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PNGE 321 DRILLING

ENGINEERING I
Lesson 1

Drilling Systems

Drilling Rigs

Drilling a Well

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Rotary Drilling

Drilling Team

Drilling Rigs

Rig Power System

Hoisting System

Circulating System . . .

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Rotary Drilling Contd

The Rotary System

The Well Control System

Well-Monitoring System

Special Marine Equipment

Drilling Cost Analysis

Examples

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Drilling Team
Drilling Engineering Group
Geologist / Geophysicst
Drilling Engineer
Reservoir Engineer
Legal Group
Drilling Contractor
Rig and Crew Provider (Toolpusher, driller, derrickman, roughnecks,etc)
Service Companies
Specialized Services (Directional drilling, wireline, bits, testing, production
systems)
Special Consultants
Sidetracking, coring, etc
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Fig. 1.3 - Typical drilling rig organization


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Drilling Rigs

Fig. 1.4
The rotary drilling process
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Fig. 1.5
Classification of
rotary drilling rigs
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Drilling Rigs

Source: Maersk
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Land Rigs
Conventional
Jack Knife Rg
Workover Rig

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Noble
Drillings
Scott Marks
A Jack-Up
Rig
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Blue Marlin
A Semi
Submersible
Rig

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Transoceans
Deepwater
Champion
A Drillship

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Deep Water Development Options

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TENSION LEG PLATFORM


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Shells
Auger
Tension
Leg
Platform
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Shells Bullwinkle
Worlds tallest
offshore structure
1,353 water
depth
Production began
in 1989
45,000 b/d
80MM scf/d
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To TENSIONERS
SLIP JOINT

MARINE
RISER
GUIDE LINES

BOP STACK
GUIDE BASE
MUDLINE

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Drilling a Well

Steps in Drilling a Well


Duties of Drilling Engineer
Making a Connection
Making a Trip
Rig Selection Criteria
Derrick Loading

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Steps to Drill A Gas/Oil Well


1. Complete or obtain seismic, log, scouting information or
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

other data.
Lease the land or obtain concession.
Calculate reserves or estimate from best data available.
If reserve estimates show payout, proceed with well.
Obtain permits from conservation/ national authority.
Prepare drilling and completion program.
Ask for bids on footage, day work, or combination from
selected drilling contractors based on drilling program.
If necessary, modify program to fit selected contractor
equipment.

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Steps to Drill a Well - contd


9. Construct road, location/platforms and other marine
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

equipment necessary for access to site.


Gather all personnel concerned for meeting prior to
commencing drilling (pre-spud meeting)
If necessary, further modify program.
Drill well.
Move off contractor if workover unit is to complete the well.
Complete well.
Install surface facilities.
Analysis of operations with concerned personnel.

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Drilling Operations
Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen
Well planning prior to SPUD
B. Monitor drilling operations
C. After drilling, review drilling results and recommend
future improvements - prepare report.
D. General duties.
A.

What are the well requirements?


- Objectives, safety, cost
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Components of a rotary rig


Power system
Hoisting system
Fluid circulating system
Rotary system
Well control system
Well monitoring system

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Power system
Necessary for hoisting and fluid circulating system
Power requirement of a rig: 1000-3000 hp
Internal-combustion diesel engines
Diesel-electric type
Direct-drive type (low cost)
Performance characteristics (output horsepower, torque, and

fuel consumption for various engine speed)

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Fig. 1.13
Engine power
output
P=F.V

Power = Force * Velocity

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TABLE 1.1 - HEATING VALUE OF VARIOUS


FUELS

Fuel
Type

Density
(lbm/gal)

Diesel
gasoline
butane
methane

7.2
6.6
4.7
---

Heating Value
(Btu/lbm)

19,000
20,000
21,000
24,000

Be careful, when using units (SI or Field units) !!!


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Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output torque


of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200 rpm. If the
fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr, what is the
output power and overall efficiency of the engine?

Solution:

The angular velocity, , is given by

= 2 (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.)


