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6-69 Air is flowing in parallel to a stationary thin flat plate over the top surface.

The rate of heat


transfer from the plate is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Properties are constant.
Properties The properties of air (1 atm) at the 100C are given in Table A-15: = 0.9458 kg/m3,
cp = 1009 J/kgK, = 2.306 105 m2/s, and Pr = 0.7111.
Analysis The flow is over the top surface of the metal foil, hence the surface area is
As = (0.2 m)(0.5 m) = 0.1 m 2

For flat plate, the friction force can be determined using


F f = C f As

V 2

Cf =

2F f

AsV 2

Using the Chilton-Colburn analogy, the


convection heat transfer coefficient is
determined to be:
Cf
2
h=

h
Pr 2 / 3
c pV

Ff
AsV

c p Pr 2 / 3 =

h=

Cf
2

c pV Pr 2 / 3

(0.3 N)
(0.1 m 2 )(100 m/s)

(1009 J/kg K )(0.7111) 2 / 3 = 38 W/m 2 K

The surface temperature of the metal foil is


q = h(Ts T )

Ts =

q
6100 W/m 2
+ T =
+ 20C = 181C
h
38 W/m 2 K

Discussion The temperature, at 100C, used for evaluating the fluid properties turned out to be
appropriate, since the film temperature is
Tf =

Ts + T
= 101C 100C
2

6-76 A rectangular bar is placed in a free stream flow. Using the given expression for Nusselt
number, the heat transfer coefficients, for different characteristic lengths and free stream
velocities, are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Properties are constant.
Analysis From the given expression for Nusselt number
Nu = C Re m Pr n

hL
VL
= C
k

From the given information, we have


Case 1:

h1 = 100 W/m 2 K

when

Case 2:

h2 = 50 W/m 2 K

when

V1 = 25 m/s
V2 = 5 m/s

and
and

L1 = 0.5 m
L2 = 0.5 m

Hence
Nu 1 C Re1m Pr1n Re1m
=
=
Nu 2 C Re 2m Pr2n Re m
2

h1 L1 V1 L1
=
h2 L2 V2 L2

where Pr1 = Pr2 is due to constant properties. Then


h1 L1 V1 L1
=
h2 L2 V2 L2

(100 W/m 2 K )(0.5 m)

(25 m/s)(0.5 m)
=

2
(50 W/m K )(0.5 m) (5 m/s)(0.5 m)

2 = 5m

Solving for the constant m yields m = 0.4307.


(a) For L = 1 m and V = 5 m/s, the convection heat transfer coefficient is
h = h2

L2
L

VL

V 2 L2

0.4307

= (50 W/m 2 K )

(0.5 m) (5 m/s)(1 m)

(1 m) (5 m/s)(0.5 m)

0.4307

= 33.7 W/m 2 K

(b) For L = 2 m and V = 50 m/s, the convection heat transfer coefficient is


h = h2

L2
L

VL

V 2 L2

0.4307

= (50 W/m 2 K )

(0.5 m) (50 m/s)(2 m)

(2 m) (5 m/s)(0.5 m)

0.4307

= 61.2 W/m 2 K

Discussion The Nusselt number relation, Nu = C Re m Pr n , is in general a reasonably accurate


representation for convection heat transfer coefficient. However, more complex relations for
Nusselt number are used for better accuracy.

6-79 Electrical heaters are embedded inside the wing to prevent formation of ice. The heat flux
necessary to keep the wing surface above 0C is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Properties are constant.
Properties The properties of air (1 atm) at 10C are given in Table A-15: = 1.252 105 m2/s,
k = 0.02288 W/mK, and Pr = 0.7387.
Analysis With a characteristic length of 2.5 m, the Reynolds number is
Re =

VL

(200 m/s)(2.5 m)
1.252 10 5 m 2 /s

= 3.994 10 7

Applying the modified Reynolds analogy,


C f Re
2

h=

= Nu Pr 1 / 3

Nu =

Cf
2

Re Pr 1 / 3

or

h=

Cf k
Re Pr 1 / 3
2 L

0.001 (0.02288 W/m K )


(3.994 10 7 )(0.7387)1 / 3 = 165.2 W/m 2 K
2
(2.5 m)

The heat flux necessary to keep the wing surface above 0C is


q h(Ts T ) = (165.2 W/m 2 K )[0 (20)] K = 3304 W/m 2

q 3304 W/m 2

Discussion The modified Reynolds analogy is applicable approximately for turbulent flow over a
surface, even when pressure gradient is present.

