Anda di halaman 1dari 26

Abrahamic religions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Clockwise from Top Left: Christian cross, Islamic star and crescent, Bah'i nine-p
ointed star, Jewish Star of David
Abrahamic religions (also Semitic religions) are monotheistic religions of West
Asian[1] origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham[2] or re
cognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him. They comprise one of the ma
jor divisions in comparative religion, along with Indian[3] and East Asian relig
ions.[3] Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the largest Abrahamic religions.[4]
[5][6]
The largest Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are Judaism (
1st millennium BC)[specify], Christianity (1st century AD) and Islam (7th centur
y AD).[7]
Abrahamic religions with fewer adherents include Rastafarianism,[8] Samaritanism
,[9] Druzism (sometimes classified as a branch of Shia Islam),[10] Mandaeism,[11
] Bbism[12] and the Bah' Faith.
As of 2002, it was estimated that 54% (3.8 billion people) of the world's popula
tion considered themselves adherents of an Abrahamic religion, about 30% adheren
ts of other religions, and 16% adherents of no organized religion. Christianity
is the largest, with 32% of the world's population, Islam is second with 28%, an
d Judaism has only 0.2%.[13][14]
Contents [hide]
1
Etymology
2
Origins and history
3
Common aspects
3.1
Monotheism
3.2
Theological continuity
3.3
Scripture
3.4
Ethical orientation
3.5
Eschatological world view
3.6
Importance of Jerusalem
4
Significance of Abraham
4.1
For Jews
4.2
For Christians
4.3
For Muslims
5
Religions
5.1
Judaism
5.2
Christianity
5.3
Islam
6
God
6.1
Judaism
6.2
Christianity
6.3
Islam
7
Religious scriptures
7.1
Judaism
7.2
Christianity
7.3
Islam
8
End times and afterlife
8.1
Judaism
8.2
Christianity
8.3
Islam
9
Worship and religious rites
9.1
Judaism
9.2
Christianity

9.3
Islam
9.4
Circumcision
9.5
Food restrictions
9.6
Sabbath observance
10
Proselytism
10.1
Judaism
10.2
Christianity
10.3
Islam
11
Violent conflicts
11.1
Between Abrahamic religions
11.2
Between branches of the same Abrahamic religion
11.3
Between Abrahamic religions and non-adherents
12
Other Abrahamic religions
12.1
Bah' Faith
12.2
Ethnographic Abrahamic religions
13
See also
14
Notes
15
References
16
Further reading
17
External links
Etymology[edit]
Major religious groups as a percentage of world population.
It has been suggested that the phrase, "Abrahamic religion", may simply mean tha
t all these religions come from one spiritual source.[according to whom?][4] Chr
istians refer to Abraham as a "father in faith".[Rom. 4] There is an Islamic rel
igious term, Millat Ibrahim (faith of Ibrahim),[5][6] indicating that Islam sees
itself as having practices tied to the traditions of Abraham.[15] Jewish tradit
ion claims descent from Abraham, and adherents follow his practices and ideals a
s the first of the three spiritual "fathers" or biblical Patriarchs: Abraham, Is
aac, and Jacob.
All the major Abrahamic religions claim a direct lineage to Abraham:
Abraham is recorded in the Torah as the ancestor of the Israelites through his s
on Isaac, born to Sarah through a promise made in Genesis.[Gen. 17:16][16]
The sacred text of Christianity is the Christian Bible, the first part of which,
the Old Testament, is derived from the Jewish Bible, leading to similar ancestr
y claims as above, though most Christians are gentiles who consider themselves a
s grafted into the family tree under the New Covenant, see significance of Abrah
am for Christians for details.
It is the Islamic tradition that Muhammad, as an Arab, is descended from Abraham
's son Ishmael. Jewish tradition also equates the descendants of Ishmael, Ishmae
lites, with Arabs, as the descendants of Isaac by Jacob, who was also later know
n as Israel, are the Israelites.[17]
The Bb, regarded by Bah''s as a predecessor to Bah'u'llh, was a Sayyid, or a direct d
escendant of Muhammad and thus traces his ancestry to Abraham's son Ishmael. Tra
dition also holds that Bah'u'llh is a descendant of Abraham through his third wife
, Keturah.[18]
Other terms sometimes used include Abrahamic faiths, Abrahamic traditions, relig
ions of Abraham, Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Semitic religions, Semitic mo
notheistic religions, and Semitic one god religions.[19]
Adam Dodds argues that the term "Abrahamic faiths", while helpful, can be consid
ered misleading, as it conveys an unspecified historical and theological commona
lity that is problematic on closer examination. While there is commonality among
the religions, in large measure their shared ancestry is peripheral to their re
spective foundational beliefs and thus conceals crucial differences.[20] For exa
mple, the common Christian beliefs of Incarnation, Trinity and Jesus' Resurrecti
on are not accepted by Judaism or Islam (see for example Islamic view of Jesus'

death). There are key beliefs in both Islam and Judaism that are not shared by m
ost of Christianity (such as strict monotheism and adherence to Divine Law), and
key beliefs of Islam, Christianity, and the Bah' Faith not shared by Judaism (suc
h as the prophetic and Messianic position of Jesus, respectively).[21]
Origins and history[edit]
See also: Canaanite religion and Arabian mythology
Judaism regards itself as the religion of the descendants of Jacob,[n 1] a grand
son of Abraham. It has a strictly unitary view of God, and the central holy book
for almost all branches is the Masoretic Text as elucidated in the oral Torah.
In the 19th century and 20th centuries Judaism developed a small number of branc
hes, of which the most significant are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.
Christianity began as a sect of Judaism[n 2] in the Mediterranean Basin[n 3] of
the 1st century CE and evolved into a separate religion the Christian Church with di
stinctive beliefs and practices. Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, co
nsidered by almost all denominations to be divine, one person of a Triune God.[n
4] The Christian biblical canon is usually held to be the ultimate authority, a
longside sacred tradition in some denominations (such as Roman Catholicism and E
astern Orthodoxy). Over many centuries, Christianity divided into three main bra
nches (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant), dozens of significant denominations,
and hundreds of smaller ones.
Islam arose in Arabia[n 5] in the 7th century CE with a strictly unitary view of
God.[n 6] Muslims hold the Qur'an to be the ultimate authority, as revealed and
elucidated through the teachings and practices[n 7] of a central, but not divin
e prophet, Muhammad. The Islamic faith consider all Prophets and Messengers from
Adam through the final messenger (Muhammad) to carry the same Islamic monotheis
tic principles. Soon after its founding Islam split into two main branches (Sunn
i and Shi'a), each of which now have a number of denominations.
The Bah' Faith began within the context of Shi'a Islam in 19th century Persia, aft
er a merchant named Siyyid `Al Mu?ammad Shrz claimed divine revelation and took on t
he title of the Bb, or "the Gate". The Bab's ministry proclaimed the imminent adv
ent of "He whom God shall make manifest", who Bah''s accept as Bah'u'llh. Bah''s rever
e the Torah, Gospels and the Qur'an, and the writings of the Bb, Bah'u'llh, and `Ab
du l-Bah' are considered the central texts of the faith. A vast majority of adheren
ts are unified under a single denomination.[22]
Lesser-known Abrahamic religions, originally offshoots of Shi'a Islam, include t
he Babi Faith[n 8] and Druze.[23]
Common aspects[edit]
The unifying characteristic of Abrahamic religions is that all accept the tradit
ion that God revealed himself to the patriarch Abraham.[24] All are monotheistic
, and conceive God to be a transcendent creator and the source of moral law.[25]
Their religious texts feature many of the same figures, histories, and places,
although they often present them with different roles, perspectives, and meaning
s.[26] Believers who agree on these similarities and the common Abrahamic origin
tend to also be more positive towards other Abrahamic groups.[27]
In these four Abrahamic religions the individual, God, and nature are highly sep
arate from each other. Also, these Abrahamic religions believe in a judging, pat
ernal, fully external god to which the individual and nature are subordinate. On
e seeks salvation or transcendence not by meditation, contemplating the natural
world or via philosophical speculation, but by seeking to please God or to compl
y (such as obedience with God's wishes or his law) and see divine revelation as
outside of self, nature, and custom.[citation needed] In these Abrahamic religio
ns, not only are humans not a part of nature, but nature and the Earth are subor
dinate to humans. In fact, humans are explicitly instructed to "rule over," and

to "subdue" the Earth.[28]


