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Jabat

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ModulPecut
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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji dan syukur kita panjatkan kehadrat Allah Yang maha Esa atas segala rahmat
dan kurnia-Nya sehingga Modul Pecutan Akademik, Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan dapat
dihasilkan pada tahun ini.
Modul Pecutan Akademik ini diharapkan dapat menjadi panduan dan bimbingan
kepada para guru dan para pelajar dalam membuat persediaan bagi menghadapi
peperiksaan UPSR, PMR dan SPM.
Setinggi-tinggi penghargaan dan terima kasih dirakamkan kepada semua guru
dan semua pihak yang terlibat dalam menjayakan penghasilan Modul Pecutan
Akademik ini. Semoga usaha murni ini dapat diteruskan pada masa hadapan bagi
menghasilkan pelajar yang cemerlang, gemilang dan terbilang dan seterusnya
menjayakan visi Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan, Cakna Pendidikan Kelantan Terbilang
2013.

HJ MOHD ADNAN BIN MOHD NOOR


Ketua Sektor Pengurusan Akademik
Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan

CONTENT
CHAPTER
2

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

17

CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION

8 - 16

PERIODIC TABLE

17 24

CHEMICAL BONDS

25 35

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

36 43

ACIDS AND BASES

44 53

SALTS

54 63

MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

64 74

10

RATE OF REACTION

75 84

11

CARBON COMPOUND

85 96

12

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

13

THERMOCHEMISTRY

107 119

14

CHEMICAL FOR CONSUMERS

120 126

MARKING SCHEME

127 - 177

97 106

CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE OF ATOM


SECTION B
Bahagian B
1. Freezing point of naphthalene is 80oC,
a) What is meant by freezing point?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan takat beku?
[1 mark/markah]
Answers:
Freezing point of a substance is the ... at which the substance at its
.... states changes to .... state at certain pressure

b) Sketch a graph of temperature against time for the freezing process of a


substance. Label the freezing point on the graph.
Lakarkan graf suhu melawan masa untuk proses pembekuan suatu bahan.
Labelkan takat beku pada graf
[ 3 marks/markah]
Answer:

c) The arrangement and movement of particles in solid and gas are described in
the kinetic theory of matter. Construct a table to show the differences in
arrangement, movement, energy contents and forces of attraction betwee the
particles in solid and gas
Susunan dan pergerakan zarah dalam pepejal dan gas boleh dijelaskan dengan
teori kinetic jirim. Bina satu jadual untuk menunjukkan perbezaan pada susunan
zarah, pergerakan, kandungan tenaga dan daya tarikan antara zarah dalam
pepejal dan gas.
[8 marks/markah]
Guided answers:
Properties

Solid

Liquid

Gas

The particles are


randomly arranged
and very far apart
from each other.

Arrangement of
particle

The particles can


vibrate, rotate and
move throughout
the liquid.

Movement

Energy of particles
Low

Force of attraction
Very weak

d)

24

32

35

12

16

17

(i) Write the electron arrangement of elements S and T


Tuliskan susunan electron bagi element S dan T
[2 marks/markah]

Answers:

ii) State the number of sub atomic atom of S


Tuliskan bilangan sub atom bagi atom S
[3 marks/markah]
Answer:
Sub atomic atom of S
1. Proton
= __________
2. Electron

= __________

3. Neutron

= __________

iii) What is represented by numbers 24 and 12 in element R? State the number of


neutrons and the number of valence electrons of R
Apakah yang mewakili nombor 24 dan 12 dalam unsur R? Nyatakan nombor
neutron dan bilangan valence electron bagi atom R.
[ 4 marks/markah]
Answer:
Number 24:

___________________________________________

Number 12:

___________________________________________

Neutron Number:

_________

Valence electron:

_________
3

a) A white crystal of P is heated. At 70oC, P is change to liquid and at 150oC,its


change to gas.
Satu hablur P dipanaskan. Pada 70oC, P bertukar kepada cecair dan pada 150oC
ia bertukar menjadi gas.
i) Name the process that solid change to liquid.
Namakan proses dimana pepejal bertukar kepada cecair
[1 mark/markah]
ii) Draw the arrangement of particles P at 100oC and 170oC.
Lukiskan susunan zarah P pada 100oC dan 170oC.
[4 marks/markah]
iii) Describe the movement of particle at room temperature.
Huraikan pergerakan zarah pada suhu bilik.
[2 marks/markah]
b) Chlorine-35 and chlorine 37 are two isotopes of chlorine. The proton number
of chlorine is 17.
Chlorine-35 dan chlorine 37 adalah dua isotop klorin. Nombor proton klorin
adalah 17.
i) What is meant by isotopes?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan isotop ?
[2 marks/markah]

ii) Draw diagram of the electron arrangement of the two chlorine isotopes
Lukiskan susunan electron bagi dua isotope klorin
[6 marks/markah]

iii) Write the symbol representation of isotopes chlorine-35 and chlorine-37


Tuliskan symbol bagi mewakili isotop klorin-35 dan klorin-37
[2 marks/markah]

iv) Would both chlorine isotopes have same chemical properties when
react with iron? Explain.
Adakah kedua-dua isotop klorin mempunyai sifat kimia yang sama apabila
bertindakbalas dengan besi ?Jelaskan.
[3 marks/markah]

SECTION C
Bahagian C
3.

a) One of the characteristics of Chadwicks atomic model is an atom consist of


sub atomic particles. Construct a table to show the name, symbol, relative mass
and relative charge of sub atomic particles.
Satu ciri bagi model atom Chadwick ialah atom terdiri daripada zarah-zarah
sub atom. Bina satu jadual untuk menunjukkan nama / simbol, jisim relative
dan cas relative bagi zarah-zarah subatom .
[9 marks/markah]
Answer:

Name of sub atomic ( symbol )

Relative mass

Relative charge

b) Given that X atom has 23 nucleon number and 11 protons. Using the
modern atomic model, draw the structure of X atom
Diberi bahawa atom X mempunyai nombor nucleon 23 dan nombor proton
11. Dengan mengunakan model atom moden, lukiskan susunan atom X
[8 marks/markah]
Answer:

c) Potassium 39 and potassium 41 are the examples of isotopes .


Give three examples and their uses of isotopes.
Potassium 39 and potassium 41 adalah contoh kepada isotop.
Berikan tiga contoh dan kegunaan isotop.
[3marks]
Guided Answer:

4. a) A student carried out an experiment to determine the freezing point of


naphthalene. The students found that the temperature of naphthalene remained
constant at 80oC for about 3 minutes. Explain why the temperature remained constant
during the freezing point.
Seorang telah menjalankan eksperimen untuk menentukan takat beku naftalene. Para
pelajar mendapati bahawa suhu naftalene tidak berubah pada 80oC selama 3 minit.
Jelaskan mengapa suhu tidak berubah pada peringkat takat beku.
[2 marks/markah]
Matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles
Jirim terdiri daripada zarah-zarah yang halus dan diskrit
b) Design a laboratory experiment to prove the above statement. Your answer
should consist of the following items;
Rancang satu eksperimen dalam makmal untuk membuktikan pernyataan di
atas. Jawapan anda mesti mengandungi perkara berikut;
(i)

Chemicals required
Bahan kimia yang diperlukan

(ii)

Procedure of the experiment


Kaedah eksperimen

(iii)

Observation
Pemerhatian

(iv)

Conclusion
Kesimpulan

[8 marks/markah]

c) Substance M has a melting point of 70oC. Describe a laboratory experiment to


determine and confirm the melting points of M. Your answer should consist of the
following;
Bahan M mempunyai takat lebur 70oC. Huraikan satu eksperimen makmal untuk
menentukan dan mengesahkan takat lebur sebatian M. jawapan anda
hendaklah mengandungi perkara-perkara berikut;
(i)

Procedure
Kaedah

(ii)

Diagram
Gambarajah

(iii)

Tabulation of data and graph.


Penjadualan data dan graf
[10 marks/markah]
7

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equation


Section B [20 marks]
1.

(a) An organic compound Z has relative molecular mass of 46. Its composition
according to mass is
Carbon: 52.2%
Hydrogen: 13.0%
Oxygen: 34.8%

Determine the molecular formula for compound Z and draw its structural formula.
Sebatian organik Z mempunyai jisim molekul relatif 46. Komposisinya mengikut
jisim
Karbon : 52.2%
Hidrogen : 13.0%
Oksigen : 34.8%
Tentukan formula molekul sebatian Z dan lukiskan formula strukturnya.
[6marks]
Answer :
1. Mass
C
:
H
:
O
52.2
:
13.0
:
34.8
2.

No. of mole

C
52.2
12

:
:

= 4.35

3. Simplest ratio

H
13.0

O
34.8

:
:

)+(

)+(

)] n

n=
6. Molecular formula =
]

4. Empirical formula =
5. Molecular formula = (Empirical formula)n
46 = [(

(b) The following information is about an organic compound, K.


Maklumat berikut adalah mengenai suatu sebatian organic, K.
Empirical formula is CH2O.
Formula empiric ialah CH2O
Relative molecular mass is 60.
Jisim molekul relatif ialah 60
Reacts with calcium carbonate to produce a type of gas that turns lime water
chalky.
Bertindak balas dengan kalsium karbonat untuk menghasilkan sejenis gas yang
mengeruhkan air kapur.
Based on the information given:
Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan:
(i) Determine the molecular formula of K.
[Relative atomic mass: H = 1, C = 12, O = 16]
Tentukan formula molekul bagi K.
[3marks]
Answer:
1. Molecular formula = (

)n

2. 60 = [(12 X 1) + (

)+(

n=
3. Molecular formula =

)] n

(ii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of compound K with
calcium carbonate.
(CH3COO)2Ca + H2O +

2CH3COOH +

[2marks]
(c) Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up to determine the empirical formula for
magnesium oxide.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menentukan formula empiric bagi
magnesium oksida.

Diagram
1
Rajah 1
Describe how the experiment is carried out in the laboratory.
Huraikan bagaimana eksperimen ini dijalankan dalam makmal.
[9marks]
Answer:
1. The crucible with its lid is ______________________
2. 10 cm of magnesium ribbon is ______________________ with sandpaper.
3. The ribbon is placed in the crucible. The ________________and its content is
weighed.
4. The crucible is heated strongly without its lid.
5. When the magnesium starts to burn, the crucible is ___________________ with its
lid.
6. The lid is __________________ a little at interval.
7. When the burning is complete, the lid is ____________________.
8. The crucible is ________________ to cool to
_________________________________ with its lid on.
9. The crucible and its content with its lid are
__________________________________.
10. The processing of ____________________, ____________________ and
____________________ are repeated until a _____________________ mass is
obtained and recorded.
10

2. (a) Chemical formulae are used to represent chemicals. Using a suitable example,
explain how a chemical formula helps us to understand the composition of a
chemical.
Formula kimia digunakan untuk mewakilkan bahan kimia. Menggunakan contoh
yang sesuai, terangkan bagaimana formula kimia membantu kita untuk memahami
komposisi bagi suatu bahan kimia.
[3marks]
(b) Table 2 shows three chemicals used in medical field.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan tiga bahan kimia yang digunakan dalam bidang perubatan.
Chemicals
Potassium chloride
Barium sulphate
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Determine the chemical formula of the chemicals.
Tentukan formula kimia bagi setiap bahan kimia di atas.
(c)

[3marks]
Fertiliser usually has high content of nitrogen for growth of plants. Determine the
best fertilizer among the following:
Ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4
Urea, NH2CONH2
Hydrazine, N2H4
Show all the workings in your answer.
[Relative atomic mass : H = 1, C = 12, N = 14, O = 16, S = 32]
Baja biasanya mempunyai kandungan nitrogen yang tinggi bagi pertumbuhan
pokok. Tentukan baja yang terbaik diantara yang berikut:
Ammonium sulfat, (NH4)2SO4
Urea, NH2CONH2
Hidrazin, N2H4
Tunjukkan jalan pengiraan dalam jawapan anda.
[5marks]

11

Section C [20 marks]


3. (a) Diagram 1.1 shows the chemical equation for the reaction between zinc metal and
nitric acid.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas diantara logam zink
dan asid nitric..

Zn (s) + HNO3 (aq) _______ (aq) + H2


(g)
Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1
(i) Complete and balance the chemical equation.
[2marks]
__________ + ________________ ______________ +___________________

(ii) State the information from the chemical equation quantitatively and
qualitatively.
[2 marks]

1.

_____ mol of zinc reacts with ______ mol of nitric acid to produce ______ mol
of zinc nitrate and _______ mol of hydrogen gas.

2.

Zinc metal is in ________ form, nitric acid in _______________ form, zinc


nitrate in _____________ form and hydrogen in __________ form.

12

(b) Diagram 1.2 shows information about the extraction of aluminium metal from
aluminium oxide.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan maklumat tentang pengekstrakan logam aluminium
daripada aluminium oksida.
The extraction of aluminium, Al from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 releases oxygen gas.
Pengekstrakan aluminium, Al, daripada aluminium oksida, Al2O3, membebaskan gas
oksigen.
Diagram 1.2
Rajah 1.2
(i) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
[2 marks]
Answer:
2Al2O3 ____________ + __________________
(ii) What is the mass of aluminium metal that can be extracted from 10.2g of
aluminium oxide? [ Relative atomic mass : O = 16, Al = 27]
[4 marks]
Answer:

1- RMM for Al2O3 =


_____________________________________________________
2- No of mole for Al2O3 =
_________________________________________________
3- From the equation, 2 mol of Al2O3 produced _________ mol of Al. Therefore,
no. of mole for Al = ______________________
4- Mass of aluminium metal = ____________________ X RMM for Al
= ____________________ X ____________
= __________________ g

13

(c) You were provided with a sample of M oxide powder. The colour of the oxide is
green while the colour of M metal is grey. When it is heated with hydrogen, the
oxide is reduced to M metal.
Anda dibekalkan dengan satu sampel serbuk oksida bagi logam M. Warna oksida
itu hijau, manakala warna logam M kelabu. Apabila dipanaskan dengan
hydrogen, oksida itu diturunkan kepada logam M.
Describe an experiment to determine the empirical formula of the metal oxide.
Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empirik oksida logam itu.
[10marks]

14

Answer:
1. Combustion tube and porcelain dish are weighed.
2. A spatula of M oxide is put into the ______________________________________.
3. Combustion tube and the porcelain dish are ______________________again.
4. The readings are _____________________.
5. The hydrogen gas is ________________ into the combustion tube for 5 to 10 minutes to
remove all the____________________________.
6. To determine whether all the air has been removed from the tube, the gas that comes out
from the _______________________ is collected in a _____________________.
7. The burning wooden splinter is put at the mouth of the test tube.
8. The porcelain dish is ________________ strongly until the copper (II) oxide powder
changes colour from ___________________ to ___________________.
9. The combustion tube and porcelain dish are _____________________ to cool to
_____________________________________.
10. The flow of ______________________________ is continued until the apparatus
cools down.
11. The __________ of the combustion tube and its content is _______________ again.

