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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER
NO.

TITLE

PAGE

a.

ABSTRACT

b.

LIST OF TABLE

d.

LIST OF FIGURES

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.
3.

Properties of Fuels

10

METHODES OF OBTAINING HYDROGEN

11

3.1.

Steam reforming

11

3.2.

Partial fossil fuel oxidation with defect of O2

11

3.3.

Electrolysis of water

12

3.4.

Biomass

12

3.5.

Photo biologic production

13

3.6.

Hydrogen production on board the vehicle

13

3.7.

Biomass to hydrogen

14

4.

HYDROGEN FROM SPLITTING OF WATER

15

4.1.

Water electrolysis

15

4.2.

Alkaline electrolysis

15

4.3.

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis

16

4.4.

High-temperature electrolysis

17

4.5.

Photo-electrolysis (photolysis)

18

4.6.

Photo-biological production (biophotolysis)

19

4.7.
5.

Thermo-chemical water splitting


HYDROGEN HANDLING PRINCIPLES

5.1.

Use Of Inherent Safety Features


a.

Hazards Elimination

b.

Barriers

c.

Safety Systems

d.

Safe Interface

5.2.

6.

Controls

21
22
22

23

a.

Warning Systems

b.

Flow Controls

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


(ICE) FUNDAMENTALS
6.1.
Spark Ignition Engine

24

6.2.

25

7.

Spark Ignition (SI) Engine Operation


PRINCIPLE OF CARBURETION

24

27

7.1.

The Simple Carburetor

28

7.2.

Compensating Devices

30

7.2.1.

Air-Bleed Jet

30

7.2.2.

Emulsion Tube

30

7.2.3.

Compensating Jet

31

7.2.4.

Back Suction Control Mechanism

31

7.2.5.

Auxiliary Valve

32

7.2.6.

Auxiliary Port

32

8.

ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR SI ENGINES

33

8.1.

Alcohol for SI Engines

35

8.2.

Hydrogen

36

8.3.

Natural gas

37

8.4.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

38

8.5.
9.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)


EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND

39
40

PROCEDURE
9.1.

Experimental setup

40

9.2.

HHO Gas Kit

40

9.3.

HHO Cell

41

9.4.

Pulse with Modulator

43

9.5.

SI engine

43

9.6.

Engine Specification

44

9.7.

Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis

44

10.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

45

10.1.

Working principal of HHO generater

45

10.2.

HOW HHO WORK IN ENGINE

46

11.

RESULT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

47

12.

CONCLUSION

51

13.

REFERENCES

52

ABSTRACT
Brown's gas (HHO) has recently been introduced to the auto industry as
a new source of energy. The present work proposes the design of a new device
attached to the engine to integrate an HHO production system with the gasoline
engine. The proposed HHO generating device is compact and can be installed in
the engine compartment. This auxiliary device was integrated and tested on a
gasoline engine. Four stroke single cylinder engine was procured for the project.
Experiment setup were designed and fabricated. HHO gas kit was installed with
engine. Emission analysis has been done by using Petrol and Petrol-HHO
separately on engine. It has been found that around 20% reduction in fuel
consumption is achieved by using petrol-HHO and appreciable amount of
reduction in emission of pollutants such as CO, unburned hydro carbons and
CO2 particularly during the idle condition.

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Properties of Fuels
Table 2 :Performance of engine with and without HHO

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1:Process diagram of alkaline electrolysis Electricity
Fig 2: Photo-electrolysis
Fig 3: Principle of photo-biological hydrogen production
Fig 4 : 4 Stroke operating cycle
Fig 5: Simple Carburetor
Fig 6 :Schematic diagram showing the fuel cell installed on the engine
Fig 7 : HHO Cell
Fig 8 : working of hho generater
Fig 9 : Schematic sketch of the engine chemical reactions
Fig 10 : The Relation of Engine Speed (RPM) & CO(%)
Fig 11 : The Relation of Engine Speed (RPM) & HC (ppm)
Fig 12 : Engine Speed (PPM) & CO2(%)
Fig 13 : The Relation of Engine Speed (RPM) & O2 (%)

1. INTRODUCTION
Global warming is considered one of the major problems the scientific
community has to face. Many theories refer to the increase of exhaust gases
concentration in the atmosphere as one of the major causes of the global
warming. Industrial plants and automobiles are the major source of the
exhaust gases. Since they utilize the power associated with oil combustion as
energy source. Emissions are simply the exhaust or leftovers of combustion
coming out of an engine. An emissions test is normally done with a probe
placed into the exhaust stream. The emission sampler, which is known as gas
analyzers, measures five types of gases. These gases are HC, NOX, O2, CO,
and CO2. HC which refers to hydrocarbons, are simply another term for
unburned fuel that makes it way through the engine and out the exhaust.
Smog intensity is proportional to the amount of HC's in the exhaust. HC's is
also considered hazardous when inhaled. NOx refers to oxides of Nitrogen.
High NO emission is usually noticed with highly heated and compressed air
that has nitrogen in it.NOX is another bad emission to breath at high levels.
O2 which is unburned oxygen in the exhaust is also measured. Although O2
is obviously not bad, it is tested to better understand the combustion
characteristics.