Monotheism[edit]
Main article: Monotheism
All Abrahamic religions claim to be monotheistic, worshiping an exclusive God, a
lthough known by different names.[24] All of these religions believe that God cr
eates, is one, rules, reveals, loves, judges, punishes, and forgives.[20][need q
uotation to verify] However, although Christianity does not profess to believe i
n three gods
but rather three persons, or hypostases, united in one essence
the
Trinitarian doctrine, which is a fundamental of faith for the vast majority of C
hristian denominations, conflicts with Jewish, Muslim, and Bah' concepts of monoth
eism. Since the conception of divine Trinity is not amenable to tawhid, the Isla
mic doctrine of monotheism, Islam considers Christianity to be variously polythe
istic or idolatrous.
Jesus (Arabic: Isa or Yasu among Muslims and Arab Christians respectively) is re
vered by Christianity, Islam, and the Bah' Faith but with vastly differing concept
ions; viewed as the saviour by Christians (and God incarnate by most Christians
as well), as a Prophet of Islam[29] and Messiah by Muslims, and as the Messiah a
nd a Manifestation of God (but not God incarnate) by Bah''s.[30] However, the wors
hip of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God (known as shirk in Islam and s
hituf in Judaism), is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Ju
daism and misguided by the Bah's. The incarnation of God into human form is also s
een as a heresy by Judaism, Islam, and the Bah' Faith.
Theological continuity[edit]
See also: Messianism
All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who
rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the d
ivine will through inspired Scriptures. They also affirm that obedience to this
creator God is to be lived out historically, and that one day God will unilatera
lly intervene in human history on the day of judgment.
Scripture[edit]
See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Development of the Christian bi
blical canon and History of the Qur'an
All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through revelation to p
rophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and incl
uding those in their own scripture.
Ethical orientation[edit]
See also: Biblical law in Christianity and Judeo-Christian
An ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and e
vil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God and to D
ivine Law.
Eschatological world view[edit]
An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation
of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a
resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come.[31]
Importance of Jerusalem[edit]
See also: Jerusalem in Judaism, Jerusalem in Christianity and Jerusalem in Islam
Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Its origins can be dated to 1004
BCE[32] when according to Biblical tradition David established it as the capita
l of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son Solomon built the First Temple on
Mount Moriah.[33] Since the Hebrew Bible relates that Isaac's sacrifice took pl
ace there, Mount Moriah's importance for Jews pre-dates even these prominent eve
nts. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas f
or the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple (the Third Temple) on m

ount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in
built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal.
Jerusalem has served as the only capital for five out of six Jewish states that
have existed in Israel since 1400 BCE (the United Kingdom of Israel, the Kingdom
of Judah, Yehud Medinata, the Hasmonean Kingdom, and modern Israel) with the ex
ception of the Khazar State. It has been majority Jewish since about 1852 and co
ntinues through today.[34][35]
Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Chris
tian presence there since.[36] William R. Kenan, Jr., professor of the history o
f Christianity at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, writes that from
the middle of the 4th century to the Islamic conquest in the middle of the 7th c
entury, the Roman province of Palestine was a Christian nation with Jerusalem it
s principal city.[36] According to the New Testament, Jerusalem was the city Jes
us was brought to as a child to be presented at the temple[Luke 2:22] and for th
e feast of the Passover.[Luke 2:41] He preached and healed in Jerusalem, uncerem
oniously drove the money changers in disarray from the temple there, held the La
st Supper in an "upper room" (traditionally the Cenacle) there the night before
he is said to have died on the cross, was arrested in Gethsemane. The six parts
to Jesus' trial three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman
court were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha, his burial nearby (
traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), and his resurrection and ascens
ion and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there.
Jerusalem, the city of David and Christ, became holy to Muslims, third after Mec
ca and Medina (even though not mentioned by name in the Qur'an). The Al-Aqsa mos
que, which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Qur'an and its
surroundings are addressed in the Qur'an as "the holy land". Muslim tradition h
as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem. The fi
rst Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba (Al-Haram Mosque), but toward al-Aqsa mosq
ue in Jerusalem (this was the qibla for 13 years): the qibla was switched to Kaa
ba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba (
Quran, Al-Baqarah 2:144-150).
We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muhammad], toward the heaven
, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So tur
n your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn yo
ur faces toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture
well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what
they do. (Qur-an - 2:144)
Another reason for its significance is its connection with the Mi?raj,[37] where
, according to traditional Muslim piety, Muhammad ascended through the Seven hea
vens on a winged mule named Buraq, guided by the Archangel Gabriel, beginning fr
om the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount, in modern times under the Dome of t
he Rock.[38][39]
Significance of Abraham[edit]
Main article: Covenant of Abraham
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's p
romise to Abraham.[Genesis 15]
Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham
as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as excl
usively theirs.[40]
For Jews[edit]
For Jews, Abraham (with his wife, Sarah) is the founding patriarch of the childr
en of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I wi
ll bless you."[Gen. 12:2] With Abraham, God entered into "an everlasting covenan
t throughout the ages to be God to you and to your offspring to come."[Gen. 17:7

] It is this covenant that makes Abraham and his descendants children of the cov
enant. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons an
d daughters of Abraham (and Sarah).
Abraham is primarily a revered ancestor or patriarch (referred to as Avraham Avi
nu (????? ????? in Hebrew) "Abraham our father") to whom God made several promis
es: chiefly, that he would have numberless descendants, who would receive the la
nd of Canaan (the "Promised Land"). According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was t
he first post-Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, althou
gh Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah.[41][42]
For Christians[edit]
Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith, and a spiritual, as w
ell as physical, ancestor of Jesus
the Son of God through whom God promised to b
less all the families of the earth. For Christians, Abraham is a spiritual foreb
ear as well as/rather than a direct ancestor depending on the individual's inter
pretation of Paul the Apostle,[Rom. 4:9 12] with the Abrahamic covenant "reinterpr
eted so as to be defined by faith in Christ rather than biological descent" or b
oth by faith as well as a direct ancestor; in any case, the emphasis is placed o
n faith being the only requirement for the Abrahamic Covenant to apply[43] (see
also New Covenant and supersessionism). In Christian belief, Abraham is a role m
odel of faith,[Heb. 11:8 10] and his obedience to God by offering Isaac is seen as
a foreshadowing of God's offering of his son Jesus.[Rom. 8:32][44]
Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as
applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than (as in supers
essionism), being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus. They argue
this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile (before he was circumcised)
"believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. 15:6] (cf. Rom
. 4:3, James 2:23), "those who have faith are children of Abraham" [Gal. 3:7] (s
ee also John 8:39). This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all wh
o believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham.[Rom. 4:20] [Gal. 4:9][45]
However, with regards to Rom. 4:20[46] and Gal. 4:9[47], in both cases he refer
s to these spiritual descendants as the "sons of God"[Gal. 4:26] rather than "ch
ildren of Abraham".[48]
For Muslims[edit]
Main article: Islamic view of Abraham
For Muslims, Abraham is a prophet, the "messenger of God" who stands in the line
from Adam to Muhammad, to whom God gave revelations,[Quran 4:163], who "raised
the foundations of the House" (i.e., the Kaaba)[Quran 2:127] with his first son,
Isma'il, a symbol of which is every mosque.[49] Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first
in a genealogy for Muhammad. Islam considers Abraham to be "one of the first Mus
lims" (Surah 3) the first monotheist in a world where monotheism was lost, and the
community of those faithful to God,[50] thus being referred to as ????? ???????
or "Our Father Abraham", as well as Ibrahim al-Hanif or "Abraham the Monotheist
". Islam holds that it was Ishmael, (Isma'il, Muhammad's ancestor) rather than I
saac, whom Ibrahim was instructed to sacrifice. Also, the same as Judaisim, Isla
m believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is
also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.[51]
Religions[edit]
See also section Other Abrahamic religions
The tomb of Abraham, a cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally c
onsidered to be the burial place of Abraham.
Judaism[edit]
One of Judaism's primary texts is the Tanakh, an account of the Israelites' rela
tionship with God from their earliest history until the building of the Second T
emple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the