The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1

7,539.8 (1,740) ft - lbf/min


P T
397 .5 hp
33,000 ft - lbf/min /hp
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Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2


lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000 Btu/lbm
(Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel consumption rate w f is:

wf

1 hour
31.5 gal/hr (7.2 lbm/gal)

60 minutes

wf = 3.78 lbm/min.
The total heat energy consumed by the engine is
given by Eq. 1.2:

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Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)


Qi = w f H
3.78 lbm/min 19,000Btu/ lbm 779 ft - lbf/Btu
Qi
33,000 ft - lbf/min/hp
Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is

P
397.5
Et

0.234 or 23.4%
Qi 1695.4
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Hoisting system
Provides lowering or raising strings (drillpipe, drill collar,

casing, etc.) into or out of the hole.


Main components
Derrick and substructure
Block and tackle
Drawworks
Routine operations
Making a connection
Making a trip

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Making
a
Connection

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Making
a
Trip

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Making a mouse hole connection


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Moving Kelly
to Single in
Mousehole
Stabbing
the Pipe

Single
Added.
Ready to
Drill

Making a mouse hole connection - contd


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Making a trip
Why
trip?

Put Kelly in
Rathole

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Use
Elevators
for
tripping

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Tripping
one stand
at a time
60-90 ft

Making
a
trip
contd
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Criteria for determining depth limitation


Derrick
Drawworks
Mud Pumps
Drillstring
Mud System
Blowout Preventer
Power Plant

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Block and Tackle

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W
T

W W
2W
FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System

T=W
LD = 2W
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(no friction in sheave)


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n = number
of lines
W = weight
(hook load)
LD = load on
derrick

FIG 1-2 Block and Tackle System


Assuming no friction

W=4T

T = W/4

LD = 6 T = 6 W/4
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n2
LD
W
n
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Example 1.1
(no friction)
The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch casing for a deep well
is determined to be 400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest
casing string run, the maximum mast load must be calculated.
Assuming that 10 lines run between the crown and the
traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy effects, calculate the
maximum load.

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Solution:
The tension, T, will be distributed equally between the 10 lines.
Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line will also be 40,000
lbf, so the total load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf

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Solution, cont.
Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional points.
1. The marginal decrease in mast load decreases with
additional lines.
2. The total mast load is always greater than the load
being lifted.

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A Rotary Rig
Hoisting System

Source: Harriot Watt Unv.


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Projection of
Drilling Lines on
Rig Floor

TOTAL
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Load on Derrick
(considering friction in sheaves)
Derrick Load = Hook Load
+ Fast Line Load
+ Dead
Line
Load

Fd = W + Ff + Fs
Fd W

W
W

E n
n

1 E E n
=
W

E n

E = overall efficiency, e.g., E = en = 0.98n


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Example 1.2
A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The drawworks can
provide an input power to the block and tackle system as
high as 500 hp. Eight lines are strung between the crown
block and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line
when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower
available,

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Example 1.2, cont.


3.
4.
5.
6.

the maximum hoisting speed,


the actual derrick load,
the maximum equivalent derrick load, and,
the derrick efficiency factor.

Assume that the rig floor is arranged as shown in Fig. 1.17.

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Solution
1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given as 0.841
in Table 1.2. The tension in the fast line is given by
Eq. 1.7.
Tension in the Fast Line,

W
300 ,000
F

44 ,590 lb
E n 0 .841 * 8
( 0.988 = 0.851 )
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Solution
2. The maximum hook horsepower available is
Ph = Epi = 0.841(500) = 420.5 hp.

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Solution

P=F.v

3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by

Ph
vb
W
33,000 ft - lbf / min
420.5 hp

hp

300,000 lbf
= 46.3 ft / min
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Solution to 3., cont.


To pull a 90-ft stand would require

90 ft
t
1.9 min.
46.3 ft / min

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Solution
4. The actual derrick load is given by Eq.1.8b:

1 E En
Fd
W

En
1 + 0.841 + 0.841(8)
=
(300,000)

0.841(8)
= 382,090 lbf.
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Solution
5. The maximum equivalent load is given
Eq.1.9:

by

n4
84
Fde
W
* 300 ,000
n
8
Fde 4 * FDLL

Fde 450 ,000 lbf

FDLL

W W

4
n

n 4
W
FDLL
4
n

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Solution
6. The derrick efficiency factor is:

Fd 382,090

Ed
Fde 450,000
E d 0 .849 or 84.9%
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Drawworks
Hoisting and breaking power
Main parts
Drum
Brakes
hydrodynamic type
electromagnetic type

Transmission (changing direction and speed of traveling

block)
Catheads
Friction cathead (lifting or moving equipment)
Tongs

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