
,
t/
),
2gr},
du
du
du
^ = ^8g4
prove
aF^+^+^s^V
d 2w
3 2w
dx2
dy2
H
4(
/5 2w
S 2w\
\
+ if)\02
dy 2 )
du
dx
and if x
dv
du
dy'
dy
dv
dx'
du
1 du
1 d u
_
2+ rdr + r 2 dd 2 ~'
dr
_ 1 dv 1 du _ dv &n
dr~rdd' rdd~~dr
15 If u
16 If x
r cos 6,y
dy
dz
r sin 0, prove
(!),=(!),
dtod
Q/
to:*
Jdx
I to'
86
348
[9.44
We
8u
8u
= nu
x+y
8x * dy
all x, y for which the function u is dijferentiable.
The result has already been verified by direct calculation in
for
9.24, ex.
(ii)
no.
7.
We
Put
tx,
(a),
1 (d),
ty in the definition
u(tx, ty)
n u(x,
y)
u{,y)
wo
n u(x,y).
t:
8u8E 8u8v
+  = nt^uix,
diet
y),
dt
8u
+ y
= nt  u(x,y).
n
i.e.
8g
Since
^u(g,7])
equation
(a)
Putting
1,
(a)
^j^u(x,y)~^ x==,
etc.,
becomes
this
8u
8x
becomes
X
since
8tj
x and
tj
y when
+y
8u
= nu x
,
8y
'
y )'
1.
Example
Obtain the result of 9.24,
ex.
(ii) (6)
similarly.
Derive equation (a) above wo t, applying formula (vii) to each of the functions
8u\8i, 8u\8t]\
I8hjb8i
Le
8 2u d7]\
8 2u
*"
Now put t =
1,
8?
+ 2xy
and the
8 2u
8jd7)
8 2u 8g
+ yi
2
8 u8rj\
d 2u
8t?
result ('Euler's
n(n "
1] 1
U{X V)
'
'
and Ex.
follows,
9.44]
Laplace's equation
(2)
dx*
349
=
'
8y*
and
a;
= rcos0,
wo r,
du
= dudx
dr
dxdr
du
Ye
dudx
dxde
dudy
1
=
dx
The
first
dudy
^8e
we
du
cos
dx
n
sin 0.
.
dy
W
du
rsvci6
Yx
cmdn
'
find that
du
= sin0
dr
dy
du
,
dr
du
\
du
sin 03m
n du
cos a
of equations
du
dydr
partial derivatives of u
0,
dd
cos 6 du
.
(6)
Kl
dd
(6)
sin/9 d
cos0
dr
dd
have the same effect on u, where on the left u is a function of (x, y) and on the right
has been expressed in terms of r and 0. Using these equivalent operators
(cf. 5.62) to find dhi/dx 2 , we have
it
d u
~
=
2
2
sin0 d\
n d
/
I
dx
cost?
dr
J n
= COS0ICOS0
_sin0^__
2
9a d u
sin 2
dr 2
sin0 d zu\
dd
drdd)
cos ddu
dddr
H
drdd
Remark (a)
d2u
1
dx2
2sin0cos0S
1
dd2
dr
r2
dd
cos 2 ddu
dd
\d 2 u
d 2u
1
dr2
dy 2
2 sin
cos
du
drdd
r
d2u
r2
cos 2 dd 2u
dd 2
below,
AJJ
Adding,
sin d d 2u\
dd
sm 2 dd 2u sm 2 ddu
d 2u
2sin0cos0
dy 2
dr*
d 2u
dd!
1
r2
Similarly, or see
du\
2
n du
n d u
Bind + cos d
9a dhi
cos 2
sin
dr
dr
du
cose'
i
Bind du
dhi
dr*
dd) \
dr
r2
dd'
\du
.
r 2 dd 2
rdr
(c )
K}
Remarks
(a) Since
\ti
the expression for du/dy is obtainable from that for dujdx by putting
can be found from d 2u\dx2 by the same sub
stitution.
(/?)
\ +
r8r\dr)
(y)
is
V2
is
8 *u
72 dd 2
'
V 2w, where
350
(3)
To
c%
= x ct,
dy du dydv _
~ dudx + dvdx ~
= x + ct
dy
du
variables
By
dv'
operators,
8\/8y
8y\8 y
dv) \du
= (8
8 y
8 2y
dudv
dv2
'
\8u
dx*
[9.44
du
8v)
Similarly,
dy
= c dy
he
du
8t
By
dv
d2y
and
dt
2
2
(8 y 2 B y
r
2
dudv
\du
ci \
8 2y\
1.
dv2 }
(IH
8u
we
y
where
g(u) is
an
and
is
therefore a function of v
= jF(v)dv + g(u),
general solution
is
Example
Find the solution for which y
Since
dy
^ =
ex
and
dy/dt
ex
when t
0.
cf'(x + ct)cg'(xct),
at
0,
+ 9&) and
By
= cf'(x) 
cg'(x).
Hence we require
f(x)
+ g(x) = e*l
and
f(x)
+ g(x) =
and
i.e.
f(x)
ex
 g'(x) =
e*,
f(x)
g(x) = e x + a
c
on solving
e"
f\x)
+ i(al),
g{x)
we
find
1),
required
9.44]
351
^^1+1)^ + ^11)^!.