Many things can produce high HC's such as advanced timing, and bad
catalytic converter. NOx is generally worse on higher compression engines.
All engines produce NOx but the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
(EGR) valves will cool and slow down the combustion rate of the engine.
This considerably lowers NOX values.
CO has to do with the efficiency of the combustion in the engine and also
is highly affected by the fuel to air ratio of the engine. CO 2 is also an
6

indicator of the engines set up. The HC's and NOx are by far the largest
problem areas. Catalytic converters clean the majority of the emissions and
need to be replaced when they break internally causing a loss in power and no
longer effective.
A shift in scientist's interests, recently observed, toward lower fuel
consumption and emission engines take place. This encourages researchers to
seek for alternative solutions to be used in engines without the need for a
dramatic change in the vehicle design. Among those using H 2 as an
alternative fuel which enhances the engine efficiency and runs with almost
zero pollution effect. However, this is not a viable solution from a
commercial point view. Building a system that generates H 2 and integrated it
with the engine system makes the manufacturing cost too expensive, which
reflects on the vehicle market price. Other researchers use a blend show that
mixing H2 with natural gas enhances the combustion efficiency and reduces
the emissions level. They refer this to the shorter flame development and
propagation periods associated with the case where H 2 was used. Studied the
effect of HHO gas addition on spark ignition engines. His results showed
significant enhancements in the emission performance due to the presence of
HHO .
The main objective of the present study is to introduce some of the
hydrogen advantages and maintain the original specifications of the engine.
This may be attained by introducing HHO cell to the fuel supplying system.
So, the fuel becomes a mixture of gasoline and HHO gas. A compact unit for
generating HHO gas has been designed to fit the engine requirement and to
be installed in the engine room.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Most early engine experiments have been designed for burning a variety
of gases, including natural gas and propane. When hydrogen is used in these
engines it may backfire. Since hydrogen burns faster than other fuels, the fuelair mixture is ignited in the intake manifold before the intake valve closes.
Injected water controls the backfiring. Hydrogen gives less power than gasoline
with or without the water.

There have been many investigations on hydrogen-enriched combustion


in ICEs. Rudolf A. Erren has made practical the hydrogen-fueled engine in the
1920s and converted over 1,000 engines. His projects have included trucks and
buses. After World War II the allies have discovered a submarine converted by
Erren to hydrogen power. Even the torpedoes have been hydrogen powered
(Erren and Campbell, 1933).
Since World War I hydrogen and pure oxygen have been considered for
submarine use because the crew can get drinkable water from the exhaust.
Hydrogen has been also considered for use in powering airship engines. The gas
used for buoyancy has also been used for fuel. Even if helium has been used to
provide lift, hydrogen gas can be used to supply additional buoyancy if stored at
low pressure in a light container (King and Rand, 1955).

Stebar and Parks investigated the


effects of hydrogen-supplemented fuel on
emission control with lean operation and the
test results demonstrated that with small
additions of hydrogen to the fuel, very low
NOx and CO emissions were achieved for
hydrogen-isooctane mixtures leaner than
equivalence ratio of 0.55. Also, significant
thermal efficiency improvements resulted
8

from the extension beyond isooctane lean


limit operation (Stebar and Parks, 1974).

Cunningham et al. made researches on method and apparatus for


enhancing combustion in an ICE through electrolysis and produced hydrogen
along with oxygen yielded enhanced combustion at low engine loads for all
types of engines (Cunningham et al., 1992).
The Laboratory of Transport Technology (University of Gent, Belgium)
has specialized in alternative fuels for the past 10 years or so. Natural gas, LPG,
hythane and hydrogen have been the subject of extended research. In a first
stage, a Valmet 420D engine, a natural aspirated diesel engine with direct
injection has been converted to a SI engine for the use of hydrogen. This engine
has been used mainly for the development of a multipoint timed injection
system and the study of different types of electromagnetic gas injectors
(Sierens, 1998).
Dulger and Ozcelik experimentally studied on fuel economy
improvement by on board electrolytic hydrogen production kit which could be
installed on different vehicles of various types and sizes of engines. Test results
under city traffic conditions showed that the fuel consumption for the Volvo 940
dropped to 6l /100 km from 10.51 /100 km, a reduction of 43% in fuel
consumption. It was 36% for
Mercedes 280 (Dulger and Ozcelik, 2000).
The fuel induction systems have been developed and designed to provide
two intake paths; one for hydrogen and one for air. The fuel and air are kept
separate until entering the cylinder to prevent backfiring (Peavey, 2003).

10

2.1. Properties of Fuels

Property
Chemical Formula
Molecular Weight

No. 2
Diesel
Fuel
C3 to C25
=200

Compresse
d Natural
Gas (CNG)
CH4
16.04

Hydrogen
H2
2.02(x)

8487
3316
0
6.77.4(d)

75
25

1.07(r)

0
100
0

0.37
0.44(3,p)
-45(b)
495(b)

2.64.1

165(d)
=600

-300
1,004

-1,050
1,080(u)

1.4(b)
7.6(b)

1
6

5.3
15

4.1(u)
74(u)

Gasoline
C4 to C12
100
105(a)
85-88(b)
1215(b)
0
6.06.5(b)

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Density, lb/gal @ 60 F
Viscosity
Centipoise @ 60 F
Flash point, closed cup, F
Autoignition temperature,
F
Flammability limits,
volume %
Lower
Higher

Table 1: Properties of Fuels

11

3. METHODES OF OBTAINING HYDROGEN


At the present time, 95% of the hydrogen is obtained from fossil fuels.
However, there are different ways in which it is obtained. The most significant
one are to be commented.
3.1. Steam reforming

Hydrogen is obtained from hydrocarbons, fundamentally from the natural


gas. The main component of natural gas is methane CH4 and the reaction
basically consists in separating carbon from hydrogen.
The process takes place in two stages: In the initial phase, the natural gas
becomes hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The second stage
consists of producing additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the carbon
monoxide produced during the first stage. The carbon monoxide is heated with a
steam current to high temperature obtaining hydrogen and dioxide carbon.
Resulting hydrogen is stored in tanks.
Most of hydrogen used by the petrochemical industry it is generated this
way. The process has efficiency between 70 and 90%. The following global
reaction represents the process:
CH4 + H2O => CO + 3 H2 CO + H2O => CO2 + H2
3.2. Partial fossil fuel oxidation with defect of O2
A hydrogen mixture is obtained that later is purified. The amounts of
oxygen and water steam are controlled so that the gasificacion continues with

12

no need of energy contribution. The following global reaction represents the


process:
1'4 CH + 0'3 H2O + 0'4 O2

=> 0'9 CO + 0,1 CO2

3.3. Electrolysis of water


The passage of the electrical current through water produces dissociation
between hydrogen and oxygen, components of the molecule of water H2O. The
hydrogen takes shelter in the cathode (pole loaded negatively) and oxygen in the
anode. The process is much more expensive that the reformed with steam, but it
produces hydrogen of great purity. This hydrogen is used in the electronic
industry, pharmaceutics or nourishing.
H2O + Power => H2 + V O2
Photo electrolysis is a similar process where electrical current comes from sun
energy.

3.4. Biomass
Biomass can be used as a source for hydrogen by two different
procedures.
Gasification of biomass: biomass is put under to a process of incomplete
combustion between 700 and 1200C. The resulting product is a fuel gas
composed fundamentally by hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide.

13

Pyrolysis: It is the incomplete combustion of biomass in oxygen absence,


at 500C. vegetal coal and gas mixture of carbon monoxide and dioxide,
hydrogen and light hydrocarbons are obtained.
3.5. Photo biologic production
For example, cianobacterium and green seaweed can produce hydrogen,
using only solar light, water and hydrogenasa like an enzyme. At the moment,
this technology is in period of investigation and development with efficiencies
of conversion superior to 24%. More than 400 varieties of primitive plants have
been identified to produce hydrogen.
3.6. Hydrogen production on board the vehicle
Hydrogen on board production out of methanol fuel for its consumption
in situ seems to be the most suitable alternative. The hydrogen can be obtained
by three different catalytic routes:
Partial oxidation with oxygen or air: CH3OH + Vi 02 => C02 + 2 H2
Reformed with water steam: CH3OH + H20 => C02 + 3 H2 Decomposition:
CH3OH => C O + 2 H 2
Hydrogen on board production out of ethanol fuel, where the following reaction
takes place:
CH3CH2OH + 3H2O => CO + CO2 + 6H2
In this case carbon monoxide is produced, which is a poison of the
membrane of proton interchange of the fuel batteries.
The production of hydrogen from the primary matter (hydrocarbons or water)
needs important amounts of energy. The investigation is centred now in
14

knowing if the use of renewable energies without carbon is possible: to obtain


hydrogen of the water from photovoltaic, geothermal or hydraulic energy.
3.7. BIOMASS TO HYDROGEN
In biomass conversion processes, a hydrogen-containing gas is normally
produced in a manner similar to the gasification of coal, as in equation (2.4).
However, no commercial plants exist to produce hydrogen from biomass.
Currently, the pathways followed are steam gasification (direct or indirect),
entrained flow gasification, and more advanced concepts such as gasification in
supercritical water, application of thermo-chemical cycles, or the conversion of
intermediates (e.g. ethanol, bio-oil or torrified wood). None of the concepts
have reached a demonstration phase for hydrogen production.
Biomass gasification is an R&D area shared between H2 production and
biofuels production. Gasification and pyrolysis are considered the most
promising medium-term technologies for the commercialisation of H2
production from biomass. A typical flow sheet for the production of hydrogen
from biomass is presented in Figure 8. In terms of its energy requirements, the
drying of biomass might not be justifiable; therefore, other pathways based on
wet biomass are being sought as well.

15

4. HYDROGEN FROM SPLITTING OF WATER


Hydrogen can be produced from the splitting of water through various
processes. This paper briefly discusses water electrolysis, photo-electrolysis,
photo-biological production and high-temperature water decomposition.
4.1. Water electrolysis
Water electrolysis is the process whereby water is split into hydrogen and
oxygen through the application of electrical energy, as in equation (3.1). The
total energy that is needed for water electrolysis is increasing slightly with
temperature, while the required electrical energy decreases. A high-temperature
electrolysis process might, therefore, be preferable when high-temperature heat
is available as waste heat from other processes. This is especially important
globally, as most of the electricity produced is based on fossil energy sources
with relatively low efficiencies. Future potential costs for electrolytic hydrogen
are presented in Figure 3, where the possibilities to considerably reduce the
production cost are evident.
H2O + electricity H2 + ^O2
4.2. Alkaline electrolysis
Alkaline electrolysers use an aqueous KOH solution (caustic) as an
electrolyte that usually circulates through the electrolytic cells. Alkaline
electrolysers are suited for stationary applications and are available at operating
pressures up to 25 bar. Alkaline electrolysis is a mature technology, with a
significant operating record in industrial applications, that allows remote
operation.
16

The following reactions take place inside the alkaline electrolysis cell:
Electrolyte: 4H2O 4H+ + 4OHCathode: 4 H+ + 4e- 2H2
Anode: 4OH- O2 + 2H2O + 4eSum: 2H2O O2 + 2H2 (3.1) (3.2) (3.3) (3.4)
Commercial electrolysers usually consist of a number of electrolytic cells
arranged in a cell stack. Alkaline electrolysers typically contain the main
components shown in Figure 4. The major R&D challenge for the future is to
design and manufacture electrolyser equipment at lower costs with higher
energy efficiency and larger turn-down ratios.
Water

Fig1:Process diagram of alkaline electrolysis Electricity


4.3. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis
The principle of PEM electrolysis is presented in equations (3.6) and
(3.7). PEM electrolysers require no liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the
design significantly. The electrolyte is an acidic polymer membrane. PEM
electrolysers can potentially be designed for operating pressures up to several

17

hundred bar, and are suited for both stationary and mobile applications. The
main drawback of this technology is the limited lifetime of the membranes. The
major advantages of PEM over alkaline electrolysers are the higher turndown
ratio1, the increased safety due to the absence of KOH electrolytes, a more
compact design due to higher densities, and higher operating pressures.
anode: H2O /2O2 + 2 H++ 2e- (3.6) cathode: 2H+ + 2e- H2
With relatively high cost, low capacity, poor efficiency and short lifetimes, the
PEM electrolysers currently available are not as mature as alkaline
electrolysers. It is expected that the performance of PEM electrolysers can be
improved significantly by additional work in materials development and cell
stack design.
4.4. High-temperature electrolysis
High-temperature electrolysis is based on technology from hightemperature fuel cells. The electrical energy needed to split water at 1000 C is
considerably less than electrolysis at 100 C. This means that a hightemperature electrolyser can operate at significantly higher overall process
efficiencies than regular low-temperature electrolysers.
A typical technology is the solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC). This
electrolyser is based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which normally
operates at 700 to 1000 C. At these temperatures, the electrode reactions are
more reversible, and the fuel cell reaction can more easily be reversed to an
electrolysis reaction.

18

Similar to the main challenges for SOFCs, the main R&D needs for
SOECs relate to materials development and thermo-mechanical stress within the
functional ceramic materials.
4.5. Photo-electrolysis (photolysis)
Photovoltaic (PV) systems coupled to electrolysers are commercially
available. The systems offer some flexibility, as the output can be electricity
from photovoltaic cells or hydrogen from the electrolyser. Direct photoelectrolysis represents an advanced alternative to a PV-electrolysis system by
combining both processes in a single apparatus. This principle is illustrated in
Figure 5. Photo-electrolysis of water is the process whereby light is used to split
water directly into hydrogen and oxygen. Such systems offer great potential for
cost reduction of electrolytic hydrogen, compared with conventional two-step
technologies.

Sensitized glass

Hydrogen
Water
Fig 2 : Photo-electrolysis
19

Material commercially exists for water splitting, tailored materials have


to be engineered. Combinatorial chemistry approaches offer fast-tracking
experimental options for the necessary materials screening, while modelling
capabilities of photo-oxidation based on quantum transition theory need to be
developed. Most important, there is a need for fundamental research on
semiconductor

doping

for

band-gap

shifting

and

surface

chemistry

modification, including studies of the associated effects on both surface and


bulk semi-conducting properties. Corrosion and photo-corrosion resistance
present further significant R&D challenges to be addressed, with most of the
promising materials options at hand. Current-matching between anode and
cathode, in addition to ohmic resistance minimisation, requires considerable
systems design as well as sophisticated engineering solutions. Optimisation of
fluid dynamics (with its effects on mass and energy transfer) and gas collection
and handling (with its effects on operational safety) will demand major
conceptual and application-specific R&D attention.
4.6. Photo-biological production (biophotolysis)
Photo-biological production of hydrogen is based on two steps:
photosynthesis (3.8) and hydrogen production catalysed by hydrogenases (3.9)
in, for example, green algae and cyanobacteria. Long-term basic and applied
research is needed in this area, but if successful, a long-term solution for
renewable hydrogen production will result. It is of vital importance to
understand the natural processes and the genetic regulations of H2 production.
Metabolic and genetic engineering may be used to demonstrate the process in
larger bioreactors. Another option is to reproduce the two steps using artificial
photosynthesis.

20

Photosynthesis: 2H2 O 4H+ + 4e-+ O2 (3.8)


Hydrogen Production: 4H+ + 4e- 2H2 (3.9)

Algae recycle
Fig3:Principle of photo-biological hydrogen production
Thermo-chemical cycles.
Hybrid systems coupling thermal decomposition and electrolytic
decomposition.
Direct catalytic decomposition of water with separation via a ceramic
membrane ("thermo-physic cycle").
Plasma-chemical decomposition of water in a double-stage CO2 cycle.
For these processes, efficiencies above 50 % can be expected and could
possibly lead to a major decrease of hydrogen production costs. The main
technical issues for these high-temperature processes relate to materials
development for corrosion resistance at high temperatures, hightemperature membrane and separation processes, heat exchangers, and
heat storage media. Design aspects and safety are also important for hightemperature processes.

21

4.7. Thermo-chemical water splitting


Thermo-chemical water splitting is the conversion of water into hydrogen
and oxygen by a series of thermally driven chemical reactions. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been known for the past 35 years. They
were extensively studied in the late 1970s and 1980s, but have been of little
interest in the past 10 years. While there is no question about the technical
feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and
high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. An example of a
thermo-chemical process is the iodine/sulphur cycle, outlined in equations
(3.10), (3.11) and (3.12) and Figure 7. For this process, the research and
development needs are to capture the thermally split H2, to avoid side reactions
and to eliminate the use of noxious substances. The corrosion problems
associated with the handling of such materials are likely to be extremely
serious.

22

5. HYDROGEN HANDLING PRINCIPLES


5.1. USE OF INHERENT SAFETY FEATURES
a. Hazards Elimination
Regardless of quantity, all hydrogen systems and operations must be
devoid of hazards by providing adequate ventilation, designing and operating to
prevent leakage, and eliminating potential ignition sources.

b. Barriers
Barriers or safeguards should be provided to minimize risks and control
failures.
c. Safety Systems
Safety systems should be installed to detect and counteract or control the
possible effects of such hazards as vessel failures, leaks and spills,
embrittlement, collisions during transportation, vaporization system failures,
ignitions, fires and explosions, cloud dispersions, and the exposure of personnel
to cryogenic or flame temperatures.

23

d. Safe Interface
A safe interface must be maintained under normal and emergency
conditions so at least two failures occur before hazardous events could lead to
personal injury, loss of life, or major equipment or property damage.
5.2. CONTROLS
a. Warning Systems
Warning systems should be installed to detect abnormal conditions,
measure malfunctions, and indicate incipient failures. Warning system data
transmissions with visible and audible signals should have sufficient
redundancy to prevent any single-point failure from disabling the system.
b. Flow Controls
Safety valving and flow regulation should be installed to adequately
respond for protection of personnel and equipment during hydrogen storage,
handling, and use.

24

6. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE)


FUNDAMENTALS
A typical ICE such as that generally used in automobiles, trucks and other
similar vehicles uses hydrocarbon fuels for combustion. It is well known that
the burning of such fuels is not one hundred percent efficient and further
produces large amount of pollutants as a byproduct of the combustion process.
6.1. Spark Ignition Engine
SI engine is one of the two most common reciprocating ICE types in
current use. Basic SI engines have not fundamentally changed since the early
1900s with the possible exception of the introduction of the Wankel rotary SI
engine in the 1960s. However, major advances in the areas of materials,
manufacturing processes, electronic controls, and computer aided design have
led to significant improvements in dependability, longevity, thermal efficiency,
and emissions during the past decade. Electronic controls, in particular, have
played a major role in efficiency gains in SI automotive engines through
improved control of the fuel injection and ignition systems that control the
combustion process. Electronic control of diesel fuel injection systems is also
becoming more common and is producing improvements in diesel emissions
and fuel economy.

25

6.2. Spark Ignition (SI) Engine Operation


Suction:
Suction strokes starts when the piston is at the top dead center. At this
time the intake valve is open where as the exhaust valve is closed. When the
piston moves towards the bottom dead center, suction is created and fuel-air
mixture is drawn into the cylinder.
Compression:
During the return of the piston from the bottom dead center towards the
top dead center, the charge sucked during the intake stroke gets compressed.
During this stroke both valves are in open condition. At the end the mixture is
ignited with the help of a spark plug. Due to the ignition the chemical energy of
the fuel is converted into heat energy and the temperature rises to about 20000C.
Expansion:
During this stroke both the valves remain in closed position and power is
also produced.
Exhaust:
During this stroke the inlet valve remains in closed position whereas the
exhaust valve remains open. The piston moves from bottom dead center to the
top dead center and sweeps the burnt gases out of the cylinder.

26

Inlet Exhaust

(a) Intake

Inlet Exhaust

(6) Compression

Inlet Exhaust

(C) Expansion

FIG 4 : 4 Stroke operating cycle

27

Inlet Exhaust

(d) Exhaust

7. PRINCIPLE OF CARBURETION
Both air and gasoline are drawn into the cylinder due to suction pressure
created by the downward movement of the piston. In the carburetor, the air
passing into the combustion chamber picks up the fuel discharged by a fine
orifice in a tube called the carburetor jet. The rate of discharge of the fuel
depends on the pressure difference between the float chamber and the throat of
the venturi of the carburetor and the area of the outlet of the tube. In order that
the fuel is strongly atomized the suction effect must be strong and the nozzle
outlet must be comparatively small. To produce a strong suction, a restriction is
generally provided in the pipe in the carburetor carrying air to the engine. This
restriction is called throat. In this throat due to increase in the velocity of the air
the pressure is decreased and suction is created.
The venturi tube has a narrower path at the center so that the path through
air is going to travel is reduced. As same amount of air must travel must travel
through the path of the tube so the velocity of the air at the venturi is increased
and suction is created.
Usually the fuel discharge jet is located at the point where the suction is
maximum. So this is positioned just below the throat of the venturi. The spray
of the fuel from the fuel discharge jet and the air are mixed at this point of the
throat and a combustible mixture is formed. Maximum amount of fuel gets
atomized and some part gets vaporized. Due to increase in the velocity of the air
at the throat the vaporization of the fuel becomes easier.

28

7.1. The Simple Carburetor


The figure 3.1 shows a simple carburetor. It is the basic carburetor to
describe the functions of other carburetors.
The simple carburetor consists of the following basic parts.
Float chamber
Venturi
Fuel discharge nozzle
Metering orifice
Choke
Throttle valve
A constant level of fuel is maintained in the float chamber by means of a
float and needle valve system. If the fuel level falls below required level then
the float goes down and allows the fuel supply valve to open. Then the fuel
flows into the float chamber. When the designed level is reached the float again
closes the fuel supply valve and the supply of fuel is stopped.
The venturi of the carburetor is a tube of decreasing cross section area. As
the air flows through the venturi the velocity of the air increases and so the
pressure across the venturi goes on decreasing and reaches a minimum pressure
at the throat. The tip of the fuel discharge jet lies at the throat. The difference of
pressure between the throat and float chamber is known as carburetor
depression. The pressure at the throat varies from 4-5cm Hg (for fully opened
throttle) and rarely reaches 8cm Hg. To avoid overflow the tip of the discharge
tube lies at a height "h" above the throat.

29

Fig 5: Simple Carburetor

30

7.2. Compensating Devices


The automobile has to run on different roads on different loads and
conditions. The main metering system of the carburetor alone will not be able to
take care of the needs of the engines. Therefore, compensating devices are
provided. The important compensating devices are
a) Air-bleed jet
b) Emulsion Tube
c) Compensating jet
d) Back suction control mechanism
e) Auxiliary air port
f) Auxiliary air valve
7.2.1. Air-Bleed Jet
The air bleed jet is present in the main nozzle. The flow of air through the
orifice is restricted by and orifice. Initially, when the engine is not operating
both the jets are filled with fuel. When the engine starts fuel comes out from
both the nozzles but gradually t5he engine picks up and after that only air comes
out of the air-bleed jet and mixes with the fuel coming out from the main nozzle
and forms the fuel-air emulsion.
7.2.2. Emulsion Tube
The main metering is jet is generally kept 25mm below the fuel level in
the float chamber so as to avoid the overflow of the fuel. A jet is placed at the
bottom of a well having holes which are connected to the atmosphere. When the
throttle is opened fuel starts to flow from the well and the holes get uncovered
31

and the air-fuel ratio increases i.e. the richness of the mixture decreases when all
the holes get uncovered. The air is drawn through these holes and the fuel gets
emulsified and the differential of pressure across the column of fuel is not as
high as that of the simple carburetor.
7.2.3. Compensating Jet
The main purpose of the compensating jet, which is connected to a
compensating well, is to make the mixture leaner as the throttle valve opens
gradually. The compensating well is vented to the atmosphere and is also
connected to the main fuel chamber through a restricting orifice. With the
increase in air flow rate, the fuel level in the compensating well decreases so the
fuel supply rate through the compensating jet also decreases.
7.2.4. Back Suction Control Mechanism
In this device, the top of the fuel float chamber is connected to the entry
part of the body of the carburetor by means of a long vent line fitted with a
control valve. Another vent is connected from the top of the chamber to the
venturi of the throat. When the control valve is completely open then pressure at
the float chamber is same as that of the air inlet. So there lies a pressure
difference between the float chamber and the venturi and fuel from the float
chamber flows into the venturi. But when the control valve is closed the
pressure at the venturi and the float chamber are same and there is no fuel flow.
Thus by proper control of the control valve a proper differential between the
float chamber and the throat can be maintained and hence the quality of the
mixture.

32

7.2.5. Auxiliary Valve


When the engine is in idle conditions the pressure at the top of the
auxiliary valve is atmospheric. With increase in load, the vacuum at the throat
of the venturi increases. So a pressure differential is created between the throat
and the spring and this pressure difference raises the valve against the spring
force. And as a result more air flows and the mixture becomes leaner.
7.2.6. Auxiliary Port
The auxiliary port connects the air entering part above the throat with the
air leaving part below the throat by means of a long vent containing a butterfly
valve. If the butterfly valve is opened then some additional amount of air passes
through this vent and thus the flow of air across the venturi decreases.

33

8. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR SI ENGINES


Now a days there is enormous increase in the number of vehicles and
hence there is increase in demand of fuel. As after some days the quantity of
petroleum and diesel will become almost scarce and most costly. So some
countries are trying to develop new technologies to use the alternative fuels in
the vehicles.
Another reason of using the alternative fuels in the IC engines is the
raising issue of emission problems of gasoline and diesel operated vehicles.
One more reason is that a huge percentage of crude oil imported from
other oil rich countries. So it affects the economy of a country. So a
development in alternative fuel technology is much necessary.
The alternative fuel is divided into three major categories
Solid fuels
Liquid fuels
Gaseous Fuels
Now a days solid fuels are almost obsolete for Internal Combustion
engines.
Liquid fuels are best suited and they are preferred for IC engines because
they are easy to store and they have a very good calorific value. The
various liquid fuels are
1. Alcohol
2. Methanol
3. Ethanol
34

4. Reformulated gasoline
5. Water-gasoline mixture
Out of the above listed liquid fuels alcohol is the most popular and most
widely used alternative liquid fuel.
In the category of gaseous alternative fuels it is to note that gaseous fuels
are best suited for IC engines because they have almost zero physical delay.
There are very few gaseous fuels which are used as alternative fuels they are
1. Hydrogen
2. Natural gas
3. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
4. Compressed natural gas(CNG)

35

8.1. Alcohol for SI Engines


Alcohols are most attractive and mostly used alternative fuels because
they can be derived from both natural and manufactured sources. Methanol and
ethanol are two widely used alcohols. There are certain advantages and
disadvantages of alcohols and they are as follows
Advantages:
1. It is a high octane fuel having octane number of more than 100.
2. As compared to gasoline it produces less emission.
3. Burning of alcohols gives more amount of exhaust gases which leads to more
power and high pressure in the expansion stroke.
4. Alcohols are having low sulphur content in the fuel.
Disadvantages:
1. Alcohols are having very less calorific value almost half of that of gasoline.
So to produce same amount of power as that of gasoline, more than two times of
the amount of gasoline is required.
2. Combustion of alcohols produces aldehydes.
3. Alcohols are having poor ignition characteristics.
4. The flames of alcohols are almost invisible. So it is difficult to handle
alcohol. The addition of small amount of gasoline removes this danger.
5. The odor of alcohol is very offensive.

36

8.2. Hydrogen
A number of automobile companies have built engines or prototypes
which run with hydrogen. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of
using hydrogen in the engine.
Advantages:
1. As there is no carbon in the fuel so generally the exhaust contains H2O, N2
and NO2. There is complete absence of CO or HC.
2. There are so many ways of making hydrogen. One of the most important
ways is electrolysis of water.
3. The leakage of fuel into the environment is pollution free.
4. When hydrogen is stored as liquid, it has high energy content per volume.
Disadvantages
1. It requires very heavy and bulky storage units both in vehicles and service
stations.
2. It is very difficult to refuel the hydrogen tanks.
3. It has very low volumetric efficiency.
4. Its cost is very high at present day technology and availability.
5. Because of high flame temperature it gives high NOx emissions.

37

8.3. Natural gas


Natural gas is found at various depths below the earth surface. The gas is
generally under certain pressure and comes out naturally. If the gas has to be
used in the vehicle then the entrained sand must be separated from the gas. The
main constituent of natural gas is methane (CH4) and the other constituents
which are present in small amounts are ethane (C2H5), N2, CO2, He and traces
of other gases.
Advantages:
1. Its octane number is more than 100 and is around 110. This high value of
octane number makes its flame speed higher and the engine can operate with a
high compression ratio.
2. Its emission contains less aldehydes than that of emissions of methanol.
3. Natural gas is available in abundant amount worldwide.
Disadvantages:
1. Due to low energy density, it leads to low engine performance.
2. As it is a gasoline fuel, it has low engine volumetric efficiency
3. It needs a large pressurized fuel storage tank.
4. Its fuel properties are inconsistent.
5. Its refueling process is very slow.