15

4. The following information is regarding three elements A, B and C. These three letters
are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Maklumat berikut tentang unsur A, B dan C. Ketiga-tiga huruf tersebut bukan
mewakili simbol bagi unsur yang sebenar.
One atom of A has twice the mass of one atom of B.
Satu atom A mempunyai jisim dua kali ganda daripada satu atom B.
Ten atoms of A have an equal mass with seven atoms of C.
Sepuluh atom A mempunyai jisim yang sama dengan atom C.
Relative atomic mass of A is 28.
Jisim atom relatif bagi A ialah 28

(a) Based on the information, determine the relative atomic mass of B and C. Then
arrange the elements in ascending order of relative atomic mass.
Berdasarkan kepada maklumat, tentukan jisim atom relatif bagi B dan C. Kemudian,
susun secara menaik unsur-unsur tersebut mengikut jisim atom relatif.
[4marks]
(b) Based on your answer in (a), explain why 14 g of A has an equal number of atoms
with 20 g of C.C is an element located in Group 1 that reacts with water. Write a
balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
Berdasarkan kepada jawapan anda di (a), terangkan mengapa 14 g A mempunyai
bilangan atom yang sama dengan 20 g C.Unsur C terletak di dalam Kumpulan 1
yang boleh bertindak balas dengan air. Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi
tindakbalas itu.
[6marks]
(c) C is a reactive metal that can react readily with oxygen to form an oxide. Describe
how you could determine the empirical formula of the oxide C in the laboratory.
Include all the precautions in your answer.
[Relative atomic mass : O = 16]
C adalah logam reaktif yang mudah bertindak balas dengan oksigen untuk
membentuk oksida. Huraikan bagaimana anda dapat menentukan formula empiric
bagi oksida C di dalam makmal. Sertakan semua langkah berjaga-jaga di dalam
jawapan anda.
[10marks]

16

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS


SECTION B [20 marks]

1 Table 4 shows proton numbers of elements P, Q and R.


Jadual 4 menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur P, Q dan R.
Element
Unsur

Proton number
Nombor proton

11

18
Table 4
Jadual 4

(a)

Based on the Table 4.1,


Berdasarkan Jadual 4.1,
(i)

identify one metal and one non-metal element.


kenal pasti satu unsur logam dan satu unsur bukan logam.
[2 marks]
TIPS:
1. Metal valence electron 1,2,3
2. Non metal - valence electron 4,5,6,7,8.

(ii)

Explain the position of element Q in the Periodic Table of Elements.


Terangkan kedudukan unsur Q dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.
[5 marks]
TIPS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Write the electron arrangement of atom Q


State the group of element Q,
State the valence electron of atom Q
State the period of element of Q,
State the number of period atom Q

17

(iii)

State the observation when elements Q reacted with element P and R.


Nyatakan pemerhatian apabila unsur Q bertindakbalas dengan unsur P dan R.
[3 marks]
TIPS:
1. The reactivity when atom Q reacted with element P.
2. The colour of and state of product.
3. The reactivity when atom Q reacted with element R.

(iv)

Explain the different observation in (a)(iii).


Terangkan perbezaan pemerhatian di (a)(iii).
[4 marks]
TIPS:
Fill in the blank.
Reaction between atom Q and P
1. Atom Q electron.
2. Atom P electron and formed to formed compound with
formula .
Reaction between Atom Q and P
1. No reaction between Atom Q and
2. Atom R has electron arrangement and not required to
., .. or share electron with other element.

Nota: Tips bukan satu jawapan tetapi panduan untuk mendapatkan jawapan.

18

(b) Diagram 4 shows the observations of element Q when react with water.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi unsur Q apabila bertindak balas dengan air.

Element Q
Unsur Q
water
air
Element Q, moves rapidly at random on the surface of the water
with a hissing sound.
The solution formed turns red litmus paper to blue.
Unsur Q, bergerak pantas secara rawak di atas permukaan air
dengan menghasikan bunyi hiss.
Larutan yang terhasil menukarkan kertas litmus merah kepada
biru.
Diagram 4
Rajah 4
(i)

Write the chemical equation when element Q reacts with water.


Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas apabila unsur Q bertindak balas
dengan air.
[3 marks]
TIPS:
1. Correct reactant
2. Correct product
3. Balanced

(ii)

Explain the observation when element Q reacted with water.


Terangkan pemerhatian apabila unsur bertindak balas dengan air.
[3 marks]
TIPS:
1. The reactivity when atom Q reacted with water.
2. The sound produced because the producing of one type of gas.
3. The change colour of litmus paper in solution shows the acidic or alkalinity
of solution .

19

(a)

Noble gases in Group 18 are inert while the elements in Group 17 show similar chemical
properties but the reactivity of the elements decrease with increasing proton number.
Gas adi di dalam kumpulan 18 adalah lengai manakala unsur-unsur di dalam kumpulan 17
menunjukkan sifat kimia yang sama tetapi kereaktifan berkurangan dengan pertambahan
nombor proton.
By using an example of element from each group, explain the statement above regarding to
the electron arrangement of an atom.
Dengan menggunakan satu contoh unsur dari setiap kumpulan , terangkan pernyataan di
atas berdasarkan susunan elektron bagi atom.
[7 marks]

(b)

Explain how
Terangkan bagaimana
(i) the atomic size of an atom changes from left to right across the period.
saiz atom berubah apabila merentasi kala dari kiri ke kanan.
(ii)

[5 marks]
Electronegativity of an element changes from left to right across the period.
Keelektronegatifan unsur berubah merentasi kala dari kiri ke kanan.
[5 marks]

(c) Rubidium, with the symbol Rb, is just below potassium in the Periodic Table.
Rubidium, dengan symbol Rb, berada di bawah kalium di dalam Jadual Berkala.
Compare the reactivity between rubidium and potassium.
Bandingkan kereaktifan di antara rubidium dan kalium.

[3 mark]

20

SECTION C
Diagram 4.3 shows the electron arrangement of ion W-.
Rajah 4.3 menunjukkan susunan elektron bagi ion W-.

1 (a)

Diagram 4.3
Rajah 4.3
(i)

Write the electron arrangement for the atom W and name the atom W.
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom W dan namakan atom W.
[2 mark]

(ii)

State the reason why W is located in group 17 and period 2 in the Periodic Table of
Elements.
Nyatakan sebab mengapakah W terletak di dalam kumpulan 17 dan kala 2 dalam
Jadual Berkala Unsur.
[2 marks]

(iii)

Write a chemical equation for the reaction between atom W and sodium hydroxide.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara atom W dengan natrium
hidroksida.
[3 marks]

(iv )

Another element in the group 17 is a black coloured solid.


Predict the reactivity of this element in its reaction with sodium hydroxide compared
to the element W.
Explain your answer based on the attractive force between the nuclei and the
valence electron in both atoms.
[5 marks]

21

(b) Diagram 4.4 shows the set up of the apparatus to investigates the reaction of an element
from group 17 with iron metal
Rajah 4.4 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tindak balas
satu unsur dari kumpulan 17 dengan logam ferum.

(i)

(ii)

State two precaution that must be taken while carrying out the experiment.
Nyatakan dua langkah keselamatan yang perlu diambil semasa menjalankan
eksperiment.
[2 marks]
Describe and write the chemical equation for the reaction that occur in Part G and
Part H.
Huraikan dan tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di Bahagian G
dan Bahagian H
[6 marks]

22

2 Figure 4.4 shows one of the element in the Periodic Table of Elements.
Rajah 4.4 menunjukkan satu daripada unsur di dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.

24

12
Figure 4.4
(a) Explain how to determine the position of element X in the Periodic Table of Elements.
Terangkan bagaimana menentukan kedudukan unsur X dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.
TIPS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Write the electron arrangement of atom X


The valence electron of atom X
determine the group of element X,
The number of period atom X
determine the period of element of X.

[5 marks]
(b) Proton number of lithium and sodium are 3 and 11 respectively.
Explain why lithium is less reactive than sodium.
Nombor proton litium dan natrium ialah 3 dan 11 masing-masing.
Terangkan mengapa litium kurang reaktif daripada natrium.
[5 marks]
TIPS:
1. Write the electron arrangement of atom Li
2. Write the electron arrangement of atom Natrium
3. Compare the size of atom between lithium atom and sodium atom.
4. Compare the force of attraction between nucleus and valence electron between
lithium atom and sodium atom.
5. Compare the ability to release valence electron between lithium atom and sodium
atom.

Nota: Tips bukan satu jawapan tetapi panduan untuk mendapatkan jawapan.

23

(c) Describe an experiment to compare the reactivity of lithium and sodium when reacted with
water.
Your description should also include the observations, the name of products and chemical
equations for the reactions.
Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kereaktifan litium dan natrium apabila
bertindak balas dengan air.
Huraian anda perlu juga mengandungi pemerhatian, nama hasil tindak balas dan
persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.
[10 marks]
TIPS:
Use your own word to complete the sentences.
1. Procedure
a. . cut of lithium .
b. ..remove the oil using ..
cplace lithium on the surface of water.
d. ..repeated experiment
2. Observation
a. .movement of lithium metal on the surface of water .
b. Name of products:
c. .movement of sodium metal on the surface of water .
d. Name of products:
Equations
Correct formula balanced equation (lithium or sodium).

Nota: Tips bukan satu jawapan tetapi panduan untuk mendapatkan jawapan.

24

Chapter 5: CHEMICAL BOND


Section B
1.
a)
Table 1 show the electron arrangement of elements. The symbol of elements are
not the actual symbol.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan susunan electron bagi unsur-unsur. Simbol bagi unsur bukan
simbol sebenar.
Elements

Electron arrangement

2.1

2.8.6

2.7

2.8.2

i) Classify the above elements in table 1 into metal and non metal.
Kelaskan unsur-unsur di atas dalam jadual 1 kepada logam dan bukan logam
[2 marks]
Metal/logam

Non Metal/bukan logam

ii) Covalent bond forms between non metal atoms, while ionic bonds form between
non metal atom and metal atom.
Ikatan kovalen terbentuk di antara atom bukan logam, manakala ikatan ionic
terbentuk diantara atom bukan logam dengan atom logam.
a) choose the elements which can formed
Pilih unsur - unsur yang boleh membentuk
i) covalent compound = _____ and _____
ii) ionic compound = _____ and ______
[2marks]
25

b) Draw the electron arrangement for the compound formed in i) and ii)
Lukiskan susunan electron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk dalam i) dan ii)
[2marks]
i) Covalent compound

ii) Ionic compound

b) When sodium metal reacts with chlorine, ionic compound is formed. While carbon
reacts with oxygen produce a covalent compound. Explain the formation of ionic and
covalent compound by complete the cross words below.
(proton number Na=11, Cl=17, C=6, O=8).
Apabila logam natrium bertindak dengan atom klorin, sebatian ion terbentuk. Manakala
atom karbon bertindakbalas dengan atom oksigen membentuk sebatian kovalen. Jelaskan
pembentukan sebatian ion dan sebatian kovalen dengan melengkapkan teka silang kata di
bawah. (proton number Na=11, Cl=17, C=6, O=8)

26

i) Ionic bonds are usually formed through the 1 of electrons between atoms of
metal and non metal.
ii) Sodium metal atoms2 one valence electrons to form positive ions, Na+
(sodium ion) .whereas non metal, chlorine atom will 3one electrons to form
negative ions , Cl- (chloride ions), to achieve the octet electron arrangement.
iii) The sodium and chloride ions are attracted to each other by strong 4. forces
of attraction. The attractive force between both ions is known as ..5.. bond or
electrovalent bond.
iv) 6 bonds are formed when non metal atoms, carbon and oxygen are
7their electrons to achieve the duplet or octet electron arrangement.
v) Carbon ..8 four electrons while oxygen constributes 9 electrons.
.10atom carbon share their electrons with two atom oxygen and formed covalent
compound.
[10 marks]

27

c) complete the following by match their words according to the properties of ionic and
covalent compounds

Type of compounds

Properties
Cannot conduct electricity in all
state
Soluble in water

Ionic Compound
High melting and boiling point
Volatile
Not volatile
Soluble in organic solvent
Covalent Compound

As an conductor of electric in
molten and aqueous state
Low melting and boiling point
[4 marks]

28

2. The table below shows the observation of melting point, solubility and electrical
conductivity of two substances
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pemerhatian terhadap keterlarutan, takat lebur, dan
kekonduksian elektrik

Substance

Melting point (oC)

Solubility in water

Electrical conductivity
In Molten

a) i)

ii)

b)

In Solid

714

Soluble

Yes

No

86

Insoluble

No

No

Suggest what P and Q might be:


Cadangkan kemungkinan bagi P dan Q
[ 2 marks ]
Based on information given, determine the type of compounds and the type of
particles found in substance P and Q.
Berdasarkan maklumat di atas, kenalpasti jenis sebatian dan jenis zarah yang
wujud dalam sebatian P dan Q
[4 marks]
Explain why substance P can conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid
state while substance Q cannot conduct electricity in all state.
Jelaskan mengapa bahan P boleh mengalirkan arus elektrik dalam keadaan
leburan tetapi tidak dalam keadaan pepejal, manakala bahan Q tidak boleh
mengalirkan arus elektrik dalam semua keadaan
[ 4 marks]

c)

Design an experiment to investigate the electrical conductivity of substance P by


using suitable example
List the apparatus
Materials
Diagram
Procedure
Observation

29

Rancangkan satu ekperimen untuk mengkaji kekonduksian elektrik oleh bahan P


dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai. Jawapan anda hendaklah mengandungi
perkara berikut:
Senarai alat radas
Bahan-bahan
Gambarajah
Kaedah
Pemerhatian

[ 10 marks]

30

SECTION C:
1.
a)

Explain each of the following observations.


Terangkan setiap pemerhatian yang berikut.
i)

Element P combines with element G to form a compound with low


boiling point.
[ proton number P = 17, G = 6 ]
Unsur P bergabung dengan unsur G untuk membentuk satu sebatian
yang mempunyai takat didih yang rendah
[ Nombor Proton P = 17, G = 6 ]
[ 6 marks]

Guided Answer:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

ii)

G atom with electron arrangement ..


Its needs ..electron to achieve octet electron arrangement.
P atom with electron arrangement
It needs electron to achieve octet electron arrangement.
Each atom G constributes ..electron, while each atom P
constributes one electron for sharing.
One carbon atom and and four atom P . their electrons to form a
covalent compound with low boiling point.

Molten magnesium chloride can conduct electricity, whereas solid


magnesium chloride cannot conduct electricity.
Leburan magnesium klorida dapat mengkonduksikan elektrik manakala
pepejal magnesium klorida tidak dapat mengalirkan arus elektrik.
[ 4 marks]

31

Guided answer (choose the answer)


move freely, cannot move freely,
the positive ions of magnesium ions and
negative ions of chloride ions, fixed positions,
In the molten state, magnesium chloride can conduct electricity because
..are.. While in solid state,
the positive ion and negative ions of magnesium and chloride ions are in
..and ...

b i)

Classified the information below into a formation of ionic or covalent bonds


[ 6 marks/markah]
Its formed when metal atoms combined with non metal atoms.
It involves the sharing of electrons between atoms of non metal
atoms
Each atom contributes an electron for sharing.
Atom lose or gain their electron to form positive ions or negative
ions
Its involve the transfer of electrons from metal atoms to non metal
atoms
Its formed when two non metal atoms are combine together.
The formation of ions enables to achieve stable octet/duplet electron
arrangements
Two atoms share 1, 2 or 3 pairs of electrons to achieve a stable octet
or duplet electron arrangements.
The opposite charged ions are attracted together by strong
electrostatic forces
The molecules are held together by weak forces of attraction.