7-21 Water flows over a large plate. The rate of heat transfer per unit width of the plate is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds number is Recr = 5105.
3 Radiation effects are negligible.
Properties The properties of water at the film temperature of (Ts + T)/2 = (10+43.3)/2 = 27C
are (Table A-9)
= 996.6 kg/m 3

Water
V =30
cm/s
T =43 3C

k = 0.610 W/m.C

= 0.854 10

kg//m s

Pr = 5.85

Analysis (a) The Reynolds number is


Re L =

VL

(0.3 m/s)(1.0 m)(996.6 kg/m 3 )


0.854 10 3 m 2 /s

Ts = 10C

L=1m
= 3.501 10 5

which is smaller than the critical Reynolds number. Thus we have laminar flow for the entire
plate. The Nusselt number and the heat transfer coefficient are
Nu = 0.664 Re L 1 / 2 Pr 1 / 3 = 0.664(3.501 10 5 )1 / 2 (5.85)1 / 3 = 707.9
h=

0.610 W/m.C
k
Nu =
(707.9) = 431.8 W/m 2 .C
1.0 m
L

Then the rate of heat transfer per unit width of the plate is determined to be
Q = hAs (Ts T ) = (431.8 W/m 2 .C)(1 m)(1 m)](43.3 10)C = 14,400 W

7-31 A circuit board is cooled by air. The surface temperatures of the electronic components at
the leading edge and the end of the board are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds number is Recr = 5105.
3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Any heat transfer from the back surface of the board is
disregarded. 5 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties.
Properties Assuming the film temperature to be approximately 35C, the properties of air are
evaluated at this temperature to be (Table A-15)
k = 0.0265 W/m.C

= 1.655 10 -5 m 2 /s
Pr = 0.7268

Analysis (a) The convection heat transfer


coefficient at the leading edge approaches
infinity, and thus the surface temperature
there must approach the air temperature,
which is 20C.
(b) The Reynolds number is
Re x =

Vx

(6 m/s)(0.15 m)
1.655 10

m /s

Circuit
board
Air
20C
6 m/s

15
15

= 5.438 10 4

which is less than the critical Reynolds number but we assume the flow to be turbulent since
the electronic components are expected to act as turbulators. Using the Nusselt number
uniform heat flux, the local heat transfer coefficient at the end of the board is determined to be
hx x
= 0.0308 Re x 0.8 Pr 1 / 3 = 0.0308(5.438 10 4 ) 0.8 (0.7268)1 / 3 = 170.1
k
k
0.02625 W/m.C
h x = x Nu x =
(170.1) = 29.77 W/m 2 .C
x
0.15 m

Nu x =

Then the surface temperature at the end of the board becomes


q = h x (Ts T )
Ts = T +

q
(20 W)/(0.15 m) 2
= 20C +
= 49.9C
hx
29.77 W/m 2 .C

Discussion The heat flux can also be determined approximately using the relation for
isothermal surfaces,
hx x
= 0.0296 Re x 0.8 Pr 1 / 3 = 0.0296(5.438 10 4 ) 0.8 (0.7268)1 / 3 = 163.5
k
k
0.02625 W/m.C
(163.5) = 28.61 W/m 2 .C
h x = x Nu x =
x
0.15 m

Nu x =

Then the surface temperature at the end of the board becomes


q = h x (Ts T )
Ts = T +

q
(20 W)/(0.15 m) 2
= 20C +
= 51.1C
hx
28.61 W/m 2 .C

Note that the two results are close to each other.

7-53 Air is flowing over a 5-cm diameter sphere, (a) the average drag coefficient on the sphere
and (b) the heat transfer rate from the sphere are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Properties are constant. 3 The surface
temperature is constant.
Properties The properties of air (1 atm) at the free stream temperature T = 20C (Table A-15):
= 1.204 kg/m3, k = 0.02514 W/mK, = 1.825 105 kg/ms, and Pr = 0.7309; at the surface
temperature Ts = 80C: s = 2.096 105 kg/ms; at the film temperature Tf = (80C + 20C)/2 =
50C: = 1.092 kg/m3 and = 1.798 105 m2/s.
Analysis (b) The Reynolds number for air properties evaluated from the free stream
temperature is
Re D =

VD (1.204 kg/m 3 )(3.5 m/s)(0.05 m)


=
= 1.155 10 5
5

1.825 10 kg/m s

Using the Whitaker relation for Nusselt number, the convection heat transfer coefficient is
Nu sph

hD
=
= 2 + [0.4 Re1 / 2 + 0.06 Re 2 / 3 ] Pr 0.4
k
s

1/ 4

1/ 4

1.825
Nu sph = 2 + [0.4(1.155 10 4 )1 / 2 + 0.06(1.155 10 4 ) 2 / 3 ](0.7309) 0.4
= 64.76
2.096

Hence
0.02514 W/m K
2
h = 64.76
= 32.56 W/m K
.
0
05
m

The heat transfer rate from the sphere is


Q = hA(Ts T ) = hD 2 (Ts T ) = (32.56 W/m 2 K ) (0.05 m) 2 (80 20) K = 15.34 W

Discussion If the difference in the free stream temperature and the surface temperature is
small, then the assumption that / s 1 is appropriate.

