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Planning 1 Module 5: Socio-cultural Factors

Thematic or Analytical Maps
Land Use Map
Zoning Map
Facilities/ Infrastructures Map
Traffic/Circulation Map
Population Density Map
Land Use
the manner of utilizing land, including its allocation, development and management.
Land Management the right of the State to classify, guide and regulate the acquisition,
use and disposition of land in the interest of public welfare.
May involve the movement of people, goods, communication, or amenities.
Existing ties or linkages of community facilities (such as nearby shopping centers,
employment hubs, residential areas, churches, schools, parks, and playgrounds)
Determine whether existing linkages exist, and if not, decide how they can be established
or improved.
Traffic & Transit
Relationship of traffic patterns to each other and to the site.
Inventory of existing vehicular networks, trips including their origin and destination,
purpose, time of day, and volume
Graphically plot transport systems and their location or routes.
Check volume of traffic or frequency.
Roads provide a primary means of access to a site. Their availabilityand capacity may be
prime determinants in whether and how a parcel of land can be developed. Basic
Categories of Roads:
a Local Streets have the lowest capacity and provide direct access to building sites. They
may be in the form of continuous grid or curvilinear systems or may be cul-de-sacs or
b Collector Streets connect local streets and arterial streets. They have a higher capacity
than local streets but are not usually intended for through traffic. Intersections of collector
and local roads may be controlled by stop signs, whereas intersections with arterial streets
will be controlled with stop lights.
c Arterial Streets are intended as major, continuous circulation routes that carry large
amounts of traffic on two or three lanes. They usually connect expressways. Parking on
the street is typically not allowed and direct access from arterial streets to building sites
should be avoided.
d Expressways are limited access roads designed to move large volumes of traffic
between, through and around population centers. Intersections are made by various type

of ramp systems, and pedestrian access is not allowed. Expressways have a major
influence on the land due to the space they require and their noise and visual impact.
Public Transit
The availability and location of public transit lines can influence site design. A site
analysis should include a determination of the types of public access available (whether
bus, subway, rail line or taxi stop) and the location relative to the site. Building entrances
and major site features should be located conveniently to the public transit. In large cities,
site development may have to include provisions for public access to subway and rail
Density, Zoning
In residential devt, expressed in numbers of families or dwelling units per hectare.
May also be expressed in floor area ratio (F.A.R.) or gross floor area covering the site.
the division of a community into zones or districts (e.g.) commercial, residential,
industrial, institutional, etc.) according to present and potential uses of land to maximize,
regulate and direct their use and development in accordance with the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan of the community.
It takes the form of a locally enacted ordinance which embodies among others,
regulations affecting:
Uses allowed or disallowed in each zone or district
Conditions for allowing them
Deviations legally allowed from the requirements of the ordinance.
It is concerned primarily with the use of land and the control of density of population
through the imposition of:
building heights
building massing/bulk
open space
density provisions in a given area
Regulations mainly concerned with layout and standards such as street width, turning
radii, road right-of-way, cul-de-sac length, curb, sidewalk requirements and landscaping.
Existing Buildings
Natural Features
Significant natural features such as rock outcroppings, cliffs, caves, and bogs should be
identified to determine whether they must be avoided or can be used as positive design
features in the site design.

Spatial Patterns
Visual Barriers
View analysis may be required to determine the most desirable ways to orient buildings,
outdoor areas, and approaches to the buildings.Undesirable views can be minimized or
blocked with landscaping or other manufactured features.
Posted by RSGat 7:31 PM1 comment:
Labels: Planning 1 lesson modules
Planning 1- Module 4: Natural Factors
Land Use
Traffic & Transit
Density, Zoning
Existing Buildings
Natural Features
Spatial Patterns
Visual Barriers
Base Map
Municipal or General Base Map
Poblacion or Urban Base Map
Base Maps for other Built-up Areas
Vicinity Map
Thematic or Analytical Maps
Contour Map
Soil Map