Exercise 9(d)*
1
Write
du
du
when u
is
du
8Hl
<f>{t), tfr(i),
show that u
= x<f>(y/x) + t/r(y/x)
g2u
3 If f(x, y) is homogeneous of degree n in (#, t/), prove that fx{x, y), fv {x, y)
are homogeneous of degree n 1. [Derive /(to, 2y) = < n/(a?,
partially wo x.]
4 If x
constant
rcos#, y
if
dht/dx2 + dhi/dy*
0.
= x3 + Xxy 2 satisfies
dhi
dx2
8
H
dy 2
r nu
0.
where r2
= x2 +
2
,
then
6 If z
is
u=
(where a,
,..
[For
x2
(iii)
7 If x
dz
y
*
dy 2
dx 2
+ 2uv dudv
41 v2
du 2
\
u, v
by
= ax2 fly2
dz\
dz
2xy
+ =
*dxdy
eu
+ ev y =
,
d z
8u 2
8 If a?
+ fly2
9z
(in)
fl
ocx 2
ev
+ e~M
8%
8 z
1
dudv
dv
ht* 2
du 2
dudv
du
prove
x 8z
2
n d z
2
+ 21 w + v\.
(ii).]
dz
I
hi
dx
u x2
0%
dx
8y
d 2z
2xv
h
I
8x8%
8v 2J
d 2z
I
8v 2
(x 2
v
5*z
4:t/)
y)
8y 2
2
dy'
v2
d 2z
* dy 2
'
dvj
352
when x =
0.
and
10 Find the
[Use 9.44(3).]
9.5
when y
general
is
of d 2z/dx 2 8 2z/8y 2
solution
dz/dy
[9.5
= 2siny
Differentials
9.51 Definition
Suppose that u(x, y) is a differentiable function of the independent variables
Then the approximation (iii) in 9.33 and the procedure in 3.92 (1) suggest
x, y.
we
that
du
8u
du
8x
8y
= 8x
+ 8y.
(vm)
is linear in Sx and in 8y
denned whenever both du/dx, dujdy exist.
This definition of the differential of the dependent variable u also defines
the differentials dx, dy of the independent variables x, y. For dx is du when u
is the function x, in which case dujdx = 1 and 8u/8y = 0, and (viii) gives
Thus du
is
is
dx
Hence dx
Similarly
(viii)
l8x + QSy
Sx.
shows that dy
8y.
du
8u
du
= dx + dy.
7
8x.
(ix)
dy
dx
Remarks
(a)
Although dx
we have
Sx and dy
and
(viii)
and
(/?)
Su
8y, in general
_
du
4=
8u since by
(ii)
of 9.32
= du + e1 Sx + e2 8y,
both
zero.
We shall see (9.53, Remark) that formula (ix) is more general than (viii).
(y) The partial derivatives dujdx, 8uj8y appear in (ix) as the coefficients of
the differentials dx, dy. For this reason these partial derivatives were (and
sometimes
still
To
differentiate
where A,
Proof. Since dx, dy are arbitrary, being identical with the increments Sx, 8y
in the given relation and obtain
respectively, we may take dy = 0, dx 4=
= D.
shows
Adx = Gdx, whence C. Similarly, taking dx = and dy
It is essential here for x and y to be the independent variables, otherwise
dx, dy
would not be
arbitrary.
9.53]
353
(2)
u= f(>V)
=
u=M,V),
du
du
du
8i
Idudx
dv
8udy\
du/dx jr
^[M
du
^+
8x
idudx
,r
dudy\
duldy^
^ V + ^[di
d
dy
^'
onrearran
du
= dx +dy
dx
since
by the
dy
y(i>y)>
dx
8x
x(g,r}),
x=
as if
(x, y)
Remark. In contrast to this result, formula (viii) is false when x, y are not
the independent variables. For, since we are assuming x(, ij) and y(, tj) to be
differentiate functions of (, ij) as in 9.43,
dx
dx
= dx + e^+e^Si}
by
definition of dx;
and
similarly
Sy
(dx +
which in general
is
is
therefore
+ (dy + e3 8 +
du
ex tg
e 2 8V )
not equal to
8u
du
dx + dy,
dx
dy
y
i.e.
du,
4 8tj),
(viii)
GPMI
354
(3)
[9.6
du of any
m independent variables ,
tiable functions of
...
ij,
, ....
9.6
f{u,v,w)
for all
x and y
satisfy
for
u, v,
u=
then
satisfy f(u,v,w)
sinar cosy,
=
v
+ s a M 2 l,
ra
w = coax
eiax siny,
0.
On
^
=
8x
and so
By
df
and
= *fdx+?fdy =
dy
= 0,

dy
Odx + Ody
0.
8x
we always have
df
8f
8u
8v
8f
+ ^dw.
df=idu+fdv
J
8w
Hence
df
8f
8f
fdu + ^dv+^dw =
dw
8v
8u
0.
