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# CIVL7119/8119 Earthquake Engineering

Shahram Pezeshk
The University of Memphis

## Basic Design Analysis Process

Functional Planning
Required Area
Restriction on Building Height (max),
Number and Story Height
Deflection Criteria

## Define Seismic Environment

Regional Seismcity
Seismic Hazard
Site Dependent Effect

Define Static
Environment Temp, Wind
Shrinkage, Creep
Material Densities

## Select Structural System

Configuration, Foundation System,
Material Type, Non-Structural
Elements, Connections, Etc.

Serviceability
Elastic Analysis
Design with Elastic
Response Spectra

Preliminary
Design

Functionality
Ductility
Elastic Analysis and
Design with Inelastic
Response Spectra

Serviceability
No Good

Functionality
Evaluate Preliminary Design
OK

Final
Design

Ductility

Final
Detailing

Basic Seismology
n

## It is the science of earthquakes and

related phenomena and
It is through the science that seismic
activity and thus the seismic design loads
for a bridge/building may be quantified.

Seismology
n

## Find ways to reduce hazards of earthquakes by learning

how to predict their consequences
Determine ways the ground is likely to shake during the
earthquake, how shaking will be and how long will last
Knowledge of the ground motion that can be expected
during an earthquake can make it possible to design
structure economically and strong enough to survive being
shaken
It is essential to understand the characteristics of the
earthquake source to predict both the occurrence and the
ground motion that an earthquake will generate

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Seismic Environment
n

## Historical record of earthquakes are

important because:
n

n
n

## They tell us general locations where

earthquakes frequently occur
Approximately the recurrence interval
Approximate size of the earthquake

## The design earthquake should be a

magnitude M earthquake on the F fault
with recurrence interval of Y years, or
The earthquake hazard is represented by a
magnitude M earthquake within 25 miles of
the site, with probability P of occurrence
during a 100 year interval.

## The structure and nature of the earth's interior

and assessing the likelihood of large earthquakes
in certain regions
Dimension of the original disturbance and the
overall movement involved in it

Faulting
n

## It was not until the San Francisco earthquake

1906 that it was recognized that earthquakes
were caused by slippage along a fault in earth's
crust.
Reid of John Hopkins University Discovered that:
n

for several hundred kilometers along the San Andreas fault fences and
roads crossing the fault had been displaced by as much as six meters.
In addition, surveys conducted before and after the earthquake
revealed that rocks parallels to the fault had been strained and
sheared

Plate Tectonics
n

## The earths crust is divided into six

continental-sized plates
n
n
n
n
n
n

African
American
Antarctic
Australia-Indian
Eurasian
Pacific
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Plate Tectonics

n

## Near the bottom of the

crust, horizontal
component of convection
currents impose shear
stresses on bottom of
crust, causing movement
of plates on earths
surface.
The movement causes
the plates to move apart
in some places and
converge in others.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

n

## Magma rises to surface and cools in gap formed by spreading

plates.
Magnetic anomalies are shown as stripes of normal and
reversed magnetic polarity

San Andreas
Fault in
Southern
California

Source: USGS

n

## Rocks are elastic, and

mechanical energy can be
stored in them just as it is
stored in a compressed spring.
When the two blocks forming
the opposite sides of the fault
move by a small amount, the
motion elastically strains the
rocks near the fault. When the
stress becomes larger than the
frictional strength of the fault,
the fictional bond fails at its
weakest point. That point of
initial rupture, called the
hypocenter, may be near the
surface or deep below it.