Jewish people. One of his great-grandsons was Judah, from whom the religion ulti
mately gets its name. The Israelites were initially a number of tribes who lived
in the Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah.
After being conquered and exiled, some members of the Kingdom of Judah eventuall
y returned to Israel. They later formed an independent state under the Hasmonean
dynasty in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, before becoming a client kingdom of t
he Roman Empire, which also conquered the state and dispersed its inhabitants. F
rom the 2nd to the 6th centuries Jews wrote the Talmud, a lengthy work of legal
rulings and Biblical exegesis which, along with the Tanakh, is a key text of Jud
aism.
Christianity[edit]
Christianity began in the 1st century as a sect within Judaism initially led by
Jesus. His followers viewed him as the Messiah, as in the Confession of Peter; a
fter his crucifixion and death they came to view him as God incarnate,[52] who w
as resurrected and will return at the end of time to judge the living and the de
ad and create an eternal Kingdom of God. Within a few decades the new movement s
plit from Judaism.
After several periods of alternating persecution and relative peace vis a vis th
e Roman authorities under different administrations, Christianity became the sta
te church of the Roman Empire in 380, but has been split into various churches f
rom its beginning. An attempt was made by the Byzantine Empire to unify Christen
dom, but this formally failed with the East West Schism of 1054. In the 16th centu
ry the birth and growth of Protestantism further split Christianity into many de
nominations.
Islam[edit]
Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran. Although it considers Muhammad to
be the Seal of the prophets, Islam teaches that every prophet preached Islam, pr
oviding a historical back-story for the religion by independently recognizing Je
wish and Christian prophets, and adding others. The teachings of Quran are prese
nted as the direct revelation and words of Allah, and earlier scriptures are con
sidered to have been corrupted over time. Islam (meaning "submission", in the se
nse of submission to God) is universal (membership is open to anyone); like Juda
ism, it has a strictly unitary conception of God, called tawhid, or "strict" or
"simple" monotheism.[53] Early disputes over who would lead Muslims following th
e death of Muhammad led to a split between Sunni and Shia, Islam's two main deno
minations.
God[edit]
Main article: God in Abrahamic religions
The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the
creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness,
justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths belie
ve that God is also transcendent, but at the same time personal and involved, li
stening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.
Judaism[edit]
Main article: God in Judaism
The Star of David (or Magen David), is a generally recognized symbol of modern J
ewish identity and Judaism.
In Jewish theology, God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivi
sible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish
tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable
, and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into exist
ence, and interacts with mankind and the world. In Judaism, the one God of Israe
l is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who is the guide of the world, delive

red Israel from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the 613 Mitzvot at Mount Sinai a
s described in the Torah.
The national god of the Israelites has a proper name, written YHWH (Hebrew: ????
???, Modern Yehovah, Tiberian Y?howah) in the Hebrew Bible. The name YHWH is a c
ombination of the future, present, and past tense of the verb "howa" (Hebrew: ??
??) meaning "to be" and translated literally means "The self-existent One". A fu
rther explanation of the name was given to Moses when YHWH stated Eheye Asher Eh
eye (Hebrew: ???? ??? ?????) "I will be that I will be", the name relates to God
as God truly is, God's revealed essence, which transcends the universe. It also
represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name
of God is Elohim, relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God
as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means
"the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".
Christianity[edit]
Main article: God in Christianity
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity
; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
In Christian theology, God is the eternal being who created and preserves the wo
rld. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent (involved in th
e world).[54][55] Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epi
stles and the early[56] creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jes
us.
Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trin
ity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later def
initive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381.[57][58] Trinitarians, wh
o form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith.
[59][60] Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy S
pirit in a number of different ways.[61]
The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the ea
rliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His grea
tness lacks nothing, but contains all things".[62] In the 8th century, John of D
amascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted.[63] As time pas
sed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on s
tatements in the Bible (e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the Father is in H
eaven), others based on theological reasoning.[64][65]
Islam[edit]
Main article: God in Islam
The word Allah written in Arabic.
In Islamic theology, God (Arabic: ????? Allah) is the all-powerful and all-knowi
ng creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.[66] Islam
emphasizes that God is strictly singular (taw?id?)[67] unique (wa?id?) and inher
ently One (a?ad?), all-merciful and omnipotent.[38] According to Islamic teachin
gs, God exists without place[68] and according to the Quran, "No vision can gras
p him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is a
cquainted with all things."[69] God, as referenced in the Quran, is the only God
.[70][71] Islamic tradition also describes the 99 names of God. These 99 names d
escribe attributes of God, including Most Merciful, The Just, The Peace and Bles
sing, and the Guardian.
Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny.
This belief is summed up in chapter 112 of the Qur'an titled Al-Ikhlas, which st
ates "Say, he is Allah (who is) one, Allah is the Eternal, the Absolute. He does
not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent".[Quran 112:1

]
Religious scriptures[edit]
All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered t
o be the word of God hence sacred and unquestionable and some the work of religious
men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to h
ave been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being.
Judaism[edit]
Main articles: Masoretic Text, Septuagint, Targum, Tanakh and Bible
The sacred scriptures of Judaism are the Tanakh, a Hebrew acronym standing for T
orah (Law or Teachings), Nevi'im (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings). These are co
mplemented by and supplemented with various (originally oral) traditions: Midras
h, the Mishnah, the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings. The Tanakh (or Heb
rew Bible) was composed between 1,400 BCE, and 400 BCE by Jewish prophets, kings
, and priests.
The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered holy,
down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error in
a single letter, ornamentation or symbol of the 300,000+ stylized letters that
make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use; hence the sk
ills of a Torah scribe are specialist skills, and a scroll takes considerable ti
me to write and check.
Christianity[edit]
Main articles: Bible, Books of the Bible, Old Testament and New Testament
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England
. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery
.
The sacred scriptures of most Christian groups are the Old Testament and the New
Testament. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collec
tively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them,
were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now
vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional m
aterials.
The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus (th
e Four Gospels, as well as several other writings (the epistles) and the Book of
Revelation.. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired, and together
comprise the Christian Bible.
The vast majority of Christian faiths (including Catholicism, Orthodox Christian
ity, and most forms of Protestantism) recognize that the Gospels were passed on
by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the death of Je
sus, and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of
the Bible considered to be most valid (in the sense of best conveying the true m
eaning of the word of God) has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint, the Sy
riac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, the English King James Version and the Russian
Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different tim
es.
The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of
writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders (see canon
law). Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writ
ings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding
(sola scriptura).
Islam[edit]
Main articles: Muhammad, Qur'an, Hadith, Sunnah and Origin and development of th

e Qur'an
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
Islam's holiest book is the Qur'an, comprising 114 Suras ("chapters of the Qur'a
n"). However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christi
anity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions (which they belie
ve to be corrupted). According to the Qur'an (and mainstream Muslim belief), the
verses of the Qur'an were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muha
mmad on separate occasions. These revelations were written down and also memoriz
ed by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected
into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several
copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic E
mpire.
The Qur'an mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Mos
es and Jesus, among others (see also: Prophets of Islam). The stories of these p
rophets are very similar to those in the Bible. However, the detailed precepts o
f the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced b
y the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God (through Gabriel) to
Muhammad and codified in the Qur'an.
Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Q
ur'an as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are consi
dered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Qur'an, as only the original A
rabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.[72]
Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an is complemented by th
e Hadith, a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet M
uhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars
have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or i
snad: genuine (sahih), fair (hasan) or weak (da'if).[73]
By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Su
nni Muslims.
Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih Muslim
Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan Abu Dawud
Jami al-Tirmidhi
Sunan an-Nasa'ii
Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead.[74] They ar
e known collectively as The Four Books.
The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad (sira) form the Sunnah, an authoritati
ve supplement to the Qur'an. The legal opinions of Islamic jurists (Faqih) provi
de another source for the daily practice and interpretation of Islamic tradition
(see Fiqh.)
The Qur'an contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" (see Suras
2:130,135; 3:95; 6:123,161; 12:38; 16:123; 22:78). In the Qur'an, this expressio
n refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judais
m, as in Sura 2:135, for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye wo
uld be guided (to salvation)." Say thou (O Muslims): "Nay! (I would rather) the
Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God." ' In the Qur'an,
Abraham is declared to have been a Muslim (a hanif, more accurately a "primordi
al monotheist"), not a Jew nor a Christian (Sura 3:67).
End times and afterlife[edit]
Main article: Eschatology