7-61 The wind is blowing across a geothermal water pipe. The average wind velocity is to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
Properties The specific heat of water at the average temperature of 75C is 4193 J/kg.C. The
properties of air at the film temperature of (75+15)/2=45C are (Table A-15)
k = 0.02699 W/m.C

= 1.75 10 -5 m 2 /s
Pr = 0.7241

Analysis The rate of heat transfer from


the pipe is the energy change of the
water from inlet to exit of the pipe,
and it can be determined from

Wind
V
T = 15C
Wate

Q = m c p T = (8.5 kg/s)(4193 J/kg.C)(80 70)C = 356,400 W

The surface area and the heat transfer coefficient are


A = DL = (0.15 m)(400 m) = 188.5 m 2

Q = hA(Ts T )
h =

Q
356,400 W
=
= 31.51 W/m 2 .C
A(Ts T ) (188.5 m 2 )(75 15)C

The Nusselt number is


Nu =

hD (31.51 W/m 2 .C)(0.15 m)


=
= 175.1
k
0.02699 W/m.C

The Reynolds number may be obtained from the Nusselt number relation shown in Table 7-1.
To use it, we must first guess the range of the Reynolds number. Guessing that 4,000 < Re <
40,000

Nu = 0.193Re0.618 Pr1/3
0.618
=
175.1 0.193Re=
Re 72, 709
( 0.7241)
1/3

Which means the actual Re range is higher. For 40,000 < Re < 400,000

Nu = 0.027 Re0.805 Pr1/3


0.805
=
175.1 0.027 Re=
Re 62,139
( 0.7241)
1/3

The average wind velocity can be determined from Reynolds number relation
VD
V (0.15 m)
Re
62,139
m/s 26.1 km / h
=

=
V 7.25
=
1.75 105 m 2 /s

7-69 The components of an electronic system located in a horizontal duct is cooled by air
flowing over the duct. The total power rating of the electronic device is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties. 4 The local atmospheric pressure is 1 atm.
Properties The properties of air at 1 atm and the film temperature of (Ts + T)/2 = (65+30)/2 =
47.5C are (Table A-15)
k = 0.02717 W/m.C

= 1.774 10 -5 m 2 /s

20 cm

Pr = 0.7235

Analysis The Reynolds number is


Re =

VD

[(200/60) m/s](0.2 m) = 3.758 10 4


1.774 10 5 m 2 /s

Using the relation for a square duct


from Table 7-1, the Nusselt number is
determined to be
Nu =

Air
30C
200 m/min

hD
= 0.102 Re 0.675 Pr 1 / 3 = 0.102(3.758 10 4 ) 0.675 (0.7235)1 / 3 = 112.2
k

The heat transfer coefficient is


h=

0.02717 W/m.C
k
(112.2) = 15.24 W/m 2 .C
Nu =
0.2 m
D

Then the rate of heat transfer from the duct becomes


As = (4 0.2 m)(1.5 m) = 1.2 m 2
Q = hAs (Ts T ) = (15.24 W/m 2 .C)(1.2 m 2 )(65 30)C = 640 W

20 cm

65C
1.5 m

7-79 A street sign surface is subjected to radiation and cross flow wind, the surface
temperature of the street sign is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Properties are constant. 3 The surface
temperature is constant. 4 The street sign is treated a vertical plate in cross flow.
Properties The properties of air (1 atm) at 30C are given in Table A-15: k = 0.02588 W/mK, =
1.608 105 m2/s, and Pr = 0.7282.
Analysis The Reynolds number is
Re =

VD

(1 m/s)(0.2 m)
1.608 10 5 m 2 /s

= 1.244 10 4

From Table 7-1, the relation for Nusselt number is


hD
= 0.228 Re 0.731 Pr 1 / 3
k
0.02588 W/m K
h=
0.228(12440) 0.731 (0.7282)1 / 3 = 26.14 W/m 2 K
0.2 m
Nu =

From energy balance, we obtain


4
]
s q solar = h [Ts T ] + [Ts4 Tsurr

Using a computer, the surface temperature of the street sign can be solved to be
Ts = 315 K = 42C

Discussion Note that absolute temperatures must be used in calculations involving the
radiation heat transfer equation.