In
this section
we assume
We
9.62]
The
(c)
pair f(x, u, v)
0, g{x, u, v)
may
be thought of as simultaneous
f(x,u(x),v(x))
for all
(d)
u=
and
355
as defining
a;,f i6.
x concerned.
Likewise the pair of equations f(x, y, u, v)
u(x, y), v
= 0, g(x, y, u, v) =
could define
= v(x, t/).f
Assuming throughout thai these implicit functions actually exist and are
we employ 9.61 and 9.52 to obtain expressions for their derivatives. The results need not be memorised because they can be found in any
particular case by the same methods. The first step is always to differentiate the
differentiable,%
given equation(s).
(a)
From f(x, y) =
we have
so that
dx
dx/ By
as in (vi) of 9.42.
(b)
From f(x,y,u) =
0,
df
df
df
dx
dy
du
=
idx+idy+du
*
Solving for du,
= fdxfdy.
du
Ju
Ju
But
0.
= dx\
du
dy,
ox
dy
of dx and of dy)
=
?
a
(c)
We have
8f
&f
Of
~dx + ^du+^dv
dx
du
4.
Sy
f
and
/.
So
8g
do
dx
du
dv
^dx+~du + ~dv =
and
dv
0.
jdx +
dx
dy in the form
Since
(x, y)
du
g.
dy+^du + % dv = 0,
%
dy
du
dv
= Pdx + Qdy,
dv
du
_ P
8x~
du
'
_Q
&y~^'
= Rdx+Sdy.
we deduce
Sv_
8x~
Tf
'
&>_
dy~
356
[9.62
Remarks
(a) The equations
in differentials are always linear, and therefore easilysolvable, whereas the given equations will not in general be linear in the
corresponding variables.
the choice of independent variable(s)
(fi) We have already remarked that
can be made in more than one way. For example, in (d) we can select two
independent variables from among x, y, u, v in 4 C2 = 6 ways, and for each
choice there are 4 equations giving the partial derivatives of the remaining
variables wo these, making a total of 24 such equations. The two equations
obtained by differentiating/ = and g = are symmetrical in the differentials,
and convey all this information. Also see 9.43, Remark (/?).
(y) The reader who nevertheless wishes to avoid differentials can obtain the
results described above by using the obvious extensions of formulae (v) or (vii)
to functions of more than two variables, in the manner that ( vi) was obtained
wo x (using the extension
in 9.42. Thus in (6), by deriving f(x, y, u(x, y)) =
of
(vii)
+ dudx =
(x, y))
= A
ox
so that
0,
we have
dx
ju
Examples
(i)
x and
If
u=
sin x shy
4, calculate
du/dx when
du
1
and
x+y
From
the latter
we
cos a;
{dx+dy) + 2dy
dz
0.
find
dyl^ + 2 = dz
\x + y
] dx,
x+y
du
^ /(
x + yJ) l \x + y
2J
J
Since (x,z) are the independent variables, du/dx will be the coefficient of dx
in the expression for du, viz.
COS 33 Shi/ 
sinojchy
r.
r
l
(ii)
Iff{x,y,z)
prove
dx
dz I8z
dy/ dx
dy
First method.
+ 2x + 2y
and
dx
jdz
1 /
dz
dx
dx
dy
0.
(A)
9.62]
357
The expressions dz/dx, dzjdy in the required results indicate that z is an implicit
function of the independent variables x, y. To find them, solve (A) for dz:
= ffdxffdy.
dz
Jz
Jz
Hence
J*
fa
and
ft
8y
Sz
Similarly, the appearance of dxjdy, dxfdz indicates that we regard the same
equation f(x, y, z) = as defining a: as a function of (y, z). Solving (A) for dx,
dx
=  ffdy ffdz,
Jot
l = JjL
from which
Ja>
dz
fm
The two results now follow.
The preceding is hardly more than a verification of results already stated.
A more subtle use of differentials leads directly to the results themselves.
Second method. Regarding z as an implicit function of (x, y),
/.
dz
= dx + dy.
*
dx
dy
dx
dx
dx
By
dz
J
= dy
+ dz.
,
(dz dx
I
dz\
1
\dxdy
dyj
7
dyA
b
'
dzdx
first:
dz.
dxdz
Equating coefficients of dy, dz gives the respective results. Observe that the
function/ does not enter the calculations. For Ex. 9 (e), no. 16 the first method
would be even more prolix.
Exercise 9(e)*
Assume
1
f(x> V> z)
y(xfx zfz )
2 Iff(x, y, z)
3
u =f(x,y) and
4 If y
5
curve in the
fjx, y, a)
0.
<f>
6 Elimination of
its
tion of 9.43,
Remark
(/?).
Cf.
and
relation z
(x, y) plane is
Prove that
= g(x,t)
leads to the
and fa = g /f
t
t.
358
8 If
under
u = xy and ax + by + cz =
where
1,
dujdx
possible meanings.
all
9 If u
10
11
at
t/
(1, 1, 1).
