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1. Why Rankine cycle is modified?

The work obtained at the end of the expansion is very less. The work is too inadequate to
overcome the friction. Therefore the adiabatic expansion is terminated at the point before the end
of the expansion in the turbine and pressure decreases suddenly, while the volume remains
constant.
2. Name the various vapour power cycle.
Carnot cycle and Rankine cycle.

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3. Define efficiency ratio.


The ratio of actual cycle efficiency to that of the ideal cycle efficiency is termed as efficiency
ratio.
4. Define overall efficiency.
It is the ratio of the mechanical work to the energy supplied in the fuel. It is also defined as the
product of combustion efficiency and the cycle efficiency.
5. Define specific steam consumption of an ideal Rankine cycle.
It is defined as the mass flow of steam required per unit power output.
6. Name the different components in steam power plant working on Rankine cycle.
Boiler, Turbine, Cooling Tower or Condenser and Pump.
7. What are the effects of condenser pressure on the Rankine Cycle?
By lowering the condenser pressure, we can increase the cycle efficiency. The main
disadvantage is lowering the back pressure in release the wetness of steam. Isentropic
compression of a very wet vapour is very difficult.
8. Mention the improvements made to increase the ideal efficiency of Rankine cycle.
1. Lowering the condenser pressure.
2. Superheated steam is supplied to the turbine.
3. Increasing the boiler pressure to certain limit.
4. Implementing reheat and regeneration in the cycle.
9. Why reheat cycle is not used for low boiler pressure?
At the low reheat pressure the heat cycle efficiency may be less than the Rankine cycle
efficiency.
Since the average temperature during heating will then be low.
10. What are the disadvantages of reheating?
Reheating increases the condenser capacity due to increased dryness fraction, increases the cost
of the plant due to the reheats and its very long connections.
11. What are the advantages of reheat cycle?
1. It increases the turbine work.
2. It increases the heat supply.
3. It increases the efficiency of the plant.
4. It reduces the wear on the blade because of low moisture content in LP state of the
turbine.
12. Define latent heat of evaporation or Enthalpy of evaporation.
The amount of heat added during heating of water up to dry steam from boiling point is known
as Latent heat of evaporation or enthalpy of evaporation.
13. Explain the term super heated steam and super heating.
The dry steam is further heated its temperature raises, this process is called as superheating and
the steam obtained is known as superheated steam.

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14. Explain heat of super heat or super heat enthalpy.


The heat added to dry steam at 100oC to convert it into super heated steam at the temperature
Tsup is called as heat of superheat or super heat enthalpy.
15. Explain the term critical point, critical temperature and critical pressure.
In the T-S diagram the region left of the waterline, the water exists as liquid. In right of the dry
steam line, the water exists as a super heated steam. In between water and dry steam line the
water exists as a wet steam. At a particular point, the water is directly converted into dry steam
without formation of wet steam. The point is called critical point. The critical temperature is the
temperature above which a substance cannot exist as a liquid; the critical temperature of water is
374.15oC. The corresponding pressure is called critical pressure.
16. Define dryness fraction (or) what is the quality of steam?
It is defined as the ratio of mass of the dry steam to the mass of the total steam.
17. Define enthalpy of steam.
It is the sum of heat added to water from freezing point to saturation temperature and the heat
absorbed during evaporation.
18. How do you determine the state of steam?
If V>vg then super-heated steam, V= vg then dry steam and V< vg then wet steam.
19. Define triple point.
The triple point is merely the point of intersection of sublimation and vapourisation curves.
20. Define heat of vapourisation.
The amount of heat required to convert the liquid water completely into vapour under this
condition is called the heat of vapourisation.
21. Explain the terms, Degree of super heat, degree of sub-cooling.
The difference between the temperature of the superheated vapour and the saturation temperature
at the same pressure. The temperature between the saturation temperature and the temperature in
the sub cooled region of liquid.
22. What is the purpose of reheating?
The purpose of reheating is to increase the dryness fraction of the steam passing out of the later
stages of the turbine.
23. What are the processes that constitute a Rankine cycle?
Process 12: Isentropic expansion of the working fluid through the turbine from saturated vapor
at state 1 to the condenser pressure.
Process 23: Heat transfer from the working fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the
condenser with saturated liquid at state 3.
Process 34: Isentropic compression in the pump to state 4 in the compressed liquid region.
Process 41: Heat transfer to the working fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the boiler
to complete the cycle.