In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual


who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth;
in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish
Messiah; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in sev
eral significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish M
essiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy
of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signal
s the coming of the world to come.
Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe
this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus (to comp
lete his life and die) and the coming of Mahdi (Sunnis in his first incarnation,
Shi'a as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi).
Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies
, and the soul, which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carri
es the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly
after death. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise
criteria and end result, differ between religions.[citation needed]
Judaism[edit]
Main article: Olam Haba
Judaism's views on the afterlife ("the Next World") are quite diverse. This can
be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebr
ew Bible of an afterlife (see Naboth and the Witch of Endor), Judaism focuses on
this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward.
Christianity[edit]
Main articles: Christian eschatology and World to Come Christianity
Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what co
nstitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes f
or the dead (Heaven, Hell, Limbo, Purgatory) or universal reconciliation in whic
h all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism
, the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to
exist (though the Roman Catholic Church has no official teaching on what kind of
place hell is, and indeed allows that it might be a locale of oblivion).[citati
on needed]
Islam[edit]
Main article: Islamic eschatology
In Islam, God is said to be "Most Compassionate and Most Merciful" (Qur'an 1:1,
as well as the start of all suras but one). However, God is also "Most Just"; Is
lam prescribes a literal Hell for those who disobey God and commit gross sin. Th
ose who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Para
dise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of p
unishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numero
us levels.
Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and
spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into seven levels, with the highest level
of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets,
and those killed while fighting for Allah (martyrs).
Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not
repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God,
but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually rele
ased into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk (i.e. associating God in
any way, such as claiming that He is equal with anything or denying Him), this i
he or she will stay forever in Hell.
s not pardonable

Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity
.[75]
Worship and religious rites[edit]
Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the
Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which o
ne day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities Sha
bbat, Sabbath, or jumu'ah; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genes
is, where God created the universe in six days, and rested in the seventh.
Judaism[edit]
Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the T
almud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered
sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, u
ntil the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times dai
ly, including the chanting of the Torah, and facing in the direction of Jerusale
m's Temple Mount. Other practices include circumcision, dietary laws, Shabbat, P
assover, Torah study, Tefillin, purity and others. Conservative Judaism, Reform
Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees,
from the strict tradition of the law.
Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination; in contemporary orthodox
practice, women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain
parts of these daily services.
All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many fe
stivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year (an extra
month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "c
atch up" to the solar year). All streams observe the same festivals, but some em
phasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodo
x have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay
more attention to the simple symbolism of each one.
Christianity[edit]
Main article: Christian worship
Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is
usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual accordin
g to the occasion. During church services some form of liturgy is frequently fol
lowed. Rituals are performed during sacraments, which also vary from denominatio
n to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion, and may also includ
e Confirmation, Confession, Last Rites and Holy Orders.
Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal and other documents. I
ndividuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual some den
ominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora, particularly s
ince the Protestant Reformation.
Islam[edit]
The followers of Islam (Muslims) are to observe the Five Pillars of Islam. The f
irst pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final
and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily (salat) towards
the direction (qibla) of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is alms giving (Z
akah), a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes,
which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to perso
ns or causes, as is commanded in the Qur'an and elucidated as to specific percen
tages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share t
o be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour
was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone wer
e required (i.e. proceeds from renting space), and increases to 50% on "unearned
wealth" such as treasure-finding, and to 100% on wealth that is considered hara

m, as part of attempting to make atonement for the sin, such as that gained thro
ugh financial interest (riba).
Fasting (sawm) during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan, is
the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in goo
d health (as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave d
anger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright
Muslim physician" is required to agree), that are not menstruating are bound to
observe missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a
permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting. I
n such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day
missed.
Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimag
e to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as o
ften as possible, preferably once a year. Only individuals whose financial posit
ion and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj (e.g. if ma
king Hajj would put stress on one's financial situation, but would not end up in
homelessness or starvation, it is still required). During this pilgrimage, the
Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly define
d rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Musli
ms and the "stoning of the devil" at Mina.
At the end of the Hajj, the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal anima
ls, notably camels, are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the
neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the
Jewish kashrut, to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition,
Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael (contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradi
tion that Isaac was the intended sacrifice) with a sheep, thereby preventing hum
an sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy M
uslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts of ihram and the hajj
is complete.[citation needed]
Circumcision[edit]
See also: Circumcision in the Bible, Brit Milah, Khatna, Circumcision controvers
y in early Christianity and History of male circumcision
Judaism practices circumcision for males as a matter of religious obligation at
the age of 8 days old, as does Islam as part of Sunnah
Western Christianity replaced that custom with a baptism[76] ceremony varying ac
cording to the denomination, but generally including immersion, aspersion, or an
ointment with water. The Early Church (Acts 15, the Council of Jerusalem) decide
d that circumcision is not required for Gentile Christians. The Council of Flore
nce in the 15th century[77] prohibited it. Paragraph #2297 of the Catholic Catec
hism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral.[78][79] Many countries
with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates (with the not
able exceptions of the United States,[80] and the Philippines, South Korea, Ethi
opia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Kenya, and many Af
rican Christian countries).[81][82] Coptic Christianity and Ethiopian Orthodoxy
still observe male circumcision and practice circumcision as a rite of passage.[
83][84] Male circumcision is also widely practiced among Christians from Egypt,
Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and North Africa. See also Aposthia.
Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah, or the
innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation.[85]
Food restrictions[edit]
Main articles: kashrut, halal and ital
See also: Apostolic Decree
Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws, with permitted food known as kosher

in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of
pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind. Halal
restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many
kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam p
rescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places Muslims
used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are consi
dered halal in Islam.[86]
With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food
laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Mos
t Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions.[87]
The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For exam
ple, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days.[88]
The law of abstinence requires a Catholic from 14 years of age until death to a
bstain from eating meat on Fridays in honor of the Passion of Jesus on Good Frid
ay. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops obtained the permission of
the Holy See for Catholics in the U.S. to substitute a penitential, or even a ch
aritable, practice of their own choosing.[89] Eastern Rite Catholics have their
own penitential practices as specified by the Code of Canons for the Eastern Chu
rches.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA) embraces numerous Old Testament rules and
regulations such as tithing, Sabbath observance, and Jewish Food laws. Therefor
e, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the
Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are
to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods id
entified in the Scriptures."[Leviticus 11:1 47] among others[90]
In the Christian Bible, the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was fo
rbidden by Apostolic Decree[Acts 15:19 21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Or
thodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele, who, in his
Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century
at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra, the
rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard t
o blood and things strangled was still in force. With the Greeks, indeed, it con
tinued always in force as their Euchologies still show." He also writes that "as
late as the eighth century, Pope Gregory the Third, in 731, forbade the eating
of blood or things strangled under threat of a penance of forty days."[91]
Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based
on Acts 15:19 21.
Sabbath observance[edit]
See also: Biblical Sabbath, Shabbat, Christian Sabbath and jumu'ah
Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed
differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in sever
al other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen ov
er the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition. Though not a day
of rest (creation does not make God tired and therefore He did not rest on the
7th day in Muslim belief), Islam holds Friday as a day of special prayer.[citati
on needed]
Proselytism[edit]
Judaism[edit]
Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of
the Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by
following Noahide Laws, a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmu
d, were given by God[92] as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah"
tha
t is, all of humanity.[93][94]

The Rambam (Rabbi Moses Maimonides, one of the major Jewish teachers) commented:
"Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place i
n the world to come, if they have acquired what they should learn about the Crea
tor". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and
onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that i
t is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion. I
n the U.S., as of 2003 28% of married Jews were married to non-Jews.[95] See als
o Conversion to Judaism.
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch.
Christianity[edit]
Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Pro
testant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the
world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been al
leged at various points throughout history. The most prominently cited allegatio
ns are the conversions of the pagans after Constantine; of Muslims, Jews and Eas
tern Orthodox during the Crusades; of Jews and Muslims during the time of the Sp
anish Inquisition, where they were offered the choice of exile, conversion or de
ath; and of the Aztecs by Hernn Corts. Forced conversions to Protestantism may hav
e occurred as well, notably during the Reformation, especially in England and Ir
eland (see recusancy and Popish plot).
Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Ro
man Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the
Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offenses a
re regarded as a scandal (a cause of unbelief). According to Pope Paul VI, "It i
s one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in fai
th must be free: no one therefore is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith
against his own will."[96]
Islam[edit]
Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da wah
literally means "issuing a summons" or "making an invitation". A Muslim who pra
ctices da wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is
called a da i, plural du at. A da i is thus a person who invites people to understand
Islam through a dialogical process, and may be categorized in some cases as the
Islamic equivalent of a missionary, as one who invites people to the faith, to
the prayer, or to Islamic life.
Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically
to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah act
ively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public
and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expand
ing their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah.
In Islamic theology, the purpose of Da wah is to invite people, both Muslims and n
on-Muslims, to understand the commandments of God as expressed in the Qur'an and
the Sunnah of the Prophet, as well as to inform them about Muhammad. Da wah produ
ces converts to Islam, which in turn grows the size of the Muslim Ummah, or comm
unity of Muslims.
Violent conflicts[edit]
Between Abrahamic religions[edit]
Christians were killed by Jews during the Bar Kochba revolt.[97][unreliable sour
ce?]
The Yemeni Jewish Himyar tribe, led by King Dhu Nuwas, massacred 20,000 Christia
ns in 524.[98]
The Sasanian conquest and occupation of Jerusalem involved the massacre of Chris

