Anda di halaman 1dari 28

TEKNIK PENULISAN PROPOSAL

DAN LAPORAN PENELITIAN

Sistematika Proposal
Halaman Judul
Halaman pengesahan
Ringkasan
Summary
Kata pengantar
Daftar isi
Daftar tabel
Daftar gambar
Bab I
Pendahuluan
Bab II
Tinjauan pustaka
Bab III
Metodelogi Peneltian
Bab IV
Jadwal Pelaksanaan
Daftar Pustaka
Lampiran

Mulai

setiap bab dengan halaman baru


Tambahkan kertas putih (blank paper)
Table di setiap bab harus menggunakan
arabic
Judul tabel harus diatas tabel
Judul tabel ditulis huruf besar hanya untuk
awal kalimat

Grafik
Setiap

grafik harus ditulis atau dinomori


dengan arabic
Judul grafik harus diletakan dibawah grafik
Judul grafik ditulis dengan huruf besar
hanya judul kalimat awal
Grafik harus diletakan setelah pernyatan
dari kalimat

kertas
Berat

kertas 80 gm
Ukuran A4 (210 mm x 297 mm)
Margin

for all pages


- batas kiri 4 cm
- batas kanan atas-bawah 2.5 cm

penomoran halaman
Kanan bawah dari halaman
Jarak 1.25 cm dari margin bawah

Untuk bagian halaman judul sampai daftar isi


memakai small roman (i, ii, iii).
Teks dinomorin dengan arabic., 1,2,3
Nombor untuk setiap halaman 1 dari bab tidak
diberi nomor

Nomor untuk setiap bagian


Bab

sub bab 1.2


1.2.1

Sub bab 1.3.

pengetikan
Gunakan

tipe New times roman atau yang

sejenis
Standar font 12
Spasi 1.5.

Pemilihan Judul
Menggambarkan atau membayangkan
isi yang dalam proposal anda.
Jika memungkinkan judul ditulis pendek
Kalo bisa judul ada hubungannya atau
kaitannya dengan Tujuan penelitian anda

Contoh
Studi pada pembuatan dan karakterisasi
dari Polisulfone membran untuk
pemisahan gas nitrogen
Pengaruh ukuran partikel zeolit terhadap
kinerja dari polimer-zeolite membran
Perpindahan masa dan reaksi kimia pada
proses absorbsi CO2 menggunakan
berbagai solven

Ringkasan
Adalah uraian singkat dari proposal
penelitian. Pembaca akan dapat melihat
latar belakang studinya, cara mendekati
masalahnya, hasil dan pembahasannya
Ringkasan ini harus mengandung
- latar belakang
- tujuan
- hasil penelitian
- kesimpulan yang penting

Ringkasan /summary

This is the last section to be written.


Be concise, however, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for
brevity. This can be done by writing sentences so that they serve more than one
purpose. For example, "The objective of this study is to develop high
performance membranes through the combine optimization of phase inversion
parameters and rheological factors, to provide a membrane with selectivity
surpasses intrinsic selectivity for CO2/CH4 separation."
This sentence provides the objective, methods, and type of separation, all in
one sentence. The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results.

Style:

One paragraph, one page

Single or 1.5 spacing

An abstract should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a
figure or table

Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if


absolutely necessary

What you report in an abstract must be consistent with what you reported.

This study is performed primarily to investigate the effect of chemical


modification on zeolite surface towards gas separation performance
of hollow fibers mixed matrix membrane. In this study,
polyethersulfone (PES)-zeolite 4A mixed matrix hollow fiber
membrane for modified and unmodified zeolite were spun using
dry/wet spinning technique. The modified zeolite 4A was prepared
by treating the zeolite with Dynasylan Ameo (DA) silane agent to
allow PES chains to be grafted on zeolite surface. The results from
the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical
modification on zeolite surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage
morphology observed the poor adhesion between polymer and
unmodified zeolite. FESEMs cross-section view indicated good
compatibility between polymer and zeolite for PES-modified zeolite.
The gas separation performance of the mixed matrix hollow fiber
membranes with modified zeolite were relatively higher compared to
that of the hollow fiber mixed matrix membranes with unmodified
zeolite. PES-modified zeolite 20 wt% silane yielded significant
selectivity enhancement of 7.26 and 46.28 for O2/N2 and CO2/CH4,
respectively.

Kata pengantar

Uraian singkat tentang penelitian dan ucapan terima kasih

M y deepest appreciation dedicated to my supervisor, Professor Dr. Ahmad


Fauzi Ismail for introducing me to membrane technology and for giving me
an opportunity to understand the beauty of this field. His guidance,
kindness and unquestioned belief in me have been an inspiration over all
these time.

I would also to thank to my second supervisor to Dr Tutuk Djoko Kusworo


for his guidance, patience and valuable time spent in helping me to
complete this thesis. To Bee Cheer and Sohaimi Abdullah and all
Membrane Research Unit members, thank you for your kind co-operation,
precious assist and knowledge shared. Without them, this thesis might not
be a reality.
My gratitude extends to my all MRU colleagues for their unhesitant
help and for willing to endure all the hardship together. All the beautiful
moments we shared will always be in my reminiscence. My appreciation
also goes to Nik Sulaiman, Fadhli and all my friends who never hesitate to
lend me a hand whenever needed.
Last but not least, to my beloved family for their treasured support and
for always being there whenever I need a shoulder, and everyone who
involves direct or indirectly in making this thesis comes true. Thank you.

Bab I Pendahuluan
1.1.

