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Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Tribology International
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/triboint

Effect of yaw angle misalignment on brake noise and brake time


in a pad-on-disc-type apparatus with unidirectional compliance
for pad support
Naohiro Kado a, Naoya Sato a, Chiharu Tadokoro a, Antonin Skarolek b, Ken Nakano a,n
a
b

Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentsk 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec I, Czech Republic

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 1 March 2014
Received in revised form
27 April 2014
Accepted 28 April 2014
Available online 9 May 2014

A pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus was constructed based on a theoretical principle for suppressing
frictional vibration. The pad for this apparatus was supported by parallel leaf springs with a
unidirectional compliance. Braking tests were conducted using the apparatus under a constant normal
load. It has been found that a yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad and disc
motions provides a positive damping to suppress the frictional vibration and brake noise. In addition, it
has been also found that when an appropriate misalignment angle is selected, a low-noise performance
and a good braking performance can be achieved simultaneously.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Disc brakes
Frictional vibration
Low-noise performance
Braking performance

1. Introduction
Brake noise is one of the classical problems for brake systems.
When brake noise occurs in an automobile, the passengers feel
uncomfortable. Therefore, it has long been thought to decrease the
commercial value of an automobile, and has been an important
problem requiring a solution. It is obvious that brake noise is
strongly related to frictional vibration because brake systems are
typical sliding systems. For example, Herv et al. [1] classied the
causes of the frictional vibration into four independent mechanisms:
stick-slip, velocity-weakening friction, sprag-slip, and mode-coupling
instability. Each of these mechanisms can cause frictional vibration
in brake systems leading to brake noise, and many researchers have
pointed out the relationships between brake noise and these
mechanisms of frictional vibration [216].
A variety of methods to eliminate brake noise have been proposed
from the viewpoints of the materials in contact [1214,1720] and
structural design [35,7,9,2124]. For example, from the viewpoints of
the materials in contact, Jang et al. [12,13] and Park et al. [14] proposed
a method to modify the velocity-weakening friction in brake systems
by changing the composition of the materials used in brake pads.
Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of structural design, Triches et al. [23]
showed that attaching an additional damping mechanism, which

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: nakano@ynu.ac.jp (K. Nakano).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2014.04.033
0301-679X/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

consisted of a sandwich of two steel plates separated by a viscoelastic


or rubber core, to a pad backplate could effectively suppress the brake
noise when the frequency characteristics of the damper were carefully
adjusted to the brake noise frequency. In theory, additional damping is
the most useful method for suppressing frictional vibration. However,
only a few damping methods are applicable to brake systems because
the space for adding damping materials is quite limited.
Recently, from the viewpoint of structural design, Nakano et al.
[25] proposed a novel method to use positive damping provided
by a yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad
and disc motions in disc brake systems, which suppresses the
frictional vibration caused by the velocity-weakening friction. The
principle was shown theoretically and then its basic applicability
to disc brake systems was demonstrated in numerical simulations.
This method is based on the principle proposed by Kado et al. [26]
for anti-vibration tribotesting, the effectiveness of which has been
demonstrated experimentally in frictional force measurements by
using their anti-vibration tribometer.
Based on the above, this study experimentally examined the
method proposed by Nakano et al. [25]. Section 2 briey describes
the principle for the method. It is theoretically shown that an
angular misalignment provides positive damping to suppress the
frictional vibration induced by the velocity-weakening friction.
Section 3 describes the pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus with
angular misalignment. Parallel leaf springs are used to make a
unidirectional compliance for supporting the pad. Section 4 discusses the experimental results of braking tests using the apparatus.

42

N. Kado et al. / Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

Nomenclature
c1
c2
F(V)
F(Vrel)
J
k
Lp
m
p
P
R
t
Tb
V
Vrel
W

damping coefcient due to F'(V)


damping coefcient due to
frictional force when Vrel V
frictional force (function of Vrel)
moment of inertia of whole rotor
stiffness of pad support in -axis direction
overall sound pressure level of brake noise
mass of pad
sound pressure of brake noise
energy consumption rate
radius position of contact
time
brake time
circumferential velocity of disc
relative velocity between pad and disc
normal load

It is shown that when the misalignment angle is 301451, the pad


vibration and brake noise are minimized. In addition, it is shown
that when they are minimized by angular misalignment, the brake
time is also minimized.