tians by Jews.
The wars between the emerging Islamic Caliphates and the Christian Byzantine or
Eastern Roman Empire between the 7th and the 11th centuries CE were a series of
military, political and religious conflicts which led to the islamization of lar
ge territories in the Near East such as Egypt and Syria.
The Crusades (end of 11th
end of 13th century CE) were a series of military expe
ditions from Western Europe to the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean: a rather
unsuccessful attempt by Western (Catholic) Christians to conquer what was percei
ved by all Christians as the Holy Land from its Muslim inhabitants. In passing,
Crusades were also marked with conflicts between Western and Eastern (Orthodox,
Syro-Jacobite and Armenian) Christians and unilateral damage inflicted by Wester
n Christians to Jews.
The conquest and the following Reconquista of Spain, and founding of Portugal (b
eginning of 8th end of 15th century CE) were a series of wars between Muslims an
d Christians in the Iberian peninsula resulting in the founding of several Musli
m and Christian Medieval states and the final victory of the Catholic Crown of C
astile and Aragon against the Muslim Emirate of Granada.
The Ottoman conquest of the Balkan peninsula (mid-14th end of 15th century CE) f
ollowed by a series of wars between the Islamic Ottoman Empire and various Chris
tian powers and alliances (end of 14th beginning of 20th century CE) was an impo
rtant political, military and cultural process for South-Eastern Europe resultin
g in the fall of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire and its successor state
s and finally leading to the emerging of several modern nations in that region.
The Spanish inquisition was an attempt by the Christian Catholic church in Spain
in the wake of the centuries long Reconquista to suppress or expel Jews and Mus
lims and to prosecute Christian heretics. Openly Jewish and Muslim people were e
xpelled rather than killed, but many submitted to forced conversion to Catholici
sm to avoid expulsion. The Inquisitors often did not trust the converts, and per
secuted them cruelly for being secret adherents of their original religions, whi
ch was often true but sometimes fabricated. Jewish forced converts were known as
"anusim," or sometimes by the pejorative "morrano (pig)."[citation needed]
At various points in history pogroms against Jews were common in Christian Europ
e, and in many Islamic areas. See blood libel.
Persecution of Bah's and Political accusations against the Bah' Faith review the sub
stantive efforts in parts of the world against the Bah's and their religion.
Between branches of the same Abrahamic religion[edit]
The Fourth Crusade and subsequent wars between Catholic Europeans and the Orthod
ox Byzantine Greeks following the Great Schism.
The Christian Reformation of the 16th century CE was an attempt towards a religi
ous reform in the Western (Catholic) Christian Church which resulted in a series
of Religious Wars between Catholic and emerging Reformist/Protestant Christian
forces during the 16th and 17th centuries CE throughout Western Europe.
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585 1604) was due to religious conflict between Catholic a
nd Protestant Christians, and economic causes.
There have been many violent conflicts between the Sunni and Shi'a branches of I
slam; see Shi'a Sunni relations.
After the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a western coalition there was armed conflict
between branches of Islam, with fighting and bombings, even of mosques.
Between Abrahamic religions and non-adherents[edit]
Religious hostility fueled the Jewish Roman wars.
Many Roman emperors persecuted Christians. For example, see Diocletianic Persecu
tion.
In the initial expansion of both Christianity and Islam, a number of pagan commu
nities were converted by force.
The Catholic Inquisition, mentioned above, also targeted non-believers[citation
needed] in the orthodox doctrines of Roman Catholicism and many lost their livel
ihoods or their lives.[citation needed]
Christian evangelism was a partial motivation for the colonization of the Americ
as.[citation needed]
Communist dictatorships practiced a policy of religious oppression in favour of

personality cults revering the leader or the state.


Other Abrahamic religions[edit]
Historically, the Abrahamic religions have been considered to be Judaism, Christ
ianity and Islam. Some of this is due to the age and larger size of these three.
The other, similar religions were seen as either too new to judge as being trul
y in the same class, or too small to be of significance to the category.
However, some of the restriction of Abrahamic to these three is due only to trad
ition in historical classification. Therefore, restricting the category to these
three religions has come under criticism.[99] The religions listed below here c
laim Abrahamic classification, either by the religions themselves, or by scholar
s who study them.
Bah' Faith[edit]
Main article: Bah' Faith
Nine-point star of Bah' Faith
Recently the Bah' Faith, which dates only to the late 19th century, has sometimes
been listed as Abrahamic by scholarly sources in various fields.[40][100][101]
Though smaller and younger than the well-known Abrahamic religions, the Bah' Faith
is significant because of its activities, distribution and numbers. The religio
n is almost entirely contained in a single, organized, hierarchical community, a
nd is also recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion afte
r Christianity.[14][102] The Association of Religion Data Archives estimated som
e 7.3 million Bah's in 2005[103] and the only religion to consistently surpass pop
ulation growth in each major region of the planet over the last century, often g
rowing at twice the rate of the population.[104]

Bah'u'llh, the founder, affirms the highest religious station for Abraham and gene
rally for prophets mentioned among the other Abrahamic religions,[105] and has c
laimed a lineage of descent from Abraham through Keturah and Sarah.[8][106][107]
Additionally Bah'u'llh actually did lose a son, Mrz Mihd.[108] Bah'u'llh, then in pri
on, eulogized his son and connected the subsequent easing of restrictions to his
son's dying prayer and compared it to the intended sacrifice of Abraham s son.[10
9]
The religion also shares many of the same commonalities of Judaism, Christianity
and Islam.[105][110][111] The religion emphasizes monotheism and believes in on
e eternal transcendent God,[112][113][114] the station of the founders of the ma
jor religions as Manifestations of God come with revelation[113][115][116] as a
series of interventions by God in human history that has been progressive, and e
ach preparing the way for the next.[101] There is no definitive list of Manifest
ations of God, but Bah'u'llh and `Abdu'l-Bah referred to several personages as Mani
festations; they include individuals generally not recognized by other Abrahamic
religions - Krishna, Zoroaster, and Buddha[117] - and general statements go fur
ther to other cultures.[118]
Ethnographic Abrahamic religions[edit]
Some small religions, such as Samaritanism,[119] Druzes,[120] Mandeans,[11] Rast
afari movement,[8] and the Bb Faith, are Abrahamic. These religions are regional,
with Samaritans largely in Israel and the West Bank,[121] Druze largely in Syria
, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan,[122] Mandeans largely in Iraq,[123] and Rastafari
largely in Jamaica.[124]
See also[edit]
Book icon
Book: Abrahamic religions
Book: Judaism
Book: Christianity