12 If/(#, y, z)
Prove that
0,
(l)
(n)
13
Given that p,
v,
14
The
=
dz'
where
3*^,
dydz
fy&s
variables
v, 0,
/dv\
fd_6\
are related
(j>
=_x
by pv =
d6d<j>
= Cv logp + CP log v,
.R0,
Prove that
__dpdv dpdv
~~d6d4>~d^dd'
8p8v~8v8p ~
[The context makes clear that in the lefthand side 6, $ are functions of (p, v),
while in the righthand side p, v are functions of (0, <j>).]
15 The equation dE = 6d<j>pdv arises in Thermodynamics. If
to be a differentiable function of (0, v), show that
bur variables p,
and deduce that the four
v, 6,
are related
re
<j>
<f>
E is assumed
by two
equations.
Prove that
^
[For
(ii)
put ^ =
"~"
\w/v
V>?/p
6<j> E, show d^ =
\<16
00
16 If c,
2/,
{du) v
w,
{^lv {^)u{^jv
[Write down <Zw, dv and efcc,
relations,
dv
show that
(^)fc)v
Substitute the
first set
in the second,
If u
= ylog(y+r)r where r a =
dhi
dx2
2 If x
rcos0, y
x 2 + y 2 prove
dhi
8y2
_ 1
~ y+r'
rsin0, prove
S2
dxdy~
cos 20
r*~'
'
fc)(^)v~
and then
f(x, y) + g(t)
where
xy, prove
dz
'
TT
V=
8z
*dy
dx
is
du
tt
dv
x and
5 If z
),
dx
dz
= /(a; 2 + y 2 + z 2
),
d 2z
X 8y>
^'^dxHy
prove
+ 2" = 4 aj2 +
8^ +
fe
If w = x nf(y(x), prove
(
+ z2 )/^ 2 +
2/
=
+ y
*
dx
If v
= w e^*
61'
+ 2 a + 6/
)
2/
(a:
+ 2 2 + z2 ).
/
nu.
dy
x
8 If z
du
dv
=
dy
dx
prove
dz
y.
= f(x 2 + y 2
{l)y
6 If m
and
dx
for all
359
dv
dv
~ (ax + by+n).v.
+
T
ox yT
dy
prove
/S 2
'
\dx*
9 If z
+ y) + yflr(a;
y),
prove
&b 2
10 Find the constant
n if w =
dxdy
J"
e^1
r2 r\
11
w =/(z) where
If
a;
satisfies
2
,
dhi
dx 2
=
dzz
2
d z
2
a z
dy 2
0.
" satisfies
8r)
dt'
prove zdujdt
_U _
~
tf\z)
if
dhi
~~dfi'
then/(z) satisfies
12 If
dujdt
w =/(z) and
z2
dhi/dx 2 , prove/(z)
14
x* + yz
= axy + a*
is
(a, a)
7 la.
of the curve
360
15
(i)
f(x,y)
(ii)
16
17
(xlt
yt ) on the curve
0.
and subnormal.
u = u +
d2
dt
18 If x
rcosd, y
8x
= raind,
wo r,
partial derivatives of u
19 If u = u{x,y)
constant), prove
2
yo 8
h2
and x
d 2u
..
8x 2
8 u
8hi
nll
2hk
dxdy
+ k2
.
8y z
6 and
r,
6.
cosa?/sina,
"y
(U)
2/
is
y y
8 2u
8y 2
_ 8 2 u 8 2u
~ 8^ + 8i} 2
'
uXv =f(xXy),
u + Xv =f(x + Xy),
where A
is
= =A
8x
8x
8y
..8 u
8 u
= A 
2
. n
2
and
8y 2
8y
8x z
21 If x = ( 1/u) cos 6, y = ( 1 /u) sin 0, calculate (8x/8u) e and {8u/8x) y and show
that their product is cos 2 6.
If V(x, y) is transformed into a function of (u, 6) by these relations, prove
,
8V
= w
(i)
.
2
a 8V
8V
sinf
.
cos6'
8u
8x
80
y=
er* sin 6,
er* cos 0,
23 Writing Q{x,y)
where w
F = F(x,y).
(x, y)
to
(r,
6) in
82u
82u
y/x, v
x
where
^7
a2w
(w, v)
a;?/,
8G
8x
Vv
y
80
= nO,
8y
8F
x8x
8F
=
y
8y
b
.F
0,
^(a^),
where
<j>{t)
and
av
Sm
_
8x8y~
<f>(u,
v)
(i)
is
If u, v,
for all x, y,
z,
du
du
dx
dy
dz
dv
dv
dv
361
<j>{u,
du
dx
dy
dz
8w
dw
dw
dx
dy
dz
zero for all x, y, z.
2
2
2
(ii) If u ax + 2hxy + by + 2gxz + 2fyz + cz has linear factors
= Ix+my+nz, w = Vx+m'y+n'z,
prove
is
u vw =
0.]
=0.
v,w)=0
(1)
ANSWERS TO VOLUME
Exercise 1(a), p. 10
1
13
(i)
<x<
2\,
w=
>
x
14
3.
2 6 /(3'V3);
(i)
(4/3 )#f.
(ii)
Exercise 1(b), p. 14
1
x<%, x>B.
4 =f:i.
7
a;
9 x
a;
1 <#<
2<l,8>l.
l<a;<l,
>
a;
3 All
61<a;<2,
jc>3.
a;>3.