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Fault line goes through two buildings - no apparent damage to either building

## Horizontal offset along a transform fault after the

Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 (California)

Source: USGS

n

## Rupture begins at the hypocenter

h kilometers below the surface,
spreads across a fault plane at a
velocity V and finally stops after
growing into a region with an
average length L and an average
width w.
The orientation of the fault
plane is specified by it strike
angle and dip angel. The slope
between the two fault surfaces
(large arrows) can have any
orientation in the plane. On the
average the slip requires t
seconds to reach its final offset.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

n

## The elastic energy stored in

the rocks is released as heat
generated by friction and as
seismic waves.
from the hypocenter in all
directions, producing the
earthquake.
The point on the surface of
the earth above the
hypocenter is the epicenter
of the earthquake

Faults
n

## Faults are formed when mutual slip of the rock

beds occurs on a certain plane. Depending upon
direction, the slippages are classified as:
Dip Slip:
n

n
n

## Normal Fault: The upper rock bed slips downward

Reverse Fault: The upper rock bed slips upward

Faults
n

Strike Slip:
n

n

## Left Lateral Fault: As seen from one bedrock bed, the

other bedrock bed slips toward the left
Right Lateral Fault: As seen from one bedrock bed, the
other bedrock bed slips toward the right

Subduction
n

## One plate dips down and slides beneath the other in a

process known as SUBDUCTION.
Generally, an oceanic plate slides, or subducts, beneath a
continental plate (west coast of South America) or beneath
another oceanic plate (Philippine)

## Four different faulting that generate earthquake. Close to the fault,

The type of faulting can have a significant influence on the ground
Shaking, but at greater distances the influence is small. In actual
Earthquakes there may also be a component of displacement
Perpendicular to that shown in the diagram.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

n

## San Andreas Faults

n 300-km-long, strike slip of 6.4m
n

n

n
n

(M=8.4)

n

n

## Kobe Earthquake, Japan

Northridge, California
Chelungpu, Taiwan, 1999

Earthquake Waves

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Earthquake Waves
When rupture along a fault occurs, the sudden release of energy sets off vibrations in the
earths crust. These vibrations can travel both within the earths material (body waves) and
on the earths surface (surface waves).
P-waves travel by compression and dilations in the direction of propagation, and have the
fastest speed (several miles/sec). These waves travel through both solid and liquid.
The transverse waves travel by shear distortions normal to the direction of propagation.
Although they are denoted S for Secondary waves, they transmit more energy than the Pwaves. S-waves are plane polarized. Those that cause motion in the vertical plane containing
the direction of propagation are called SV waves; horizontal waves are called SH waves.
Surface waves are so called because their motion is restricted to close to the ground surface.
As the depth below the ground surface increases, the wave amplitudes become less and less.
There are two types of surface waves during the earthquake. Love waves motion is similar to
S-wave horizontally polarized, except that its effects die out as depth increases. Raleigh
waves are similar to a rolling ocean wave. Material disturbed by Raleigh wave moves in
elliptical path in the vertical plane containing the direction of propagation.
Surface waves travel more slowly than body waves, with Love waves being generally faster
than Raleigh waves.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Earthquake Waves
n

P-wave

(1 ) E
Vp =
(1 2 2 )

S-wave
G
Vs =
=

E
G

=
=
=
=

E
1
2(1 + )

Youngs modulus
Shear modulus
Mass density
Poissons Ratio (0.25 for earth body)
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Location of Earthquakes
n

## P-waves travel faster than S-waves, they arrive

first at a given seismograph. The difference in
arrival times will depend on the difference
between the P- and S-waves. The distance
between the seismograph and the focus of the
earthquake is

d=

t p s

1/ Vs 1/ V p
A

B
C

Near Site:
Am(f) P(f,fm)

Propagation Path
G(R) D(R,f)
Seismic Source:
M0S(f)

Crustal Rock

in California

## Directivity Effect of Earthquakes Sites toward and

Away from Direction of Fault
n

## Overlapping of pulses can lead to strong fling pulse at sites

toward which the fault ruptures

Seismic Gap
n

n

## (a) seismicity in the 20 yrs prior to 1989 Loma Prieta

earthquake
(b) main shock and aftershocks of the Loma Prieta earthquake

(MMI)
n
n

## Do not confuse MMI with magnitude

An intensity scale is the intensity of the ground motion
intensity as determined by human feeling and by the effects
ground motion on structures and living things
MMI is graded based on intensity:
n Goes from I to XII (from imperceptible to catastrophic
destruction
n Subjective and descriptive scale that measure the
intensity of an earthquake by its effect on human
n Is based on and is established on the basis of visible
damage and human feelings

MMI
n

n
n

## I. Not felt. Marginal and long-period effects of large

earthquakes.
II. Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors, or favorably
placed.
III. Felt indoors. Hanging objects swing Vibration like passing
of light trucks. Duration estimated. May not be recognized as
an earthquake.
IV. Hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing of heavy
trucks; or sensation of a jolt like a heavy ball striking the walls.
Standing cars rock. Windows, dishes, doors rattle. Glasses
IV, wooden walls and frame creak.
V. Felt outdoors; direction estimated. Sleepers awakened.
Liquids disturbed, some spilled. Small unstable objects
displaced or upset. Doors swing, close, open, Shutters, pictures
move. Pendulum clocks stop, start, char, and change rate.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

MMI
n

n
n

Vl. Felt by all. Many frightened and run outdoors. Persons walk unsteadily. Windows, dishes, glassware
broken. Knickknacks, books, etc., off shelves. Pictures off walls. Furniture moved or overturned. Weak
plaster and masonry D cracked. Small bells ring (church, school). Trees, bushes shaken visibly, or heard to
rustle.
Vll. Difficult to stand. Noticed by drivers. Hanging objects quiver. Furniture broken. Damage to masonry
D, including cracks. Weak chimneys broken at roof line. Fall of plaster, loose bricks, stones, tiles,
cornices, also unbraced parapets and architectural ornaments. Some cracks in masonry C. Waves on ponds,
water turbid with mud. Small slides and caving in along sand or gravel banks. Large bells ring. Concrete
irrigation ditches damaged.
VIII. Steering of cars affected. Damage to masonry C; partial collapse. Some damage to masonry B, none
to masonry A. Fall of stucco and some masonry walls. Twisting, fall of chimneys, factory stacks,
monuments, towers, elevated tanks. Frame houses moved on foundations if not bolted down; loose panel
walls thrown out. Decayed piling broken off. Branches broken from trees. Changes in flow or temperature
of springs and wells. Cracks in wet ground and on steep slopes.
IX. General panic. Masonry D destroyed; masonry C heavily damaged, sometimes with complete collapse,
masonry B seriously damaged. General damage to foundations. Frame structures if not bolted, shifted off
foundations. Frames racked. Serious damage of reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks
in ground. In alluviated areas, sand and mud ejected, earthquake fountains, sand craters.
X. Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with their foundations. Some well-built wooden
structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Large landslides. Water
thrown on banks of canals, rivers, lakes, etc. Sand and mud shifted horizontally on beaches and flat land.
Rails bent slightly.
Xl. Rails bent greatly. Underground pipelines completely out of service.
Xll. Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaced. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown
into the air.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Isoseismal Map
n

## Isoseismal pattern depends on

n
n

Condition at epicenter
The route of seismic wave from focus to the
observation point
Geological conditions

Isoseismal Map

Isoseismal Map

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Richter Magnitude
n

## The size of an earthquake is closely related to the amount of energy

released. The magnitude M defined by Richter in 1935 is often used to
express earthquake size.
In 1935, Charles Richter used a Wood-Anderson seismometer to define a
magnitude scale for shallow, local (epicentral distances less than about 600
km [375 miles]) earthquakes in southern California.
Richter defined what is now known as the local magnitude as the logarithm
(base 10) of the maximum trace amplitude (in micrometers) recorded on a
Wood-Anderson seismometer located 100 km (62 miles) from the epicenter
of the earthquake.
The Richter local magnitude (ML) is the best known magnitude scale, but it
is not always the most appropriate scale for description of earthquake size.

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Richter Magnitude
n

## In 1935, Charles Richter used a Wood-Anderson seismometer to

define a magnitude scale for shallow, local (epicentral distances
less than about 600 km (375 miles)) earthquakes in southern
California.
The Richter Magnitude, M, is calculated from the maximum
amplitude, A, of the seismometer trace (Wood-Anderson
Seismometer, T0 = 0.8sec and >=0.80) at a distance of 100 km
from the epicenter.

M = log A
however, a standard seismometer is not always at 100 km from the
epicenter, in which

M = log A log A0

## A0 = maximum recorded amplitude for a particular earthquake

selected at a site, generally A0 = 0.001 mm for 100 km distance.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

## Example of the calculation of the Richter magnitude (ML) of a

local Earthquake

Procedure:
Measure the distance to the focus
using the time interval between the S
and the P waves (S-P=24 seconds)
Measure the height of the maximum
wave motion on the seismogram (23
mm)
Place a straight edge between points
on the distance (left) and amplitude
(right) scales to obtain magnitude
ML = 5.0.

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Surface Magnitude
n

## The Richter local magnitude does not distinguish between

different types of waves. Other magnitude scales that base
the magnitude on the amplitude of a particular wave have
been developed.
At large epicentral distances, body waves have usually been
attenuated and scattered sufficiently that the resulting
motion is dominated by surface waves.
The surface wave magnitude is a worldwide magnitude scale
based on the amplitude of Rayleigh waves with a period of
about 20 sec. The surface wave magnitude is obtained from
Ms = log A + 1.66 log D + 2.0

## where A is the maximum ground displacement in micrometers and D is

the epicentral distance of the seismometer measured in degrees (360'
corresponding to the circumference of the earth).
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Surface Magnitude
n

## Note that the surface wave magnitude is based on the

maximum ground displacement amplitude (rather than the
maximum trace amplitude of a particular seismograph);
therefore, it can be determined from any type of
seismograph.
The surface wave magnitude is most commonly used to
describe the size of shallow (less than about 70 km (44
miles) focal depth), distant (farther than about 1000 km
[622 miles]) moderate to large earthquakes.

n

## For deep-focus earthquakes, surface waves are often too

small to permit reliable evaluation of the surface wave
magnitude.
The body wave magnitude is a worldwide magnitude scale
based on the amplitude of the first few cycles of p-waves
which are not strongly influenced by the focal depth. The
body wave magnitude can be expressed as
mb = logA - logT + 0.01D + 5.9

## where A is the p-wave amplitude in micrometers and T is the period of

the p-wave (usually about one sec).
Body wave magnitude can also be estimated from the amplitude of onesecond-period, higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Nuttli, 1973); the resulting
magnitude, mbLg, is commonly used to describe intraplate earthquakes.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Moment Magnitude
n

## Moment magnitude is based on the total elastic energy released by

the fault rupture and is related to the seismic moment Mo defined
by

= GA D

Where

## G = Modulus of rigidity of the rock (dyne/cm2)

A = Area of rupture surface of the fault (cm2)
D = Average fault displacement (cm)

## Moment Magnitude is Defined by Hank and Kanamori (1979) as

Mw =

2
log M 10 . 7
0
3
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Magnitude
n

n
n

## Fault Length = 600 miles

Mw = 9.5, Ms = 8.3

n
n

## Fault Length = 200 miles

Mw = 7.9, Ms = 8.3
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

## Comparison of Various Magnitudes

Saturation of the
instrumental
scales is
indicated by
their flattening
at higher
magnitudes

## Energy Release and Magnitude

Correlation
log E = log E + aM
0

## Magnitude of an earthquake can be related to energy

(Gutenberg and Richter, 1956):
log E = 4.8 + 1.5M

## Energy Release and Magnitude Correlation

What is the increase in energy if we increase
magnitude by one:
log E = 4.8 + 1.5 6 E = 6.3080 1013
6
log E = 4.8 + 1.5 7 E = 1.9953 1015
7
log E
7 = 32
log E
6

## Peak Ground Acceleration

Attenuation Equations
n

n
n

## Ground acceleration (in rock) will decrease as

the distance from the epicenter increases.
For this reason, equations of this type are
called attenuation equations.
Attenuation Equations are site dependent.
Typical attenuation equation:
log PGA = 0.55 +0.5mblg 0.83log10r-0.0019r

## Relationship Between Hypocentral Distance,

MMI, and Magnitude
n

## Fault Length and Magnitude

The length of an
earthquake in (km) is
related to the
magnitude
M = 0.98log(L) + 5.65

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Correlation of Intensity,
Magnitude, and Acceleration
n

## No exact correlation of the intensity

(MMI), magnitude (M), and acceleration
(PGA) are possible since many factors
affects seismic behavior and structural
performance
Type of construction. Buildings in
villages in underdeveloped countries
perform much worse than high-rise
buildings in developed countries.
Therefore, these buildings will
experience different damage levels.
Within a geographical region with
consistent design and construction
methods, fairly good correlation can
exist between structural performance
and ground acceleration.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

n

## The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is one of the most

important characteristics of an earthquake.
PGA is given in units g's (i.e. as a fraction of gravitational
acceleration):

a ( ft / sec 2 )
32.2
2

a(in / sec )
386

Significant Earthquakes:
Pacoima Dam
Parkfield, 1966
Loma Prieta, 1989

a(m/ sec )
9.81

1.25g
0.50g
0.65g

Attenuation
n

## Comparison of Isoseismal of the New Madrid and

the San Francisco earthquakes (Nuttli, 1979).

7.5 - 8.2

## Seismicity of the Central United States (1811-1987)

(mb>3.0) (Mitchell, 1993).

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Source: USGS, Hazard maps help save lives and property (FS-183-96)

## Central US Seismicity 1974-1994

Source: CERI

Earthquakes occur in
association with faults.
This map shows
seismicity trends which
denote the active faults
seismic zone. There are
at least five active faults
in the NMSZ

Source: CERI

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Frequency of Occurrence
n

## The equation most commonly used to

describe the occurrence of earthquakes is
the well-known Gutenberg-Richter
relationship:
log( N c ) = a bM

## where Nc = is the number of events greater than or

equal to magnitude M; a and b are constants.

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Frequency of Occurrence
log( N c ) = a bM
n

## The constant a , the activity parameter, provides a measure

of the overall occurrence rate of earthquakes in the zone
considered and is the zero magnitude intercept on a semi-log
plot.
The slope b, or b value, is controlled by the distribution of
events between the higher- and lower-magnitude ranges.
If the equation is expanded to include an upper-bound as
well as a lower-bound magnitude, the relationship
becomes nonlinear at large magnitudes. The location and
magnitude of a potential earthquake corresponding to
certain recurrence interval, which would give the most
severe ground shaking at studied area, could be found
from the equation and seismotectonic study.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Frequency of Occurrence
For the entire world, the approximate
relationship (up to approximately M = 8.2)
the approximate number of earthquakes, N, of
a given magnitude M is:

## Approximate Expected Frequency of

Occurrence of Earthquakes (per 100 years)

Magnitude

Number

4.75-5.25
5.25-5.75
5.75-6.25
6.25-6.75
6.75-7.25
7.25-7.75
7.75-8.25
8.25-8.75

250
140
78
40
19
7.6
2.1
0.6

## log( N c ) = 7.7 0.9 M

Frequency of Occurrence
n

## The frequency of occurrence in the

according to Johnston and Nava
(1985) can be estimated by mean
recurrence rates for the NMSZ
using the historical seismicity and
the instrumental records (19741983).
They used both linear regression and
maximum likelihood techniques to
determine the Gutenberg-Richter
constants a and b for the best-fit
line throughout the data.
For the NMSZ (35o-37oN, 89o90.5oW), they obtained

## log( N c ) = 3.43 0.88( M b )

Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Frequency of Occurrence

## The solid line

indicates the
exponential
magnituderecurrence model;
the dashed line
indicates the
characteristic model
(Toro et al. 1992).
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Typical Seismograms
n

## Typical siesmograms recorded by

different instruments at the same
site during the sameearthquake can be
remarkably different.
The top two sets of curves are the
recordings of an accelerograph and a
Carder displacement meter at El
Centro, CA, from an earthquake at
Borrego Mountain, some 60 km away.
Both instruments were triggered by
the initial P wave, or compression wave,
from the earthquake; the first strong
pulse on each recording is slower
traveling S wave, or shear wave, which
arrived seconds later.

## The prominent reverberations on the

recording from Carder displacement meter
are resonance of the seismic waves in the
thick blanket of sediment in the Imperial
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk
Valley.

Typical Seismograms
n

## The Bottom part of curves

at La Paz in Bolivia of the
vertical component of the
initial P wave from the
same earthquake that was
recorded by a short-period
seismograph and a longperiod seismograph in the
World wide Network.
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

## Earthquake Ground Motion

Newmark and Rosenblueth (1971)
classified earthquake ground motions
into four type:
n

## Single-Shock Type. The focus is at

a shallow depth and the bedrock is
hard.
A moderately long, extremely
irregular motion. The depth of the
focus is intermediate and the
bedrock is hard as in the El Centro
Earthquake of 1940.
A long ground motion exhibiting
pronounced prevailing periods. The
wave is filtered by many soft layers,
and the successive reflections occur
at the boundaries, as in the Mexican
earthquake of 1964.
A ground motion involving large-scale
permanent deformation of the
ground. This occurred at Anchorage
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

## Ground Motion Time History

North-South ground acceleration recorded
at Catech during ML6.4 San Francisco (Feb 9,
1971)

## The instrument was located at 20 Miles from the

causative fault, and at this distance the duration of strong
ground shaking was approximately 8 second, this being
the same as the duration of the slipping process on
the fault
Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Seismograms
n

## Displacement of the pendulum is

proportional to ground motion Vg

## If T of pendulum > T of ground motion

and if appropriate damping for the
pendulum is chosen, this type of
seismogram is called Displacement
Seismograph or long period
seisomograph.
If T of pendulum < T of ground motion
and if appropriate damping for the
pendulum is chosen, this type of
seismograph is called Acceleration
Seismograph or short period
seismograph.
If T of pendulum = T of ground motion
and if appropriate damping for the
pendulum is chosen, this type of
seismograph is called velocity
Seismograph

## The rarity of truly strong shaking at a site implies that such

forces need not be resisted within elastic limit of the
materials of construction
It is not economical to design every structure to resist the
strongest possible earthquake without damage, since most
structures will never experience such shaking
The philosophy implicit in modern building codes, which are
design criteria, is to resist moderate shaking without
damage, but to permit yielding and structural damage in the
event of very strong shaking, provided the damage is not
unduly hazardous to life and limb.

## Earthquake Notes by Dr. Shahram Pezeshk

Analysis Procedure
n

Minor Earthquake
n Elastic Analysis
Moderate Earthquake
n Elastic/Inelastic - Probability Dependent
Major Earthquake
n Inelastic Analysis

## Introduction to Seismic-Resistant Design

Limit State

Ground
Shaking

Serviceability
Design Basis
Earthquake

Minor

Functionality
(Damagebility)
Safe Shutdown

Moderate

Ultimate
(Ductility)
Maximum

Major

Conventional
Building

Important
Structures

Many times
High
during service probability of
life 5-20 years occurance 50100 years
Low
Several times
20-70 years
probability
70-250 years

Rare
(worst Max
expected)
50-200
years

Extremely
Low prob
100-3000
years

Criteria
No Damage to
Structure or
non-structural
elements
No structural
Damage, some
non-structural
damage

Life Safety