Book: Islam
Abraham's family tree
Abrahamites
Ancient Semitic religion
Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
Chrislam
Christianity and Islam
Christianity and Judaism
Islam and Judaism
People of the Book
Notes[edit]
Jump up ^ Jacob is also called Israel, a name the Bible states he was given by G
od.
Jump up ^ cf. Judaizer, Messianic Judaism
Jump up ^ With several centers, such as Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Thessalonik
i and Corinth, Antioch, and later spread outwards, eventually having two main ce
nters in the empire, one for the Western Church and one for the Eastern Church i
n Rome and Constantinople respectively by the 5th century AD
Jump up ^ Triune God is also called the "Holy Trinity"
Jump up ^ Islam arose specifically in Tihamah city of Mecca and Hejaz city of Me
dina of Arabia
Jump up ^ The monotheistic view of God in Islam is called tawhid which is essent
ially the same as the conception of God in Judaism
Jump up ^ Teachings and practices of Muhammad are collectively known as the sunn
ah, similar to the Judaic concepts of oral law and exegesis, or talmud and midra
sh
Jump up ^ Historically, the Bah' Faith arose in 19th century Persia, in the contex
t of Shi'a Islam, and thus may be classed on this basis as a divergent strand of
Islam, placing it in the Abrahamic tradition. However, the Bah' Faith considers i
tself an independent religious tradition, which arose from a Muslim context but
also recognizes other traditions. The Bah' Faith may also be classed as a new reli
gious movement, due to its comparatively recent origin, or may be considered suf
ficiently old and established for such classification to not be applicable.
References[edit]
Jump up ^ Spirituality and Psychiatry - Page 236, Chris Cook, Andrew Powell, A.
C. P. Sims - 2009
Jump up ^ "Philosophy of Religion". Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Archived from t
he original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b C.J. Classification of religions: Geographical. Encyclopdia Bri
tannica, 2007. Accessed: 15 May 2013
^ Jump up to: a b Massignon 1949, pp. 20 23
^ Jump up to: a b Smith 1998, p. 276
^ Jump up to: a b Derrida 2002, p. 3
Jump up ^
"Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U of Wisconsin. Ret
rieved 3 March 2012.
Lawson, Todd (December 13, 2012). Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney, Christopher, eds.
"Baha'i Religious History". Journal of Religious History 36 (4): 463 470. doi:10.1
111/j.1467-9809.2012.01224.x. ISSN 1467-9809. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
Collins, William P., reviewer (September 1, 2004). "Review of: The Children of A
braham : Judaism, Christianity, Islam / F. E. Peters. -- New ed. -- Princeton, N
J : Princeton University Press, 2004". Library Journal (New York) 129 (14): 157,
160. Retrieved Sep 13, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b c "Abrahamic Religion". Christianity: Details about... Christi
anity Guide. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
Jump up ^ "Introduction to Judaism Classroom Materials" (PDF). Jewish Museum of
Maryland. 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
Jump up ^ "Synopsis of book, "The Druze and Their Faith in Tawhid"". Archived fr
om the original on 14 March 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b Mandeans claim Abraham was of their people (see The Mandeans o

f Iraq and Iran, pp. 265 269). On the other hand, though they have many affinities
, they consider that, "the Jewish God was an evil spirit, the law was given by t
he evil ruha and the seven planets, and the Hebrew Bible was read with a particu
larly critical eye" (see Neusner on Judaism: History, Jacob Neusner, pp. 536 537)
Jump up ^ Onyeakor, Joachim (2012). Did We Create God?. Xlibris Corporation. ISB
N 9781477136973. Retrieved 2015-01-10. Abrahamic religions (Christianity encompa
ssing Anglican, Catholic, evangelical, Jehovah's Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, O
rthodox, Pentecostal (having more than thousand denominations), Islam, Judaism,
Rastafari movement, Babism, Baha'i Faith, Gnosticism, Mandaeans and Sabians, and
Samaritanism)
Jump up ^ Hunter, Preston. "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adh
erents". Adherents.com.
^ Jump up to: a b "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas
, Mid-2002". Encyclopdia Britannica. 2002. Archived from the original on 12 March
2007. Retrieved 15 September 2014. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "britann
ica_stats" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
Jump up ^ The Quran, albaqarah; v. 135
Jump up ^ Scherman, pp. 34 35.
Jump up ^ Saheeh al-Bukharee, Book 55, hadith no. 584; Book 56, hadith no. 710
Jump up ^ "Part Four On the Origin, Powers and Conditions of Man". www.bahai-lib
rary.com. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
Jump up ^ David Kay, The Semitic Religions Hebrew, Jewish, Christian & Moslem, Req
d books, 2008
^ Jump up to: a b Dodds, Adam (July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and
Discontinuity in Christian and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly 81 (3):
230 253.
Jump up ^ Greenstreet, p. 95.
Jump up ^ "The Bah Faith
The website of the worldwide Bah community". www.bahai.org.
etrieved 2015-09-05.
Jump up ^ * Dolbee, Sandi (27 Mar 2003). "Faith, Hope and Understand: Teenagers
Questions and learn about each other's Faiths". The San Diego Union
Tribune. p.
E.1. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
"WORLD RELIGIONS RESOURCES". WPC library catalog. Warner Pacific College. 2012.
Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
"The Journey of Abraham" (PDF). Part of Library s Stories of Faith Program; Discus
sion to Focus on Shared Beliefs of Semitic Religions. San Diego Public Library.
Retrieved 2012-03-03.
"Tagged: Abrahamic religions". Search Results. National Library of Australia. 20
12. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
"Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U of Wisconsin. Ret
rieved 3 March 2012.
Mayton, Daniel M. (2009). Nonviolent Perspectives Within the Abrahamic Religions
. Peace Psychology Book Series. Springer US. pp. 167 203. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-8
9348-8_7. ISBN 978-0-387-89348-8.
"Abrahamic religions". Library of Congress Authorities & Vocabularies. The Libra
ry of Congress. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
Bacquet, Karen (May 2006). "When Principle and Authority Collide: Baha'i Respons
es to the Exclusion of Women from the Universal House of Justice". Nova Religio:
The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions (University of California Pre
ss) 9 (4): 34 52. doi:10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.034.
^ Jump up to: a b Peters, Francis E.; Esposito, John L. (2006). The children of
Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-69
1-12769-9.
Jump up ^ "Religion: Three Religions
One God". Global Connections of the Middle
East. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
Jump up ^ Kunst, J. R., & Thomsen, L. (2014). Prodigal sons: Dual Abrahamic cate
gorization mediates the detrimental effects of religious fundamentalism on Chris
tian-Muslim relations. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion.
doi: 10.1080/10508619.2014.93796 https://www.academia.edu/7455300/Prodigal_sons
_Dual_Abrahamic_categorization_mediates_the_detrimental_effects_of_religious_fun

damentalism_on_Christian-Muslim_relations
Jump up ^ Kunst, J., Thomsen, L., Sam, D. (2014). Late Abrahamic reunion? Religi
ous fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among
Muslims and Christians. European Journal of Social Psychology, https://www.acad
emia.edu/6436421/Late_Abrahamic_reunion_Religious_fundamentalism_negatively_pred
icts_dual_Abrahamic_group_categorization_among_Muslims_and_Christians
Jump up ^ A clarifying point in the relationships between the individual and god
and nature in the three Abrahamic religions: Bible, Genesis 1, 26 (NIV) Then Go
d said, "Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rul
e over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all
the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." ...Gen
28: God said: "...fill the earth and subdue it."
Jump up ^ Uri Rubin, Prophets and Prophethood, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an
Jump up ^ "Jesus Christ in the Bah' Writings". bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2015-0
9-05.
Jump up ^ Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Charles Scribner
's Sons, 1973 74. The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia Library
. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
Jump up ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts. The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Isr
aeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History A Political, Social, an
d Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 541.
Jump up ^ Steven Fine (2011). The Temple of Jerusalem: From Moses to the Messiah
: In Honor of Professor Louis H. Feldman. BRILL. pp. 302 303.
Jump up ^ Morgenstern, Arie; Translated by Joel A. Linsider (2006). "Epilogue: E
mergence of a Jewish Majority in Jerusalem". Hastening redemption: Messianism an
d the resettlement of the land of Israel. US: Oxford University Press. p. 201. I
SBN 978-0-19-530578-4.
Jump up ^ Lapidoth, Ruth; Moshe Hirsch (1994). The Jerusalem question and its re
solution: selected documents. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-79
23-2893-3.
^ Jump up to: a b Wilken, Robert L. "From Time Immemorial? Dwellers in the Holy
Land." Christian Century, 30 July 6 August 1986, p.678.
Jump up ^ Miraj (Britannica)
^ Jump up to: a b "Jerusalem (Britannica)", Jerusalem(Britannica) Cite error: In
valid <ref> tag; name "Britannica" defined multiple times with different content
(see the help page).
Jump up ^ Dome of the Rock
^ Jump up to: a b "Why "Abrahamic"?". Lubar Institute for Religious Studies at U
niversity of Wisconsin - Madison. 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
Jump up ^ Shultz, Joseph P. "Two Views of the Patriarchs", in Nahum Norbert Glat
zer, Michael A. Fishbane, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (eds.) (1975). Texts and Response
s: Studies presented to Nahum N. Glatzer on the occasion of his 70th birthday by
his students. Brill Publishers. pp. 51 52. ISBN 9789004039803
Jump up ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1973). "The Jew". The Aryeh Kaplan Reader. Mesorah Publ
ications. p. 161. ISBN 9780899061733
Jump up ^ Blasi, Turcotte, Duhaime, p. 592.
Jump up ^ "The Hymn of Security MacArthur, John (1996). The MacArthur New Testam
ent Commentary: Romans. Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 0-8254-1522-5.
Jump up ^ "So those who have faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of fa
ith." "In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God s ch
ildren, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham s offspr
ing." (Rom. 9:8)
Jump up ^ Rom. 4:20, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
Jump up ^ Gal. 4:9, King James Version (Oxford Standard, 1769)
Jump up ^ Bickerman, p.188cf.
Jump up ^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford companion to world mythology.
US: Oxford University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
Jump up ^ Fischer, Michael M. J.; Mehdi Abedi (1990). Debating Muslims: cultural
dialogues in postmodernity and tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 163 166. I
SBN 978-0-299-12434-2.