ME 6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


UNIT III QUESTION BANK

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1. A vessel of volume 0.04m3 contains a mixture of saturated water and steam at a


temperature of 2500 C. The mass of the liquid present is 9 kg. Find the pressure, mass,
specific volume, enthalpy, entropy and internal energy.
(8)
(May/June 2003, Nov/Dec 2012)
3
2. A rigid tank of 0.03m capacity contains wet vapour at 80 kPa. If the wet vapour mass
is 12kg, calculate the heat added and the quality of the mixture when the pressure
inside the tank reaches 7 Mpa.
(Nov/ Dec 2005)
3
3. 3 kg of steam at 18bar occupy a volume of 0.2550m . During a constant volume
process, the heat rejected is 1320kJ. Determine final internal energy and final initial
dryness and work done.
(May/June 2008)
0
4. Steam initially at 0.3Mpa, 250 C is cooled at constant volume. At what temperature
will the steam become saturated vapour? What is the quality at 80 0C.Also find what is
the heat transferred per kg of steam in cooling from 2500 C to 800C.
(12)
(Nov / Dec 2013)
o
5. Ten kg of water of 45 C is heated at a constant pressure of 10 bars until it becomes
superheated vapour at 3000C. Find the changes in volume, enthalpy, internal energy
and entropy.
(May / June 2005 )
0
3
6. 2 kg of water at 200 C are contained in a 20m vessel. Determine the pressure,
enthalpy, mass and volume of vapor within the vessel.
(8)
(May / June 2007)
0
7. Steam at 30 bar and 350 C is expanded in a non flow isothermal process to a pressure
of 1 bar. The temperature and pressure of the surroundings are 250C and 100 kPa
respectively. Determine the maximum work that can be obtained from this process per
kg of steam. Also find the maximum useful work.
(10)
(May/June 2013)
8. 1 kg of steam initially dry saturated at 1.1 MPa expands in a cylinder following the
law pv1.13= C. The pressure at the end of expansion is 0.1MPa. Determine: (i) The
final volume (ii) final dryness fraction (iii) work done (iv) The change in internal
energy (v) the heat transferred.
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2006)
0
9. Steam at a pressure of 15bar and 250 C expands according to the law pV1.25=C to a
pressure of 1.5 bar. Evaluate the final conditions, work done, heat transfer and change
in entropy. The mass of the system is 0.8kg.
(Nov/Dec 2008)
10. In steam generator compressed water at 10 MPa, 300C enters a 30 mm diameter tube
at the rate of 3 litres /sec. Steam at 9 MPa and 4000C exit the tube. Find the rate of
heat transfer.
(8)
(Nov/Dec 2003, May/June 2012)
11. Steam at 0.8 MPa, 2500C and flowing at the rate of 1 kg/s passes into a pipe carrying
wet steam at 0.8 MPa, 0.95 dry. After adiabatic mixing the flow rate is 2.3 kg/s.
Determine the properties of the steam after mixing.
(Nov/Dec 2004)

V.ANBARASAN, AP/MECH

ME 6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


UNIT III QUESTION BANK
12. A vessel having a capacity of 0.05 m3 contains a mixture of saturated water and
saturated steam at a temperature of 2450C. The mass of the liquid present is 10 kg.
find the following
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

The pressure,
The mass,
The specific volume
The specific enthalpy,
The specific entropy, and
The specific internal energy.

(16)
(May/June 2014)
13. Steam flows steadily through a turbine with a mass flow rate of 3 kg/sec. the steam is
at 70 bar and 5000C while entering the turbine and at 0.2 bar on leaving the turbine.
The expansion process may be considered as isentropic. Determine the turbine output
power.
(May/June 2004)

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14. Steam expands in a nozzle from 1 MPa, 2500C to 10 kPa, the flow rate being 1 kg/sec.
determine the velocity of steam at the exit of the nozzle and the exit area of the
nozzle. The steam velocity at the inlet to the nozzle may be ignored.
(May/June 2004)
0
15. Two streams of steam, one at 2 MPa, 300 C and the other at 2 MPa, 4000C, mix in a
steady flow adiabatic process. The rates of flow of the two streams are 3 kg/min and 2
kg/min respectively. Evaluate the final temperature of the emerging steam, if there is
no pressure drop due to the mixing process. What would be the rate of increase in the
entropy of the universe? This steam with negligible velocity now expands
adiabatically in a nozzle to a pressure of 1 kPa. Determine the exit velocity of the
stream and exit area of the nozzle.
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2011)
3
16. A 0.5 m vessel contains 10 kg refrigerant 134a at -20C. Determine the pressure, the
total internal energy and the volume occupied by the liquid phase.
(6)
(Nov/Dec 2010)
17. A rigid tank with a volume of 2.5 m3 contains 15 kg of saturated liquid vapour
mixture of water at 75C. Now the water is slowly heated. Determine the temperature
at which the liquid in the tank is completely vaporized. Also, show the processes on
T-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.
(10)
(Nov/Dec 2010)
18. Steam flows through a small turbine at the rate of 5000 kg/h entering at 15 bar, 3000C
and leaving at 0.1bar with 4% moisture. The steam enters at 80m/s at a point 2 m
above the discharge and leaves at 40m/s. compute the shaft power assuming that the
device is adiabatic but considering kinetic and potential energies. Calculate the
diameters of the inlet and discharge tubes.
(8)
(May/June 2010)
19. Steam expands isentropically in a nozzle from 1 MPa, 2500C to 10 kPa. The steam
flow rate is 1 kg/s. find the velocity of steam at the exit from the nozzle, and the exit
area of the nozzle. Neglect the velocity of steam at inlet to the nozzle. The exhaust
steam from the nozzle flows in a condenser and flows out as saturated water. The
V.ANBARASAN, AP/MECH