2. Principle
Fig. 1 shows a model that describes the principle for suppressing frictional vibration in disc brake systems proposed by Nakano
et al. [25]. The x axis shows the direction of the disc velocity at
the contact between a pad and a disc. The and axes show the
principal axes of the stiffness for supporting the pad, where the
stiffness in the -axis direction is the smallest among the three
principal stiffnesses, and it is assumed for simplicity that the pad
moves only in the -axis direction. The angle between the x and
axes is the misalignment angle denoted by .

x, y, z
,
t

k(V)
k(Vrel)
eff
k (V)
, ,

cr

()
(0 )
()

axes of coordinate system based on disc velocity


direction
pad accelerations in - and -axis directions, respectively
time window
change in angular velocity of disc
direction of Vrel and F from axis
kinetic friction coefcient when Vrel V
kinetic friction coefcient (function of Vrel)
effective kinetic friction coefcient (function of V)
axis of coordinate system based on pad support
direction
constant
direction
of

axis
from
V:
misalignment angle
critical misalignment angle
disc angular velocity
derivative with respect to t
derivative with respect to Vrel
time average

The equation of motion of the pad is written as


m k FV rel cos

where and m are the displacement and mass of the pad,


respectively; k is the supporting stiffness in the -axis direction;
F(Vrel) is the frictional force acting on the pad as a function of the
relative velocity Vrel; is the direction of the frictional force from
the axis; and () is the derivative with respect to the time t. Note
that the direction of the frictional force corresponds to that of the
relative velocity. From the velocity triangle consisting of the disc
_ and relative velocity Vrel, we obtain
velocity V, pad velocity ,
q
2
2
V rel V 2  2V _ cos _

cos

V cos  _
V rel

Letting R and be the radius position of the contact and the


angular velocity of the disc, respectively, we obtain
V R

Eq. (3) shows that if the pad velocity is changed, the direction
of the frictional force is changed autonomously.
Linearizing these equations around Vrel V, we obtain
m c1 c2 _ k FV cos

The two coefcients, c1 and c2, in the second term on the lefthand side of this equation are the effective damping coefcients
arising from the frictional force, dened as
c1 F 0 V cos 2

c2

Fig. 1. Theoretical model of disc brake system with yaw angle misalignment; :
misalignment angle.

FV sin 2
V

where F0 (V) is the slope of the function F F(Vrel) at Vrel V.


When the slope F0 (V) is negative, c1 is also negative, which
gives a negative damping that causes frictional vibration. Meanwhile, the additional coefcient c2 is always positive, which gives a
positive damping that suppresses frictional vibration. Therefore,
in this model, even if F0 (V) is negative, we nd that frictional
vibration does not occur when the misalignment angle is larger

N. Kado et al. / Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

than the critical misalignment angle cr, i.e.,


s
s
0 VV
F 0 VV
1
1
tan
4 cr tan

 k
FV
k V

43

where k(V) is the kinetic friction coefcient at Vrel V. It should be


noted that this stability condition does not depend on the normal
load, which is an advantageous characteristic for the application to
disc brake systems, in which the normal load varies over time.
It should be stressed that the stabilization effect described
above is provided by instantaneous change in the frictional force
direction , under the presence of the yaw angle misalignment ,
which occurs according to Eq. (3) as a function of the pad velocity
_ Considering that the change in the frictional force direction is
.
inevitable in two-degree-of-freedom sliding systems, the stabilization effect might have been underlying in everywhere.