Latar belakang : berisikan penjelasan


mengenai alasan mengapa masalah
dipandang menarik, penting dan perlu
diteliti untuk mencari pemecahannya.
1.2. Perumusan Masalah: perumusan
yang jelas akan masalah yang diteliti,
hipotesis yang akan diujiatau dugaan yang
akan dibuktikan

Perumusan Masalah

The goal in membrane manufacturing is basically to


achieve as high selectivity as possible. Currently, the
structure, pressure-normalized flux and selectivity of the
membrane polymers have become the focus of the
studies among researchers. On top of that, defect-free
ultrathin dense selective layer membrane materials are
to be aimed. Fabrication of asymmetric membranes with
an ultra-thin dense selective layer is not a trivial task. An
asymmetric membrane generally consists of a thin,
selectivity skin layer, supported by a porous
substructure. For an asymmetric membrane to be useful
for gas separation, its skin layer must be almost defect
free to assure that permeation is exclusively controlled
by a solution-diffusion mechanism to achieve the
maximum permselectivity

1.3. Tujuan penelitian: pernyataan singkat mengenai tujuan


penelitian yang ingin dicapai
Based on the problem statement, below are the objectives
of this study:
1.
2.
3.

To develop and characterize PI/PES-zeolite 4A mixed


matrix membrane
To investigate the effects of shear rate on the performance
and molecular orientation of the mixed matrix membrane
To improve the performance of mixed matrix membrane
by silicone rubber coating

1.4. Ruang lingkup atau Batasan masalah

To achieve the objective of this research, the following scopes


were outlined:

To fabricate a successful mixed matrix membrane by


incorporating zeolite 4A with PI/PES blend and NMP as solvent
To fabricate a successful flat sheet asymmetric mixed matrix
membrane at different shear rates by varying casting speeds
To observe molecular orientation of membranes cast at different
shear rates
To investigate the performance of membranes in terms of
selectivity and permeability
To perform thermal curing on coated membrane by varying the
curing temperature and curing time
To characterize the fabricated membrane using Fourier
Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron
Microscopy (FESEM) and gas permeation test

Tinjauan Pustaka

Uraian tentang kajian pustaka yang


menimbulkan gagasan dan mendasari penelitian
yang akan dilakukan. Tinjauan pustaka
menguraikan teori, temuan dan bahan penelitian
yang lain yang diperoleh dari acuan yang
dijadikan landasan untuk melakukan penelitian
yang diusulkan. Tinjauan pustaka mengacu
pada daftar pustaka usahakan pustaka terbaru,
relevan dan asli dari jurnal ilmiah, buku karya
tulis dll

Penulisan pustaka di dalam teks


Ada
1.

2 sistem

Pengarang dan tahun (sistem Harvard)


2. penomoran

Contoh
Falcon dkk (1999) dan Henry dkk (2007)
menggunakan oksidator H2O2 dalam
penelitiannya.
Penggunaan ozon untuk dekomposisi senyawa
aromatik dalam fase cair telah dipelajari oleh
Hostachy dkk (2004) dan Juretic dkk (2007).
Penggunaan ozon untuk dekomposisi senyawa
aromatik dalam fase cair telah dipelajari oleh
peneliti terdahulu (Hostachy dkk., 2004; Adnan
dkk., 2008 dan Juretic dkk., 2007).

Sumber referensi bisa berupa:


1. Text book atau handbook: biasanya digunakan
untuk menyusun landasan teori, mendapatkan
data2 fisik atau kimia, proses2 yang tersedia
2. Artikel2 yang sudah dipublikasikan: digunakan
untuk mengetahu perkembangan riset2
(penelitian2 ) terkini yang sedang dijalankan
3. Artikel khusus dari sumber2 lain (internet,
koran dll): referensi ini hanya dipakai sebagai
penunjang
4. Individu yang mempunyai otoritas ilmiah
(diakui baik tingkat nasional maupun
internasional)

Metode penelitian
Uraian

mengenai metode yang digunakan


dalam penelitian secara rinci. Uraian dapat
meliputi peubah dalam penelitian, model
yang digunakan, rancangan penelitian,
teknik pengumpulan data dan analisis
data, cara penyimpulan hasil penelitian.

Contoh

Bahan yang digunakan:


PI, PES, NMP
Gas yang digunakan
Metode pembuatan membran
Permeation Test
Pelapisan Membran
Karakterisasi membran
SEM
FTIR
NMR

Jadwal Pelaksanaan
Bulan
1

Literature review
1 st paper
Preparation of fleet-sheet membrane
Characterization of membrane
Testing permeation of membrane
Optimization of fleet-sheet membrane
2nd and 3 rd paper
Preparation hollow fiber membrane
Testing permeation of membrane single stage
Testing permeation of membrane multi stage
hollow fiber system
Optimization spinning operating condition
4th and 5 paper
Mathematical modeling
Regional conference
Writing thesis
Viva

Daftar Pustaka
1) Buku: nama penulis, judul buku, edisi,
penerbit, kota tempat penerbitan, tahun terbit,
halaman yang diacu
1) Treybal, R.E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed., Mc GrawHill, New York, 1980, pp. 477-550

2) Majalah (journal): nama penulis, judul, nama


majalah dengan singkatan resminya, tahun
terbit, volume, hal. yg diacu.
1) Kusworo, T.D., Fauzi, A.F., and Mustafa, A., Gas
Permeation Properties of PES-Mixed Matrix Membrane, J.
Membr. Sci., 2008, vol. 65, pp. 257-265.

Patent: nama penulis, judul, negara


tempat patent dilakukan, kode patent,
tahun dikeluarkan patent
Fauzi, A.F ., Kusworo, T.D.,and Mustafa, A, A
Hybrid Mixed Matrix Composite Membrane
Malaysia Patent, PI 2008 1016, 2008

Lampiran
Pengolahan

data
Prosedur analisa