10 4
4.
a?.
<
a;
2.
14 No.
11
4i,
15
A=
2,
;
= 2,
i>
1,
4=
3,
2, tf
2,
D =  1.
Exercise 1(c), p. 19
Graph
18 Graph
16
17
Graph
19
y>\; minimum
at
 3,
\).
Exercise 1 (a"), p. 29
E, n;
(i)
O, 2n;
(ii)
(vii)
E, 2n;
(viii)
(i)
(iii)
E;
(iii)
= 0;
a*/ a 2a^+a;4y = 0;
i
i
y 2xy + x x
(i)
Homogeneous of degree
5;
(iii)
1;
(iv)
11
(ii), (iii)
(ii)
;
(i)
E;
#;
(ix)
4
2/
(iv)
(v)
O;
(iv)
(x)
(v) neither;
(xi) neither;
0;
m+n,
E;
0.
0;
2;
(vi)
(xii)
0.
(vi) 0.
(ii)
m n;
(iii)
Exercise 1(e), p. 34
1
(i)
Raise
Ox
c units;
(ii)
(iii)
move Op back
c units.
2 Not(a,0).
5
7 r2
cos20
= a8
3
.
a 2 sin 4(9.
6
8
(i)
18 Cardioid.
(iii)
rotate
ANSWERS
(2)
Miscellaneous Exercise
5
= \(a + b + c).
By Cauchy, (Za&c) 2 <
p. 35
<
all a's
7 a
sion
>
(a;
 4ac < 0; or
 4x + 12) (a  2) 2
2
0, 6
2
c>
0,
0;
A=
4,
8,
10 Between
9 Outside 1,3.
8 All values.
Expres
16.
2, 5.
a?
16 (oo'2ac'2a'c) 2
to
Exercise 2(a), p. 50
1
2a.
(i)
1;
(ii)
0;
(iii)
3.
0; (iv)
6a4
1.
3.
f.
J.
1.
1.
10
0.
11
1.
12
(i)
0;
13
(i)
0; (ii) 1.
14
(i)
osc. fin.
15
(i)
0;
18
sin*.
(ii)
osc. inf.
1;
go.
(ii)
1.
17 sina.
16 2(p*q*)JrK
(ii)
osc. inf.
oo.
Exercise 2(b), p. 58
1
oo.
>
oo.
osc. inf.
3 osc.
1.
oo.
7 >
fin. 0, 2.
oo.
8 osc.
fin.
fin.
1.
9 _().
10
>0.
11
>0.
12 osc.
13
14
1.
15
7T.
16 0 8
17
1.
18 a
20 If a
#s 1, > oo; if
>
6.
19
1.
0.
I.
1.
limw n
= V.
3 + 42 ~.
wn
for all a.
n*co
9 If
a
10 If
a
11
(i)
<
<
>
1,
un
> 0; if
a
1,
un
* 0; if
a
mi
(ii)
0,
O is approached.
y = 1 lim [lim{cos(m!7ra;)} 2n ].
curve
12
oo.
> 1, \u n
> 1, \u n + oo.
oo, or +oo, depending
jnoo n*ao
ANSWERS
(3)
Exercise 3(a), p. 68
1
(i)
(i)
(i)
1/a;
1/(2 V*);
(ii)
n sin"
1
a;
17 5/V(l25a;
sec 2 a;.
(iii)
8a;/(la; a ) 5 .
(iii)
+x
 l/V(a2 a; 2
2
18 2/(1
).
(i)
l/V(a a; 2 );
21
(i)
l/V(a 2 a; 2 );
8 f\x)
(4aj+17)*.
(ii)
20
(ii)
F\u).
19 sin^a;.
).
).
27 fr^/a 2*/.
29 {ayx^Kytax).
<j>\t)
l/V(a2 a; 2 ).
(ii)
22 a/(a*+x2 ).
30
a^/
(2y+3a^')
28
{by fax)*.
31
l/i 2 .
34
xty + at* =
33 *(2*8 )/(l23 ).
32
= cot^;
+ y cosec 2 6 a.
35 x sec 2
(i
l/(2y + 6);
(i)
IV^J
(iii)
(iv)
0;
te
+y =
2of + oi3 .
Exercise 3(b), p. 73
3
3a: 12a;+4)/(a;
2(a;
3a;(la; 2 )*.
a;2
5 {(1
6
7
11
m( 1
+ 4) s
14
aj
2 )~*
{x sin (m sin1 x)
+ m( 1 a; 2
10 ^= l,y* = 0,y = 2.
m(m 1) ... (m n+ l)a;mn if m ^ w, if m < n;
~
(ii) m(m 1) ... (m n+ l)x m n
l)"n!a;~ n (iii)
sin(a; + twr).
13 cos (x + %nn).
m(m 1) ... (m + l)a n (aa; + &) m ~ n unless m is a positive
nty
(i)
integer less
is 0.
15 o n sin(aa; + 6 + ^n7r).
4a
18
2o/2/,
20
a;(2aj/ 2
23
21
12
6a:(a:
l/,
8
/t/
19
(ayx
)/(y*ax), 2a*xy/{y*ax)*.
 l/(2a<8
(6/a)
17 vu^+iv'u'" +
2
22
).
