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Goal of manufacturing

untuk menghasilkan produk dan komponen

yang berfungsi dan bekerja dengan baik

Apakah yang dimaksud


dengan manufaktur?
Literal:

Manufacture = Manus (hand) + Factus


(make) Made by hand
Technological: Proses aplikasi secara fisik dan kimia
untuk membuat komponen/produk
termasuk assembly produk
Economical:
Perubahan material menjadi komponen
yang memiliki nilai lebih melalui proses
dan atau assembly
CIRP definition: Design + production + assembly
(CIRP = International Academy for Production Eng.)

What is manufacturing?
Representation of manufacturing in a
technological way

What is manufacturing?
Representation of manufacturing in a
economical way

PRODUCT REALIZATION

PROCESS PLANNING

Design

Machine
Tool
Process
Planning

Scheduling and Production Control

Proses Desain
Desain adalah tahap pertama dalam proses
manufaktur:
What it is
What properties must it possess
What material
How to make it
How many to make
What conditions will it see during use
How long will it take us to complete it
How reliable will it be
How can we recycle it

How can we make it ?


Apakah sudah ada yang pernah mengerjakan ?
Yes : metode apa yang dilakukan
No : Desain proses yang baru

What methods were used ?

Machining methods
Pressworking
Welding/fabrication
Casting
Powder materials
Layered deposition
Others

Welding/fabrication: Additive techniques

Initial
Stock

Weld
Add-on

Weld
Add-on

Final Product

Machining Methods: Subtractive techniques

Initial
Stock

Slotting

Drilling

Final Product

Casting: Form Methods

Langkah-langkah dalam men-desain


1. Konsep
Beberapa konsep perlu dipersiapkan

2. Fungsi
Desain yang dapat dapat dikerjakan
Rencana detil untuk proses manufaktur
Prototipe

3. Produksi
Full production
Kecepatan produksi dan jumlah

Manufacturing capability
Kemampuan Proses Teknologi
- Ketersediaan proses dan mesin
- Outsourcing of some operations (casting, heat
treatment, etc.)
Keterbatasan produk
- Ukuran, berat
- Dimensi mesin, handling
Kapasitas produksi (Plant capacity)
- jumlah produksi dalam waktu yang ditentukan

Materials in Manufacturing

Venn diagram

Klasifikasi
Proses
Manufacturing
Manufaktur (1)

processes

Master Engineering & Management

Proses-proses manufaktur (2)


1. Sheet metalworking: Cutting operations, bending
operations, other sheet-metal operations, dies and
presses, other machines, bending of tube.
2. Property enhancing and surface processing:
Heat and surface treatment, cleaning, coating.
3. Material removal: Chip formation, force, power and
energy relationships, cutting temperature, turning
operations, drilling, milling, machining and turning
centres, other machining operations.
4. Material removal: tool life, tool materials, cutting fluids,
machineability, tolerances and surface finish, selection
of cutting conditions, design aspects, grinding, electric
discharge and laser beam machining.

5. Joining and assembly: Fundamentals of welding,


welding processes, weld quality, weldability,
brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding, mechanical
assembly, design aspects.
6. Manufacturing (support) systems: Numerical
control, industrial robots, group technology, FMS,
production lines, quality control, metrology,
measuring instruments, surface measurement.

7. Processes for shapeless materials:


Casting fundamentals and processes, casting quality,
design aspects, powder metallurgy, rapid prototyping
technologies.

8. Shaping of polymers, rubber and composites:


Polymer melts, extrusion, injection moulding,
compression moulding, blow moulding, thermoforming,
design aspects, processes for rubber and composites.
9. Metal forming: Material behaviour in metal forming,
influence of temperature, friction and lubrication, rolling
processes, forging processes, extrusion, wire and bar
drawing.