Jump up ^ Hawting, Gerald R. (2006). The development of Islamic ritual; Volume 2


6 of The formation of the classical Islamic world. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp.
xviii, xix, xx, xxiii. ISBN 978-0-86078-712-9.
Jump up ^ Pavlac, Brian A (2010). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supr
emacies and Diversities. Chapter 6.
Jump up ^ Religions Islam Islam at a glance, BBC, 5 August 2009.
Jump up ^ Basic Christian Doctrine by John H. Leith (Jan 1, 1992) ISBN 066425192
7 pages 55-56
Jump up ^ Introducing Christian Doctrine (2nd Edition) by Millard J. Erickson (A
pr 1, 2001) ISBN 0801022509 pages 87-88
Jump up ^ Perhaps even pre-Pauline creeds.
Jump up ^ Prestige G.L. Fathers and Heretics SPCK:1963, p. 29
Jump up ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black:1965, p.280
Jump up ^ Mercer Dictionary of the Bible edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey
Bullard 2001 ISBN 0865543739 page 935
Jump up ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Doctrines A & C Black: 1965, p 115
Jump up ^ Theology: The Basics by Alister E. McGrath (Sep 21, 2011) ISBN 0470656
751 pages 117-120
Jump up ^ Irenaeus of Lyons by Eric Francis Osborn (Nov 26, 2001) ISBN 052180006
4 pages 27-29
Jump up ^ Global Dictionary of Theology by William A. Dyrness, Veli-Matti Krkkinen
, Juan F. Martinez and Simon Chan (Oct 10, 2008) ISBN 0830824545 pages 352-353
Jump up ^ Christian Doctrine by Shirley C. Guthrie (Jul 1, 1994) ISBN 0664253687
pages 111 and 100
Jump up ^ Hirschberger, Johannes. Historia de la Filosofa I, Barcelona: Herder 19
77, p.403
Jump up ^ Gerhard Bwering God and his Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qur?an Qur
an.com, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.22
Jump up ^ John L. Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1
998, p.88
Jump up ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Islam, p. 3
Jump up ^ Quran 6:103
Jump up ^ Quran 29:46
Jump up ^ F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
Jump up ^ Baker, Mona; Saldanha, Gabriela (2008). Routledge encyclopedia of tran
slation studies. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-415-36930-5.
Jump up ^ ?Uthman ibn ?Abd al-Ra?man Ibn al-?ala? al-Shahrazuri; Eerik Dickinson
(2006). An Introduction to the Science of Hadith: Kitab Ma'rifat Anwa' 'ilm Alhadith. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-85964-158-3.
Jump up ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shi?i Islam: the history and
doctrines of Twelver Shi?ism. Yale University Press. pp. 173 4. ISBN 978-0-300-035
31-5.
Jump up ^ al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib (1994). Reliance of the Traveler (edited and
translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller). Amana Publications. pp. 995 1002. ISBN 0-915957
-72-8.
Jump up ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Baptism: "According to rabbinical teachings, whic
h dominated even during the existence of the Temple (Pes. viii. 8), Baptism, nex
t to circumcision and sacrifice, was an absolutely necessary condition to be ful
filled by a proselyte to Judaism (Yeb. 46b, 47b; Ker. 9a; 'Ab. Zarah 57a; Shab.
135a; Yer. Kid. iii. 14, 64d). Circumcision, however, was much more important, a
nd, like baptism, was called a "seal" (Schlatter, "Die Kirche Jerusalems", 1898,
p. 70). But as circumcision was discarded by Christianity, and the sacrifices h
ad ceased, Baptism remained the sole condition for initiation into religious lif
e. The next ceremony, adopted shortly after the others, was the imposition of ha
nds, which, it is known, was the usage of the Jews at the ordination of a rabbi.
Anointing with oil, which at first also accompanied the act of Baptism, and was
analogous to the anointment of priests among the Jews, was not a necessary cond
ition".
Jump up ^ "Ecumenical Council of Florence (1438 1445)". The Circumcision Reference
Library. Retrieved 10 July 2007.

Jump up ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church: Article 5 The Fifth commandment. Chris
tus Rex et Redemptor Mundi. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
Jump up ^ Dietzen, John. "The Morality of Circumcision", The Circumcision Refere
nce Library. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
Jump up ^ Ray, Mary G. "82% of the World's Men are Intact", Mothers Against Circ
umcision, 1997.
Jump up ^ Williams, B G; et al. (2006). "The potential impact of male circumcisi
on on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa". PLos Med 3 (7): e262. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed
.0030262. PMC 1489185. PMID 16822094.
Jump up ^ "Questions and answers: NIAID-sponsored adult male circumcision trials
in Kenya and Uganda". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. De
cember 2006.
Jump up ^ Van Doorn-Harder, Nelly (2006). "Christianity: Coptic Christianity". W
orldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices 1.
Jump up ^ "Circumcision". Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2011
.
Jump up ^ http://www.missionislam.com/health/circumcisionislam.html
Jump up ^ "Halal & Healthy: Is Kosher Halal", SoundVision.com Islamic information
& products. 5 August 2009.
Jump up ^ Schuchmann, Jennifer. "Does God Care What We Eat?", Today's Christian,
January/February 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
Jump up ^ Canon 1250, 1983. The 1983 Code of Canon Law specifies the obligations
of Latin Rite Catholic.
Jump up ^ "Fasting and Abstinence", Catholic Online. 6 August 2009.
Jump up ^ "Fundamental Beliefs", #22. Christian Behavior. Seventh-Day Adventist
Church website. 6 August 2009.
Jump up ^ Schaff, Philip. "Canon II of The Council of Gangra." The Seven Ecumeni
cal Councils. 6 August 2009. Commentary on Canon II of Gangra.
Jump up ^ According to Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981,
Entry Ben Noah, page 349), most medieval authorities consider that all seven co
mmandments were given to Adam, although Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot M'lak
him 9:1) considers the dietary law to have been given to Noah.
Jump up ^ Encyclopedia Talmudit (Hebrew edition, Israel, 5741/1981, entry Ben No
ah, introduction) states that after the giving of the Torah, the Jewish people w
ere no longer in the category of the sons of Noah; however, Maimonides (Mishneh
Torah, Hilkhot M'lakhim 9:1) indicates that the seven laws are also part of the
Torah, and the Talmud (Bavli, Sanhedrin 59a, see also Tosafot ad. loc.) states t
hat Jews are obligated in all things that Gentiles are obligated in, albeit with
some differences in the details.
Jump up ^ Compare Genesis 9:4 6.
Jump up ^ Kornbluth, Doron. Why marry Jewish?. Southfield, MI: Targum Press, 200
3. ISBN 978-1-56871-250-5
Jump up ^ Pope Paul VI. "Declaration on Religious Freedom", 7 December 1965.
Jump up ^ Eusebius. "Texts on Bar Kochba: Eusebius". livius.org. Retrieved 14 Se
ptember 2014.
Jump up ^ "Historians back BBC over Jewish massacre claim | The Jewish Chronicle
". thejc.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
Jump up ^ *Micksch, Jrgen (2009). "Trialog International
Die jhrliche Konferenz".
Herbert Quandt Stiftung. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
Collins, William P., reviewer (1 September 2004). "Review of: The Children of Ab
raham : Judaism, Christianity, Islam / F. E. Peters. New ed. Princeton, NJ : Pri
nceton University Press, 2004". Library Journal (New York) 129 (14): 157, 160. I
SBN 978-0-691-12769-9. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
Jump up ^ Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (29 August 2008). "Racism, Ra
cial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related forms of Intolerance, follow-up and
implementation of the Durhan Declaration and Programme of Action" (PDF). Human R
ights Council; Ninth session; Agenda item 9. United Nations. Retrieved 19 Septem
ber 2009.
^ Jump up to: a b Lawson, Todd (December 13, 2012). Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney,
Christopher, eds. "Baha'i Religious History". Journal of Religious History 36 (4