Slope Map
Hydro-geologic or Groundwater Map
Climate Map
Geologic processes which might have affected the site, its formation, and the type of
bedrock below the surface of the soil.
To understand the processes that have occurred in the past, it is useful to review the
historical evolution of a region.
The underlying geology, rock character and depth, fault lines
Bedrock is a consolidated rock material lying at various depths below all points of the
earths surface.
The type and depth of bedrock presents many questions of its adequacy as a base for
foundations of buildings, walls or roads.
Test borings on several locations on the site can provide the answers.
Surficial Geologic Materials extend above bedrock to the surface soil. May be porous
and serve as acquifers.
Mass Movement of Land Surface by tectonic movement through crustal stress, shock by
earthquakes, or movement caused by surficial processes, including rockfalls, landslides,
mudflows, and soil creep
Mass Movement of Land Surface
- tectonic movement maybe caused along faults often accompanying earthquakes.
- Surficial processes power mass movement by force of gravity, often started by heavy
rain that saturate rock and soil with water to the point where gravity can cause movement.
Description of landforms is physiography.
Branch of geology dealing with the origin and nature of landforms with emphasis on
erosional processes is geomorphology.
Geomorphological processes:
- erosion and deposition along rivers
- erosion of cliffs by the sea
- rocks breaking away from mountain sides because of frost action on the joints.
- Landslips occurring where surface materials are not yet at a stable angle in relation to
the local geological structure.
irregularities of the earths surface.
are derived from volcanic, glacial or erosional processes.
- Topographic maps show locations and elevations of natural as well as man-made
features, relief and vegetation.
- Contours
- Patterns of landforms slopes, circulation possibilities, access points, barriers, visibility
- Unique features.
Slope Analysis

- Aids in recognizing areas suitable for building locations, roads, parking, or play areas.
- It may show if construction is feasible.
- Parking lot should be below 5% or regrading is to be done.
Breakdown of grades:
0 - 3% level to very gently sloping
3 - 8% rolling to hilly
8 - 18% gently sloping to undulating
18 - 30% moderately sloping to rolling
30 - 50% steep hills & mountainous
50% very steep hills & mountains
The surface and subsurface drainage patterns on a site greatly influence land use.
Important in developing a system for site drainage that makes use of existing watershed
drainage patterns.
Existing water bodies variation and purity
Natural and man-made drainage channels flow capacity, purity
Surface drainage pattern amount, directions blockages, flood zones, undrained
depressions, areas of continuing erosion
Water table elevation and fluctuations, springs, flow directions, presence of deep
Water supply, location, quantity and quality.
River Basin
Indicates the area from which water is gathered to fill streams and rivers.
A project area near a stream is flood prone.
Flash floods can occur.
Necessary to determine the total surface drainage system and plot into the map the water
catchment area that feeds any local surface water.
50-100 year storms be studied to see if all development should be excluded or if a land
use such as a recreation may be located that would receive little damage by flooding.
In building adjacent to streams or rivers, detailed flood studies and special permits are
Water-bearing strata of rock, gravel, or sand in which groundwater is stored.
Very valuable resource of potable water and must be protected from pollution.
Acquifer recharge areas are the points where surface water meets or interchanges with an
have very valuable natural functions and considered a protected area.
Areas that are covered by water or that have water-logged soils for long periods during
the growing season.
Include shrub swamps, marshes, bogs, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and similar areas.

Soil type and depth, value as an engineering material and as a plant medium, presence of
hazardous chemicals or contaminants.
Areas of fill or ledge, liability to slides or subsidence, capability for mining.
Data in soil surveys are valuable in determining suitability for land uses.
Vegetation & Wildlife
Dominant plant and animal communities-their location and relative stability, self
regulation, and vulnerability.
General pattern of plant cover, quality of wooded areas, wind firmness, regeneration
Specimen trees-their location, spread, species, elevation at base, whether unique or
endangered, support system needed.
Regional pattern of temperature, humidity, precipitation, sun angles, cloudiness, wind
direction and speeds.
Location microclimates: warm and cool slopes, wind deflection and local breeze, shade,
heat reflection and storage, plant indicators.
Ambient air quality, dust, smells, sound levels.
Posted by RSGat 7:19 PMNo comments:
Labels: Planning 1 lesson modules
Module 2 Site Selection and Resource Analysis
For every site,
there is an ideal
use. For every use,
there is an ideal
Site Selection
SELECTION most preferable site
in a larger milieu.
DISCRETE SITE SELECTION - sites within the locale identified in the gross site
selection process
FUNCTIONAL SITE SELECTION - done in a big site where project is just part of the
whole. Provide a best use analysis to determine best spot.

