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Fiber Connect, Inc.

Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design


and the
ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
BICSI Regional Meeting Ellicott, MD
Rick Foster RCDD,TLT
Communications Infrastructure Group

Fiber Connect 2003

July 27, 2006

Fiber Connect, Inc.


Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

What is ANSI/TIA-942?
Published by TIA in April 2005
Telecommunications Infrastructure
Standard for Data Centers
Relationship to other standards
Excellent source of information
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Codes & Standards

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Fiber Connect, Inc.


Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

CODES vs STANDARDS
CODE: A regulation that is enforceable.

It is the Law !
STANDARD: A recommend practice and
performance requirements.

It is our Profession !
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Standards

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TIA-942
NFPA 70 National Electric Code
NFPA-75 Data Centers
NFPA-76 Central Office
International Standards & BICSI

Article 645

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Historical Perspective
Mainframes had their own unique requirements
Separate Room Utilities separate space
Little movement after initial installation
Vendor Specific equipment and cabling
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Today
No longer a static environment
New technologies = new electronics
Convergence = multiple systems
Room utilities are constantly challenged

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Data Center is the Information Traffic Cop

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Voice over IP * (10G)


IP-based distance learning
Streaming digital audio and video over IP,
Scientific modeling
SAN to SAN trafffic * (10G)
Online gaming
Unified Messaging
Telemedicine and Teleradiology
WAN/MAN interface * (10G)

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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Business Risk
Proper Design = Redundancy = Continuity

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Room Layout
Equipment Types
Environmental - HVAC & Power
Change Control
Fire & Safety
Security Issues
IT Infrastructure Physical Layer
Structured Design approach

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
TRs
WAO

CP Backbone
EFs
Admin
Horizontal

Enterprise Cabling
Are they really any different?
Data Center Cabling
EDA
ZDA Backbone
MDA DATA CENTER
CR
HDA
Horizontal
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Fiber Connect, Inc.


Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Why another standard?


The

purpose of this standard is to provide


requirements and guidelines for the design
and installation of a data center or computer
room. It is intended for use by designers who
need a comprehensive understanding of the
data center design including the facility
planning, the cabling system and the
network design.

Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
TIA 942 Design Considerations

Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005


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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Defines new terms

Recommends media
selections
Correlation to existing
ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 & 569

Defines the physical


Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

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environment

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
Spaces

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Computer Room
Telecommunications Room
Entrance Room
Main Distribution Area (MDA)
Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA)
Equipment Distribution Area (EDA)
Zone Distribution Area (ZDA)

Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
Cabling & Topology

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Backbone
Horizontal
Main cross-connect
Horizontal cross-connect
Cross-connect in the entrance room or
Zone outlet
EDA outlet

Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

MDA

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
Spaces
Data Center

Computer Room
MDA

EDA

HDA

ZDA
Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Entrance Room
Space where the carrier circuits, access
providers and campus facilities enter the
building

- Small / Medium Centers could be located in


the data center itself

Could be the Entrance Facility


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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Telecommunications Room (TR)
Space dedicated to the office and operations
of the Data Center

- NOC center
- May be combined with an HDA/MDA
Not to be confused with a enterprise TR

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Main Distribution Area (MDA)
Its the central space where the point of
distribution for the structured cabling system in
the data center is located

- The data center shall have at least one MDA


- The core routers and core switches for the
data center are often located in or near the
MDA
Could be a Equipment Room
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA)
Its the space that supports cabling to the
equipment distribution areas

- LAN, SAN and KVM switches that support the


end equipment are also typically located in the
HDA
- There should be a minimum of one horizontal
distribution area per floor
Could be a Telecom Room (TR)
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Equipment Distribution Areas (EDA)
- Are spaces allocated for the end equipment, including computer
systems and communications equipment

-End equipment is usually standing equipment or equipment


mounted in cabinets or racks
- Horizontal cables are terminated in equipment distribution
areas or connecting hardware mounted in cabinets or racks
- Point-to-point cabling is permitted between equipment located
in the equipment distribution area. Cable should be greater than
15 m and should connect equipment in adjacent racks or
cabinets in the same row
Could be a Work Area
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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Telecommunications Spaces