ME 6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


UNIT III QUESTION BANK

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cooling water enters the condenser at 250C and leaves at 350C. Determine the mass
flow rate.
(8)
(May/June 2010)
20. In a closed vessel the 100 kg of steam at 100 kPa, 0.5 dry is to be brought to a
pressure of 1000 kPa inside vessel. Determine the mass of dry saturated steam
admitted at 2000 kPa for raising pressure. Also determine the final quality.
(16)
(May/June 2011)
21. A steam power plant running on Rankine cycle has steam entering HP turbine at 20
MPa, 5000C and leaving LP turbine at 90% dryness. Considering condenser pressure
of 0.005 MPa and reheating occurring up to the temperature of 5000C determine,
(i) The pressure at which steam leaves HP turbine
(ii) The thermal efficiency.
(iii) Work done.
(16)
(May/June 2011)
22. In a Rankine cycle, the steam at inlet to turbine is saturated at a pressure of 35 bar and
the exhaust pressure is 0.2 bar. The flow rate of steam is 9.5 kg/s. Determine (1) the
pump work (2) the turbine work (3) Rankine efficiency (4) condenser heat flow (5)
work ratio and (6) specific steam consumption.
(10)
(Nov/Dec 2011)
23. Steam at a pressure of 2.5 MPa and 500C is expanded in a steam turbine to a
condenser pressure of 0.05 MPa. Determine for Rankine cycle:
(i) The thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle
(ii) Specific steam consumption.
If the steam pressure is reduced to 1 MPa and the temperature is kept same 500C.
Determine the thermal efficiency and the specific steam consumption. Neglect feed
pump work,
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2006)
24. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the
turbine at 3 MPa and 623 K and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa.
Determine (i) the thermal efficiency of this power plant, (ii) the thermal efficiency if
steam is superheated to 873 K instead of 623 K, and (iii) the thermal efficiency if the
boiler pressure is raised to 15 MPa while the turbine inlet temperature is maintained at
873 K.
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2009)
25. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle. Steam
enters the high-pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 873 K and is condensed in the
condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. If the moisture content of the steam at the exit of
the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent, determine (i) the pressure at
which the steam should be reheated and (ii) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the high-pressure turbine.
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2009)
26. Consider a steam power plant that operates on a reheat Rankine cycle and has a net
power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure turbine at 10 MPa and 500C
and the low-pressure turbine at 1 MPa and 500C. Steam leaves the condenser as a
saturated liquid at a pressure of 10 kPa. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 80
percent, and that of the pump is 95 percent. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with
respect to saturation lines, and determine
(i) The quality (or temperature, if superheated) of the steam at the turbine exit,
V.ANBARASAN, AP/MECH

ME 6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


UNIT III QUESTION BANK
(ii) The thermal efficiency of the cycle, and
(iii) The mass flow rate of the steam.