25 n cos n#
sec d, w(sin
0).
24
(6/a)cot0,
y/i,
 (6/a2
(xyxy)lx3
sec 8 0.
cosec 8 0.
26 (a 2 /?r) /r 6
Exercise 3(c), p. 84
= 2, max.; a; = \, inflex.
= 0, inflex.
2
3 x 1, min.; x = 2, inflex.
4 x = \, max.; a; = If, min.
= a + 2nzr, max. x = a + (2n \)it, min., where n is an integer and a is
5
given by cos a sin a 1 = a b ^/(a* + 6*).
1
x=
1, rain.; a;
a;
a;
ANSWERS
(4)
10
11
To a given value of x
6 x
7 x
8
values of
13
(i)2cu.ft.;
15
liy/2.
19 since
21 af
for
which
<
\x\
many
6.
14
cu.ft.
\AB.
17 Equality.
5=
(ii) 8/tt
2{7Tx)jir
< r(x 1)
<
when
if
>
0,
a;
4= 1,
7r.
<r<
1.
Exercise 3(d), p. 87
(i)
h;
47rr 2 <Jr.
10035.
(ii)
3ah + hs ;
(ii)
p%
when a =
h/a*(a + h);
(iii)
~8p;
(i)
8T
dp.
p*
0.
8 a;).
2/V(la; 2 ).
6 l/(*+l)V*.
a;
10 (l)n!{8(x2) n
n=
(l) n  1}
1
cos1 a; differ
n>
if
1;
by a
constant.
+ (a;l) 2 8(a;2) 1
if
1.
11
31
25 o
0.
$, 6
= ^.
30
21 d*y/dt*+y
27
a;
a;
=f=
a;
<
<
7r,
fn,
f7r
7r.
<x<
(i)
Incr. for
<
<
n. Greatest value at
40
39 2ab.
\n
<x<
7r;
(ii)
\n.
6.
Exercise 4(a), p. 99
1
\{{x+l)l + {xl)*}.
4 tana; a;.
2 ^x + \ain2x.
5
i\sm2x.
6 x tan 1 a\
deer, for
ANSWERS
7
a; a
log(l+a;a ).
(5)
Kl+)* + 2(l+*)*.
a(n+l)~.
n+1
(oaj + 6)
10 4(2
7
^ v cos 2x cos 4a;).
11
13
16
^tan^itan ^.
18
tan^a + S).
1/sr.
1
12 sin (as
+ 6).
v
15 sin" 1 (/a).
17
l/(a; + 3).
19 suv^a;!).
i(*5) + $(*6)'.
16(
f(a;
Wd+^).
/2a;
7 isin 4 a;.
9 J sin" 1
8 $tan*a\
10 itanM
3/'
_
9V(9a;
a;
11
1 .
12
2 )'
X
13
J2+1)a
2x2+1
14
9V(* 9)'
a
4(a;
9V(sa + 9)*
Xl
+ l) a
15
7(l
a;
2 )*"
16 sec^a;.
17 J(x*1).
18 fttaii*) a .
19 cos^la;).
21 sin^a; V(l
 2
).
24 (3V31).
25
26
i.
27 ^tanif.
28 ^.
29
2.
31
Jtt.
x
(2
\{x+l){x5yfaxZ)\
^(la;)^
n+V
'
(n+l)(n + 2)
4/2a; a
+ 2a;sin2a; + cos2a:).
(la;) n + 8 .
v
7 a;cos 1 a;V(la; a ).
'
8
2a:
^(l
+ as^tan2
*.
2a;
12
1,
a;"
11
a;"
sin ox  cos ax
.
n(n 1)
a2
(5a*  60a;
13 ten.
14 8tt+16.
\x 2 aeox x\*J(x*
*n
f.
ANSWERS
(6)
16
17
Aw *'
*
(n
18
19
21
(1
x^y + Zx^+Ax + B.
l/x.
2cota\
9 (loga:l)/(loga;) 2
sec
a;
7 2/(1
coseca;.
10
1/e.
21 31oga:.
log (13).
24 log(l + a; 2 ).
2
ilog(3a;
29
34
m+
log a;
a:
30
xQogx 1).
35 i(loga:) 2
37 ^(loga^fa^logaj + ^a; 4
36 a;tan 1 a;ilog(l+a; 2 ).
38
0.
m + 1/
1 \
41 log 2.
42 llog2.
43
44
45 &(2e8 +
46
x, log acosa:
3, /*
39 ilog2.
40 ilogf.
47 A
a;.
l/(jclogc).
12 (l/)loglp e.
16
32 log log x.
sin x) .
4
25 ilog(l+a: ).
27
xm+l
).
 12* + 7).
(2/sr)loga?.
31
4 cot
a;
22 log(l+s).
17
23
15 2 sec a;.
14 sec a;.
13 cosec a\
 ljx.
2/cc.
4.
l).
3 *.
2 3e
5
8
11
+ 2 cos 2a;).
10 * 2
12 Je2 ".
16 e Biax
15 log(e*+l).