Formulation should be based on the specific site needs of the project.

Establishes site values highly compatible with the requirements of the project
Considered as the most potent ones in creating the tone for site selection
Factors that are usually considered and is generally applicable to most type of projects,
like utility systems, accessibility, and the like.
Devise rating scale:
Numerical rating:
3 highly desirable
2 desirable
1 - undesirable
Baseline Information
The process of site planning begins with the gathering of basic data relating specifically
to the site under consideration and the surrounding areas.
This include such items as:
a. assessment of the natural environment and the associated physical characteristics of
b. detailed analysis of the users
c. assessment of potential of site
d. assessment of possibilities
e. assessing the impact on the natural and visual environments
Systematic Summary of Findings
Information must be organized to permit an easy evaluation of the possible development
Sieve-mapping an overlay method of mapping natural determinants used to determine
the suitability of a particular site for prospective land uses.
Sieve mapping can be done manually using acetates or vellum, or thru the use of
computer softwares like CADD and GIS.
a. each natural factor like geology and soils is illustrated in maps on vellum or acetate.

b. Opportunity maps are produced from a composite of maps.

c. Constraint maps constraints to development must be mapped for each component to
show their influence on development.
d. Synthesis of opportunities and constraints is formed to produce a suitability map for a
prospective use.
Summary of Site Analysis:
One of the most important parts of any comprehensive site evaluation, a summary site
analysis illustrates the interrelationship of a sites spatial, natural, and cultural conditions
The analysis should delineate the portion of the parcel most suited to development as well
as any ecologically sensitive areas.
Areas in need of more detailed evaluation also should be identified.
Analysis should be straightforward and present information in its most basic and
meaningful form.
Site features or conditions that most directly affect the development of the land should be
graphically highlighted and illustrated.
Maps should include obvious factors such as rock outcroppings or wetlands as well as
more subtle considerations such as the direction of a prevailing breeze or an unusual
specimen tree.
Market Evaluation
Should be prepared concurrently with the site evaluation to determine a projects likely
market demand and the sites realistic development and absorption potential.
Market operates according to traditions and principles that cannot be ignored.
Investigation should extend to the following:
a. Economic Factors
- economic conditions, trends, employment of prospective market
b. Demographic and psychographic factors
- income levels, age components, lifestyle
- who are the potential market?
- how does the local market differ from the overall metropolitan market?
c. Competitive factors
- How many competitors?
- What are their strengths and weaknesses?
- How well is it designed and marketed?
- What is needed to create a unique selling position?

d. Site Evaluation
- unlike site analysis, site evaluation examines area character, consumer traffic patterns,
area services, and access routes from the consumers point of view.
- what is the overall perception of site location?
- is there a ready market to be tapped?
- what will consumers see on their way to the site that may influence their perceptions?
e. Demand determination
- who are the prospective users?
- what are their needs, wants, and desires?
- how will demand be satisfied?
f. Site programming
- based on market demand and development goals, specific land planning design
recommendations should take into consideration theme, circulation patterns, relationship
to adjacent sites, waterscaping or sitescaping, etc.
Alternative Plans and Concepts
Land and site evaluations are merged with the preliminary market information to test the
program and to evaluate alternative layout concepts
Alternative solutions should be presented in diagrammatic for, enough at first to record
only the essentials of a scheme.
Strategies for developing alternative site plans:
a. do not be satisfied with the first solution.
b. do not assume that there is only one way to make a proposed project work.
c. ask questions that elicit multiple answers.
d. recognize that a lot of ideas create better solutions.
e. ask what if questions
f. challenge the rules.
Selecting the Preferred Development Concept
Which solution.
a. best satisfies the developments program requirements and best fits the site?
b. best satisfies the quality-of-place objectives established for the proposed project?
c. can be implemented? The preferred solution is not necessarily the easiest one to
d. provides reasonable cost benefits?
Preferred development concept is likely to reflect a combination of several ideas
uncovered through the comparison of alternative plans.

The opportunities and constraints related to the development criteria, development

standards, local regulations should also be considered in the selection.
Final Development Plan
The planning and design process requires constant refinement and adjustment.
Feedback and continued testing should be an integral part of every phase as the plans
move closer to completion.
Prepare schematic plans, preliminary development plans, phasing plans, final
development plans
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Labels: Planning 1 lesson modules
Module 1 Introduction Site Planning
Module 1 Introduction
Definition of Site Planning
Site planning is the art and science of arranging the uses of portions of land.
Site planners designate these uses in detail by selecting and analyzing sites, forming land
use plans, organizing vehicular and pedestrian circulation, developing visual form and
materials concepts, readjusting the existing landforms by design grading, providing
proper drainage, and finally developing the construction details to carry out their projects.
Site planners arrange for the accommodation of the program of activities clients have
They must relate these components to each other, the sites, and structures and activities
on adjacent sites for whether sites are small or big, they must be viewed as part of the
total environment.
Site planning is the organization of the external physical environment to accommodate
human behavior.
It deals with the qualities and locations of structures, land, activities, and living things.
It creates a pattern of those elements in space and time, which will be subject to
continuous future management and change.
The technical output the grading plans, utility layout, survey locations, planting plans,
sketches, diagrams, and specifications -are simply a conventional way of specifying this
complex organization.
Site Concepts and Principles (Kevin Lynch)
- Every site is a unique interconnected web of things and activities that imposes
limitations and offers possibilities.
- A site or project/planning area varies in size, location and characteristics. (can be

located anywhere on land or beside a body of water, or may concern a small cluster of
houses, a single building and its grounds, or something as extensive as a small
community built in a single operation).
-A site in its own right is a living, changing community of plants and animals. Such a
community also has its own interests that should be conserved, preserved or protected.
-Knowledge of the site is vital in planning especially in mitigating competing or
conflicting interests between potential users and existing occupants to avert natural
disasters such as severe erosion, water intrusion, flooding, a drop in the water table, etc.
- The site and its intended purpose are closely interrelated
- Understanding the site to define or establish the essential character or nature of the site
or the spirit of the place (genius loci) to maintain, to some degree, a continuity of the
preexisting conditions within the locale. Every place has a character, which may include
the wider landscape or may be local to a street or village.
- A sufficient knowledge and understanding of the nature of the site would make the
planner much conscious and sensitive to the sites distinct character and closely knit
complexity as to be worthy of his interest, concern and even his affection.
- Understanding the site has two branches one oriented to the users and the other to the
site itself.

Objectives of Site Planning

Site planning
is concerned
with the
open spaces
within the
and areas
which are
- It provides
a means of
and understanding problems that arise from the relationship between man and the land.
- Decide the best location of each land use and each activity at site.
- Who are to use the land, what activities they are likely to want to do there and what sort
of environment is required if the users have to get a high level of satisfaction out of
participating in site planning
- How analysis of the sites environment (physical/social/ environmental/

cultural/political) are required by each activity could be used to decide which part of the
site can stay the same, which parts need to be changed and what these changes aim to
achieve. (impacts)
- How to influence the appearance of the site by developing appropriate landscape types
and using suitable landscape management methods. (methods/environmental quality)
- How to work out the details of what should happen on a given area of land; how it
should happen & what it will cost to implement and manage the project on the area of
Essence of Site Planning
According to Beer, the essence of site planning allows all concerned stakeholders to think
systematically through the whole range of issues that relate to deciding what should
happen on an area of land (site planning is multi-dimensional / multi-stakeholder / multisectoral activity)
- no one particular viewpoint is considered
- holistic viewpoint
- multi-dimensional viewpoint
- comprehensive viewpoint
- Think through all the problem that are likely to be associated with developing the site or
changing its use.
- Site planning attempts to consider the site in relation to the interest of society as a whole
as well as those of the developer/client when determining what activities should or should
not happen on land with the least possible adverse effect on the environment as a whole.

- Economic /
social issues
factored in to

accommodate the interest of developer, politicians especially.

- ultimate decision-maker would be the developer guided by
a. policy CLUP, laws, ordinances

b. systems and procedures / devt control

c. financial / economic constraints
d. market demand
- focus more on the analysis of the physical / natural environment to determine
constraints to land development / building development.
- To ensure that necessary expansive solutions are not chosen
- Site planning can help to reduce long term management cost associated with operating
on a site.
When to do Site Planning?

- A client has an intended use in mind (the project has been identified) and has identified
a site (site is available). The site planner proceeds with the planning process.
- A client has an intended use in mind (the project has been identified) but does not know
where to build the project (site is not yet available). In this case, a site planner is
commissioned to identify an appropriate site based on the needs of the client and plan the
- A client has a piece of property (the site is available) but does not know what to do with
it (the project has not been identified). In this case, a site planner is commissioned to
determine the best use for the property and plan it.
Site Planning Process
- A thorough assessment of the natural environment and the associated physical
characteristics of the site and its surroundings.
- A detailed analysis of the users and their requirements in terms of facilities for each
activity and the sort of environment needed to enable the activity to take place
(environmental setting) with the maximum possible user satisfaction.
- An assessment of the potential of the site, based on the relationship between the
physical characteristics of the site and the user requirements.
- An assessment of possibilities for changing the physical characteristics of the site to

make a better match between the users and the site.

- Assessing the impact on the natural and visual environments of any changes to the
physical aspects of the site.
- Proposing a plan for the site which is a balance between mans requirements and the
need to ensure the conservation and enhancement of the natural environment.
Stages in the Production of a Site Plan
(As a cycle of events, site planning generally involves a sequence of stages that begins
when a developer or client of the site planner decides to develop a site to the production
of design briefs. The flow chart below summarizes the general process taken in the
production of a site plan - Beer, 1990)1. Client wants to develop a site
2. Technical Team assembled
3. Key Issues Identified
4. Alternative Site Examined
5. Discussions with local planners/stakeholders
7. Present and Future Needs
8. Site Potential Assessed
9. Environmental Policies
10. Alternative Development Concepts Examined
12. Planning Approval sought by client
13. Design and Management Briefs developed
Site Inventory and Assessment
- Involves a thorough assessment of the natural environment and the associated physical
characteristics of the site and its surroundings.
- Such factors are found above, below, and on the ground; make up the nature of the site;
- Knowing these factors and their interrelationships enables one to determine site
constraints (threats) and potentials (opportunities).
- Knowledge of constraints and threats can mitigate or minimize potential damage or
adverse effects that site development may cause on the ecological (i.e.,
physical/biological) and social fabric within the site or within the general vicinity of the

- Knowledge of the potentials and opportunities of the site can clarify, reveal or enhance
the nature of the site as well as the plan or design.
Data/Information Required in Preparing a Site Profile
- Site Inventory and Assessment require the collection of comprehensive and structured
sets of data descriptive of the geo-physical, biological and social environment in the site
and around the site. A site profile is the outcome of this activity.
Why Prepare a Site Profile?
- For planners, it provides information on the status and characteristics of the various
aspects of the environment which are indicative of the potentials and weaknesses of a
particular area.
- For decision makers, the site profile provides information on the environment needed in
the formulation of policies, strategies or business decisions pertaining specifically to the
area or to the environment in general.
- For those concerned with the assessment and monitoring of the environment, the site
profile provides benchmark information on the environment with which various scenarios
can be drawn up with the introduction of particular development project(s).
In general, the Site Profile is a valuable tool:
- In making better decisions and trade-offs for more rational or sustainable development.
- In taking stock of or assessing the status of the environment of an area as of a given
- In providing information on the environment for consideration in project planning and
development as well as for monitoring and evaluation of a projects impact on the
- In preparing and evaluating the Initial Environmental Examination or the Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA); and
- In providing information for the purposes of management and conservation of the
Description and Basis of Site Layout

Given the projects general location, it is often desirable to draw up a site master plan to
indicate the spatial arrangement of the various facilities and show the allocation of spaces
to the different activities involved.
- Such plan will help ensure that the most functionally efficient layout, compatible with
an acceptable standard of environmental quality is obtained.
- Site and land use planning involves, firstly, a consideration of various developmental
- A sieve map which grades the various sections of the area according to the degree of
physical difficulty in developing them, is helpful in allocating the land for different uses.
- From this map can be noted the areas with steep slopes, low-lying sections liable to
flooding, areas with weak subsoil, etc. and other sections that restrict development except
at high cost.
- At the same time, areas easily suitable for various developmental uses can be shown.