32

Guided answer (complete the table)


Formation of Ionic Bonds

b) ii)

Formation of Covalent Bonds

Diagram 1 shows the chemical symbols which represent two elements


S and T
Rajah 1 menunjukkan simbol kimia yang mewakili dua unsur S dan T

Draw the electron arrangements of ion S and T


Lukiskan susunan electron bagi ion S dan T
[ 4 marks/ markah]

33

Answer:

34

2
a)
Diagram 2 show the electron arrangements of a molecule MN2. These
letters are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan electron bagi molekul MN2. Huruf-huruf ini bukan simbol
sebenar unsur.

Diagram 2
Based on Diagram 2,
Berdasarkan Rajah 2
i)
Write the electron arrangement of atom M and N
Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi atom M dan N
ii)
Explain the position of element M in the periodic table of elements
Terangkan kedudukan unsur M dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur
[ 6 marks/markah]

b)

Using a suitable example, explain how


Dengan menggunakan contoh yang sesuai, jelaskan bagaimana
i)

an ionic compound
sebatian ion

ii)

a covalent compound
sebatian kovalen

is formed
terbentuk
[ 14 marks/markah]

35

Chapter 6: Electrochemistry
Section B
1. Diagram 1.1 shows the apparatus set-up for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution
using carbon electrodes.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk elektrolisis larutan natrium klorida
menggunakan elektrod karbon.
Chlorine gas
Gas klorin

Hydrogen gas
Gas hidrogen

Carbon electrode
P
Elektrod karbon P

Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1

1.0 moldm-3 of sodium chloride


solution
Larutan natrium klorida 1.0 moldm-3
Carbon electrode
Q
Elektrod karbon
Q

(a) Based on Diagram 1.1,


Berdasarkan kepada Rajah 1.1,
(i) state the factors that determine the products formed at electrode P and electrode
Q. nyatakan faktor yang menentukan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P dan
elektrod Q.
[2marks]
Answer:
Concentration of __________ and the position of
_____________________________
(ii) State the products formed at electrode P and electrode Q if 0.001 moldm-3 of
sodium chloride solution is used as electrolyte.
nyatakan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P dan elektrod Q jika larutan
natrium klorida 0.001 moldm-3 digunakan sebagai elektrolit.

36

Answer :
Electrode P : ______________________________________________________
Electrode Q : _______________________________________________________
(a) Explain the reactions at electrodes. P and Q. Include the following in your
explanation:
Terangkan tindakbalas pada elektrod P dan Q. Penerangan anda perlu
mengandungi:
List of ions attracted to each electrodes, P and Q
Senarai ion-ion yang tertarik ke setiap elektrod, P dan Q.
Names of the ions selectively discharged at each electrode.
Nama ion-ion yang dipilih untuk dinyahcaskan di setiap elektrod.
The reason why the ions are selectively discharged.
Sebab ion-ion dipilih untuk dinyahcaskan.
Half equation for each reaction.
Setengah persamaan bagi setiap tindak balas.
[10marks]
Answer :
1. Ions from water are ______ and ___________
2. Ions from sodium chloride are ____________ and _______________
3. Ions attracted to cathode P are ________________ and ____________
4. Ions attracted to anode Q are ________________ and ____________
5. Ions selectively discharged at cathode is ______________
6. Ions selectively discharged at anode is ______________
7. At the anode, ______ is discharged because its _________________is higher than
OH8. At the cathode, _______ is discharged because its _______________ is lower than
Na+
9. At the cathode, 2H+ +

_________ _______________

10. At the anode, 2Cl-

__________ + _________________
37

(b) Diagram 1.2 shows the set up of apparatus for Cell A and Cell B.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi Sel A dan Sel B.

Copper rod
Rod
Copper(II)
kuprumsulphate solution

Zinc rod
Rod zink

Carbon electrode
Elektrod karbon

Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

Cell
A
Sel A

Cell B
Sel B
Diagram
1.2
Rajah 1.2

Describe the similarities and the differences between Cell A and Cell B.
Terangkan kesamaan dan perbezaan diantara Sel A dan Sel B.
[6 marks]
Answer:
Cell A

Cell B
Similarities
1. Consists of an electrolyte, ____________________ and _______________________
2.Electrons flow from the anode to ________________ in the external ______________
3. Anions move towards the _____________ and cations moves towards the _________
in the electrolyte.
4.

Differences
Converts electrical energy to _________
energy.

5. Positive terminal : accept electrons


Negative terminal : ________________
6.

38

Electrodes : same or two different type of


metals or carbon electrodes.

2. (a)

Carbon
electrode

Copper(I
I)
sulphate
solution
Diagram 2
Rajah 2

Carbon
electrode

Based on Diagram 2,
Berdasarkan kepada Rajah 2,
(i) What is the meaning of electrolysis process?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan proses elektrolisis?
[2marks]
(ii) Using the given electrolyte, explain how an electrolysis process occurs.
menggunakan elektrolit yang diberikan , terangkan bagaimana proses
elektrolisis berlaku.
[6marks]
(b) You were given a strip of zinc metal, Zn and a strip of copper metal, Cu and also
the nitrate solution of both metals.
Anda dibekalkan sejalur logam zink, Zn dan sejalur logam kuprum, Cu serta larutan
garam nitrat bagi kedua-dua logam.
Describe how you would build a chemical cell using all the given materials.
Your answer should include a labeled diagram for the complete apparatus set up.
Huraikan bagaimana anda membina satu sel kimia dengan menggunakan bahan
tersebut. Jawapan anda hendaklah disertakan dengan gambarajah berlabel bagi
susunan radas yang lengkap.
[10marks]

39

Section C
1. (a) You have an iron key that rusts easily.
State how you would solve this problem using an electrolysis process.
Anda mempunyai kunci besi yang mudah berkarat.
Nyatakan bagaimana anda menyelesaikan masalah itu menggunakan proses
elektrolisis.
[4marks]
Answer:
1. The iron key can be ____________ with silver by using electrolysis.
2. In the process, the iron key and a __________rod is dipped into
__________________________________________ solution.
3. The iron key is the cathode and the silver rod is the ____________________
4. When the circuit is switched on, _________________will be deposited on the
surface of the iron key.

(b) Electrolysis is carried out on a dilute sodium chloride solution using carbon
electrodes. Explain how this electrolysis occurs. Use a labelled diagram to explain
your answer.
Elektrolisis dijalankan ke atas larutan natrium klorida cair menggunakan elektrod
karbon. Terangkan bagaimana elektrolisis itu berlaku. Gunakan gambar rajah
berlabel untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda.

Answer:

40

1. The ions present are H+ and __________ from water while ________ and
_______ are from sodium chloride.
2. During electrolysis, both _______ and _________ ions are attracted to cathode
but only ________ ion will be discharged.
3. It is because _________ ion occupies a lower position than sodium ion in the
__________________________ series.
4. _________________________ is released at the cathode.
5. Cl= and _______ ions are attracted to the ________________. OH- ion will be
discharged because it occupies a ___________________________________
than _________ ion in the electrochemical series.
6. __________________________is released at the anode.
[6marks]

(c) Aluminium is placed above zinc in the electrochemical series. Aluminium and
zinc can be used to build a chemical cell, using suitable apparatus and the
following chemicals:
Aluminium terletak di atas zink dalam siri elektrokimia. Aluminium dan zink
boleh digunakan untuk membina sel kimia dengan menggunakan radas yang
sesuai dan bahan kimia yang berikut:

Aluminium sulphate solution

Larutan aluminium sulfat


Zinc sulphate solution
Larutan zink sulfat
Sulphuric acid solution
Larutan asid sulfurik

41

Describe how you build this chemical cell. Include a labeled diagram in your
answer. On your diagram, mark the direction of the electron flow, the positive
terminal and the negative terminal.
Huraikan bagaimana anda membina sel kimia ini. Sertakan gambar rajah
berlabel dalam jawapan anda. Pada gambar rajah anda tandakan arah
pengaliran arah elektron, terminal positif dan terminal negatif.
Answer:

Aluminium electrode

Zinc sulphate
solution

1. The U-tube is filled with half full of ____________________.


2. 3 cm3 of _________________________is filled into one of the U-tube arm drop by
drop.
3. 3 cm3 of________________________________ is filled into the other arm drop by
drop.
4. The diluted sulphuric acid acts as a _________________________connecting the
zinc and aluminium half cell.
5. The aluminium rod is dipped into
_____________________________________solution.
6. The zinc rod is dipped into
__________________________________________solution.
7. An external wire is connected to ___________________ the circuit.
Another 3 marks are from:
- The correct direction of flow of electron on the diagram
- The correct sign of positive terminal and negative terminal on the diagram
- The correct label on the diagram.
[10marks]

42

2. (a) Using an example of solid ionic compound, explain how the compound decomposes
when an electrolysis process occurs.
Dengan menggunakan satu contoh sebatian ion pepejal, terangkan bagaimana
sebatian tersebut terurai apabila dielektrolisiskan.
[7marks]
(b) Using examples of experiments, explain how the following factors,
(i) Type of electrode
(ii) Concentration of ions,
affects the product of electrolysis of aqueous solution.
Dengan menggunakan contoh eksperimen, terangkan bagaimana faktor berikut,
(i) jenis elektrod
(ii) kepekatan ion,
mempengaruhi hasil elektrolisis larutan akueus.
[10marks]
(c) Explain a simple experiment that shows how the process of purification for impure
copper block.
Terangkan satu eksperimen ringkas untuk menunjukkan bagaimana proses
penulenan bongkah kuprum tak tulen.
[3marks]

43

CHAPTER 7: ACID AND BASES


SECTION B
[20 marks]
1. Table 1 shows the pH values of two acids which have the same concentration are given
below.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan nilai-nilai pH untuk dua asid yang mempunyai kepekatan yang
sama diberikan di bawah.
Name of acid
Nama asid

pH value
Nilai pH

Ethanoic acid
Asid etanoik
Sulphuric acid
Asid sulfuric

3
1

Table 1
Jadual 1
(a) Give the formulae of the two acids
Berikan formula untuk dua asid ini.

[2 marks]

Ethanoic acid, Sulphuric acid,

C2H5COOH

H2SO4

HCl

(b) Explain why the pH values of the acids are different.


Jelaskan mengapa nilai pH bagi asid-asid tersebut adalah berbeza.
-

CH3COOH
[10 marks]

Sulphuric acid is a .. acid


It . completely in . to form a
concentration of . ions.
In addition, sulphuric acid is a .. acid.
It produces . ions per molecule of acid.
water
H2SO4
.. + SO42Ethanoic acid is a acid
It . in water to form a ..
.. of a ions.
44

In addition, ethanoic acid is a .. acid.


It produces hydrogen ion . . of acid.
water
. + CH3COO-

(c) State one use of each acid


Nyatakan satu kegunaan bagi setiap asid tersebut.
Name of acid
Ethanoic acid
Sulphuric acid
detergents

vinegar

[ 2 marks]

Use

Electrolytes

fertilisers

Cleaning liquid

(d) Acids undergo neutralisation with base or alkaline solutions.


Asid mengalami peneutralan dengan bes atau larutan alkali.
(i)

What is meant by neutralisation?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan peneutralan?

[2 marks]

- Neutralisation is a reaction between an . and an ..


to form and only.
(ii)

Using one of the acids and potassium hydroxide, write an equation to show
the neutralisation reaction.
[1 mark]
Dengan menggunakan salah satu daripada asid tersebut dan kalium
hidroksida, tuliskan satu persamaan untuk menunjukkan tindak balas
peneutralan.
H2SO4

CH3COOH

H2O

KOH

K2SO4

CH3COOK

45

(iii)

Give one application of neutralisation in each of the following fields :


Berikan satu aplikasi peneutralan dalam setiap bidang berikut:
a) Agriculture,
Pertanian
b) Medical
Perubatan
c) Industry
Industri

[3 marks]

Answer: (Match)
a)

Agriculture

Calcium hydroxide

b)

Medical

Gastric pills

Can be neutralised by alkali it


is acidic before being
discharged into drains
Is used to neutralise acidic soil

c)

industry

Factory effluent

46

Which contain bases, can be


consumed to treat gastric pain

2.

(a) Table 2.1 shows the comparison of ethanoic acid dissolved in different solvents.
Jadual 2.1 menunjukkan perbandingan asid etanoik yang dilarutkan ke dalam
pelarut
yang berbeza.
Description for the
experiment
Penerangan tentang
eksperimen
Calcium carbonate
pellets are added
Palet kalsium karbonat
dimasukkan

Ethanoic acid in
methylbenzene
Asid etanoik dalam
metilbenzena
No reaction occurs
Tiada tindakbalas
yang berlaku

Ethanoic acid in water


Asid etanoik dalam air

Effervercence occurs
Pembuakkan berlaku
Gas liberated turns lime
water milky
Gas terhasil menukarkan
air kapur menjadi keruh

Table 2.1
Jadual 2.1
(i) Refer to the table above, briefly explain the role of water in showing the acidic
properties of ethanoic acid.
Merujuk kepada jadual di atas, terangkan secara ringkas peranan air dalam
menunjukkan sifat asid bagi asid etanoik.
[4 marks]
(b) Three set of experiments are carried out to determine the end point during the
neutralisation of potassium hydroxide, KOH solution with sulphuric acid, H2SO4
using titration method as shown in Diagram 2.
Tiga set eksperimen yang dijalankan untuk menentukan takat akhir peneutralan
larutan kalium hidroksida, KOH dengan asid sulfurik, H2SO4 melalui kaedah
pentitratan seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2.

47

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
Table 2.2 shows the result of the experiment.
Jadual 2.2 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen.
Titration number
Nombor pentitratan
Final burette reading (cm3)
Bacaan akhir buret (cm3)
Initial burette reading (cm3)
Bacaan awal buret (cm3)
Volume of sulphuric acid (cm3)
Isipadu asid sulfurik (cm3)

24.25

25.25

24.65

0.15

1.20

0.60

24.10

24.05

24.05

Jadual 2.2
Table 2.2
(i) What is the volume of 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 required to exactly
neutralise 25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide, KOH solution?
Apakah isipadu asid sulfurik, 0.1 mol dm-3 yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan
25.0 cm3 larutan kalium hidroksida
[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the concentration of potassium hydroxide, KOH solution, in g dm-3
based on the results in Table 2.
[Relative atomic mass : H = 1, O = 16, and K = 39]
Berdasarkan keputusan dalam Jadual 2 hitungkan kepekatan dalam g dm-3 bagi
larutan kalium hidroksida, KOH.
[Jisim atom relatif : H = 1, O = 16, dan K = 39]
[4 marks]

48

(c) Using the same method as shown in Diagram 2, describe an experiment to


determine the end point of sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution and hidrochloric
acid, HCl using phenolphthalein indicator.
Dengan menggunakan kaedah yang sama seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2,
huraikan satu eksperimen bagi menentukan takat akhir natrium hidroksida dan
asid hidroklorik dengan menggunakan penunjuk fenolftalein.
Your explanation should include:
Penerangan anda hendaklah mengandungi:
List of apparatus and materials
Senarai bahan dan radas
Procedure
Prosedur
Observations
Pemerhatian
[10 marks]

49

SECTION C
[20 marks]
1.