18 ie^cosaj + sina;).
22
e*&.
m = 3 or  2.
25
(a;
20
+ n)e
2a;
9 log2.e*
1.
**(l+loga;).
e<
e cos *sina;.
= 2*^2.
13 .
4
3 e*(a;+l).
e Sx (3 sin 2a;
7
10
1.
2*^2.
14 2e*.
17
a;
19
&
2*
21
2 cos 2a;).
 4a:8 + 6a: 2 6a; + 3).
e x (sin 2a;
24 a n e
(2a;
*.
26 ^(loga)".
a!
.
+ 6 cos 6a;) =
V(
aa!
),
) ;
ANSWERS
29 e*(&sm&ar + acos&ar)/(a
31
36
(i)
0,
mm.; x =
2,
+&
max.; x
+ Bi + Gt 2
3 e" +
(ii)
30 x
).
3a;
+ ^/2,
(7)
0,
max.; x
= 1/^2,
inflex.
32 r^e ".
inflex.
n^i
(*
+ l)*(2* + 3)*
(3ar5) 3
'
(ar2)*(3ar
+ 2)*(2ar
t
+ 5); 2
r
v
v
/
v
e 3a! sin2a;(5/ar
\2(*2)
6(3 + 2)
ar
are a,
9)
4
2ar
+3
Zx + 5)
}.
2 + 5/
+ 3 + 2cot2a;).
5 e^*.
10 (logar)*(loglogar +
M.
log
18
arj
22
ar+l
a;
23 e\
1.
28 logp.
21 e~ 2
27 logf.
26 log 2.
29 log(p/q).
(i)
%ch(x + y)$ch(xy);
(iii)
ich(a? + y) + Jch(a;2/).
16 log
24
^ or log
cosech
3.
ar.
22
(ii)
sh (a; + y) + sh (a;
tharsechar.
23
25 cothar.
sech2ar.
27 cosecha;.
28
30 2sharcosar.
39 If a
6,
L^wJ; if a =
ab
j
41
43 ch4a; ch2ar.
44 ^ch
char.
52 logth(iar).
b,
29
\ i^e^+x)
2\2a
j
42 a;thar.
Ja?+ish2a?.
3
ar
char.
(l/ar)ch(logar).
sechar.
38 enhar.
e<<+*+
40 sh2ara;.
47
26
35 ch2ar.
37 21ogchc.
\
2[a
+b
cothar cosecha;.
(1/ar) char}.
32 (charj^logchar + artha;).
36 th3ar.
y) ;
48
arthar
55
1; 1.
46 (ll/a;2 ).
logcha;.
49
(ar
l)char 2arsha\
V(25 + 4ar
24
2 )'
X
^x)' >
**
1^4?'
<h
GPMI
ANSWERS
(8)
5 $secx,
<
\x\
6 2/(1 a; 2 ), x
\n.
9 sec x
8 secc.
10 sh1 *.
16
c'
if
>
tana;
sec x
0,
seca;.
if
tana;
<
0.
ch 1 ^.
11
= c  log a;
+1.
4= 0,
log a + Xx + c\
1
(X
^.
20 sin ^.
17 sh
18 ch"
23 chMa +
26
l)
(a;>
0).
> 6).
> f).
Jch !^
25
ix^a^^ch.
chM^ch ^)1
33 ojth^ + ilogtla;
35
).
isHh^+^+ilogUa;2
=
36 c n
xn
share
a
a2
<
38
\x\
<
1;
x n ~ x ch aa;
log^^VlO+V2
32
34
i(2a?
a2
logcot(fcei7r).
0;
>
29
n(w 1)
\
\x\
1).
(x/a).
).
^Vt^^+lchMfa;).
(i), (ii)
Jsh^fa:).
22 shMa;+
21
28 ixy/(x*l) + $ch l x.
31
19
(a;
c B _a ;
n chax wx n ~
a:
a2
sh aaH
n(w 1)
a2
1.
281oe
S
26
a; 3
15
x2 x2
2(x2)*
ftanitan^.
Jar
log^
^.
B
2
a;
a5+1
a;
:l
+ log^.
+l
9 2a
2(# 2)
.
10 log(*
a;l
12 31og(a:+l)21oga:.
13 log(a;l)log(4a;l).
a;
 +t&n 1 .
+ 2 V2
V2
a;
ar
15
a;
l)ilog(l+a 2 )itan 1 a +
5
11
a?
7 log(a
8
1
xl
x+2 xl
4 log
6 2
2 21og
16 7 log (a? +
1)
7
.
X O
18 log(a;
1)
log(a; + 2)
+
*T*
1
n_2
ANSWERS
2
19 loga: + log(a;+ lias
21
3 log x  1 log (a 8 +
1)
(9)
ar+l
+ 2 tan 1 a.
22
a;
Jtan"
24
26
)
3 + 2
1
3a;2
*tr*_.
3 tani(* +
ilog^.
4 *log^i.
l).
a?
+ 2x + 2
+3tan~ 1 (a;+ 1).
^a _^
log(a; a a;+l)ilog(a; a +a;+l) + 3V3tan 1 (a; + i) + V3tan 1 (xi).