7-95 Wind is blowing parallel to the walls of a house with windows. The rate of heat loss
through the window is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The critical Reynolds number is Recr = 5105.
3 Radiation effects are negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant properties. 5 The pressure
of air is 1 atm.
Properties Assuming a film temperature of 5C,
the properties of air at 1 atm and this temperature
are evaluated to be (Table A-15)
k = 0.02401 W/m.C

Air
V = 35 km/h
T2 = -2C

= 1.382 10 -5 m 2 /s
Pr = 0.7350

Analysis Air flows along 1.8 m side. The Reynolds


number in this case is
Re L =

VL

T1 = 22C

WINDOW

[(35 1000 / 3600) m/s](1.8 m) = 1.266 10 6


1.382 10 5 m 2 /s

L = 1.8 m

which is greater than the critical Reynolds number.


Thus we have combined laminar and turbulent
flow. Using the proper relation for Nusselt number,
heat transfer coefficient is determined to be

hL
= (0.037 Re L 0.8 871) Pr 1 / 3 = 0.037(1.266 10 6 ) 0.8 871 (0.7350)1 / 3 = 1759
k
k
0.02401 W/m.C
h = Nu =
(1759) = 23.46 W/m 2 .C
L
1.8 m

Nu =

The thermal resistances are

Ri

Rcond

T1

Ro
T2

As = 3(1.8 m)(1.5 m) = 8.1 m 2


1
1
=
= 0.0154 C/W
2
hi As (8 W/m .C)(8.1 m 2 )
0.005 m
L
=
=
= 0.0008 C/W
kAs (0.78 W/m.C)(8.1 m 2 )

Rconv,i =
Rcond

Rconv,o =

1
1
=
= 0.0053 C/W
2
ho As (23.46 W/m .C)(8.1 m 2 )

Then the total thermal resistance and the heat transfer rate through the 3 windows become
Rtotal = Rconv,i + Rcond + Rconv,o = 0.0154 + 0.0008 + 0.0053 = 0.0215 C/W
T T
[22 (2)]C
= 1116 W
Q = 1 2 =
0.0215 C/W
Rtotal

7-112 A small sphere made of lead is cooled in an air column. The terminal velocity of the sphere, the
heat transfer coefficient for the sphere at its mean temperature, and the column height for the indicated
cooling of the lead sphere are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Radiation effects are negligible. 3 Air is an
ideal gas with constant properties.
Properties The properties of lead are given to be = 11,300 kg/m3, k = 33 W/mK, and cp = 0.13
kJ/kgK. The properties of air at 1 atm pressure and the free stream temperature of 27C are
(Table A-15)
k = 0.02566 W/m.C

= 1.580 10 -5 m 2 /s
= 1.858 10 5 kg/m.s
s , @ 0.5( 200+54) =127C = 2.292 10

kg/m.s

Pr = 0.7290

Analysis (a) The terminal velocity is determined from the relation given to be V
2( air )Vg
Vt =

C D air A p

since

V
Ap

0.5

2(11,300 1.18)(9.81) 2

=
0.003
(
0
.
40
)(
1
.
18
)
3

Air
T = 27C

0.5

= 30.65 m/s

D 3 / 6 2
= D
D 2 / 4 3

(b) The Reynolds number is


Re =

VD

(30.65 m/s)(0.003 m)
1.580 10 5 m 2 /s

= 5819

The Nusselt number corresponding this Reynolds number is determined to be

hD
Nu =
= 2 + 0.4 Re 0.5 + 0.06 Re 2 / 3 Pr 0.4
k
s

= 2 + 0.4(5819)

0.5

+ 0.06(5819)

2/3

1/ 4

](0.7290)

0.4
1.858 10

2.292 10 5

1/ 4

= 43.74

Heat transfer coefficient is


h=

k
0.02566 W/m.C
Nu =
(43.74) = 374.1 W/m 2 .C
D
0.003 m

(c) For sphere, the characteristic length and the Biot number are
Lc =
Bi =

V
Asurface

D 3 / 6 D 0.003 m
=
=
= 0.0005 m
6
6
D 2

hLc (374.1 W/m 2 .C)(0.0005 m)


=
= 0.00567 < 0.1
33 W/m.C
k

Since Bi < 0.1 , the lumped system analysis is applicable. Then the cooling time is determined
from

b=

hA
h
374.1 W/m 2 .C
=
=
= 0.5093 s -1
c pV c p Lc (11,300 kg/m 3 )(130 J/kg.C)(0.0005 m)

-1
T (t ) T
54 27
= e bt

= e (0.5093 s )t
t = 3.647 s
Ti T
200 27

Then the height of the column is determined to be


Height = Vt = (25 m/s)(3.647 s) = 91.2 m