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RN3701 50A

3G RAN Optimization Fundamentals


RAN KPI categories and examples

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Module Objectives

At the end of the module you will be able to:


Analyze the formulas of important example KPIs from the various KPI
categories
Propose optimization actions from the analysis of sample measurement
data

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Content
KPI examples
-

Accessibility
Retainability (Drop Rate)
Usage
Mobility
Quality

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RRC Connection Setup

Definition RRC connection (service level measurements M1001)

UE

BTS

RNC

CN

RRC: Connection Request


RRC Connection Setup phase
Resource Reservation in RNC, BTS, Transmission
RRC: Connection Setup
RRC Connection Access phase
RNC waits reply from UE
RRC: Connection Setup Complete

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RRC setup
success rate

RRC setup success rate (Example: RNC_20b)


RRC Connection setup success ratio "RRC connection setup" means the resource reservation phase,
before sending RRC Connection Setup message to the UE

RRC_setup_success_rate =

100 ([ RRC _ CONN _ STP _ COMP ])


([ RRC _ CONN _ STP _ ATT ] + [ RRC _ CONN _ SETUP _ COMP _ AFT _ DIR ]
[ RRC _ CONN _ SETUP _ COMP _ DIRECTED])

RRC_setup_ success_ra te =

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100 ([ M 1001C1])

([ M 1001C 0] + [ M 1001C 259] [ M 1001C 260])

RRC setup success rate (Example)

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RRC Setup and Access Complete Ratio NW (Example: RNC_94e)


RRC Setup and Access Complete Ratio [%] over the reporting period.
covers RRC Setup and Access phases (from RRC Connection Request to RRC Connection Setup
Complete)
RRC connection is needed also for other purposes than a call (SMS, LU, Detach, etc.)
([ RRC _ CONN _ ACC _ COMP ]
+ [ RRC _ CONN _ SETUP _ COMP _ DIRECTED ])
RRC_setup_access_complete_ratio_NW =
([ RRC _ CONN _ STP _ ATT ] + [ RRC _ CONN _ SETUP _ COMP _ AFT _ DIR]
[ RRC _ CONN _ STP _ REJ _ EMERG _ CALL])
100

RRC_setup_ access_complete_ratio_NW =

NW Network perspektive
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100 ([ M 1001C 8] + [ M 1001C 260])

([M 1001C 0] + [ M 1001C 259] [M 1001C 617])

RRC Connection Setup and Access Complete


RNC_154d RRC Connection Setup and Access Complete Ratio is a good stability indicator.

Covers RRC Setup and Access phases (From RRC Connection Request to RRC Connection Setup Complete). Note1: RRC
connection is needed also for other purposes than a call (SMS, LU, Detach, etc.).

To get the "user perspective" RRC connection repetitions and cell reselections are excluded in this KPI compared to RNC_94e
which is for "network perspective"

RNC_154d =

100 * (sum(RRC_C ONN_ACC_CO MP + RRC_CONN_S ETUP_COMP_ DIRECTED)


sum(RRC_CO NN_STP_ATT RRC_CONN_S ETUP_ATT_R EPEAT
RRC_CONN_A CC_REL_CEL L_RESEL + RRC_CONN_S ETUP_COMP_ AFT_DIR
RRC_CONN_S TP_REJ_EME RG_CALL)

Performance can be poor due the:


Registration attempts in bad coverage areas. Some UE types have poor performance in weak coverage
conditions.
2G/3G border areas, not enough hysteresis with parameter settings.
Idle mode parameterization (UEs camping in the wrong cell)
Poorly planned RNC borders (Iur causes radio failure)

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Example: RRC Performance

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Content
KPI examples
-

10

Accessibility
Retainability (Drop Rate)
Usage
Mobility
Quality

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RAB Success Ratio (Drop call rate)


Call Drop Rate (CDR) = 1 - CSR
UE

Types of drops:
BTS

Radio link drop


Soft drop, RRC or RAB connection might still survive

RRC drop
Hard drop, all RAB drop as well

RAB drop
Hard drop, but RRC connection might still survive

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RNC

CN

RAB Success Ratio (Drop call rate)


Call drop rate (service level measurements M1001)

CDR =

releases_due_to_failures
normal_releases + releases_due_to_failures

Dropped calls = calls which do not terminate due to one of the following reasons
Normal release
Relocation
Preemption
Possible causes for call drops are e.g.
Lack of coverage
Interference
SHO failure
Missing neighbor
Relocation failure

Call drop rate for voice


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Call Drop Rate (CDR) = 1 CSR = 1 RNC_231d

RAB Success Ratio, Voice (CSR)


RNC_231d RAB Success KPI for CS Voice from end user perspective
RU20 version includes new SRNC, ISHO, GAN and transmission failure counters
100 100*sum(RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_P_EMP + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IU
+ RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RADIO + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_BTS + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IUR
+ RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_UE + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_TRANS)
RNC_ 231d =
sum(RAB_ACT_COMP_CS_VOICE + RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_SRNC + RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_P_EMP
+ RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_HHO + RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_ISHO + RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_GANHO
+ RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IU + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RADIO + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_BTS
+ RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_IUR + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RNC + RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_UE
+ RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_TRANS)

Covers RAB Active Phase of a call. Probability that call has ended normally after setup has
been successful. This is taking into notice just calls which has ended this cell, but might
have been started in other cells.