3. Experimental details
Fig. 3. Congurations of pad unit for 01, 451, and 901.

3.1. Apparatus
Fig. 2 shows a photograph and schematic diagram of the padon-disc-type brake apparatus that embodies the model of Fig. 1.
This apparatus employs a plane contact between a gray cast iron
disc (diameter: 250 mm, thickness: 10 mm, and arithmetic mean
roughness: 2.5 m) and a phenol resin pad (Youngs modulus:
5 GPa, diameter: 20 mm, and thickness: 5 mm). The disc is connected to a ywheel through a main shaft mounted in a bearing
unit so that the disc rotates freely around the shaft, where the
moment of inertia of the whole rotor is J 0.70 kgm2. A rotary
encoder connected to the shaft by a timing belt measures the disc
angular velocity . Meanwhile, the pad is supported by phosphor
bronze parallel leaf springs mounted on a z-axis linear guide. The
position of the pad is R 75 mm below from the rotational center
of the disc. A coil spring and a jack are placed in series behind the
parallel leaf springs to apply the normal load W to the contact by
using the spring force of the coil spring. A load cell placed in series

behind the jack measures the normal load. To measure the sound
pressure p of the brake noise, a microphone is mounted on the
extended line of the rotational axis at a distance of 100 mm from
the disc.
Fig. 3 shows the detailed structure around the pad. The xy plane
is parallel to the disc surface, and the x axis corresponds to the
direction of the disc velocity V at the contact between the pad and
the disc. The and axes show the principal axes of the parallel leaf
springs. The length, width, and thickness of the exposed part of a
leaf spring are 20 mm, 60 mm, and 0.6 mm, respectively; and the
distance between the two leaf springs is 40 mm. Therefore, the
stiffness of the parallel leaf springs in the -axis direction
(k 210 kN/m) is the smallest among the three principal stiffnesses.
The angle between the x and axes is the misalignment angle . In
this gure, three congurations for 01, 451, and 901 are shown as
examples. An acceleration sensor is mounted behind the pad for
measuring the pad accelerations in the - and -axis directions,
which are denoted by and , respectively.
3.2. Procedure
Using the pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus, braking tests were
conducted as follows. First, after cleaning the surfaces of the pad and
disc using ethanol, the running-in procedure was carried out at
01, W100 N, and V 1 m/s by rotating the disc manually until
the brake noise remained stable. Then, after setting under a noncontact condition, W100 N was applied again. Finally, the disc was
rotated up to 200 rpm manually. Then, during the free rotation of
the disc, the temporal changes in the disc angular velocity (), pad
accelerations ( and ), and sound pressure (p) were measured, at a
sampling rate of 40 kHz, by using the rotary encoder, acceleration
sensor, and microphone, respectively, until the disc was stopped
completely by the frictional force between the pad and the disc. The
braking test described above was conducted three times at values of
ranging from 01 to 901. All the tests were conducted at an ambient
temperature of 25 1C and a relative humidity of approximately 20%.

4. Results and discussion


4.1. Disc angular velocity

Fig. 2. Pad-on-disc-type brake apparatus.

Fig. 4 shows typical experimental results for the temporal


changes in , , , and p when 01, 301, 601 and 901, where
the results for the 5-s period after 180 rpm are shown.

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N. Kado et al. / Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

Fig. 4. Temporal changes in disc angular velocity (), pad accelerations ( and ), and sound pressure (p) for 01, 301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N.

Fig. 5. Effective kinetic friction coefcient (eff


k ) versus disc velocity (V) plot
obtained from temporal change in disc angular velocity () in Fig. 4 for 01,
301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N; solid line: tted linear function using least square
method.

in the brake time Tb. Among these, the highest value of eff
k (V) is
found when 301, leading to the shortest brake time Tb 3.30 s.
Considering that the frictional vibration is suppressed when
301 as shown in the second row of Fig. 4, the results on the
magnitude of eff
k (V) shown in Fig. 5 are consistent with those of
the experiments by Kado et al. [26], in which they measured the
kinetic frictional force using their anti-vibration tribometer and
found that the magnitude of eff
k (V) is increased by suppressing the
frictional vibration. The difference between k(V) and eff
k (V)
depends on the frictional property (i.e., k(Vrel)), mechanical
properties (i.e., m and k), and operating conditions (i.e., W and
V), which is induced not only by instantaneous change in the
relative velocity magnitude Vrel, but also by instantaneous change
in the frictional force direction , under the presence of even a
slight yaw angle misalignment  01 [27]. For example, for a steel
steel point contact lubricated by glycerol in the anti-vibration
tribometer, at most 40% decrease in eff
k (V) due to frictional
vibration has been conrmed [26,27].