Processing operations
1) Shaping operations
- Solidification processes casting of metals,
moulding of plastics
- Particulate processing powder metallurgy
- Deformation processes forging, extrusion
- Material removal processes machining, nontraditional, grinding

2) Property enhancing processes


- Heat treatments, sintering

3) Surface processing
- Cleaning, coating, plating, deposion

Casting and moulding processes

Pouring/
Penuangan

Solidification
/Pembekuan

Particulate processing

Sintering
Powder

Pressing

Deformation processes

Forging

Extrusion

Shaping processes
General aim: Minimize waste and scrap!!!
- Net shape processes no subsequent machining
- Near net shape processes minimum machining

Turning

Drilling

Milling

Production System

Mutual relationships
Function

Shape

Material

Process

Product attributes

Mechanical properties, e.g. tensile strength


Physical properties, e.g. thermal expansion
Dimensions, e.g. mm
Tolerances: bilateral, unilateral tolerances
limit dimensions
Geometric attributes: angularity, circularity,
concentricity, cylindricity, flatness, parallellism,
perpendicularity, roundness, squareness and
straightness
Surface quality, e.g. roughness

Specification of tolerances

Bilatertal
tolerance

Unilateral
tolerance

Limit
dimensions

Geometric
tolerances
a. Flatness
b. Circularity
c. Cylindricity
d. Perpendicularity
e. Concentricity

Permukaan
Pentingnya kualitas permukaan
- Alasan keindahan
- Aspek keamanan
- Pengaruh pada friksi dan keausan
- Pengaruh pada sifat mekanik dan fisik
- assembly
- kontak listrik yang lebih baik
Surface technology berkaitan dengan
- tekstur permukaan
- integritas permukaan
- berhubungan dengan proses manufaktur

Karakteristik Permukaan
A microscopic view shows:
- Substrate bulk material
- Altered layer different structure
- Surface texture exterior part with roughness
- In addition: Mostly an oxide film

Master Engineering & Management

Tekstur Permukaan
Surface texture Deviations from the surface
-

Roughness: small deviations


Waveness: deviations with much larger spacing
Lay: predominant direction or pattern of the surface
Flaws: irregularities like cracks, inclusions, etc.

Master Engineering & Management

Kekasaran permukaan (1)


Definisi kekasaran permukaan
Arithmetic average (AA) of the vertical
Lm
y
deviations from the normal surface
Ra
.dx
Lm
over a specified surface length.
0

Surface roughness (2)


Approximation form:
n

yi

i 1

Ra

Units for Ra: m (10 -6 m)


Cutoff length Filter to separate the waviness from
the roughness deviations
Usually: Cutoff length = 0,8 mm = 1/5.Lm
Surface finish = surface roughness denoting good
quality and smoothness

Symbols for surface texture

Symbols on engineering
drawings

Final remarks
Final remarks related to product attributes:
Surface integrity
- Changes in the subsurface layer
- Alterations like cracks, craters, hardness changes
inclusions, residual stresses, etc.
- Different reasons: mechanical, thermal,etc.
Effect of manufacturing processes on
- Tolerance limits
- Surface roughness values

Tolerance limits

Surface roughness values

Manufacturing Process Selection


Aspects:
Batch size: Single product, medium size or mass
production
Geometric requirements: Shape and tolerances
Manufacturing phase: Primary or secondary
Tools: General purpose or product specific
Assembly: Pay attention to assembly aspects
during process selection for part manufacturing
Minimize costs: Costs per product + Costs per
batch + Once-only costs

Interfaces with other courses


Product design: Selection of the product material
and the manufacturing process is related to the
product shape and product function.
Production systems: Selection of a manufacturing
process is related to the optimum batch size and
has consequences for the plant layout.
Management and cost accounting: If more manufacturing scenarios are possible, the final choice
will be made based on minimum costs.
Total Quality Management: All decisions related to
manufacturing are dealing with quality aspects.

Case study 1.2


Subject: Manufacturing of golf balls
1) What are the functional requirements for golf
balls?
2) With which type of materials can you realize
these requirements in the best way?
3) Which type of manufacturing processes would
be required to make a golf ball?

Case study 1.3


1) What are the functional requirments for a safe?
2) With which type of materials can
you realize these requirements
in the best way?
3) Which type of manufacturing
processes would be required to
make a safe?