): 463 470. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2012.01224.x. ISSN 1467-9809. Retrieved Septem


ber 5, 2013.
Jump up ^ MacEoin, Denis (2000). "Baha'i Faith". In Hinnells, John R. The New Pe
nguin Handbook of Living Religions: Second Edition. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051480-5.
Jump up ^ "World Religions (2005)". QuickLists The World
Religions. The Associat
ion of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
Jump up ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Brian J. Grim (26 March 2013). "Global Religious Pop
ulations, 1910 2010". The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to Interna
tional Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59 62. doi:10.1002/97811185557
67.ch1. ISBN 9781118555767.
^ Jump up to: a b May, Dann J (December 1993). "The Bah' Principle of Religious Un
ity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism". University of North Texas, Denton,
Texas. p. 102. OCLC 31313812. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
Jump up ^ Hatcher, W.S.; Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bah' Faith: The Emerging Global
Religion. Wilmette, IL: Bah' Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-264-3.
Jump up ^ Flow, Christian B.; Nolan, Rachel B. (16 November 2006). "Go Forth Fro
m Your Country" (PDF). The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original (PDF) on
16 November 2006. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
Jump up ^ Ma'ani, Baharieh Rouhani (2008). Leaves of the Twin Divine Trees. Oxfo
rd, UK: George Ronald. p. 150. ISBN 0-85398-533-2.
Jump up ^ Taherzadeh, A. (1984). "The Death of The Purest Branch". The Revelatio
n of Bah'u'llh, Volume 3: `Akka, The Early Years 1868 77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald.
pp. 204 220. ISBN 0-85398-144-2.
Jump up ^ Stockman, Robert H. (2006). Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael
, eds. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Greenwood Publi
shing. pp. 185 218. ISBN 0-275-98712-4.
Jump up ^ Buck, Christopher (1999). Paradise and paradigm: key symbols in Persia
n Christianity and the Bah? Faith, Volume 10 of Studies in the Bb and Bah' religions.
SUNY Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-7914-4061-2.
Jump up ^ Britannica 1992
^ Jump up to: a b Smith 2008, p. 106
Jump up ^ Effendi 1944, p. 139
Jump up ^ Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bah' Writings".
Bah' Studies. monograph 9: 1 38.
Jump up ^ Smith 2008, pp. 111 112
Jump up ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Manifestations of God". A concise encyclopedia o
f the Bah' Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 231. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
Jump up ^ Buck, Christopher (1996). "Native Messengers of God in Canada? A test
case for Baha'i universalism" (PDF). The Bah' Studies Review (London: Association
for Bah' Studies English-Speaking Europe): 97 132. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
Jump up ^ "Introduction to Judaism Classroom Materials" (PDF). Jewish Museum of
Maryland. 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
Jump up ^ "Synopsis of book, "The Druze and Their Faith in Tawhid"". Archived fr
om the original on 14 March 2012.
Jump up ^ "Joshua, The Samaritan Book Of:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 25
February 2010.
Jump up ^ Danna, Nissim (December 2003). The Druze in the Middle East: Their Fai
th, Leadership, Identity and Status. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 99. ISB
N 978-1-903900-36-9.
Jump up ^ "Save the Gnostics" by Nathaniel Deutsch, 6 October 2007, New York Tim
es.
Jump up ^ Hubbard, Benjamin Jerome; Hatfield, John T; Santucci, James A (April 2
007). Chanting down Babylon: the Rastafari reader. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4
. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
Further reading[edit]
This article's further reading may not follow Wikipedia's content policies or gu
idelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive, less relevant or ma
ny publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant pu

blications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (Septembe
r 2015)
Bakhos, Carol (2014). The Family of Abraham: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Inter
pretations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-05083-9.
Derrida, Jacques (2002). Anidjar, Gil, ed. Acts of Religion. New York & London:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92401-6.
Assmann, Jan (1998). Moses the Egyptian: the memory of Egypt in western monothei
sm. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-58739-7.
Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New T
estament Times. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2699-5.
Blasi, Anthony J.; Turcotte, Paul-Andr; Duhaime, Jean (2002). Handbook of early C
hristianity: social science approaches. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 978-0-7591-0015-2.
de Perceval, Armand-Pierre Caussin (1847). Calcutta review
Essai sur l'histoire
des Arabes avant l'islamisme, pendant l'poque de Mahomet, et jusqu' la rduction de
toutes les tribus sous la loi musulmane (in French). Paris: Didot. OCLC 43124700
4.
Dodds, Adam (July 2009). "The Abrahamic Faiths? Continuity and Discontinuity in
Christian and Islamic Doctrine". Evangelical Quarterly 81 (3): 230 253.
Firestone, Reuven; American Jewish Committee, Harriet; Robert Heilbrunn Institut
e For International Interreligious Understanding (2001). Children of Abraham: an
introduction to Judaism for Muslims. Hoboken, NJ: KTAV. ISBN 978-0-88125-720-5.
Freedman H. (trans.), and Simon, Maurice (ed.), Genesis Rabbah, Land of Israel,
5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis, Volume II, London: The
Soncino Press, 1983. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Seder Olam: The rabbinic view of Biblical chronology,
(trans., & ed.), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1998
Kritzeck, James (1965). Sons of Abraham: Jews, Christians, and Moslems. Helicon.
Greenstreet, Wendy (2006). Integrating spirituality in health and social care. O
xford; Seattle, WA: Radcliffe. ISBN 978-1-85775-646-3.
Johansson, Warren (1990). "Abrahamic Religions" (PDF). In Dynes, Wayne R. Encycl
opedia of Homosexuality (PDF). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8240-6544-7.
Longton, Joseph (1987 2009). "Fils d'Abraham". In Longton, Joseph. Fils d'Abraham.
S.A. Brepols I. G. P. and CIB Maredsous. ISBN 2-503-82344-0.
Massignon, Louis, "Les trois prires d'Abraham, pre di tuos les croyants", Dieu Viv
ant, 13, (1949) 20 23.
Masumian, Farnaz (1995). Life After Death: A study of the afterlife in world rel
igions. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-074-8.
Reid, Barbara E. (1996). Choosing the Better Part?: Women in the Gospel of Luke.
Liturgical Press.
Scherman, Nosson, (ed.), Tanakh, Vol.I, The Torah, (Stone edition), Mesorah Publ
ications, Ltd., New York, 2001
Smith, Jonathan Z. (1998). "Religion, Religions, Religious". In Taylor, Mark C.
Critical Terms for Religious Studies. University of Chicago Press. pp. 269 284. IS
BN 978-0-226-79156-2.
Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge U
niversity Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6.
External links[edit]
Reconciling the Abrahamic Faiths Accessed 21 October 2012
What's Next? Heaven, hell, and salvation in major world religions A side-by-side
comparison. [archive] Accessed 16 September 2014
Three Faiths, One God Accessed 21 October 2012
[show] v t e
Semitic topics
[show] v t e
Religion
Star of David.svgJudaism portal P christianity.svgChristianity portal Allah-gree
n.svgIslam portal Bahai star.svgBah' Faith portal P religion world.svgReligion por
tal
Categories: Abrahamic religionsMonotheistic religionsReligious comparison
Navigation menu

Create accountNot logged inTalkContributionsLog inArticleTalkReadEditView histor


y
Search
Go
Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikipedia store
Interaction
Help
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Print/export
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version
Languages
???????
Az?rbaycanca
?????
?????????
?????????
Bosanski
Brezhoneg
Catal
Ce tina
Cymraeg
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti
????????
Espaol
Esperanto
Euskara
?????
Froyskt
Franais
Frysk
Galego
???
??????
Hrvatski
Bahasa Indonesia
slenska
Italiano

?????
???????
???????
Kurd
Ladino
Latina
Latvie u
Magyar
??????
?????????
????
Bahasa Melayu
Nederlands
???
Napulitano
Norsk bokml
Norsk nynorsk
Occitan
O?zbekcha/???????
Plattdtsch
Polski
Portugus
Qirimtatarca
Romna
???????
Scots
?????
Simple English
Slovencina
Sloven cina
?????? ???????
?????? / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / ??????????????
Suomi
Svenska
Tagalog
?????
??????
???
Trke
??????????
????
Ti?ng Vi?t
??
Zazaki
??
Edit links
This page was last modified on 23 November 2015, at 07:23.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; add
itional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and P
rivacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, I
nc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersMobile viewWi
kimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki