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- Vibrations 9
- VIBRO–ACOUSTIC STUDIES OF BRAKE SQUEAL
- honeywell-liu[1]
- Esgandari - Finite Elementsin Analysis and Design
- Excellent Thesis on Damping Measurements (3).pdf
- INFLUENCE OF HYSTERESIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF CRYOGENIC LNG COMPOSITE HOSES
- Vibration and Shock Isolation-Advanced Antivibration Components
- 2004 Wakasawa Ball Packing Damping Test
- Stiffness Part 1
- matlabdisiapaindia
- Disi Pation
- L20_Seismic Response Control
- QUESTIONS BANK FROM KEYUR^
- isma2010_0104
- Experimental study on the effects of type of joints on damping
- MECHANICALVIBRATIONS3.pdf
- applsci-07-01144-v2
- SDOF Systems
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- Mechanical Vibrations Week 1

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Tribology International

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

in a pad-on-disc-type apparatus with unidirectional compliance

for pad support

Naohiro Kado a, Naoya Sato a, Chiharu Tadokoro a, Antonin Skarolek b, Ken Nakano a,n

a

b

Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentsk 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec I, Czech Republic

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 1 March 2014

Received in revised form

27 April 2014

Accepted 28 April 2014

Available online 9 May 2014

A pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus was constructed based on a theoretical principle for suppressing

frictional vibration. The pad for this apparatus was supported by parallel leaf springs with a

unidirectional compliance. Braking tests were conducted using the apparatus under a constant normal

load. It has been found that a yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad and disc

motions provides a positive damping to suppress the frictional vibration and brake noise. In addition, it

has been also found that when an appropriate misalignment angle is selected, a low-noise performance

and a good braking performance can be achieved simultaneously.

& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Disc brakes

Frictional vibration

Low-noise performance

Braking performance

1. Introduction

Brake noise is one of the classical problems for brake systems.

When brake noise occurs in an automobile, the passengers feel

uncomfortable. Therefore, it has long been thought to decrease the

commercial value of an automobile, and has been an important

problem requiring a solution. It is obvious that brake noise is

strongly related to frictional vibration because brake systems are

typical sliding systems. For example, Herv et al. [1] classied the

causes of the frictional vibration into four independent mechanisms:

stick-slip, velocity-weakening friction, sprag-slip, and mode-coupling

instability. Each of these mechanisms can cause frictional vibration

in brake systems leading to brake noise, and many researchers have

pointed out the relationships between brake noise and these

mechanisms of frictional vibration [216].

A variety of methods to eliminate brake noise have been proposed

from the viewpoints of the materials in contact [1214,1720] and

structural design [35,7,9,2124]. For example, from the viewpoints of

the materials in contact, Jang et al. [12,13] and Park et al. [14] proposed

a method to modify the velocity-weakening friction in brake systems

by changing the composition of the materials used in brake pads.

Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of structural design, Triches et al. [23]

showed that attaching an additional damping mechanism, which

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: nakano@ynu.ac.jp (K. Nakano).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2014.04.033

0301-679X/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

or rubber core, to a pad backplate could effectively suppress the brake

noise when the frequency characteristics of the damper were carefully

adjusted to the brake noise frequency. In theory, additional damping is

the most useful method for suppressing frictional vibration. However,

only a few damping methods are applicable to brake systems because

the space for adding damping materials is quite limited.

Recently, from the viewpoint of structural design, Nakano et al.

[25] proposed a novel method to use positive damping provided

by a yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad

and disc motions in disc brake systems, which suppresses the

frictional vibration caused by the velocity-weakening friction. The

principle was shown theoretically and then its basic applicability

to disc brake systems was demonstrated in numerical simulations.

This method is based on the principle proposed by Kado et al. [26]

for anti-vibration tribotesting, the effectiveness of which has been

demonstrated experimentally in frictional force measurements by

using their anti-vibration tribometer.

Based on the above, this study experimentally examined the

method proposed by Nakano et al. [25]. Section 2 briey describes

the principle for the method. It is theoretically shown that an

angular misalignment provides positive damping to suppress the

frictional vibration induced by the velocity-weakening friction.

Section 3 describes the pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus with

angular misalignment. Parallel leaf springs are used to make a

unidirectional compliance for supporting the pad. Section 4 discusses the experimental results of braking tests using the apparatus.

42

Nomenclature

c1

c2

F(V)

F(Vrel)

J

k

Lp

m

p

P

R

t

Tb

V

Vrel

W

damping coefcient due to

frictional force when Vrel V

frictional force (function of Vrel)

moment of inertia of whole rotor

stiffness of pad support in -axis direction

overall sound pressure level of brake noise

mass of pad

sound pressure of brake noise

energy consumption rate

radius position of contact

time

brake time

circumferential velocity of disc

relative velocity between pad and disc

normal load

vibration and brake noise are minimized. In addition, it is shown

that when they are minimized by angular misalignment, the brake

time is also minimized.

2. Principle

Fig. 1 shows a model that describes the principle for suppressing frictional vibration in disc brake systems proposed by Nakano

et al. [25]. The x axis shows the direction of the disc velocity at

the contact between a pad and a disc. The and axes show the

principal axes of the stiffness for supporting the pad, where the

stiffness in the -axis direction is the smallest among the three

principal stiffnesses, and it is assumed for simplicity that the pad

moves only in the -axis direction. The angle between the x and

axes is the misalignment angle denoted by .

x, y, z

,

t

k(V)

k(Vrel)

eff

k (V)

, ,

cr

()

(0 )

()

direction

pad accelerations in - and -axis directions, respectively

time window

change in angular velocity of disc

direction of Vrel and F from axis

kinetic friction coefcient when Vrel V

kinetic friction coefcient (function of Vrel)

effective kinetic friction coefcient (function of V)

axis of coordinate system based on pad support

direction

constant

direction

of

axis

from

V:

misalignment angle

critical misalignment angle

disc angular velocity

derivative with respect to t

derivative with respect to Vrel

time average

m k FV rel cos

respectively; k is the supporting stiffness in the -axis direction;

F(Vrel) is the frictional force acting on the pad as a function of the

relative velocity Vrel; is the direction of the frictional force from

the axis; and () is the derivative with respect to the time t. Note

that the direction of the frictional force corresponds to that of the

relative velocity. From the velocity triangle consisting of the disc

_ and relative velocity Vrel, we obtain

velocity V, pad velocity ,

q

2

2

V rel V 2 2V _ cos _

cos

V cos _

V rel

angular velocity of the disc, respectively, we obtain

V R

Eq. (3) shows that if the pad velocity is changed, the direction

of the frictional force is changed autonomously.

Linearizing these equations around Vrel V, we obtain

m c1 c2 _ k FV cos

The two coefcients, c1 and c2, in the second term on the lefthand side of this equation are the effective damping coefcients

arising from the frictional force, dened as

c1 F 0 V cos 2

c2

Fig. 1. Theoretical model of disc brake system with yaw angle misalignment; :

misalignment angle.

FV sin 2

V

When the slope F0 (V) is negative, c1 is also negative, which

gives a negative damping that causes frictional vibration. Meanwhile, the additional coefcient c2 is always positive, which gives a

positive damping that suppresses frictional vibration. Therefore,

in this model, even if F0 (V) is negative, we nd that frictional

vibration does not occur when the misalignment angle is larger

s

s

0 VV

F 0 VV

1

1

tan

4 cr tan

k

FV

k V

43

noted that this stability condition does not depend on the normal

load, which is an advantageous characteristic for the application to

disc brake systems, in which the normal load varies over time.

It should be stressed that the stabilization effect described

above is provided by instantaneous change in the frictional force

direction , under the presence of the yaw angle misalignment ,

which occurs according to Eq. (3) as a function of the pad velocity

_ Considering that the change in the frictional force direction is

.

inevitable in two-degree-of-freedom sliding systems, the stabilization effect might have been underlying in everywhere.

3. Experimental details

Fig. 3. Congurations of pad unit for 01, 451, and 901.

3.1. Apparatus

Fig. 2 shows a photograph and schematic diagram of the padon-disc-type brake apparatus that embodies the model of Fig. 1.

This apparatus employs a plane contact between a gray cast iron

disc (diameter: 250 mm, thickness: 10 mm, and arithmetic mean

roughness: 2.5 m) and a phenol resin pad (Youngs modulus:

5 GPa, diameter: 20 mm, and thickness: 5 mm). The disc is connected to a ywheel through a main shaft mounted in a bearing

unit so that the disc rotates freely around the shaft, where the

moment of inertia of the whole rotor is J 0.70 kgm2. A rotary

encoder connected to the shaft by a timing belt measures the disc

angular velocity . Meanwhile, the pad is supported by phosphor

bronze parallel leaf springs mounted on a z-axis linear guide. The

position of the pad is R 75 mm below from the rotational center

of the disc. A coil spring and a jack are placed in series behind the

parallel leaf springs to apply the normal load W to the contact by

using the spring force of the coil spring. A load cell placed in series

behind the jack measures the normal load. To measure the sound

pressure p of the brake noise, a microphone is mounted on the

extended line of the rotational axis at a distance of 100 mm from

the disc.

Fig. 3 shows the detailed structure around the pad. The xy plane

is parallel to the disc surface, and the x axis corresponds to the

direction of the disc velocity V at the contact between the pad and

the disc. The and axes show the principal axes of the parallel leaf

springs. The length, width, and thickness of the exposed part of a

leaf spring are 20 mm, 60 mm, and 0.6 mm, respectively; and the

distance between the two leaf springs is 40 mm. Therefore, the

stiffness of the parallel leaf springs in the -axis direction

(k 210 kN/m) is the smallest among the three principal stiffnesses.

The angle between the x and axes is the misalignment angle . In

this gure, three congurations for 01, 451, and 901 are shown as

examples. An acceleration sensor is mounted behind the pad for

measuring the pad accelerations in the - and -axis directions,

which are denoted by and , respectively.

3.2. Procedure

Using the pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus, braking tests were

conducted as follows. First, after cleaning the surfaces of the pad and

disc using ethanol, the running-in procedure was carried out at

01, W100 N, and V 1 m/s by rotating the disc manually until

the brake noise remained stable. Then, after setting under a noncontact condition, W100 N was applied again. Finally, the disc was

rotated up to 200 rpm manually. Then, during the free rotation of

the disc, the temporal changes in the disc angular velocity (), pad

accelerations ( and ), and sound pressure (p) were measured, at a

sampling rate of 40 kHz, by using the rotary encoder, acceleration

sensor, and microphone, respectively, until the disc was stopped

completely by the frictional force between the pad and the disc. The

braking test described above was conducted three times at values of

ranging from 01 to 901. All the tests were conducted at an ambient

temperature of 25 1C and a relative humidity of approximately 20%.

4.1. Disc angular velocity

changes in , , , and p when 01, 301, 601 and 901, where

the results for the 5-s period after 180 rpm are shown.

44

Fig. 4. Temporal changes in disc angular velocity (), pad accelerations ( and ), and sound pressure (p) for 01, 301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N.

k ) versus disc velocity (V) plot

obtained from temporal change in disc angular velocity () in Fig. 4 for 01,

301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N; solid line: tted linear function using least square

method.

in the brake time Tb. Among these, the highest value of eff

k (V) is

found when 301, leading to the shortest brake time Tb 3.30 s.

Considering that the frictional vibration is suppressed when

301 as shown in the second row of Fig. 4, the results on the

magnitude of eff

k (V) shown in Fig. 5 are consistent with those of

the experiments by Kado et al. [26], in which they measured the

kinetic frictional force using their anti-vibration tribometer and

found that the magnitude of eff

k (V) is increased by suppressing the

frictional vibration. The difference between k(V) and eff

k (V)

depends on the frictional property (i.e., k(Vrel)), mechanical

properties (i.e., m and k), and operating conditions (i.e., W and

V), which is induced not only by instantaneous change in the

relative velocity magnitude Vrel, but also by instantaneous change

in the frictional force direction , under the presence of even a

slight yaw angle misalignment 01 [27]. For example, for a steel

steel point contact lubricated by glycerol in the anti-vibration

tribometer, at most 40% decrease in eff

k (V) due to frictional

vibration has been conrmed [26,27].

Focusing on the top row of Fig. 4, the disc angular velocities

appear to decrease linearly in time from 180 rpm to 0 rpm.

Observing these carefully, however, we nd that they are slightly

convex upward. Considering that the magnitude of the negative

slope of the function (t) is proportional to the magnitude of the

frictional force, the convex shapes indicate that the frictional force

between the pad and the disc has a velocity-weakening characteristic that causes frictional vibration. In fact, using the temporal

changes in shown in Fig. 4, we obtain the effective kinetic

friction coefcient eff

k as a function of the disc velocity V, as shown

in Fig. 5. To obtain this gure, the instantaneous values of eff

k are

calculated by

eff

k

P

J

VW

RW t

V R, where P and in Eq. (9) are the mean energy consumption rate by the frictional force and change in in a time window

t (0.25 s for Fig. 5), respectively. We nd negative slopes for the

function eff

k (V) for all in the rst-order approximation, indicating the velocity-weakening characteristic. In addition, we nd

signicant differences in eff

k (V) for different , leading to a change

the angular misalignment on the pad vibration. When 01, we

nd vibrations in the -axis direction during the brake time,

whereas in the -axis direction, we just nd vibrations with a

fairly small amplitude. When 301, the vibration in the -axis

direction seems to disappear, but when 601 and 901, vibrations

with large amplitudes appear in both directions. Note that when

01 and 901, the amplitude of the vibration in the disc velocity

direction (i.e., the x-axis direction) is larger than that in the

perpendicular direction (i.e., the y-axis direction). In addition,

from the bottom row of Fig. 4, we nd brake noise for 01, 601

and 901, but when 301, the brake noise seems to disappear.

It is noted that these vibrations and noises are convergent just

before the disc stops, which can be partly because of the positive

damping effect originated from the positive slope in the kinetic

friction coefcient shown in a low velocity range in Fig. 5. Another

possible reason is change in the positive damping coefcient c2,

which is, as Eq. (7) shows, increased with decreasing V, especially

in a low velocity range.

Fig. 6 shows the mean spectra of the brake noise based on the

sound pressure level (SPL) calculated from p(t) for to3 s for three

measurements. The vertical broken lines show the natural frequencies

45

Fig. 6. Mean spectra of brake noise for 01, 301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N; PT: translational motion of pad in -axis direction; PR, PR, and PR: rotational motions of pad

about -, -, and -axis directions, respectively; and Dij: out-of-plane motion of disc with i nodal lines and j nodal circles.

independently under a non-contact condition. The abbreviations for

the natural frequencies are as follows: PT (110 Hz) is the translational motion of the pad in the -axis direction; PR (1340 Hz and

2380 Hz), PR (4900 Hz), and PR (1860 Hz) are the rotational

motions of the pad about the -, -, and -axis directions, respectively; and Dij (D20: 840 Hz, D30: 1760 Hz, and D40: 3050 Hz) is the

out-of-plane motion of the disc with i nodal lines and j nodal circles,

where the modes of the pad motions were detected by using the

phase difference between the signals from two acceleration sensors

mounted on the pad holder, and the modes of the disc motions

were detected by using the phase difference between the signals

from two microphones mounted close to the disc surface.