38

8.4. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)


Propane and butane are the products of petroleum refinery process and
are also obtained from oil and gas wells. Generally propane and butane are used
separately for automobile use and sometimes a mixture of both of them is used.
Advantages:
1. The amount of carbon is less in LPG than that of petrol.
2. LPG can mix with air at all conditions of temperature.
3. In case of multicylinder engines, all the cylinders can be provided with a
uniform mixture.
4. There is no chance of crankcase dilution as the fuel is in the form of vapour.
5. Automobile engines having higher compression ratios (10:1) can use propane.
6. LPG has high antiknock characteristics.
7. The life of the engine increases by 50% by use of LPG.
8. By using LPG, we can save the cost of about 50%.
9. LPG is having heat energy about 80% of gasoline.

39

8.5. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)


By drilling wells petroleum and natural gas are obtained. Crude
petroleum contains hydrocarbons, some amount of water, sulphur and some
other impurities also. Mixing of petroleum with the natural gas gives a highly
volatile liquid which is known as natural gasoline. The natural gas can be
compressed and can renamed as Compressed Natural Gas. Just like LPG, CNG
is also used to run the automobiles. Bothe the LPG and CNG fuel feed systems
are same. Petrol driven cars can be converted into CNG driven cars by using the
CNG conversion kit. The kits contain certain auxiliary parts like mixer and
converter etc required for conversion.

40

9. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
AND PROCEDURE
9.1. Experimental setup
Petrol-HHO engine set up consists of four stroke Hero Honda 100-CC,
single cylinder engine. A 12 volt DC battery is fixed and the power from the
battery is used to self start and to power HHO gas kit. The output of HHO gas is
connected to hose pipe after the air filter and before the carburetor.

Fig 6 :Schematic diagram showing the fuel cell installed on the engine
9.2. HHO Gas Kit
HHO gas kit is a device especially designed for the producing HHO gas
by supplying 12 volts DC current. 12 volts DC current is supplied from the
battery which has been already integrated with the vehicle this gas kit contains
HHO cell
Pulse with modulator electronic circuit

41

9.3. HHO Cell


FC is a fuel supply device containing several parts that demonstrate the
real possibility of how hydrogen can be used as a 100% clean fuel for cars in
future. Yull Brown patent, in 1977, a technique to generate HHO gas based on
electrolysis process. Research on FC is currently going on with main target is to
enhance the fuel cell performance and/or reduce the fuel size. The fuel cell used
in this research is basically an electrolyte cell which decomposes distilled water
(H2O) into HHO. Heat is generated due to this electrolysis process so a sodium
bicarbonate may be added gradually to accelerate the decomposing of H2O into
HHO and assure control of the heat generation. HHO gas generated, in
electrolysis process, due to the separation to water molecules H-HO. It has high
potential energy, the caloric value of HHO gas is three times that of gasoline.
Plates of stainless steel-grade 316-L are used as the cell plates. The cell
plates have an anode and cathode. Both of them made of the same materials. As
a result of experience stainless steel grade 302 and 304 for the cathode (the
minus volt wire) may be used but grade 316-L is essential for the anode. The
electric current entered the anode and then passes to the cathode through the
electrolyte. The cell plates are arranged inside a Plexiglas box supplied by the
required fittings and piping. The input of the cell is distilled water and sodium
bicarbonate which is used as an electrolyte. The output gas (HHO) can easily be
injected into the combustion chambers in order to spark and burn.

42

Fig 7 : HHO Cell


Water is a compound made from the
two elements of Hydrogen and Oxygen. It
has the chemical symbol H2O which
indicates that each molecule is a combination of one Oxygen atom and two
Hydrogen atoms.
All atoms can form 'ions'. These are just the same atom except with
a little extra charge. Atoms can become ionized when in the presence an electric
field. Hydrogen forms positive ions, and oxygen forms negative ions. We use
this to our advantage by using an electric field to pull the water molecules apart.
By placing two electrodes (metal plates) into water we can create
an electric field between them by connecting them to the terminals of a battery
or power supply. The positive electrode is known as the anode, while the
negative one is the cathode. Pure water actually does not conduct electricity so
it is not suitable to be used without adding something to the water. Tap water
already contains many dissolved compounds which allow the water to conduct.
The ions formed in the water will be attracted to the electrode of opposite
polarity, i.e. the positive hydrogen ions will move towards the cathode, while
the negative oxygen ions move to the anode. Once the ions reach the surface of
the electrodes the charges will be neutralised by adding or removing electrons.
The gas is then fee to bubble up out of the remaining water to be collected.
Two stainless steel electrodes are placed in the HHO cell and are
connected with pulse with modulator circuit by external wiring. HHO cell is
filled with electrolyte solution which contains mixture of water and electrolyte.
43

The electrolytes used in the electrolytic solution are sodium hydroxide,


potassium hydroxide and baking soda. Electrodes are dipped in the solution for
passing the current.
9.4. Pulse with Modulator
This electronic device is used to regulate the fluctuation of current and to
protect the wires from the undesirable heat.

9.5. SI engine
A single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine is used for testing
purpose. The motor specification is shown in below. A emission test on variable
speed (1000-3000 rpm) has been performed on this motor. A gas analyzer has
been used to estimate the concentrations of HC, CO, CO2, and O2 in the
exhaust stream. Tachometer was used to measure the engine speed.

9.6. Engine Specification:


Displacement (cc)
Cylinders

97
1
44

Max Power
Maximum Torque
Bore (mm)
Stroke (mm)
compression rasio
Valves Per Cylinder

7.4 bhp @ 8000 rpm


8 Nm @ 5000 rpm
50
49
9:0:1
2

Fuel Delivery System


Fuel Type
Ignition

Carburetor
Petrol
C.D.I

Spark Plugs (Per Cylinder)

Cooling System

Air Cooled

Gearbox Type
No Of Gears

Manual
4

Transmission Type

Chain Drive

9.7. Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis

We conduct emission analysis on Petrol-HHO engine with the help


exhaust analyzer by supplying petrol and Petrol+HHO fuels respectively. The
analysis is carried out on arjun emission testing centre, Marthandam. Results
from this emission test shows that an appreciable amount of pollutants are
reduced by using HHO gas as a supplemental fuel with petrol.