Zone Distribution Area (ZDA)
- Should be limited to serving a maximum of 288 coaxial
or twisted pair connections
- Cross-connection shall not be used in the ZDA
- No more than one ZDA shall be used within the same
horizontal cable run
- There shall be no active equipment in the zone
distribution area, except DC powering equipment
Could be a Consolidation Point
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HDA or EDA

ZDA

MDA or HDA

Ability to connect each system


without disrupting the work flow

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Entrance Room

Support Rooms
Telecom Room

HDA or EDA

MDA or HDA

Structured Approach

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Recognized Media
100 ohm twisted-pair copper cable
Cat-5e
Cat-6 recommended
Multimode fiber optic cable
62.5/125 m or 50/125 m
50/125 m 850 nm laser optimized MMF recommended
Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable
75 ohm Coax Cable

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Redundancy


Tiers - Annex G of ANSI/TIA-942
Tier 1 Basic data center
Tier 2 Redundant components
Tier 3 Concurrently maintainable
Tier 4 Fault tolerant
Corresponds to the tier ratings defined by the
Uptime Institute

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Data Center Tiers

Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005


Fiber Connect 2003

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Summary ANSI/TIA- 942


1. Standard specifies data center planning and design
procedures. Structured approach.
2. Provides guidelines and recommendations for data centers
implementation, embraces much more than
telecommunications infrastructure (power, pathways, fire
protection, doors, walls treatment, and others)
3. Determines four tiers for data center redundancy
4. Considers 568-B, 569-B, 606-A and 607 for the cabling,
pathways, administration and earthing design, installations
and other procedures

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Data Center Design - Codes and Standards


Additional Standards
International
CENELEC EN 50173-5
Information Technology Generic Cabling
Systems Part 5 Data Centers
CENELEC EN 50174-2 - Annex on Data Center
planning
ISO/IEC
Proposed Generic Cabling or Data Centers
Data Center sub-committee to standards group

Best Practices Document

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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Source: NEC 2005 NFPA 70

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Source: NEC 2005 NFPA 70

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

National Electric Code

Protects people and property from hazards


arising from the use of electricity.
It is not a DESIGN SPECIFICATION or
training manual for the untrained individuals.

Article 645.1 Scope. This article covers equipment, powersupply wiring, equipment interconnecting wiring, of
information technology equipment and systems, including
terminal units, in an information technology equipment
room.
FPN: For further information, see NFPA 75-2003,
Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer/Data
Processing Equipment.
Source: NEC 2005 NFPA 70

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Data Center Design - Codes and Standards


National Electric Code NFPA-70 Article - 645

645.2 Special Requirements for Information Technology


Equipment Room. This article shall

apply, provided
all the following conditions are met:

Article 645 applies only if all of the


following requirements are met

(1) Disconnecting means complying with 645.10 are provided.


(2) A separate heating/ventilating/air-conditioning (HVAC)
system is provided that is dedicated for information
technology equipment use and is separated from other
areas of occupancy. Any HVAC system that serves
other occupancies shall be permitted to also serve the
information technology equipment room if fire/smoke
dampers are provided at the point of penetration of the
room boundary. Such dampers shall operate on activation
of smoke detectors and also by operation of the
disconnecting means required by 645.10.
FPN: For further information, see NFPA 75-1999, Standard
for the Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing
Equipment, Chapter 8, 8-1, 8-1.1, 8-1.2, and 8-1.3.

Disconnecting means at exits

Separate HVAC equipment


or dampers

Listed equipment

Restricted access to personnel

Separated from other areas


with fire-rated construction

(3) Listed information technology equipment is installed.


(4) The room is occupied only by those personnel needed
for the maintenance and functional operation of the
installed information technology equipment.
(5) The room is separated from other occupancies by fireresistantrated walls, floors, and ceilings with protected
openings.
FPN: For further information on room construction requirements,
see NFPA 75-1999, Standard for the Protection
of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment, Chapter 3.