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(16)
(Nov/Dec 2010)
27. A steam boiler generates steam at 30bar, 3000C at the rate of 2kg/s. this steam is
expanded isentropically in a turbine to a condenser pressure of 0.05bar, condensed at
constant pressure and pumped back to boiler.
(i)
Draw the schematic arrangement of the above plant and T-S diagram
of Rankine cycle.
(ii)
Find heat supplied in the boiler per hour.
(iii) Determine the quality of steam after expansion.
(iv)
What is the power generated by the turbine?
(v)
Estimate the Rankine efficiency considering pump work.
(May/June 2004)
28. A cyclic steam power plant is to be designed for a steam temperature at turbine inlet
of 633K and an exhaust pressure of 8kPa. After isentropic expansion of steam in the
turbine, the moisture content at the turbine exhaust is not to exceed 15%. Determine
the greatest allowable steam pressure at the turbine inlet, and calculate the Rankine
cycle efficiency for these steam conditions. Estimate also the mean temperature of
heat addition.
(16)
(Nov/Dec 2007)
29. Steam at 20bar, 3600C is expanded in a steam turbine to 0.08bar. It then enters a
condenser, where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. The pump feeds back the
water into the boiler.
(i)
Assuming ideal processes find the net-work and the cycle efficiency per kg of
steam.
(ii)
If the pump and the turbine have 80% efficiency, find the percentage reduction
in the net-work and cycle efficiency.
(8)
(May/June 2012)
30. In a steam power plant operating on an ideal reheat Rankine cycle, the steam enters
the high-pressure turbine at 3MPa and 4000C. After expansion to 0.6 MPa, the steam
is reheated to 4000C and then expanded the low-pressure turbine to the condenser
pressure of 10kPa. Determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the quality of the
steam at the outlet of the low pressure turbine.
(Nov/Dec 2002)
31. In a thermal power plant operating on a Rankine cycle, superheated steam at 50 bar
and 5000C enters a turbine, the isentropic efficiency of which is 0.8. The condenser
pressure is 0.05 bar and it delivers saturated liquid to a feed pump, the isentropic
efficiency of which is 0.7. Determine the thermal efficiency of the power plant and
the mass flow rate of steam required for 50 MW net power generation.
(8)
(May/June 2010)
32. A reheat cycle operating between 30 and 0.04bar has a superheat and reheat
temperature of 4500C. The first expansion takes place till the steam is dry saturated
and then reheat is given. Neglecting feed pump work. Determine the ideal cycle
efficiency.
(Nov/Dec2003)
33. A steam power plant operates on a theoretical reheat cycle. Steam at boiler at 150 bar,
5500C expands through the high pressure turbine. It is reheated at a constant pressure
of 40bar to 5500C and expands through the low pressure turbine to a condenser at 0.1
bars. Draw T-s and h-s diagrams. Find :
(i)
Quality of steam at turbine exhaust
V.ANBARASAN, AP/MECH

ME 6301- ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS


UNIT III QUESTION BANK
(ii)
(iii)

Cycle efficiency
Steam rate in kg/kWh.

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(16)
(May/June2004, May/June 2014)
34. In a reheat steam cycle, the maximum steam temperature is limited to 773K. The
condenser pressure is 10kPa and the quality at turbine exhaust is 0.8778. Had there
been no reheat, the exhaust quality would have been 0.7592. Assuming ideal
processes, determine (i) reheat pressure (ii) the boiler pressure (iii) the cycle
efficiency (iv) the steam rate.
(16)
(Nov/Dec2007)
35. In a regenerative cycle, the steam pressure at turbine inlet is 30bar and the exhaust is
at 0.04bar. The steam is initially saturated. Enough steam is bled off at the optimum
pressure of 3bar to heat the feed water. Determine the cycle efficiency. Neglect pump
work.
(Nov/Dec2003)
36. In a single heater regenerative cycle the steam enters the turbine at 30bar and 400 0C
and the turbine exhaust pressure is 0.10bar. The condensate is heated in a direct
contact type heater which operates at 5bar. Find the efficiency and the steam rate of
the cycle and the increase in mean temperature of heat addition, efficiency and steam
rate as compared to the Rankine cycle. Neglect pump work.
(May/June2004)
37. Steam enters the turbine at 3MPa and 4000C and is condensed at 10kPa. Some
quantity of steam leaves the turbine at 0.6MPa and enters open feed water heater.
Compute the fraction of the steam extracted per kg of steam and cycle thermal
efficiency.
(10)
(Nov/Dec2005, Nov/Dec2012)
38. In an ideal reheat cycle, the steam enters the turbine at 30bar and 5000C. After
expansion to 5bar, the steam is reheated to 5000C and then expanded to the condenser
pressure of 0.1 bar. Determine the cycle thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam.
Take power output as 100 MW.
(10)
(May/June2007)
39. Steam at 50bar, 4000C expands in a Rankine cycle to 0.34 bar. For a mass flow rate of
150 kg/s of steam, determine
(i)
Power developed
(ii)
Thermal efficiency
(iii) Specific steam consumption.
(8)
(May/June 2013)
39. Steam at 4800C, 90 bar is supplied to a Rankine cycle. It is reheated to 12bar and
4800C. The minimum pressure is 0.07 bar. Find the work output and cycle efficiency
using steam tables with and without considering pump work.
(16)
(Nov / Dec 2013)

V.ANBARASAN, AP/MECH