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RAB Success Ratio, Voice (CSR) (re(re-establishment included)

RNC_5434a - RAB Success Ratio for AMR Voice [%] including RRC Call re-establishment into the formula.
Successful re-establishments are considered in the same way as abnormal releases (failures) from end user
point of view.

This KPI is calculated similarly as RNC_231d "RAB Success Ratio, Voice (CSR)" additionally taking into account
RRC Call Re-establishments as "failures" from end user point of view.
This KPI is taking into notice just calls which have successfully reestablished or have ended in this cell, but might
have been started in other cells.

One new counter added to formula compared to RNC_231d M1006C186 RRC_RE_EST_SUCC_RT


100 100*sum(RAB_A CT_REL_CS_ VOICE_P_EM P + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_IU
+ RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_RADIO + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_BTS + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_IUR
+ RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_RNC + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_UE + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_TRANS
+ RRC _ RE _ EST _ SUCC _ RT)
RNC_ 5434 a =
sum(RAB_AC T_COMP_CS_ VOICE + RAB_ACT_RE L_CS_VOICE _SRNC + RAB_ACT_RE L_CS_VOICE _P_EMP
+ RAB_ACT_RE L_CS_VOICE _HHO + RAB_ACT_R EL_CS_VOIC E_ISHO + RAB_ACT_R EL_CS_VOIC E_GANHO
+ RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_IU + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_RADIO + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_BTS
+ RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_IUR + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_RNC + RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_UE
+ RAB_ACT_FA IL_CS_VOIC E_TRANS + RRC _ RE _ EST _ SUCC _ RT)

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Example: Voice CSSR and CSR

RNC_5434a is the new one with


re-establishment included
RNC_5434a shows lower SR
than RNC_231d

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AMR Call Completion Success Rate RNC_231


Statistics from different networks showing value for RNC_231 March 2014

AMR Call Completion Success Rate (RNC_231) (%)

238
networks

AMR Call Completion Success Rate (RNC_231) (%)


100.50
100.00

Median (99,61)

99.50
99.00
98.50
98.00
97.50
97.00
96.50
96.00
95.50
1
7
13
19
25
31
37
43
49
55
61
67
73
79
85
91
97
103
109
115
121
127
133
139
145
151
157
163
169
175
181
187
193
199
205
211
217
223
229
235
241

95.00

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Content
KPI examples
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Accessibility
Retainability (Drop Rate)
Usage
Mobility
Quality

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CS+PS MultiRAB
MultiRAB call means that there is CS and PS calls at the same time for the same RRC
connection.
Usage of Cell_PCH and URA_PCH increased the rate of Multi RAB cases. Thus monitoring
Multi RAB Setup Success ratio becomes more essential.
There are not failure counters separately for MultiRAB, same failure counters should be
used as for CS and PS service.

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Updated MultiRab KPIs RU30


RNC_741b: CS AMR + PS Multi RAB Setup Success Ratio

MultiRAB setup success rate covers RAB Setup and Access Phases

This KPI show success ratio when CN request that a Multi-RAB combination in question to be set up

RNC _ 741b = 100 *

sum( RAB _ ACC _ COMP _ AMR _ PSNRT )


sum( RAB _ STP _ ATT _ AMR _ PSNRT )

RNC_742b: CS AMR + PS Multi RAB Success Rate


KPI describes retainability of multi-RAB combination CS AMR + PS NRT and covers RAB Active phase
of call
RNC _ 742b = 100 *

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sum( RAB _ ACT _ COMP _ AMR _ PSNRT )


sum( RAB _ ACT _ COMP _ AMR _ PSNRT + RAB _ ACT _ FAIL _ AMR _ PSNRT )

MultiRAB Signalling

UE

BTS

RNC

MGW

SGSN

RRC Connection Establishment


AMR call Established
RRC: UL Direct Transfer (Activate PDP Context Request)

RANAP: Direct Transfer (Activate PDP Context Request)

RANAP: RAB Assignment request

RRC: Radio Bearer Setup


RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Complete

RANAP: RAB Assignment Response


RANAP: Direct Transfer (Activate PDP Context Accept)

NRT PS Call Established

AMR + NRT PS RAB active


RRC: Radio Bearer Release
RRC: Radio Bearer Release Complete

RANAP: RAB Assignment request with IE RAB release


RANAP: RAB Assignment Response

M1001C700 RAB_STP_ATT_AMR_PSNRT : The


number of RAB setup attemps the result of which
would be a multi-RAB combination "CS AMR + PS
NRT".
Counter updated whenever CN requests that the
Multi-RAB combination in question be set up. This is
the case when a PS/CS RAB already exists and a CS/PS
RAB is set up in addition to it (for the same RRC
connection).
M1001C701 RAB_ACC_COMP_AMR_PSNRT : The
number of RAB access completed for a multi-RAB
combination "CS AMR +1PS NRT".
Counter is updated when the RNC receives a setup
complete message from the UE, indicating that the
Multi-RAB combination in question is successfully
established, and sends a response message to CN
indicating that the RAB is successfully established.
This is the case when a PS/CS RAB already exists
and a CS/PS RAB is set up in addition to it (for the
same RRC connection).
M1001C702 RAB_ACT_COMP_AMR_PSNRT
The number of RAB active completions and active
releases for the multi-RAB combination "CS AMR + 1
PS NRT". Counter updated when RAB active is
completed for the RAB type in question.
Also RAB active releases due to SRNC Relocation,
Inter-system handover, Inter-RNC hard handover and
pre-emption update this counter.
M1001C703 RAB_ACT_FAIL_AMR_PSNRT
The number of RAB active failures for multi RAB
combination "CS AMR + PS NRT". Counter updated
when one of the RAB in the multi RAB combination in
question fails in the active phase of the call.

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Example: MultiRab KPIs

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Content
KPI examples
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22

Accessibility
Retainability (Drop Rate)
Usage
Mobility
Quality

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SHO success rate


UE

Node B

RNC

RRC: Measurement Report (e1a / e1c)


Decision to
setup new RL
NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request for Soft Handover
NBAP: Radio Link Addition Request for Soft Handover
Start TX/RX
NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP: Radio Link Addition Response
ALCAP : ERQ
ALCAP : ECF

RRC: Active Set Update


RRC: Active Set Update Complete

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SHO
success
rate

SHO success rate

SHO_succes s_rate =

successful _active_se t_updates


addition_r equests_1a + drop_reque sts_1b + replacement_requests _1c

KPI checks reliability of SHO only

Problems like cell overlap or specific adjacencies discussed later

Attempt and success counted in all source cells

CELL A

CELL C

CELL B

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SHO success rate

RNC_153b SHO SR, RT


RNC_192b SHO SR, NRT

RNC_195a_S HOsuccessr ate% =

100 * sum(SUCC_U PDATES_ON_ SHO_FOR_RT + SUCC_UPDAT ES_ON_SHO_ FOR_NRT)


sum(CELL_A DD_REQ_ON_ SHO_FOR_RT + CELL_REPL_ REQ_ON_SHO _FOR_RT
+ CELL_DEL_R EQ_ON_SHO_ FOR_RT + CELL_ADD_R EQ_ON_SHO_ FOR_NRT
+ CELL_REPL_ REQ_ON_SHO _FOR_NRT + CELL_DEL_R EQ_ON_SHO_ FOR_NRT)

UE

Node B

RNC

RRC: Measurement Report (e1a / e1c)


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Decision to
setup new RL
NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request for Soft Handover
NBAP: Radio Link Addition Request for Soft Handover
Start TX/RX
NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP: Radio Link Addition Response

SUCC_UPDAT ES_ON_SHO
CELL_ADD_R EQ_ON_SHO +
CELL_DEL_R EQ_ON_SHO +
CELL_REPL_ REQ_ON_SHO

Number of successful AS
update for the cell under
observation
Total number of not periodical
measurement report (1A, 1B, 1C)
received by the cell under
observation

ALCAP : ERQ
ALCAP : ECF

RRC: Active Set Update


RRC: Active Set Update Complete

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UPDATED FOR ALL THE CELLS WITHIN as


WHEN MEAS. REPORT IS RECEIVED

Example: SHO attempts and success for RT & NRT

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Content
KPI examples
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27

Accessibility
Retainability (Drop Rate)
Usage
Mobility
Quality (Throughput & Efficiency)

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Throughput measurement overview


cell throughput
HSPA throughput sent / received by RNC on DL / UL per cell
(cell throughput measurements M1023) (e.g. RNC_608c, RNC_739d)
Idea:

HSDPA MAC - d Average Throughput at RNC =

HSUPA MAC - es Average Throughput at RNC =

HS_DSCH_DA TA_VOL 8
1000 PERIOD_DUR ATION 60

NRT_EDCH_HSDPA_UL_DATA_VOL 8
1000 PERIOD_DURATION 60

Transmission of MAC-d / MAC-es PDUs over HS-DSCH / E-DCH


Counter give data volume in byte
KPI give throughput in Kbit/s

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