4.2. Pad accelerations and sound pressure


Focusing on the top row of Fig. 4, the disc angular velocities
appear to decrease linearly in time from 180 rpm to 0 rpm.
Observing these carefully, however, we nd that they are slightly
convex upward. Considering that the magnitude of the negative
slope of the function (t) is proportional to the magnitude of the
frictional force, the convex shapes indicate that the frictional force
between the pad and the disc has a velocity-weakening characteristic that causes frictional vibration. In fact, using the temporal
changes in shown in Fig. 4, we obtain the effective kinetic
friction coefcient eff
k as a function of the disc velocity V, as shown
in Fig. 5. To obtain this gure, the instantaneous values of eff
k are
calculated by
eff
k

P
J

VW
RW t

and then they are plotted against the instantaneous values of


V R, where P and in Eq. (9) are the mean energy consumption rate by the frictional force and change in in a time window
t (0.25 s for Fig. 5), respectively. We nd negative slopes for the
function eff
k (V) for all in the rst-order approximation, indicating the velocity-weakening characteristic. In addition, we nd
signicant differences in eff
k (V) for different , leading to a change

From the second and third rows of Fig. 4, we nd the effect of


the angular misalignment on the pad vibration. When 01, we
nd vibrations in the -axis direction during the brake time,
whereas in the -axis direction, we just nd vibrations with a
fairly small amplitude. When 301, the vibration in the -axis
direction seems to disappear, but when 601 and 901, vibrations
with large amplitudes appear in both directions. Note that when
01 and 901, the amplitude of the vibration in the disc velocity
direction (i.e., the x-axis direction) is larger than that in the
perpendicular direction (i.e., the y-axis direction). In addition,
from the bottom row of Fig. 4, we nd brake noise for 01, 601
and 901, but when 301, the brake noise seems to disappear.
It is noted that these vibrations and noises are convergent just
before the disc stops, which can be partly because of the positive
damping effect originated from the positive slope in the kinetic
friction coefcient shown in a low velocity range in Fig. 5. Another
possible reason is change in the positive damping coefcient c2,
which is, as Eq. (7) shows, increased with decreasing V, especially
in a low velocity range.
Fig. 6 shows the mean spectra of the brake noise based on the
sound pressure level (SPL) calculated from p(t) for to3 s for three
measurements. The vertical broken lines show the natural frequencies

N. Kado et al. / Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

45

Fig. 6. Mean spectra of brake noise for 01, 301, 601, and 901 at W 100 N; PT: translational motion of pad in -axis direction; PR, PR, and PR: rotational motions of pad
about -, -, and -axis directions, respectively; and Dij: out-of-plane motion of disc with i nodal lines and j nodal circles.

obtained experimentally when the pad unit or disc is hammered


independently under a non-contact condition. The abbreviations for
the natural frequencies are as follows: PT (110 Hz) is the translational motion of the pad in the -axis direction; PR (1340 Hz and
2380 Hz), PR (4900 Hz), and PR (1860 Hz) are the rotational
motions of the pad about the -, -, and -axis directions, respectively; and Dij (D20: 840 Hz, D30: 1760 Hz, and D40: 3050 Hz) is the
out-of-plane motion of the disc with i nodal lines and j nodal circles,
where the modes of the pad motions were detected by using the
phase difference between the signals from two acceleration sensors
mounted on the pad holder, and the modes of the disc motions
were detected by using the phase difference between the signals
from two microphones mounted close to the disc surface.
When 01, the dominant components of the brake noise
were PT (110 Hz) and its harmonics (220 Hz and 330 Hz). It is
believed that the velocity-weakening friction conrmed in Fig. 5
caused the dominant components. Meanwhile, from the spectrum
for 301, we nd that applying the angular misalignment
eliminates the dominant components down to the background
noise level. Therefore, we can conclude that this is a suppression
effect of the angular misalignment because the principle stated in
Section 2 requires the pad motion in the -axis direction, which
provides a positive damping using the change in the direction of
the frictional force. However, when 601 and 901, several other
dominant components appeared, e.g., those close to D20 (840 Hz),
D30 (1760 Hz), and D40 (3050 Hz). These were probably caused by a
different mechanism for frictional vibration, i.e., the modecoupling instability. At present, we have no theoretical background
to show that the angular misalignment suppresses the frictional
vibration induced by the mode-coupling instability. However, the
dominant component close to D20 appeared to be minimized at
301.
It should be noted that based on the structures of actual disc
brake systems, the result when 901 in this apparatus can be
regarded as the baseline for estimating the effect of yaw angle
misalignment because the pad support in actual systems is closer
to that when 901 than that when 01. From this viewpoint,
the experimental results show a possibility that a pad setting with
a yaw angle misalignment suppresses the squeal noises originated
form disc vibrations in actual systems. It should be also noted that
the various types of vibrations observed here are not always linear
and thus nonlinear effects between them can determine the nal
noise levels.

Fig. 7. Effects of angular misalignment on brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb) at
W 100 N; symbols and error bars: mean values and standard deviations of three
measurements, respectively.

4.3. Brake noise and brake time


Fig. 7 shows the effects of the misalignment angle () on the
overall SPL of the brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb). The plots
represent the mean values of three experiments conducted for
each , and the error bars represent their standard deviations. The
upper graph shows that Lp decreases from 110.4 dB with increasing from 01, with a minimum of 105.6 dB when 301. Then, it
increases to the maximum of 139.3 dB when 751, and when
901, it has a value of 129.9 dB, which is close to the value for
601. This means that when 301, Lp is 5 dB less than that for
01 and 24 dB less than that for 901. Meanwhile, the lower
graph shows that Tb decreases from the maximum of 3.68 s with
increasing from 01, with a minimum of 3.24 s for 451. Then, it
increases to 3.62 s when 751, and when 901, it has a value of
3.46 s, which is close to the value for 601. This means that
when 451, Tb is 12% less than that for 01 and 6% less than
that for 901.
Consequently, we obtain the graph of Fig. 8 showing the
relationship between Lp and Tb when the angular misalignment
is changed from 01 to 901, where all the measured values are
shown in this graph without averaging. Note that a small Lp means

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N. Kado et al. / Tribology International 78 (2014) 4146

References

Fig. 8. Relationship between brake noise (Lp) and brake time (Tb) for 01901 at
W 100 N.

a good low-noise performance, and a small Tb means a good


braking performance. This gure shows that both performances
can be maximized when 301451 in the pad-on-disc-type
brake apparatus. Its theoretical generalization is expected in future
studies.
Finally, it should be noted that experimental results qualitatively consistent with those shown in this paper have also been
obtained when W50 N, which supports the conclusion that the
proposed method using the positive damping provided by the
angular misalignment is insensitive to a change in the normal
load, although in theory, the suppression performance of additional dampers depends on the normal load [25].

5. Conclusions
Based on a theoretical principle for suppressing the frictional
vibration from the viewpoint of structural design, a pad-on-disc-type
brake apparatus was constructed, the pad of which was supported by
parallel leaf springs having a unidirectional compliance. In braking
tests using the apparatus, the following conclusions were conrmed.
(1) The yaw angle misalignment between the directions of the pad
and disc motions provides positive damping to suppress the
frictional vibration caused by the velocity-weakening friction.
This eliminates the corresponding frequency component and
its harmonic components included in the brake noise.
(2) The appropriate misalignment angle to minimize the frictional
vibration and brake noise is approximately 301451. When the
appropriate angle is used, the effective kinetic friction coefcient is maximized, and thus a good low-noise performance
can be achieved with a good braking performance.

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