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Source: NEC 2002 NFPA 70

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard
NFPA 75

Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer/Data


Processing Equipment.
NFPA-70 National Electric Code
645.1 Scope. This article covers equipment, power-supply wiring, equipment interconnecting wiring, of
information technology equipment and systems, including terminal units, in an information
technology equipment room.

FPN: For further information, see NFPA 75- 2003, Standard for the
Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment.

ANSI/TIA-942

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Source: ANSI/TIA-942 2005

Fiber Connect, Inc.

Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

Fiber Optic Overview & Training

NFPA Standard NFPA - 75


1.1 Scope. This standard covers the

requirements for the protection of


information technology equipment
and information technology
equipment areas.

Source: NFPA -75

1.2* Purpose. The purpose of this


standard is to set forth the minimum
requirements for the protection of
information technology equipment
and information technology
equipment areas from damage by
fire or its associated effects
namely, smoke, corrosion, heat, and
water.

How to build it A systems approach


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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

NFPA Standard NFPA - 75


Reduce Risk = Business Continuity
Chapter 4 Risk Considerations
4.1* Risk Factors. The following factors shall be considered
where determining the need for protecting the environment,
equipment, function, programming, records, and supplies:
(1) Life safety aspects of the function (e.g., process controls,
air traffic controls)
(2) Fire threat of the installation to occupants or exposed
property
(3) Economic loss from loss of function or loss of records
(4) Economic loss from value of equipment

Source: NFPA -75

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4.2 Telecommunications Risks.


In assessing and evaluating the damage and interruption
potential of the loss of information technology equipment
room operations, attention shall be given to the impact of the
loss of data and communications lines. If these functions
are vital to the operation, rooms housing the services shall
be constructed in accordance with Chapter 5 and protected
in accordance with Chapter 8. These rooms shall be
secured, locked, and free of extraneous combustibles.

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Data Center Design and the


ANSI/TIA-942 Standard

NFPA Standards NFPA - 76


Reduce Risk = Business Continuity

Central Office Space

4.2 Communications Risks. In assessing


and evaluating the damage and
interruption potential of the loss of
communication operations, attention
should be given to the impact of the loss
of data, voice, and video
communications links. The complexity
and scope of switching equipment
operations can make it necessary to
provide internal redundancy, alternative
routing, and in some cases dual access
terminal in order to prevent
communication outages.
Source: NFPA -76

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References

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning


Engineers (ASHRAE) - http://www.ashrae.org/
ASHRAE Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments

Electronic Industries Association (EIA) www.eia.org


EIA-310-D Cabinets, Racks, Panels, and Associated Equipment

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) - http://www.nfpa.org


NFPA 75 Standard for the Protection of Information Technology
Equipment
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code are and NFPA 101 Life Safety Code
also applicable

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References

Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) http://www.tiaonline.org/


TIA-942 (Proposed) Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard
for Data Centers
Other TIA cabling standards (568, 569, 606, 607, 758) are also
applicable.

Telecordia Technologies - http://www.telcordia.com/


Telcordia GR-63-CORE (NEBS) Requirements: Physical
Protection
A central office specification, but referenced by
TIA-942 for seismic specifications, vibration testing, floor loading
capacity measurement and test methods

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Data Center User Groups


and
Information Exchanges

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7x24 Exchange - http://www.7x24exchange.org/


AFCOM www.afcom.com
Institute for Data Center Professionals (IDCP) www.idcp.org
International Facility Management Association (IFMA)
www.ifma.org
Uptime Institute www.upsite.org
Construction Specification Institute www.csinet.org
The Data Center Journal - www.datacenterjournal.com

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Fiber Optic Overview & Training

Todays Objective
1. Overview of TIA-942
2. Introduction to other standards
3. Encourage you to utilize these
documents as reference and quality
assurance tools.
Stay current no such thing as grand-fathered

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