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This is a kind of a primary relaying which an additional relay is introduced for the purpose of backup protection.

In this scheme,
a single circuit breaker is used by both primary and backup protection but the principle of operation for both of the protective
relaying is different and is desirable [37]. They should be supplied from potential and current transformers [38].
Breaker backup protection
In this type of protection, two different of circuit breakers are provided for the primary and back up relaying. Both of the circuit
breaker is installed at the same station [37]. This type of a backup is essential for a bus bar system where a number of circuit
breakers are connected to it [38]. When a protective relay start to operate when a fault is detected but the circuit breaker is
failed to trip, the fault is a bus bar fault. In this situation, all other circuit breaker on the bus bar should trip. After a time delay,
the backup protective relay closes the contact of the backup relay which will trip all other circuit breakers on that bus if the
proper circuit breaker does not trip within the specified time after its trip coil is energized [38].
Remote backup protection
In this method, different circuit breakers are used for the primary and backup protection. These two types of circuit breaker are
at the different zones and are completely independent and isolated of each other [37]. This type of method is the simplest and
cheapest form of back up protection. It is desirable because it will not fail due to the factors that cause the failure of the primary
protection [38].
Centrally Coordinated backup protection
In this method there is a central control room and all the backup protection is at this central control room. So, the primary
protection is at various protection zones. This central control room will monitor all the load flow and frequency in the electrical
system. If a fault occurs in the system, it will be sensed by this central control room and proper switching action will be decided
[37]. It is also called as centrally controlled backup protection [37].
2.7.2 System
The knowledge of the system that need to be protected and the method of its protection should be known to achieve a
successful application of protective gear [12]. The minimum and maximum fault current levels for the different types of fault
occurred at different zones of the power system should be calculated. The maximum load current also should be known in
order to determine whether the ratio of the minimum fault current level to the maximum load current level is high enough to
allow simple overcurrent operated relay to be practiced successfully [12].
2.7.3 Scheme
A desired protective scheme can be chose after all the system detail have been studied and calculated. The choices will
depend on the following factors. The system current and voltage from the current and potential transformer will be used to
choose the protective scheme [12].
The following are the common protection scheme used:
Time-graded overcurrent protection
This type of scheme is based on the time/current principle of protection. When a definite time relay operate for this type of
scheme for a fault current, it start a timing unit which trips the circuit breaker after its pre-set time and also is independent of the
fault current and C.T. saturation thus allowing a closer grading times between the circuit breakers [38]. The operating time of
the relay is set up in increasing order from the far end of the feeder towards the generating source [38]. If a system where the
impedance (distance) between the substations is low this type of scheme is suitable to be used. It means that the fault current
is practically the same if any abnormal condition occurs on any part of the feeder [38] [39].
Distance protection