When 01, the dominant components of the brake noise

were PT (110 Hz) and its harmonics (220 Hz and 330 Hz). It is

believed that the velocity-weakening friction conrmed in Fig. 5

caused the dominant components. Meanwhile, from the spectrum

for 301, we nd that applying the angular misalignment

eliminates the dominant components down to the background

noise level. Therefore, we can conclude that this is a suppression

effect of the angular misalignment because the principle stated in

Section 2 requires the pad motion in the -axis direction, which

provides a positive damping using the change in the direction of

the frictional force. However, when 601 and 901, several other

dominant components appeared, e.g., those close to D20 (840 Hz),

D30 (1760 Hz), and D40 (3050 Hz). These were probably caused by a

different mechanism for frictional vibration, i.e., the modecoupling instability. At present, we have no theoretical background

to show that the angular misalignment suppresses the frictional

vibration induced by the mode-coupling instability. However, the

dominant component close to D20 appeared to be minimized at

301.

It should be noted that based on the structures of actual disc

brake systems, the result when 901 in this apparatus can be

regarded as the baseline for estimating the effect of yaw angle

misalignment because the pad support in actual systems is closer

to that when 901 than that when 01. From this viewpoint,

the experimental results show a possibility that a pad setting with

a yaw angle misalignment suppresses the squeal noises originated

form disc vibrations in actual systems. It should be also noted that

the various types of vibrations observed here are not always linear

and thus nonlinear effects between them can determine the nal

noise levels.

Fig. 7. Effects of angular misalignment on brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb) at

W 100 N; symbols and error bars: mean values and standard deviations of three

measurements, respectively.

Fig. 7 shows the effects of the misalignment angle () on the

overall SPL of the brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb). The plots

represent the mean values of three experiments conducted for

each , and the error bars represent their standard deviations. The

upper graph shows that Lp decreases from 110.4 dB with increasing from 01, with a minimum of 105.6 dB when 301. Then, it

increases to the maximum of 139.3 dB when 751, and when

901, it has a value of 129.9 dB, which is close to the value for

601. This means that when 301, Lp is 5 dB less than that for

01 and 24 dB less than that for 901. Meanwhile, the lower

graph shows that Tb decreases from the maximum of 3.68 s with

increasing from 01, with a minimum of 3.24 s for 451. Then, it

increases to 3.62 s when 751, and when 901, it has a value of

3.46 s, which is close to the value for 601. This means that

when 451, Tb is 12% less than that for 01 and 6% less than

that for 901.

Consequently, we obtain the graph of Fig. 8 showing the

relationship between Lp and Tb when the angular misalignment

is changed from 01 to 901, where all the measured values are

shown in this graph without averaging. Note that a small Lp means

46

References

Fig. 8. Relationship between brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb) for 01901 at

W 100 N.

braking performance. This gure shows that both performances

can be maximized when 301451 in the pad-on-disc-type

brake apparatus. Its theoretical generalization is expected in future

studies.

Finally, it should be noted that experimental results qualitatively consistent with those shown in this paper have also been

obtained when W50 N, which supports the conclusion that the

proposed method using the positive damping provided by the

angular misalignment is insensitive to a change in the normal

load, although in theory, the suppression performance of additional dampers depends on the normal load [25].

5. Conclusions

Based on a theoretical principle for suppressing the frictional

vibration from the viewpoint of structural design, a pad-on-disc-type

brake apparatus was constructed, the pad of which was supported by

parallel leaf springs having a unidirectional compliance. In braking

tests using the apparatus, the following conclusions were conrmed.

(1) The yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad

and disc motions provides positive damping to suppress the

frictional vibration caused by the velocity-weakening friction.

This eliminates the corresponding frequency component and

its harmonic components included in the brake noise.

(2) The appropriate misalignment angle to minimize the frictional

vibration and brake noise is approximately 301451. When the

appropriate angle is used, the effective kinetic friction coefcient is maximized, and thus a good low-noise performance

can be achieved with a good braking performance.

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