8
5x
x\
1
3a; + 20a;t
1 I,
7 log (1+ x)
9
1ft
12
a;
+ 2 tan 1 x.
8 %log
8(STto + 5j +^
tan  1 
+ 2 tan 1 2
1a
l+V2 + a
1+a;
a;2
+
1o e
+ 2tan 1 ^l.
*
lV2
g
v
la; 2 /
la;V2 + 2
\
.
13 iV2{logJ
a;
14
a:
Exercise
1
loga;2Va;.
4(fc), p.
150
2 K*+1)*2V(*+1).
4 fB*3* + 31og(l+sr*).
6 fz* + fa: + 3cc* + 2a;* + 6a:* + 6a;* + 6 log (* +
7 2{V(2a; +
1)
1)
21og(l+V).
I log
^+
+ 3 log (a?*  1
4)
~2
).
.
Jd
ANSWERS
(10)
8
10
sini^^.
13 J{x* + l)
11
1 )}
sin1
^^.
+ 2dx 1 x.
a;+ 3
Gx+ltySsh 1
14 Jixt +
15
f V( 2
2a; 4
16
Bsin 1
2j(6xx*).
5
18
20
faJixi+Vldrix.
ish
23 Ssh 1 3
19
2
21
?.
a; +
Sx3
J^2
7 oV>
sh 1
10
17 V("
i(a;
+ ch~ 1 x.
+l)*V( 2 f
+ ^j.
22 cos"
l)
+ sh" 1
a;.
^^.
14
DTn1.*V2
24 sin
1
*+l
V2
^x^a^^ch
25
^V^^ + i^sin
27
!^?shi5?z5+A(te6)V(afa).
l)
26
.
1
77 /2
(2a: 2
,
30
32
i
,
27B'
og
V
vo*
+>V
+ 9 )+ v
2( /ffa) J*sin
31

_,( 2
yr
3
2a;
J ch"
It)
//!l!, + 9\l
Wm)
"iV**"
J*2
cotlx.
'
1
logtan(W**)
log(l
7
9
10
12
l+tanja?
\t&n 1 (2t&n\x).
tan*a;l+V2
_ log^^^
1
2
or
a;
11 *tanj*.
V2sh {(l/V 3 tan (4 '^)}3
7
9
13 cos a: + f cos 6 a;^cos 7 a;.
^ sin a; \ sin a;.
1
77
15
 cosec  sin x.
a;
ANSWERS
18
2 tan ~ 1
(V 2 4811 *)
(11)
19 ilogcos2a?.
10a;).
24
R = <J(a? + 6
25
(iii)
2
),
a is given by
tan
<
4oc,
\J(4acb
1
V(4ac6
a 6
:
iJ.
= a.
Put w
a;
^a =
7T~i
62)
8a*
if 6 2
4oc,
1
ctana; + i&
.
2(a a cos
4= 6,
T"
2
'V(6 4oc)
27 If a
2ctana; + 6
(ii)
(1/6) cottar.
26 If 6 2
28
cos a : sin a : 1
o
2
1
\
1 1/b
,
tan a; I;
tan
t,_.0
IOV
^
2a6(a a  6 2 )
a;
o
2
"
....... .o
x + 6 2 sin2 a;
\x + sin 2ma;,
4m
sin 2ma;,
Aa;
cos 2ma;.
4m
4m
2
3
Acos B a;
^ cos x
4 i^cos
sina;
sin4 a;
a;
sin
A
A
+ A cos x sin + A cos # A cos
+ A cos sin + A cos sin
4 a;
a;
a;
a;
a;
5 \ sin a; sec 5 a; +
A
^7T.
15 i7rara +.
21
23
24
25
26
27
13
16
17
a;
A log tan
(Ja;
+ gf^a;.
+ 4^).
ftf.
10 Tf*
t^W.
14
^TT.
A
18
0.
=
nu n _ 1}.
1
=
1/n) ch""
sh x + 1  1/n) w n _ 2
,
M n = 1 /) sh" 1 a; ch a;  1  1/n) u n _ 2
s = 1 /a 2 {aj B1 (n sin ax ax cos aa;)
n(n 1 s_ 2}.
n1
2
c n = 1 /a {a;
(aa; sh ox n ch ax) + n(n 1 c_2).
8 n = 1 /a2 {a; n1 (aa; ch aa; n sh oa;) + n(n 1 _2).
u n = {e sin" 1 bx(a sin 6a; n6 cos bx) +n(n l)6 2w B _ a}/(a 2 + n 2 6 2
Ifm*1, umn = {xm +\\ogx) n nu m>n _ 1 }l{m+\y,
if w 4= 1, ui, n = (loga;) n+1 /(w+ 1); ui,~ = log log
t
20 w
22
12 ft.
ff^r.
a;
tan x.
A^.
a;.
A
+A sin x sec
sin a; sec 8 a; +
(l/a){x n efix
a;
oa!
a;.
).
ANSWERS
(12)
28 1%.
30
wm, =
29
_g_
315
34 Put y
%n.
7ra;.
mean*
[*
11.
5
22 If 6
32
33
if
>
>
m odd,
0,