10. WORKING PRINCIPLE


10.1. WORKING PRINCIPAL OF HHO GENERATER
IN IC ENGINE Hydrogen Conversion kits effectively turn the
vehicle into a Hydrogen Hybrid by producing and injecting hydroxy gas (HHO)

45

into the vehicle's air intake system. It works by utilizing a 100 year old proven
technology called electrolysis.

Fig 8 : working of hho generater


By placing two pieces of metal in distilled water, and applying electricity,
the water (H20) can instantly be separated into Hydrogen and Oxygen. The
separated gas molecules surface and regroup to form HHO Gas, which is an
unbounded mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
The chemical reactions that take place inside the electrolyzer when
assuming ideal faradic efficiency, the amount of hydrogen generated is twice the
number of moles of oxygen and both are directly proportional to the total
electrical charge conducted by the solution is:
Cathode (reduction): 2 H2O + 2e- H2+ 2 OHAnode (oxidation): 4 OH-O2+ 2 H2O + 4 e46

Overall reaction: 2 H2O 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)


10.2. HOW HHO WORK IN ENGINE
The electrolyser will procedure brown gas HHO, when this gas is
introduced into engine in inlet manifold, it will be mixed with the gasoline/air
mixture, causing a finer mist to develop. The output pipe from electrolyser was
closed to the carburator/throttle body as close as possible by making a
connection into the intake tube air manifold .Gas fuel (HHO) mixed with liquid
fuel-air mixture before throttle valve to enter the intake manifold.

Na2CO2 2Na++CO2 H2O HHO


2Na++2HHO 2NaHHO
Where: NaHHO is upper hydride gas Heat
NaHHO NaOH-H
NaOH-H + C6H6 C6H5(OH)+NaOH

Fig 9 : Schematic sketch of the engine showing the chemical reactions between
air, gasoline, and HHO that take place inside the engine.

11. Result and Performance Analysis

47

We conduct performance analysis on Petrol-HHO engine by supplying


petrol and Petrol+HHO fuels respectively. After analysis it has been found that
the emission is decreased with the Petrol+HHO fuel. The reading and graphs are
shown below table and figure.

Table 2 :Performance of engine with and


without HHO

Fig. 10 : The Relation of Engine


Speed (RPM) & CO (%)
Figure 10 shows the amount of CO
48

gas, it can be noticed that the amount of CO is


decreased

by

using

Hydrogen

Booster

system .As well as, this indicate that more


complete combustion occurs in the engine.

Fig 11 : The Relation of Engine Speed (RPM) & HC (ppm)


Figure 11 shows the amount of HC, it can be noticed that the amount of
HC is decreased by using Hydrogen Booster system .As well as, this indicate
that more complete combustion occurs in the engine.

49

Fig 12 : Engine Speed (PPM) & CO2(%)


From Figure 12 the amount of CO 2 gas is increased by using
Hydrogen Booster system .As well as, this indicate that more complete
combustion occurs in the engine. At high speed the increasing percent is more
than at high speed.

50

Fig 13 : The Relation of Engine Speed (RPM) & O2 (%)


Figure 13 above shows that the amount of O2 gas is increased by using
Hydrogen Booster system and it increases approximately 18%. As well as, this
indicates that more complete combustion occurs in the engine. At high speed the
increasing percent is more than at high speed.
The Hydrogen Booster is very safety, because the hydrogen that produced
from the water fuel cell goes to the engine to be burned directly. This means that
there is no need to store hydrogen at high pressure. Also the pressure inside the
system is less than atmospheric pressure.

51

12. CONCLUSION
Experimental tests to investigate the effect of HHO gas on the emission
parameters of a Hero Honda engine have been carried out. HHO gas has been
generated by an electrolysis process in a fuel cell. The generated gas is mixed
with a fresh air just before entering the carburettor. The exhaust is sampled by a
gas analyser and the exhaust constituents have been identified and their
concentrations have been evaluated. The following conclusions can be drawn.
1. HHO cell may be integrated easily with existing engine systems.
2. The combustion efficiency has been enhanced when HHO gas has been
introduced to the air/fuel mixture, consequently reducing emission.
3. The concentration of CO2 has been incresed to almost 10% on average
when HHO is introduced to the system.
4. When HHO is introduced to the system, the average concentration of
carbon monoxide has been reduced to almost 20% .
5. The concentration of O2% has been increase to almost 20% on average
when HHO is introduced to the system.
6. HC concentration is highly affected by the engine speed and the
presence of HHO gas.

52

13. REFERENCES
1. Matthias Altmann Patrick Schmidt Reinhold Wurster Martin Zerta Dr. Werner
Zittel, (2004) "Potential for Hydrogen as a Fuel for Transport in the Long Term
(2020-2030) technical report series, EUR 21090 EN.
2. David, J. Bents, Bei-Jiann Chang, Donald W. Johnson and Christopher
P.Garcia,(2008)."Closed Cycle Hydrogen Oxygen Regenerative "NASA/TM
2008-215055.
3. Ulf Bossel, 2003 " Efficiency of Hydrogen Fuel
Cell, Diesel-SOFC-Hybrid and Battery Electric
Vehicles \ European Fuel Cell Forum Morgenacherstrasse
Oberrohrdorf
October 20, 2003.

2F

CH-5452

4. Brent, J. and E. Aimee, 2004. "A Hydrogen economy and fuel cells: an
overview", CRS Report for Congress.
5. Christy, C., 2009. "Hydrogen Fuel Cells", the
WSTIAC Quarterly, 9: 1.
6. Paolo Chiesa Giovanni Lozza, 2005. Luigi Mazzocchi" Using Hydrogen as
Gas Turbine Fuel" @DOI: 10.1115/1.1787513#, J. Engineering for Gas
Turbines and Power. 127: 73.

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