(a) By using one named example of a strong acid, explain the chemical properties
of an acid. Include the chemical equations in your explanation.
Dengan menggunakan satu contoh asid kuat, terangkan sifat kimia asid. Sertakan
persamaan-persamaan kimia di dalam penerangan anda.
[6 marks]
- acid
-

Acid react with base / .. to produces

..

and

.
NaOH

.. +

H2O

Acid react with to produces .. and hydrogen

HCl + .. + ..

Acid react with metal carbonate to produces salt , .. and water

.. + .. CaCl2

+ + ...

(b) Table 1 shows the observation when solution R and T is tested with a blue
litmus paper.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan pemerhatian apabila larutan R dan larutan T diuji dengan
kertas litmus biru.
Solution / Larutan

Observation / Pemerhatian

Ethanoic acid in water


Asid etanoik dalam air

Blue litmus paper turn red


Kertas litmus biru bertukar merah

Ethanoic acid in tetrachloromethane No change


Asid
etanoik
dalam Tiada perubahan
tetraklorometana
Table 1
Jadual 1

Based on table 1, explain the difference in the observation


Berdasarkan Jadual 1, terangkan perbezaan dalam pemerhatian itu.
[4 marks]
-

Solution R :

Ethanoic acid . in water to produces ions

The presence of .., show its properties.


50

Solution T :

Ethanoic acid in exists as .. .

No .. ion is present. . show its .. properties

(c) A student wanted to prepare 250 cm3 standard solution of potassium hydroxide
with a concentration of 1.0 moldm-3 in the school library.
Seorang pelajar ingin menyediakan 250cm3 larutan piawai kalium hidroksida
dengan kepekatan 1.0 moldm-3 dalam makmal sekolah.
Describe how the student would prepare the solution.
Include the following in your description :
The material and apparatus needed
The calculation involved
The steps involved in the preparation
Huraikan bagaimana pelajar itu dapat menyediakan larutan tersebut.
Sertakan yang berikut dalam huraian anda :
Bahan dan radas yang diperlukan
Pengiraan yang terlibat
Langkah-langkah yang terlibat dalam penyediaan
[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16; K, 39]
[10 marks]
-

Materials: .. and...........................................

Apparatus: ........ beaker, .. volumetric flask, . ,


.. ,

..

Calculation ; determine the mass of , KOH


i)

No. of moles of . = MV = () X
1000
=

ii)

Mass of ..

(..)

1000

. Mole
X [ . + 16 +

..]
=

51

(must have unit)

Steps : (Arrange)
Distilled water is added to the beaker to dissolve all the solid potassium
hydroxide
Using an electronic balance, 14 g of potassium hydroxide is exactly
weighed and placed into a beaker
The solution in the volumetric flask is topped up with distilled water until
its calibration mark.
Then, the solution is poured into a 250 cm3 volumetric flask. The beaker is
rinsed with distilled wated and the solution is poured in the volumetric
flask.

(a) Magnesium hydroxide is one of the substances that are added in tooth paste. Write the
chemical formula for magnesium hydroxide and state its function in tooth paste.
Magnesium hidroksida merupakan salah satu bahan yang terdapat dalam ubat gigi.
Tuliskan formula kimia bagi magnesium hidroksida dan nyatakan fungsinya dalam ubat
gigi.
[2 marks]
(b) Table 2.1 shows the concentration and pH values for solution P and solution Q. P is a
strong acid while Q is a weak acid.
Jadual 2.1 menunjukkan kepekatan dan nilai pH bagi larutan P dan larutan Q. P ialah
asid kuat manakala Q ialah asid lemah.
Solution
Larutan

Concentration / mol dm-3


Kepekatan / mol dm-3

pH value
Nilai pH

0.1

1.0

0.1

3.0

Table 2.1
Jadual 2.1

(i)

Name an example of P and Q.


Namakan satu contoh P dan Q.

[2 marks]

52

(ii) Explain why the pH values for these solutions are different.
Terangkan mengapa nilai pH bagi kedua-dua larutan ini adalah berbeza.
[4 marks]
(c)

Without water, an acid will not display the characteristics of an acid


Describe an experiment to prove the above statement.

[10 marks]
t

53

Section B
1(a)

The following are three examples of carbonate salts.


Berikut adalah tiga contoh garam karbonat.

Potassium carbonate, K2CO3


Kalium karbonat
Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3
Magnesium karbonat
Sodium carbonate,Na2CO3
Natrium karbonat

(i) From these examples, identify the soluble and insoluble salts.
Daripada contoh-contoh ini, kenal pasti garam terlarutkan dan garam tak
terlarutkan.
[2 marks]
Answer:

Soluble salts

Insoluble salts

(ii) State the reactants for the preparation of the insoluble salts in 1(a)(i).
Nyatakan bahan tindak balas bagi penyediaan garam tak terlarutkan di 1(a)(i)
[2 marks]

54

Answer:
soluble salt

Soluble salt

insoluble salt

+ soluble salt

Reactants:

___________________ , ____________________

(b) You are provided with impure Copper (II) sulphate salt crystals.
Explain how to purify the salt by recrystalisation method.
Anda dibekalkan dengan hablur garam kuprum(II) sulfat tak tulen.
Terangkan bagaimana menulenkan garam itu dengan menggunakan kaedah
penghabluran semula.
[6 marks]
Answer:
1. _____________ the salt in distilled water in the beaker.
2. __________ the mixture slowly until saturated.
3. Filter the mixture while it is still __________.
4. Leave the filtrate to cool until the __________ form.
5. _______________ the salt crystals and rinse with a little distilled water.
6.

___________ the salt crystals by pressing between two filter papers.

(c)

Diagram 1 shows an incomplete flow chart of cation and anion tests for salt Q.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan carta alir yang tidak lengkap bagi ujian kation dan anion
garam Q.

Salt Q
Garam
Q
Anion test
Ujian anion

Cation test
Ujian kation

Zn2+

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
55

SO42-

Use the reagents listed below and complete the flow chart to confirm that salt Q
contains Zn2+ ions and SO42- ions. Include your observations.
Gunakan reagen yang disenaraikan di bawah dan lengkapkan carta alir untuk
menentusahkan garam Q itu mengandungi ion Zn2+ dan ion SO42-. Nyatakan juga
pemerhatian anda.

REAGENTS
REAGEN
Sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia solution, barium chloride solution and dilute hydrochloric acid
Larutan natrium hidroksida, larutan ammonia, larutan barium klorida dan asid hidroklorik cair

[10 marks]

56

Answer (Write into sentences)


Salt Q

Anion test

Cation test

SO42-

Zn2+
Dissolves the
salt

Add sodium
hydroxide solution
until in excess

Add excess dilute


hydrochloric acid
+
barium chloride solution

Add ammonia
solution until in
excess

White precipitate

Section B

White precipitate
White precipitate
dissolves in excess dissolves in excess
sodium hydroxide
ammonia solution
solution

57

2(a)

(i) State two types of reaction for the preparation of magnesium nitrate salt which
is soluble salt.
Nyatakan dua jenis tindak balas bagi penyediaan garam magnesium nitrat
iaitu garam terlarutkan.
[2 marks]
(ii) Write one chemical equation for the salts prepared in each types of reaction
that you mentioned in (a)(i).
Tuliskan satu persamaan kimia untuk garam yang disediakan bagi setiap jenis
tindak balas yang anda nyatakan di (a)(i).
[2 marks]

(b) Diagram 1 shows an experiment that is carried out for the preparation of lead (II)
carbonate salt.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu experiment yang dijalankan untuk menyediakan garam
plumbum(II) karbonat.

Potassium carbonate
solution
Solid
lead(II)
Larutan
carbonate kalium karbonat
Pepejal plumbum(II)
karbonat

Lead(II) nitrate solution


Larutan plumbum(II)
nitrat solution

(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between lead (II) nitrate and
potassium carbonate.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas di antara plumbum(II) nitrat dan
kalium karbonat.
[2 marks]
(ii) Calculate the mass of lead (II) carbonate formed if 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3
potassium carbonate solution is used in the experiment.
[Relative molecular mass of lead(II) carbonate, 267]
Kira jisim plumbum(II) karbonat yang terbentuk jika 25 cm3 larutan
kalium karbonat 0.5 mol dm-3 digunakan dalam eksperimen.
[ Jisim bandingan molekul bagi plumbum(II) karbonat, 267]
[4 marks]

58

(c)

You are given the following substances:


Anda dibekalkan bahan-bahan berikut:
Zinc oxide powder
Serbuk zink oksida
1.0 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate solution
1.0 mol dm-3 larutan natrium karbonat
0.5 mol dm-3 dilute sulphuric acid
0.5 mol dm-3 larutan asid sulfurik cair
Describe how you can prepare zinc carbonate from the given substances.
In your description, include the chemical equation involved.
Huraikan bagaimana anda dapat menyediakan zink karbonat daripada bahanbahan yang diberikan.Dalam huraian anda, sertakan persamaan kimia yang
terlibat.
[10 marks]

59

Section C
1(a)

Name two examples of soluble salts and two examples of insoluble salts.
Namakan dua contoh garam terlarutkan dan dua contoh garam tak terlarutkan.
[4 marks]
Answer
Soluble salts:
Insoluble salts:

(b)

i. ____________________
i. ____________________

ii. ___________________
ii. ___________________

Insoluble salt can be prepared by precipitation reaction.


Explain with an example the meaning of precipitation reaction.
Garam tak terlarutkan boleh disediakan melalui tindak balas pemendakan.
Jelaskan dengan menggunakan contoh maksud tindak balas pemendakan.
[3 marks]

Answer:
Example:Na2SO4

Pb(NO3)2 __________ + _____________

Precipitation reaction is the reaction of exchange of the ions that takes place
between _______ ion and _______ ion producing lead(II) sulphate .
(c)

Describe the preparation of lead(II) iodide salt in the laboratory.


In your description, include the chemical equation involved.
Huraikan penyediaan garam plumbum(II) iodida dalam makmal.
Dalam huraian anda, sertakan persamaan kimia yang terlibat
[6 marks]

60

Answer:
Arrange the following steps for the preparation of lead(II) iodide salt.
Susunkan langkah-langkah berikut untuk penyediaan garam plumbum(II) iodida.
a

The yellow salt crystals are formed.


Hablur garam berwarna kuning terbentuk.

50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution is added to 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3
lead(II) nitrate solution.
50 cm3 larutan kalium iodida 1 mol dm-3 ditambahkan kepada 50 cm3 larutan
plumbum(II) nitrat 1 mol dm-3 .

The salt crystals are dried between two filter papers.


Hablur garam itu dikeringkan di antara dua kertas turas.

The salt crystals formed are filtered and rinsed with a little distilled water.
Hablur garam yang terbentuk itu dituras dan dibilas dengan sedikit air suling.

.
Chemical equation:
Persamaan kimia

KI +

Pb(NO3)2 _______

+ __________

(d) You are given two bottles containing sodium chloride solution and sodium nitrate
solution.
Describe how you can identify both solutions using suitable tests.
Anda diberikan dua botol yang mengandungi larutan natrium klorida dan larutan
natrium nitrat.
Huraikan bagaimana anda boleh mengenal pasti kedua-dua larutan itu
menggunakan ujian-ujian yang sesuai.
[7 marks]
Answer:
Anion test : ClUjian anion
1.

Add dilute ________________


Tambahkan _______________ cair.

2. Add ______________________
Tambahkan _______________
3. ________________ is formed.
61

_________________ terbentuk.
Anion test : NO 3 Ujian anion
1. Add dilute ________________
Tambahkan _______________ cair.
2. Add ______________________
Tambahkan _______________
3. Add slowly concentrated _________________
Tambahkan perlahan-lahan ___________________ pekat.
4. ________________ is formed.
_________________ terbentuk.

62

Section C
2(a)

The continuous variation method is used to construct an ionic equation for a


precipitation reaction. 5.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 metal X nitrate, X(NO3 )2 solution
requires 5.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm -3 potassium chromate (VI), K2CrO 4 solution for
complete reaction.
Kaedah perubahan berterusan digunakan untuk membina persamaan ion untuk
tindak balas pemendakan. 5.0 cm3 larutan logam nitrat X, X(NO3 )2 0.2 mol dm 3
memerlukan 5.0 cm3 larutan kalium kromat (VI), K2CrO 4 0.2 mol dm -3 untuk
tindak balas lengkap.
(i) Calculate the ratio number of moles of X2+ ion to CrO4 2- ion.
Hitung nisbah bilangan mol ion X2+ kepada ion CrO4 2- .
[3 marks]
(ii) Construct an ionic equation for the reaction.
Bina persamaan ion untuk tindak balas itu.
[1 mark]

(b)

Potassium chloride is a soluble salt.


Describe how to prepare a dry sample of potassium chloride salt in the laboratory.
In your description, include the chemical equation involved.
Kalium klorida ialah garam larut.
Huraikan bagaimana untuk menyediakan sampel garam kalium klorida kering
dalam makmal.
Dalam huraian anda, sertakan persamaan kimia yang terlibat.
[10 marks]

. (c) Describe how you would test for the presence of copper(II) ions and carbonate ions
in the copper(II) carbonate salt crystals.
Huraikan bagaimana anda menguji kehadiran ion kuprum(II) dan ion karbonat
dalam hablur garam kuprum(II) karbonat.
[6 marks]

63

CHAPTER 9: MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY


Section B [20 marks]
1. Diagram 7 shows the flow chart for the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid
and the production of three types of fertilisers, fertilizer Y , Ammonium nitrate and urea.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan carta alir bagi pembuatan asid sulfurik secara industry dan
penghasilan tiga jenis baja, baja Y, ammonium nitrat dan urea.
Step 1/
Step 2/
Substance X
Sulphur
Sulphur dioxide
Langkah
Langkah
Bahan X
Sulfur
Sulfur
dioksida
1
2

Step 3/
Langkah
3

Ammonia
Ammonia

Urea, CO(NH2)2
Urea, CO (NH2)2

Sulphuric acid
Asid Sulfuric
Diagram / Rajah 7

Step 4/
Langkah
4

Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrat

Oleum
Oleum

Fertiliser Y
Baja Y

(a) ( i ) Based on step I to IV, describe briefly the industrial production of


Sulphuric acid.
Berdasarkan langkah I hingga langkah IV, huraikan secara ringkas
penghasilan asid sulfurik secara industri.
[ 4 marks]
Answer:
__________ is burnt in air to produced _____________
Sulphur dioxide is_______ to ____________ in excess___________
Sulphur trioxide is __________ in ________________to form__________
The oleum is _____________ to produce concentrated ______________
64

(ii) The conversion of sulphur dioxide to substance X is very slow and the
percentage of conversion is also very low. State three ways to overcome this problem.
Penukaran sulphur dioksida kepada bahan X sangat perlahan danperatus
penukaran juga sangat rendah. Nyatakan tiga cara untuk mengatasi masalah ini
[ 3 marks]

Answer:
a) Temperature:____________
b) Pressure: ________________
c) Catalvst : _______________

(iii) Explain why the substance X could not reacts directly with water to
ssulphuric acid.
[2 marks]

Answer:
Because the reaction ____________________ and water is too
exothermic and a ____________ is released
The sulphuric acid will __________ to form __________

(iv) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between sulphuric acid
and ammonia to produce fertilizer Y.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara asid sulfurik dan
ammonia untuk menghasilkan baja Y.
[2 marks]
Answer:

......................

..............................

2NH3

........
65

(b) Name the chemical that are used to react with ammonia to prepare ammonium
nitrate and urea. Write balanced equations for both the reaction
Namakan bahan kimia yang digunakan untuk bertindak balas dengan ammonia
untuk menyediakan ammonium nitrit dan urea. Tuliskan persamaan seimbang
bagi kedua-dua tindak.
[5 marks]
Answer:
Name the chemical : __________
: ________________

NH3

_______

__________
+

CO2

_______________
____________ + H2O

( c ) Compare the effectiveness of ammonium nitrate and urea as fertilizers.


[Given that molar mass for ammonium nitrate = 80 g mol-1 , urea = 60 g mol-1
Nitrogen = 14 g mol-1]
Bandingkan keberkesanan ammonium nitrat dan urea sebagai baja.
[ Diberi jisim molar bagi ammonium nitrat = 80 g mol-1 , urea = 60 g mol-1
Nitrogen = 14 g mol-1]
[4 marks]

66

Answer:
% of nitrogen in arnnroniurn ni t rate =__________________
__________________

% of nitrogen in Urea

=_________________
=_________________

The percentage of Nitrogen by mass is _______________in Urea


Than_______________________

___________is____________ as fertiliser

Total: 20 marks

67

(a)

Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber process.


Ammonia dihasilkan secara industri melalui Haber proses.
(i)

(ii)

(b)

Construct a flow chart to show the stages in the manufacture of ammnoia,


starting from raw material. Include the relevent equation and three conditions
to get the optimum products in your flow chart.
Bina carta alir untuk menunjukkan peringkat-peringkat dalam penghasilan
ammonia, bermula dari bahan mentah. Sertakan persamaan yang berkaitan
dan tiga keadaan untuk penghasilan hasil yang optimum di dalam carta alir
anda.
[10marks]
The main uses of ammonia are to make fertilisers. By using one example of
fertilisers, name the reactants of this fertiliser and write the chemical equation
for this reaction.
Kegunaan utama ammonia adalah untuk membuat baja. Dengan
menggunakan satu contoh baja, namakan bahan tindak balas untuk baja ini
dan tulis persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas ini.
[4 marks]

Figure 1.1 shows the waste product from a factory which affects the quality of the
environment.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan bahan buangan daripada sebuah kilang yang menjejaskan
kualiti alam sekitar.

Figure / Rajah 1.1

68

Based on Figure 1.1, describe how the waste product affect the quality of the
environment.
Your description should include the following aspects:
Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1, huraikan bagaimana bahan buangan ini menjejaskan kualiti
alam sekitar.
Penerangan anda hendaklah meliputi aspek berikut:
Source/Punca
Process/Proses
Effects/Kesan
[6 marks]
Section C
1

(a) Our National Monument in Kuala Lumpur is more than forty years old. It is made
From bronze, an alloy of copper and until today, it is still standing high, strong and
beautiful.
Tugu Negara di Kuala Lumpur sudah menjangkau umur lebih empat puluh tahun.
Ia diperbuat daripada gangsa,suatu aloi kuprum dan sehingga sekarang ia masih
berdiri teguh, kuat dan menarik.
(i) Referring to the situation above, describe one experiment to compare the hardness
of alloy from its metal. Your explanation should include the following aspect;
Merujuk kepada situasi di atas, huraikan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan
kekerasan aloi dari logamnya. Penerangan anda mestilah merangkumi aspekaspek berikut;
Materials and apparatus
Bahan dan radas
Procedure
Kaedah
Tabulating of data
Penjadualan data
Conclusion
Kesimpulan
[10 marks]

69

Answer:
Apparatus:
1 kg weight, ______________, retort stand and clamp, thread
and ________ ball
Materials:
__________ block and bronze block
Procedure
1. A __________ ball is stuck onto the copper block
2. A 1 kg weight is hung at a height of 0.5m from the top of ________ block.
3. the weight is ______________
4. the ____________ of ____________ is recorded
5. Step 1 to 4 is ___________ several times to obtain an ________ of the diameter.
6. The experiment is repeated using a _________ block.

70

Tabulation of data
Experiment

Average
diameter/mm

Diameter of dent on the copper block /


mm
Diameter of dent on the bronze block /
mm
Conclusion
___________ is smaller than ___________
__________ is harder than ___________
(ii) By using a labeled diagram of the arrangement of atoms into metal and its
alloys, explain why alloy is harder than its metal.
Dengan menggunakan suatu rajah berlabel bagi susunan atom dalam logam
dan aloinya, terangkan mengapa aloi lebih keras dari logamnya.
[6 marks]
Answer

atoms in ________ are arrange in _________ manner.


Atoms are ___________ to ___________ when _________ are applied.
The presence of __________ in __________ which are not in the
_______ size disturb the ________ arrangement of _______ atoms
This __________ atoms from ___________ when __________ are
applied.

71

(iv) Name alloy suitable for building bodies of planes and give two metals
used in this alloy.
State the properties of this alloy.
Namakan aloi yang sesuai untuk membina badan pesawat terbang dan
berikan dua logam yang digunakan dalam aloi ini.
Nyatakan sifat-sifat aloi ini.
[4 marks]
Answer:
Choose the answer in box given.
Bronze
Silver

Stainless steel
aluminium

Pewter
light

Duralumin
shiny

The alloy is ___________.


Two metals in this alloy are ___________ and _________
The properties of this alloy are ________ and _________

72

chromium
magnesium

iron
strong

Section C (20 marks)


2. (a) Diagram10 shows the conversion of sulphur to sulphuric acid through contact
process.
Rajah 10 menunjukkan penukaran sulphur kepada asid sulfurik melalui proses sentuh
Contact Process

Sulphur
sulfur

Sulphur
sulfur

Proses Sentuh
Diagram 10 / Rajah 10
Describe the Contact Process
Huraikan Proses Sentuh tersebut
Your answer should include these following aspects:
Jawapan anda perlu mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

Chemical equations for all stages


Persamaan-persamaan kimia untuk semua peringkat

Optimum conditions required


Keadaan keadaan optimum yang diperlukan
[10 marks]

(b)

Fertilisers usually have a high content of Nitrogen. Nitrogen is needed to increases


the growth of plants such as vegetables. The following substances are the
examples of fertiliser which are used by farmers.
Baja biasanya mempunyai kandungan nitrogen yang tinggi. Nitrogen diperlukan
untuk meningkatkan pembesaran tumbuhan seperti sayuran. Berikut adalah
contoh baja yang digunakan oleh petani.
Ammonium sulphate, ( NH4)2 SO4
Urea, CO(NH2)2
Hydrazine, N2H2

73

Calculate the percentage of Nitrogen by mass in each of the three fertilizers given above
And determine the best fertiliser that farmer should used for his plants.
Kira peratus jisim nitrogen dalam setiap satu dari tiga baja di atas dan tentukan baja
yang paling baik yang patut digunakan oleh petani untuk tanamannya.
[ Relative atomic mass: C=12, H= 1: O=16 : N=14: S= 32]
[ 8 marks]
(c) A waste gas is produced during the manufacture of sul phuric acid. Explain briefly
how this gas can cause environmental pollution.
Satu gas buangan telah dihasilkan semasa penghasilan asid sulfurik. Jelas dengan
ringkas bagaimana gas ini boleh mengakibatkan pencemaran alam.
[2 marks]

74

CHAPTER 10: RATE OF REACTION


Section B [20 marks]

1.

(a) Smaller pieces of charcoal are easily burnt compare to bigger pieces of
charcoal. Explain why.
Arang bersaiz kecil lebih cepat terbakar berbanding arang yang besar. Terangkan
mengapa.
1. ............................ of charcoal have .................................area
2. Smaller pieces more total area is ........................to oxygen
3. Big pieces of charcoal have ..................................................
4. ............................... less total area is exposed to oxygen
(b) -----1m
A group of students carried out three experiments to investigate the factors
affecting
the rate of reaction.
Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan tiga eksperimen untuk mengkajifaktor-faktor
yang mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.
Table 7 shows the results of the experiments.
Jadual 7 menunjukkan keputusan bagi eksperimen itu
Experiment
Eksperimen

II

III

30

35

30

18

10

50

Set-up of
apparatus
Susunan
radas

Temperature /
o
C
I suhu / oC
Time taken
for'X'
mark to
disappear
from sight / s
Masa yang
diambil

75

--

untuk tanda
X'
tidak
kelihatan / s
Table 7/Jadual 7
(i) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II
Hitungkan kadar tindak balas punta bagi Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II.
Answer:
Rate of reaction of Exp I = ...............................
= ..............................
Rate of reaction of Exp II= ...............................
= ...............................

(ii) The chemical equation below shows the reaction between sulphuric acid and
sodium thiosulphate solution.
Persamaan kimia di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas antara asid sulfurik dengan
larutan natrium tiosulfat.

Calculate the maximum mass of sulphur produced in Experiment III


[Relative Atomic Mass: S = 32]
Hitung jisim maksimum sulfur yang terhasil dalam Ekspeimen III
[Jisim Atom Relatif; S = 32]
Answer:

Mol of sulphuric acid

= ..............................

= ..............................
Mol of Sodium thiosulphate = ...............................
= ...............................
................mole of sulphuric acid produce ....................
................mole of sulphuric acid produce ....................
Mass of sulphur = ......................
= .......................
76

(iii) Based on Table 8, compare the rate of reaction between


Berdasarkan Jadual 8, bandingkan kadar tindak balas antara

a) Experiment I and Experiment II


Eksperimen Idan Eksperimen II

b) Experiment I and Experiment III


Eksperimen Idan Eksperimen III

In each case, explain the difference in the rate of reaction with reference to the Collision
Theory.
Bagi seliap kes, terangkan perbezaan kadar tindak batas dengan merujuk kepada Teori
Perlanggaran.
[10 marks]
Answer: (a)
Experiment I and Experiment II
The rate of reaction in ................is ................ than ......................
This is because ..........................has higher................... than experiment I
The .......................of the ..................... and thiosulphate ion is higher in exp. II
The ..............................between Hydrogen ions and ................................increases
Answer: (b)
Frequency of..............................................

Answer: (b)
Experiment I and Experiment III
.................. of reaction of ........................ is higher than.............................
This is because the ..................... of solution in .......................... is higher
The .......................... per unit volume in the solution...............................
The ........................ between .................... and thiosulphate ions............................
The ................................. collision.........................................
77

2. A group of studens carried out an experiment (experiment I) to determine the rate of


reaction between excess marble chips and 50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid at room
temperature. The reaction was completed within 300 seconds.
Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan ekperimen (eksperimen I) untuk menentukan tindak
balas antara kepingan batu marmar berlebihan dan 50 cm3 asid hidroHorik 0.1 mol dm-3,
pada suhu bilik. Tindak balas lengkap dalam masa 300 saat.
(a) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up of apparatus for the experiment.
Lukiskan rajah berlabel bagi alat radas yang digmakan untuk eksperimen.
[2 marks]
(ii) Sketch a graph of volume of gas against time that you expect to obtain from the
experiment.
Lakarkan graf isipadu gas melawan masa yang anda jangkakan di perolehi
daripada eksperimen.
[2 marks]
(b) (i) Calculate the manimum volume of carbon dioxide expected to be evolved.
[Relative atomic mass: H:1, c=12, O=16, Ca:40 and I mole of any gas occupies
24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure]
Kirakan isipadu maksimum karbon dioksida yang dijangka dibebaskan.
[Jisim atom relatif: H:I, C:12, O=16, Ca: 40 dan I mol hagi sebarang gas
menempati ruang 24 dm3 pada suhu dan tekanan bilik]
[4 marks]
(ii) Calculate the overall rate of reaction.
Kirakan kadar tindak balas keseluruhan.
[2 marks]

(c) The group of students carried out two more experiments to study other factors that can
change the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. Table 8 shows
the results of the experiments.
Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan dua eksperimen lain untuk mengkaji faktor-faktor lain
yang dapat mengubah kadar tindak balas di antara kcpingan marmar dan asid
Hidrokorik. Jadual 8 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen.

78

Experiments
Eksperimen

II

III

Reactant and condition


Bahan dan keadaan tindak balas
Excess small marble chips are added to 50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid at 40oC.
Kepingan kecil marnar berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 50 cm3
asid hidroklorik 0.1 mol dm-3 pada suhu 400 C
Excess powdered marble chips are added to 50 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid at room temperature.
Serbuk marmar berlebihan ditambahkan kepada 50 cm3 asid
Hidrochlorik 0.l mol dm-3 pada suhu bilik
Table 8
Jadual 8

Using the collision theory explains the changes in the rate of reaction that you would
expect in Experiment II and III compared to experiment I.
Menggunakan teori perlanggaran, terangkan perubahan dalam kadar tindak balas yang
anda jangkakan dalam Eksperimen II dan III berbanding eksperimen I.
[10 marks]

79

Section C [20 marks]


3. (a) A group of students carried out experiment to investigate the factor affecting the
rate of reaction between metal P and an acid Q.
Sekumpulan pelajar telah menjalankan eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan faktor yang
mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas antara logam P dan asid Q.
Table 10 shows the information about the reactants and time taken to collect 30 cm3 of
Hydrogen gas.
Jadual 10 menunjukkan maklumat tentang bahan tndak balas dan masa diambil untuk
mengumpul 30 cm3 gas Hydrogen.
Experiment
Eksperimen
I

II

Reactants
Bahan tindak balas
Powdered metal P and 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3
acid Q
Serbuk logam P dan 50 cm3 asid Q 1.0 mol dm-3
Powdered metal P and 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3
acid Q
Serbuk logam P dan 100 cm3 asid Q 0.5 mol dm-

Time taken( s)
Masa diambil (s)
10

15

Table/ Jadual 10
(i) Suggest the name of metal P and Acid Q
Cadangkan nama logam P dan asid Q
By using the named metal P and acid Q, write the chemical equation.
Menggunakan logam P dan asid Q yang dinamakan, tulis persamaan kimia.
[4 marks]

Answer:

Magnesium/ Zinc. Hydrochloric acid/ Sulphuric acid/ Nitric


acid
Metal P :.............................

---------------

Acid Q :.................................................................

--------------

Chemical equation:

..............................................................................

80

--------------

(ii) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II.
Hitung kadar tindak balas purata bagi Eksperimen I dan Ekperimen II
[2 marks}
Answer:
Ekperiment I:
Average rate of reaction = ..................................
= .. ................................
Ekperiment II:
Average rate of reaction = ..................................
= ..................................

(iii) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II
Terangkan perbezaan kadar tindakbalas antara Eksperimen 1 dan Ekperimen II.
Use the collision theory in your explanation.
Gunakan teori perlanggaran dalam penerangan anda.
[4 marks]
ANSWER:
1. .............of reaction in .......................is ............. than........................
2. Number of ...................................volume in Experiment ............... more than
In Experiment..........................
3. ...................................between ....................and ..................in Experiment I is
..................... than in Experiment II
4. ......................................between .................. and .....................in Experiment I is
.......................than in Experiment II

(b) By using the factor size of reactant, describe an experiment how this factor affecting
the rate of reaction.
Dengan menggunakan faktor saiz bahan tindak balas, huraikan satu eksperimen bagaimana
faktor berkenaan mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas.

[10 marks]
81

Answer:
2. . Data/ result:
Eksperimen I: Using a powder of Calcium Carbonate
......................../ s
......................................../
cm3
Eksperimen II: Using a granulated of Calcium Carbonate
....................../ s
....................................../ cm3
Materials: ................................Calcium carbonate, granulated...........................................,
0.5 mol dm-3 ........................................, water
Apparatus: 150 cm3 .......................flask, 50 cm3 ........................... cylinder, .................with
delivery tube, basin, ...............................with clamp , ......................, burette
and

...................................... balance.

Procedure
1. Pour ...................................................................0.5 mol dm-3 into a ................. flask.
2. Filled a .....................with a water and .......................... it over a basin of water and clamp a burette

vertically using..................................
3. ............................... burette reading is.........................................
4. ............... the powder of Calcium Carbonate into a .................... flask and is close it

............................ with ............................. and delivery tube.


5. Start the .................................................... immediately
6. ...................... the volume of gas produce and ...................... at 30 seconds intervals.
7. ............................ the step 1 to 8 by using the ........................... of Calcium Carbonate.

82

3. Sketch the graph of volume of gas against time for both experiments at same axes.
............................... /

Cm3

.............../ s
[ Gradient graph using powder is higher than large pieces]
Rate of reaction using .....................................is higher than .............................

Total ; 20 marks

83

RATE OF REACTION: SECTION C ( 20 marks)

4.
Sodium thiosulphate solution reacts with an acid to produce a salt,
Sulphur and a smelly gas, sulphur dioxide.
Larutan Natrium tiosulfat bertindak balas dengan satu asid untuk
menghasilkan sulfur dan satu gas berbau sengit, sulphur dioksida

(a) Write an ionic equation to represent the reaction given in the box above.
Tuliskan persamaan ionic untuk mewakili tindak balas yang dinyatakan dalam petak di
atas.
[2 marks]
(b) The rate of the above reaction can be measured based on the mass of sulphur produced.
Based on this, state the meaning of the rate of reaction.
Kadar bagi tindak balas di atas boleh diukur berdasarkan jisim sulphur yang
terbentuk. Berdasarkan ini, nyatakan maksud kadar tindak balas.
[2 marks]
(c) Give two factors that can affect the rate of the reaction stated above and state the
respective effects.
Beri dua faktor yang boleh mempengaruhi kadar tindak balas tersebut di atas dan
kesan masing-masing.
[4 marks]
(d) You are given a conical flask, a piece of white paper and all other common apparatus
found in a normal school laboratory. Describe by writing the steps in detail, an experiment
to prove the effect of one of the factors that you have given in (b). In your answer, you are
required to show how the data can be analysed to help you write a inference and
conclusion for your experiment.
Anda dibekalkan dengan satu kelalang kon, sehelai kertas putih dan semua radas biasa
dalam sebuah makmal sekolah biasa. Huraikan dengan menulis langkah-langkah yang
teliti, satu eksperimen untuk membuktikan kesan salah satu faktor yang anda berikan di
(b). Dalam jawapan , anda di kehendaki menunjukkan bagaimana data yang didapati
boleh dianalisakan untuk menolong anda membuat inferens dan kesimpulan untuk
eksperimen anda.
84

[12 marks]
CHAPTER 11: CARBON COMPOUNDS
SECTION B
1. (a) Butene, C4H8, has three isomers.
Butena, C4H8 mempunyai tiga isomer.
(i)

Draw the structural formulae for all the isomers.


Lukiskan formula struktur bagi semua isomer itu.

Answers:
[Bulatkan]
(i)

(ii)

Suggest one uses of butene, other than as a fuel.


Cadangkan satu kegunaan butena, selain sebagai bahanapi.
[4 marks]

Guided answers: [Bulatkan]


(ii)

(iii)

In making [polymer, poli (butene), plastic].

85

(b) The general formula of homologous series of alkane is CnH2n+2.


Q is a member of this series which contains 82.7% by mass of carbon.
[Relative atomic mass; C=12, H=1]
Formula am bagi siri homologus alkana adalah CnH2n+2.
Q adalah satu ahli bagi siri ini yang mengandungi 82.7% karbon mengikut jisim.
[Jisim atom relatif: C=12, H=1]
(i)

Calculate the value of n.


State the molecular formula and the name of alkane Q.
Hitungkan nilai n.
Nyatakan formula molekul dan nama bagi alkana Q.

(ii)

Write a balanced chemical equation to show the complete combustion of Q


in air.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang untuk menunjukkan pembakaran
lengkap Q dalam udara.
[6 marks]

% of Carbon
= Mass of C x 100
Molar mass

Guided answers:[lengkapkan/ gariskan]


(i)

1. 12n/(12n + 2n+2)

x 100 = 82.7

2. n = _______
3. Molecular formula: C__H__
4.Name: [butane, 2-methylpropane]
(ii)
(c)

2C4H10

+ ____O2

___CO2 + ____H2O

Table 1 shows some types of organic compounds and their structural formulae.
A, B, C, D and E are not the actual names of the compounds.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan beberapa jenis sebatian organik dan formula
strukturnya. A,B,C,D dan E bukan nama sebenar sebatian-sebatian itu.

86

Compound
Sebatian

Structural formula
Formula struktur

E
Table 1/ Jadual 1

Compare and contrast all these compounds by;


Banding dan bezakan kesemua sebatian itu dengan;

(i)

Writing their general formulae,


Menuliskan formula amnya,

(ii)

Naming and writing the structure of functional groups for each


compound.
Menamakan dan menuliskan struktur kumpulan berfungsi bagi setiap
sebatian.
[10 marks]

Guided answer:[Padanan]

87

Compound

General formula

CnH2n + 1COOH
n= 0,1,2..

Functional group
Name
Structure
Double
covalent bond
C-C
between
carbon-carbon

CnH2n
n= 2,3,4..

Hydroxyl
group

CnH2n + 1OH
n=1,2,3..

Carboxylate
group

CnH2n + 2
n= 1,2,3..

Carboxyl
group

CnH2n + 1COO CmH2m


E

+1

n=0,1,2.. m=1,2,3..

88

Single
covalent bond
between
carbon-carbon

-O-H

2. Diagram 2 shows changes of the butan-1-ol involving a series of reactions.


Rajah 2 menunjukkan perubahan bagi butan-1-ol yang melibatkan beberapa siri
tindak balas.

Alkene Q

Alumina
Butan-1-ol
Heat
panaskan

Acidified potassium
dichromate(VI)
Butanoic acid
kalium dikromat(VI)
berasid

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
(a)

Butan-1-ol has three other isomers.


Draw the structural formulae of two of these isomers and state their name.
Butan-1-ol mempunyai tiga isomer lain.
Lukiskan formula struktur bagi dua isomer itu dan nyatakan namanya.
[4 marks]

(b)

Table 2.1 shows the information of alkene Q.


Jadual 2.1 menunjukkan maklumat tentang alkena Q.
Carbon 85.7%
Karbon 85.7%
Molar mass = 56 g mol-1
Jisim molar = 56 g mol-1
Relative atomic mass, C=12 and H = 1
Jisim atom relatif, C=12 dan H=1
Table 2.1
Jadual 2.1
Based on the Table 2,
Berdasarkan Jadual 2,
(i)

calculate the percentage composition of hydrogen,


hitungkan peratus komposisi bagi hidrogen,

(ii)

determine the empirical formula,


tentukan formula empirik,
89

(iii)

determine the molecular formula,


tentukan formula molekul,

(iv)

draw the structural formula.


Lukiskan formula struktur.

(v)

give the name of the alkene.


berikan nama alkena itu.
[6 marks]

(c)

Table 2.2 shows Set I and Set II of an experiment to investigate the


effects of butanoic acid and ammonia aqueous on the coagulation of
latex.
Jadual 2.2 menunjukkan Set I dan Set II bagi satu eksperimen untuk
mengkaji kesan asid butanoik dan ammonia akues keatas penggumpalan
lateks.
Experiment
Observation
Eksperimen
Pemerhatian

Set I
Latex + ammonia aqueous
Lateks + ammonia akues

The latex remains


unchanged.
Lateks kekal tidak
berubah.

Set II
Latex + butanoic acid
Lateks + asid butanoik

The latex coagulated.


Lateks menggumpal.

Table 2.2
Jadual 2.2
Describe why there is a difference in observations between Set I
and Set II.
Huraikan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian antara Set I
dan Set II.
[10 marks]
90

Section C
1

Diagram 1.1 shows the flow of the conversion of ethanol to ethane.


Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan urutan perubahan etanol kepada etana.

Ethanol Ethene Ethane


Etanol Etena Etana
Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1
(a) (i)

Write a balanced chemical equation for the conversion of:


Tuliskan persamaan kimia seimbang bagi perubahan:
Ethanol to ethene,
Etanol kepada etena,
Ethene to ethane.
Etena kepada etana.
[2 marks]

Guided answers:(lengkapkan):
(i)

Ethanol to ethene:
C2H5OH
______ + H2O
Ethene to ethane
C2H4 + _____

(ii)

C2H6

State the type of reaction for each conversion in (a)(i).


Nyatakan jenis tindak balas bagi setiap perubahan dalam (a)(i).
[2 marks]

Guided answers:(gariskan)
(i)
Ethanol to ethene:
Combustion
Addition
Polymerisation
Oxidation
Esterification
Vulcanisation

Substitution
Hydration
Fermentation
Dehydration
Hydrogenation
Coagulation

91

Ethene to ethane:
Combustion
Addition
Polymerisation
Oxidation
Esterification
Vulcanisation

Substitution
Hydration
Fermentation
Dehydration
Hydrogenation
Coagulation

(iii) With the aid of the labelled diagram, describe a laboratory experiment to
prepare a sample of ethene from ethanol.
State how ethene gas can be identified.
Dengan bantuan gambar rajah berlabel, huraikan satu ekperimen makmal
bagi menyediakan satu sampel etena bermula dengan etanol.
Nyatakan bagaimanakah gas etena dapat dikenalpasti.
[10 marks]
Guided answers:
Diagram(Labelkan):

Heat

Procedure(Lengkapkan):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Place some _________ wool in a boiling tube.


Add _________ to wet the glass wool.
Place ____________ chips in the mid-section of the boiling tube.
Close the boiling tube with ____________ fitted with a delivery tube.
The other end of the delivery tube is placed under an inverted test tube filled
with _________ .
92

6. Heat the porcelain chips ___________ .


7. Add (bromine water, acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution) to the test
tube and shake.
8. ___________ colour of ________________ decolourised.

(b) Diagram 1.2 shows the results of Set I and Set II for an experiment to
differentiate between ethane and ethene.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan keputusan bagi Set I dan Set II satu eksperimen untuk
membezakan antara etana dan etena.
Experiment
Eksperimen

Observation
Pemerhatian

Set I
Ethane
Gas
Gas etana

No colour change
Tiada perubahan warna
Bromine
Water
Air bromin

Set II
Ethene
Gas
Gas etena

Bromine
Water
Air bromin

The brown bromine water


decolourised
Warna perang air bromin
dilunturkan.

Diagram 1.2
Rajah 1.2
(i)

Explain why there is a difference in observation in Set I and Set II.


Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam pemerhatian dalam Set I
dan Set II.

(ii)

Write a chemical equation for the reaction between ethene and


bromine
and name the product.
Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas antara etena dan bromin
dan namakan hasil tindak balas.
[6 marks]
93

Guided answers :( Gariskan)


(i)

1. Ethane is a (unsaturated, saturated) hydrocarbon // Ethane has (single,


double) covalent bond between carbon-carbon atoms.
2. Ethane does not undergo (substitution, addition) reaction.
3. Ethene is a (unsaturated, saturated) hydrocarbon // Ethene has (single,
double) covalent bond between carbon-carbon atoms.
2. Ethene undergoes (substitution, addition) reaction.

(ii)

(CH2=CH2, C2H4)

+ Br2

C2H4Br2
(1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethene)

Section C
2

(a) Diagram 2.1 show the change of oil molecule, L to fatty acid, P and alcohol, Q.
[Relative atomic mass: H=1; O=16; C=12]
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan perubahan bagi molekul minyak, L kepada asid lemak, P
dan alcohol, Q.
[Jisim atom relatif: H=1; O=16; C=12]
CH2OOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3
CHOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3

CH2OOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3
L
Diagram 2.1
Rajah 2.1
(i)

Calculate the molar mass of molecule L.


Hitungkan jisim molar bagi molekul L.

(ii)

Write the structural formulae of fatty acid P and alcohol Q.


Tuliskan formula struktur bagi asid lemak P dan alcohol Q.

(iii)

How many molecules of bromine need to react with one molecule of L?


Berapakah bilangan molekul bromin diperlukan untuk bertindak balas
dengan satu molekul L?
[4 marks]
94

(b) Diagram 2.2 shows the structure of two types of rubber, X and Y.
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan struktur bagi dua jenis getah, X dan Y.
Rubber X/ Getah X

Rubber Y/ Getah Y

Diagram 2.2
Rajah 2.2

Based on Diagram 2.2:


Berdasarkan Rajah 2.2:
(i)

Name the types of rubber X and rubber Y.


Namakan jenis getah X dan getah Y.
[2 marks]

(ii)

Compare and contrast two properties of rubber X and rubber Y other than
as elasticity.
Bandingkan dan bezakan dua sifat bagi getah X dan getah Y selain dari
kekenyalan.
[2 marks]

(iii)

Explain how the presence of sulphur atoms in rubber Y can change its
elasticity.
Terangkan bagaimana kehadiran atom sulfur dalam getah Y dapat
mengubah kekenyalannya.
[2 marks]

(iv)

Describe a laboratory experiment to compare the property of elasticity


between rubber X and rubber Y.
Your description should include the following aspects:

Material and apparatus,


Procedure,
Result,
Conclusion.
95

Huraikan satu eksperimen makmal bagi membandingkan sifat kekenyalan


antara getah X dan getah Y.
Penerangan anda heandaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

Bahan dan alat radas


Prosedur
Keputusan
Kesimpulan.
[10 marks]

96

CHAPTER 12: OXIDATION AND REDUCTION


Section B [20 marks]

1. (a) The following are the formulae of two compound.


Berikut adalah formula bagi dua sebatian.
K2O

Fe2O3

(i) Based on the formulae, state the oxidation number for potassium and
iron.
Berdasarkan dua formula itu, nyatakan nombor pengoksidaan bagi kalium
dan ferum.
[ 2 marks ]
Answer :
Oxidation number for potassium is

2X + (-2) = 0
..
..

Oxidation number for iron is .


2X + (-2)(3) = 0
..
..

(ii) Name both the compound based on the IUPAC nomenclature system.
Namakan kedua-dua sebatian itu mengikut sistem tatanama IUPAC.
[ 2 marks ]
Answer :
K2O :
Fe2O3 : .

TIP :
Use Roman numeral
for element that has
more than one
oxidation number.

(iii)Explain the difference between the name of the two compound based on
the IUPAC nomenclature system.
Jelaskan perbezaan antara nama kedua-dua sebatian itu mengikut sistem
tatanama IUPAC.
[ 2 marks ]
Answer :
K2O does not use a Roman number because it has only
oxidation number.
Fe2O3 uses a Roman number because iron has
oxidation number.

97

(b) Diagram 1 shows the set up of the apparatus of an experiment to investigate


electron transfer through a solution.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
pemindahan elektron melalui satu larutan.

Carbon
Karbon

Carbon
Karbon

Acidified potassium dichromate(VI)


solution
Larutan kalium dikromat(VI) berasid

Potassium iodide solution


Larutan kalium iodida

Dilute sulphuric acid


Asid sulfurik cair

(i) Name the oxidising agent in the experiment.


Namakan agen pengoksidaan dalam eksperimen itu.
[ 1mark ]
Answer : .

TIP :
Do not use formula

(ii) Write the half equations for the reaction that occur at negative and positive
terminals.
Tulis setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di terminal
negatif dan terminal positif.
[ 5 marks ]
Answer :
Negative terminal :
...
Positive terminal :
...

98

(iii)Based on your answer in 1 (b)(ii), describe the oxidation and reduction


processes in terms of the electron transfer that occurs at the negative and
positive terminals.
State also the changes that can be observed after 10 minutes.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di 1 (b)(ii), huraikan proses pengoksidaan dan
penurunan dari segi pemindahan elektron yang berlaku di terminal negatif
dan terminal positif.
[8 marks]
Answer :
At the negative terminal :
1. Iodide, I- ion . one electron to become .
2. In this process, takes place.

At the positive terminal :


3. Dichromate(VI), Cr2O7- ion . electrons to become
.
4. In this process, takes place.
Observation :
5. At the positive terminal the .. colour of potassium dichromate(VI)
become . .
6. At the negative terminal the .. solution of the potassium iodide
turns . .

99

2.

The following are the chemical equations for reactions I, II and III.
Berikut adalah beberapa persamaan untuk tindak balas I, II dan III.
Reaction I :
Tindak balas I:

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Reaction II :
Tindak balas II:

Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Cu2+ (aq) + 2Ag (s)

Reaction III :
Tindak balas III :

Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

(a)

Which of the equations are redox reactions? Explain why.


Antara persamaan berikut yang mana merupakan tindakbalas redoks? Jelaskan
mengapa.
[6 marks]

(b)

Diagram 10 shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to investigate


electron transfer at a distance.
Rajah 10 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji eksperimen pemindahan
elektron pada satu jarak.
G

Bromine water
Air bromin

Iron (II) sulphate


Ferum (II) sulfat

Sulphuric acid
Asid sulfurik

Diagram 2.1
Rajah 2.1
100

(i)

Identify the oxidizing agent.


Kenal pasti agen pengoksidaan.

(ii)

Write the half - equations and the observations for the reactions that occur
at the negative and positive terminals?
Tuliskan setengah persamaan dan pemerhatian yang berlaku bagi tindak
balas di terminal negatif dan di terminal positif?
[5 marks]

(iii
)

(d)

Describe a chemical test to confirm the product formed at the negative


terminal.
Huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk mengesahkan hasil yang terbentuk pada
terminal negatif.
.
[3 marks]

Diagram 2.2 shows two types of cells.


Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan dua jenis sel.
Battery
Bateri

Voltmeter
V
Zinc plate
Plat zink

Copper plate
Plat kuprum

Cell I
Sel I

Copper plate
Plat kuprum
Copper(II) sulphate
solution
Larutan kuprum(II)
sulfat

D
Copper plate
Plat kuprum

Cell II
Sel II

Diagram 2.2
Rajah 2.2
Construct a table to show the differences between Cell I and Cell II in terms of
energy change, half-equations at the anode and the direction of electrons flow.
Bina satu jadual untuk membezakan antara Sel I dan Sel II dari segi perubahan
tenaga, setengah persamaan pada anod dan arah pengaliran elektron.
[6 marks]

101

Section C [ 20 marks ]
3.
(a) Diagram shows the apparatus and observations for redox reaction between
iron(III) chloride solution and a metal.
Rajah menunjukkan radas dan pemerhatian bagi satu tindak balas redoks
antara larutan ferum(II) klorida dan sekeping logam.

Yellow solution of
iron(III) chloride
Larutan kuning
ferum(III) klorida

After 30 minutes
Selepas 30 minit

Green solution
Larutan hijau

Metal
Logam

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
Based on the observation shown in Diagram , suggest a suitable metal to be
used in this experiment. Predict the ion present in the green solution and
explain the answer based on the following aspects:
Berdasarkan pemerhatian yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah , cadangkan logam
yang sesuai untuk digunakan dalam eksperimen ini.
Ramalkan ion yang hadir dalam larutan hijau itu dan jelaskan jawapan
berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut:
o The change in oxidation number for both the reactants
Perubahan dalam nombor pengoksidaan bagi kedua-dua bahan tindak
balas
o The type of reaction that has occurred to each reactant
Jenis tindak balas yang berlaku pada setiap bahan tindak balas
o The role of each reactant in the redox reaction
Peranan setiap bahan tindak balas dalam tndak balas redoks tersebut
o The half-equations involved in the redox reaction
Setengah persamaan yang terlibat dalam tindak balas tersebut.
[10 marks]

102

Answer :

Any reactive metal


1. Reactive metal use is
2. The ion present in the green solution is ........................ .
3. The change in the oxidation number of Fe : to ...
4. The change in the oxidation number of metal : to ..
5. Iron(III), Fe3+ ion undergoes ........................................... .
6. Fe3+ is an ......................................... .
7. Half equation for reduction : ................................................................. .
8. ........................................... undergoes oxidation.
9. .......................................... is a reducing agent
10. Half equation for oxidation : ..................................................................

103

(b)

Iodide ions are good reducing agent.


Ion iodida adalah agen penurunan yang baik.

You are given the following apparatus:


U-tube, galvanometer, connecting wires, stopper, dropper, carbon electrodes
and retort stand with clamps.
Suggest a suitable chemical and describe an experiment to verify the above
statement using the given apparatus.
Anda diberi radas berikut:
Tiub-U, galvonometer, wayar penyambung, penutup, penitis, elektrod karbon
dan kaki retort dengan penyempit.
Cadangkan bahan kimia yang sesuai dan huraikan satu eksperimen untuk
mengesahkan pernyataan di atas dengan menggunakan radas yang diberi.
[10 marks]
Answer :
Chemical substances
1. Oxidising agent : ......................................... .
2. Salt bridge : ................................................ .
3. Reducing agent : ......................................... .

Procedure
4. .............. sulphuric acid into the U-tube
5. Add ....................... solution in one arm of the U tube
6. Add ....................... solution into the other arm
7. The solution are ......................... slowly.
8. ............... the graphite electrodes into the two seperate solution
and .................... to the galvanometer
9. The colour of ................... changes from ................ to ...................... .
104
10. .......................... is reduced to ......................... .

4.
(a) Draw a labelled diagram to show the conditions for the rusting of iron and
describe the reaction that take place at the edge of water droplet.
Lukis gambar rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan syarat untuk pengaratan besi
dan huraikan tindak balas yang berlaku dipinggir titisan air.
[ 4 marks ]
(b) Diagram 2 shows an apparatus set-up to investigate the effect of two different
metals, X and Y on the rusting of iron, Fe.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji kesan dua logam, X dan
Y yang berlainan ke atas pengaratan besi, Fe.
Agar-agar solution
+

Potassium
hexacyanoferrate(III)
solution
Larutan agar-agar +
Larutan kalium
heksasianoferat (III)+

Iron nail
Paku besi

Metal X
Logam X

Metal Y
Logam Y

The result of this experiment after three days in shown in Table 2.


Keputusan eksperimen ini selepas tiga hari ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 2.
Pairs of metals
Pasangan logam
Fe, X
Fe, Y

Observation
Pemerhatian
Dark blue colour
Warna biru tua
No change
Tiada perubahan
Table 2
Jadual I 2

Based on Table 2, suggest the identity of metals, X and Y.


Give two reasons for each of your choice.
Berdasarkan Jadual 2, cadangkan logam X dan Y.
Berikan dua sebab bagi setiap pilihan anda.
[6 marks]

105

(c) Iron(II) ions can be converted to iron(III) ions and iron(III) ions can be converted back
to iron(II) ions. By using a named metals as a reducing agent and a named halogen as an
oxidising agent, describe briefly how you would carry out these two conversions.
Describe a test to show that each conversion has taken place.
Ion ferum(II) boleh ditukar kepada ion ferum(III) dan ion ferum(III) boleh ditukar semula
kepada ion ferum(II). Dengan menggunakan logam yang dinamakan sebagai agen
penurunan dan halogen yang dinamakan sebagai agen pengoksidaan, huraikan dengan
ringkas bagaimana anda boleh melakukan kedua-dua penukaran itu.
Huraikan satu ujian untuk menunjukkan setisp penukaran itu telah berlaku.
[ 10 marks ]

106

CHAPTER 13: THERMOCHEMISTRY


Section B
1. Table 1 shows the heat of combustion of the first five alkenes.
Jadual 1 menunjukkan haba pembakaran untuk lima alkohol yang pertama.

Alcohol /
Alkohol
Methanol
Metanol
Ethanol
Etanol
Propan-1-ol
Propanol
Butan-1-ol
Butanol
Pentan-1-ol
Pentanol

Molecular Formula /
Formula molekul

Heat of Combustion /
Haba Pembakaran
kJ mol-1

CH3OH

- 728

C2H5OH

- 1376

C3H7OH

- 2016

C4H9OH

- 2678

C5H11OH

Table 1
Jadual 1
The chemical equation for the combustion of ethanol is as below.
Persamaan kimia bagi pembakaran etanol adalah seperti di bawah.
C2H5OH + 3O2
(a)

2CO2

+ 3H2O

H = - 1376 kJ mol -1

Based on the equation above, state the meaning of heat of combustion of ethanol.
Berdasarkan persamaan kimia di atas, nyatakan maksud haba pembakaran bagi etanol.
[ 2 marks ]
Answer:
____________ heat released when _____ mole of ethanol _____________
completely in ____________

107

(b)

Based on Table 1 ,
Berdasarkan Jadual 1 ,
(i)

Draw a graph of magnitude of heat of combustion against the number of carbon


atoms.
Lukis graf magnitud haba pembakaran melawan bilangan atom karbon.
[ 3 marks ]

(ii)

State the relationship between the number of carbon atoms per molecule of alcohol to
the magnitude of the heat of combustion.
Nyatakan hubungan di antara bilangan atom karbon per molekul alkohol kepada
magnitud haba pembakaran.
[ 1 mark ]
Answer
The __________ the number of ________ atoms per ___________ of
alcohol, the _________ the magnitude of the _________ of
____________.
From the graph, predict the heat of combustion of pentan-1-ol in kJ mol -1
Daripada graf, ramalkan haba pembakaran pentan1-1ol dalam kJ mol-1

(iii)

[ 2 marks ]
(c)

Compare the heat of combustion between ethanol and butan-1-ol.


Explain why there is a difference in the heat of combustion between ethanol and butan-1-ol.
Bandingkan haba pembakaran etanol dengan butanol.
Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan di antara haba pembakaran etanol dan butan-1-ol.
[ 4 marks ]
Answer:
1. The heat of ______________ of butan-1-ol is ____________ than ethanol.
2. ____________ has higher number of ___________ / ___________ atoms per molecule
3. More __________ __________ and ________________ are formed.
4. The combustion of __________ produced ___________ heat.

108

(d)

Diagram 2 shows the energy level diagram of the heat of combustion of ethanol.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan gambarajah aras tenaga bagi haba pembakaran etanol.
Energy
Tenaga
C2H5OH

3O2

H = 1376 kJ mol -1

2CO2

3H2O

Diagram 2
Rajah 2
(i)

Give four information that you can obtain from Diagram 2.


Berikan empat maklumat yang boleh diperoleh daripada Rajah 2.
[ 4 marks ]
Answer;
1. The energy level diagram shows _________________ reaction / heat
____________ to the surrounding.
2. The energy level of _____________ is ___________ than the ________
3. The __________ of combustion _________ 715 kJ per ____ mole
of __________
4. Ethanol _________ in ________ to produced _________
________ and _________.

109

(ii)

Calculate the energy released if 6.9 grams of ethanol is burnt completely in air.
Kira haba yang di bebaskan jika 6.9 gram etanol di bakar dengan lengkap di dalam
udara.
[Relative atomic mass; C=12,H=1, O=16]
[ 4 marks]
Answer:
Number of mole of ethanol =
1 mole of ethanol released ________________
_______ mole of ethanol released

2.

(a)

__________

Metal displacement is an exothermic reaction. The thermochemical equation is shown


below:
Penyesaran logam ialah suatu tindak balas eksotermik . Persamaan termokimia
seperti berikut:
.
Mg(s) + FeSO4(aq)

MgSO4(aq) + Fe(s)

H = -200kJ mol-1

Based on the equation,


Berdasarkan persamaan tersebut,
(i)

draw the energy level diagram


lukis rajah aras tenaga
[3 marks]

(ii)

State two observation


nyatakan dua permerhatian
[2 mark]

(iii)

(iii)

State the meaning of heat of precipitation.


Nyatakan maksud haba pemendakan.
[2 mark]
If the experiment is repeated by replacing Magnesium with Zinc, predict what
happened to the value of the heat of displacement.
Explain.
Jika eksperimen diulang dengan menggantikan magnesium dengan zink, ramalkan
apakah yang berlaku kepada nilai haba penyesaran.
Terangkan.
[3 marks]

110

(b)

A student carried out an experiment to determine the heat of precipitation of silver


chloride by using 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution and 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol
dm-3 sodium chloride solution. Table 1 shows the results of the experiment.
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk menentukan haba
pemendakan argentum klorida dengan mengguna 25 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan
argentum nitrat dan 25 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan natrium klorida. Jadual 1
menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut.

Initial temperature of silver nitrate solution / C


Suhu awal larutan argentum nitrat
Initial temperature of sodium chloride solution / C
Suhu awal larutan natrium klorida
Highest temperature of the reaction mixture / C
Suhu tertinggi campuran tindak balas

29.0
28.0
34.0

Table 1
Jadual 1
Calculate:
Hitungkan:
(i)

the heat of precipitation for this reaction


haba pemendakan bagi tindak balas tersebut
[Specific heat capacity of a solution = 4.2J g-1 C-1;
Density of solution = 1 g cm-3]
perubahan haba semasa tindak balas
[Muatan haba tentu bagi larutan = 4.2J g-1 C-1;
Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3]
[3 marks]

(ii)

(iii)

Write a thermochemical equation for the reaction above.


Tulis persamaan termokian bagi tindak balas di atas
[3 marks]
The experiment is repeated using 50 cm of 0.5 mol dm silver nitrate solution and 50
cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution.
Predict the temperature change and give your reason.
Experimen diulangi dengan mengguna 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan argentum nitrat
dan 50 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan natrium klorida.
Ramalkan perubahan suhu dan berikan alasan anda.
3

-3

[4 marks]

111

Section C
3

(a)

A student was carried out an experiment in the laboratory to determine the heat
of precipitation of silver chloride, AgCl using the following chemical substances :
Seorang pelajar telah menjalankan satu eksperimen dalam makmal untuk menentukan
haba pemendakan argentum klorida, AgCl menggunakan bahan-bahan kimia berikut:
25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution
25 cm3 larutan argentum nitrat 0.5 mol dm-3
25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium chloride
solution
25 cm3 larutan larutan natrium klorida 0.5
mol dm-3

Table 3.1 shows the result of the experiment :


Jadual 3.1 menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen tersebut :
Initial temperature of silver nitrate, AgNO3
solution
Suhu awal larutan argentum nitrat, AgNO3
Initial temperature of sodium chloride, NaCl
solution
Suhu awal larutan natrium klorida, NaCl
Highest temperature of reaction mixture
Suhu tertinggi campuran tindak balas
Table / Jadual 3.1

112

29.0 oC
29.0 oC
33.0 oC

Calculate the heat of precipitation of silver chloride.


[ Specific heat capacity for all solution is 4.2 J g-1 oC-1 and the density of all solution is 1.0 g
cm-3]
Hitung haba pemendakan argentum klorida.
[Muatan haba tentu bagi semua larutan ialah 4.2 J g-1 oC-1 dan ketumpatan bagi semua
larutan ialah 1.0 g cm-3]
[4 marks]
Answer:
Increase in temperature, =

__________________

Number of mole of silver nitrate, n = _________________


Number of mole of sodium chloride,n = ________________
Heat released, Q = mc

Heat of precipitation = Q/n

(b)

Table 4.2 shows the heat released for Experiment I, II and III using different acid that
has been reacted with sodium hydroxide solution.
Jadual 4.2 menunjukkan haba yang dibebaskan bagi tindak balas I , II dan III
menggunakan asid berlainan yang ditindakbalaskan dengan larutan natrium
hidroksida.
Experiment
Eksperimen

Chemical Equation
Persamaan kimia

Heat released
Haba dibebaskan (kJ)

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

57

II

CH3COOH + NaOH
H2O

54

III

H2SO4 + 2NaOH

CH3COONa +
Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Table / Jadual 4.2

113

114

Based on Table 4.2, explain the difference in heat released between :


Berdasarkan Jadual 4.2, terangkan perbezaan dalam haba dibebaskan antara:
(i)

Experiment I and Experiment II


Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen II

(ii)

Experiment I and Experiment III


Eksperimen I dan Eksperimen III
[6 marks]
Answer:

(i)

Experiment ____ use a strong acid which ________ completely in water.


Experiment ___ use a weak acid which ___________ partially in water.
Most of the ____________ still exist as molecule.
Heat ____________ in experiment ____ is use to ____________ acid
completely.

(ii)

Experiment ________ use a ___________ acid while experiment _____


use a _____________ acid.
1 mole of acid in experiment ____ ionize to produce ____ mole of ___
ions.
1 mole of acid in experiment ____ ionize to produce ____ mole of ____
ions.

114

(c)

Describe a laboratory experiment to determine the heat of displacement of metal by a


more electropositive metal. In your description, include the following aspects :
Huraikan satu eksperimen makmal untuk menentukan haba penyesaran logam oleh
logam yang lebih elektropositif. Dalam huraian anda, sertakan aspek-aspek berikut :
Materials and apparatus needed
Bahan-bahan dan radas yang diperlukan
Procedure of experiment
Prosedur eksperimen
A table to collect data
Jadual untuk mengumpul data
Calculation method
Kaedah penghitungan
[10 marks]
Choose the correct materials and apparatus needed below;
0.2 moldm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution, 0.2 moldm-3 silver nitrate solution, 0.2
moldm-3 magnesium nitrate solution, 0.2 moldm-3 zinc nitrate solution, magnesium
powder, zinc powder, copper powder, silver powder
Thermometer, plastic cup with cover, 50 cm3 measuring cylinder, electronic balance,
weighing balance, copper tin, beaker, conical flask.

115

Answer:
Material and apparatus

Procedure
1. 50 cm3 of 0.2 moldm-3 __________ ______________ solution is
measured and ____________ into a _______ ______.
2. The ___________ temperature of the solution is measured and
__________ after a few minutes.

3. 2g of ______________ powder is weighed in weighing bottle.


4. The _____________ powder is then added ___________ and carefully
into __________ _____________ solution.
5. The mixture in the ___________ _______ is stirred using a thermometer
and the ___________ temperature reached is ____________
6. Steps 1 to 5 are repeated using ________ powder to replace the
____________ powder.
Data
Metal

____________

Initial temperature (oC)


Highest temperature if mixture (oC)
Increase in temperature (oC)

116

___________

Calculation
1. Heat of displacement of ________ by ____________
Increase in temperature, =

__________________

Number of mole of __________, n = _________________


Heat released, Q = mc

Heat of displacement = Q/n


2. Heat of displacement of ________ by ____________
Increase in temperature, =

__________________

Number of mole of __________, n = _________________


Heat released, Q = mc

Heat of displacement = Q/n

117

4.

(a)(i)

Table 4 shows the molecular formula and the heat of combustion for alcohol X and
alcohol Y.
Jadual 4 menunjukkan formula molekul dan haba pembakaran bagi alkohol X dan
alkohol Y.
Alcohol

Molecular Formula

Heat of Combustion/ kJ mol-1

Alkohol

Formula molekul

Haba Pembakaran/ kJ mol-1

C3H7OH

-2100

C4 H9OH

-2877
Table 4

Based on the information in Table 3, compare the heat of combustion between alcohol
X and alcohol Y. Explain why there is a difference in the values of the heat of
combustion between alcohol X and alcohol Y.
Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual 3, bandingkan haba pembakaran antara alkohol
X dan alkohol Y. Terangkan mengapa nilai haba pembakaran bagi alkohol X dan
alkohol Y berbeza.
[3 marks]
(ii)

Calculate the mass of alcohol Y that needs to be used to boil 500cm3 of water from
60oC to boiling point.
Hitung jisim alcohol Y yang diperlukan untuk mendidihkan 500 cm3 air dari suhu
60oC hingga ke takat didih.
[4 marks]

(c)

Name one example of an alcohol and describe a laboratory experiment to determine


the heat of combustion of that alcohol.
In your description, include a labelled diagram and the calculation involved.
[ Relative atomic mass : C=12, O=16 , H=1]
[ Specific heat capacity of solution = 4.2.J g-1 oC-1 ;Density of solution =1gcm-3 ]
Dengan menggunakan satu contoh alkohol yang dinamakan, huraikan satu
eksperimen makmal untuk menentukan haba pembakaran alkohol itu. Dalam
penerangan anda, sertakan gambar rajah berlabel dan langkah pengiraan yang
terlibat.
[Jisim atom relatif : C=12, O= 16, H=1]
[ Muatan haba tentu larutan = 4.2 J g-1 oC-1 ; Ketumpatan larutan = 1 g cm-3 ]
[10 marks]

118

(d)

In an experiment to determine the heat of displacement, excess zinc is added to 100


cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution. Calculate the temperature change if the
heat of displacement is -105 kJ mol-1
[Specific heat capacity of the solution = 4.2Jg-1 oC-1;
Density of solution=1gcm-3]
Dalam satu eksperimen untuk menentukan haba penyesaran, zink berlebihan
ditambahkan kepada 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm-3 larutan argentum nitrat. Hitungkan
perubahan suhu jika haba penyesaran dalam eksperimen itu ialah -105 kJ mol-1 .
[ Muatan haba tentu larutan =4.2 Jg-1 oC-1; Ketumpatan larutan = 1gcm-3 ]
[ 3 marks]

119

CHAPTER 14: CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS

Section B
Answer all questions
Jawab semua soalan
1. (a) Diagram 1.1 shows the structural formula of anions of cleaning agents P and T.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan formula struktur anion bagi agen pencuci P and T.
Anion of cleaning agent P
Anion agen pencuci P
CH3

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
COO

CH2

Part X [Bahagian X]

Anion of cleaning agent T


Anion agen pencuci T
CH3

CH2

Part Y [Bahagian Y]

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

OSO3

Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1
(i) Based on Diagram 1.1,
Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1,
State the name of cleaning agents P and T.
Nyatakan nama agen pencuci P dan T.
State the solubility of part X and Y in water and grease.
Nyatakan keterlarutan bahagian X dan Y dalam air dan gris.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]
(ii) Cleaning agent P can be used to clean oily stain on cloth.
Explain the cleansing action of cleaning agent P on the oil stain.
Agen pencuci P boleh digunakan untuk mencuci kotoran berminyak pada
pakaian.
Terangkan tindakan pencucian agen pencuci P ke atas kotoran berminyak.
[7 marks]
[7 markah]

120

(iii) Diagram 1.2 shows a set-up of apparatus when a student carried out two
experiments to investigate the cleansing effect of cleaning agent P and cleaning
agent T on oily stained cloth in hard water.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan susunan radas bila seorang pelajar menjalankan eksperimen
bagi mengkaji kesan pencucian agen pencuci P dan agen pencuci T ke atas pakaian
dengan kotoran berminyak di dalam air liat.
Experiment [Eksperimen]
Experiment I: [Eksperimen I:]
Experiment II: [Eksperimen II:]
Cleaning agent P+ hard water
Agen pencuci P + air liat

Cleaning agent T + hard water


Agen pencuci T + air liat

Cloth with oily stain


Pakaian dengan kotoran berminyak

Cloth with oily stain


Pakaian dengan kotoran berminyak

Oily stain remained


Kotoran berminyak masih ada

Oily stain disappeared


Kotoran berminyak hilang

Set up of
apparatus
Susunan
radas

Observation
Pemerhatian

Diagram 1.2
Rajah 1.2
Based on Diagram 1.2, compare the cleansing effect between Experiment I and
Experiment II.
Berdasarkan Rajah 1.2 bandingkan kesan pencucian antara Eksperimen I dan
Eksperimen II.
Explain why there are differences in the observations. State the cleaning agent
which is more suitable agent to remove oily stain in hard water.
Terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan pada pemerhatian. Nyatakan agen pencuci
yang lebih sesuai untuk membersihkan kotoran berminyak dalam air liat
[6 marks]
[6 markah]

121

(b) The following information is about an ingredient written on the back of a soft
drink pack.
Maklumat berikut adalah tentang suatu ramuan yang ditulis di belakang sebuah
kotak minuman ringan.
Ingredient:
Ramuan:
Water, aspartame, citric acid,
octyl butanoate and tartazine
Air, aspartame, asid sitrik,
oktil butanoat dan tartazin
Based on the ingredient used, classify the types of food additives used in this soft
drink.
Berdasarkan ramuan yang digunakan, kelaskan jenis bahan tambah yang
terkandung dalam minuman ringan ini.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]
Guided answer for question No.1
Instruction: Complete the answer by fill in the blanks with correct terminology
(a) (i) Cleaning agent P is .. ..
Cleaning agent T is .................
Part X soluble in .., insoluble in
Part Y soluble in , insoluble in
(ii) 1. Soap anion consists of . and hydrophobic part.
2. .dissolves in water.
3. Hydrophobic dissolves// penetrates in .
4. Soap ..surface tension of water.
5. Rubbing/scrubbing helps pull the oily stains free/lifted off the surface
6. Soap anions break the grease into .
7. During rinsing, . removed

122

(iii) 1. Hard water contains on and .. ions


2. In Expt 1, soap anions reacts with ion and ion
to form insoluble salt//precipitate/scum
3. Amount soap anion available for cleansing is ..
4. In Expt II, detergent anion react with ions and
ion to form soluble salt/ no precipitate/no scum
5. Foam is ..
6. . is more effective than soap

(b)
Ingredients
aspartame

Food additives
..

tartazine
..
octyl butanoate
..
citric acid
..

123

2 (a) Diagram 2.1 shows the classification of psychotherapeutic medicines.


Psychotherapeutic medicine is one of the type of modern medicine
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan pengkelasan bagi ubat psikoterapeutik.
Ubat psikoterapeutik adalah salah satu jenis ubat moden.

Diagram 2.1
Rajah 2.1.
(i) State two differences between modern medicine and traditional medicine
Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara ubat moden dan ubat tradisional
[2 marks ]
[2 markah]
(ii) State the function of stimulant, antidepressant and antipsychotic as
psychotherapeutic medicines.
Nyatakan fungsi stimulan, antidepresan dan antipsikotik sebagai ubat
psikoterapeutik.
[ 3 marks ]
[3 markah]
(b) Diagram 2.2 shows a list of food additives in a sample of food. .
Rajah 2.2 menunjukkan satu senarai bahan tambah makanan yang terdapat dalam
satu sampel makanan.
Salt
Garam

Monosodium glutamate
Mononatrium glutamat

Lecithin
Lesitin

Vitamin C
Vitamin C

Diagram 2.2
Rajah 2.2
(i) Classify the substances above into their type of food additives .
Kelaskan bahan-bahan di atas mengikut jenis bahan tambah makanan.
[4 marks]
[4 markah]

124

(ii) Explain how salt and monosodium glutamate functions as food additives.
Terangkan bagaimana garam dan mononatrium glutamat berfungsi sebagai
bahan tambah makanan.
[6 marks ]
[6 markah]
(c) Table 2 shows the observations for two experiments to investigate cleansing effect
of soap and detergent on oily stain in hard water.
Jadual 2 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan
Observation
pencuciaan sabun Experiment
dan detergen ke atas kotoran berminyak dalam
air liat
Eksperimen

Pemerhatian

Oily stains remained


Kotoran berminyak kekal

I
Pakaian
Cloth

Soap + hard water


Sabun + air liat
Oily stains
Kotoran berminyak

Oily stains disappeared


II

Pakaian
Cloth

Kotoran berminyak hilang


Detergent + hard
water
Detergen + air liat
Oily stains
Kotoran berminyak

Table 2
Jadual 2

Based on Table 2 explain why there are differences in observation by


comparing the cleansing effect of soap and detergent in hard water.
Berdasarkan Jadual 2 terangkan mengapa terdapat perbezaan dalam
pemerhatian dengan membandingkan kesan pencucian sabun dan detergen
dalam air liat.
[6 marks]
[6 markah]
125

126

BAB 2: STRUCTURE OF ATOM


SECTION B
Bahagian B
1(a)
freezing point of a substance is the (temperature).. at which the substance at its
. (liquid).. states changes to (solid).. state at certain pressure

(b)

(c)
Properties
Arrangement of
particle

Movement

Energy of particles
Force of attraction

Solid
The particles are
arrange in an
orderly manner and
packed closely
together.
The particles vibrate
and rotate at their
fixed position
Low
Very strong

Liquid
The particles are
arranged in
disorderly manner
and packed loosely.

Gas
The particles are
randomly arranged
and very far apart
from each other.

The particles can


vibrate, rotate and
move throughout
the liquid.
High
Moderately

The particles
vibrate, rotate and
move freely in
random.
Very high
Very weak
[ 8 marks/markah]

127

d)

i)

[ 2 marks/markah]
ii)
Sub atomic atom of S
1. Proton

= ____(16)______

2. Electron

= ____(16)______

3. Neutron

= ____(16)______
[ 3 marks/markah]

iii)
Number 24:

__(nucleon number)__

Number 12:

__(proton number)___

Neutron Number:

__(12)____

Valence electron:

__(2)___
[ 4 marks/markah]

2) a)

i) melting process
ii)

at 70oC

at 150oC

iii) vibrate and rotate at fixed position


b i) isotopes are atoms of the same element with same number of proton/electron but
different number of neutron/nucleon.

128

ii)

iii)

iv)

35
Cl
17

37
Cl
17

Yes, because they same number of valence electron.

129

SECTION C
Bahagian C
3.

a
Name of sub atomic ( symbol )
Proton number ( p)
Electron (e)
Neutron (n)

Relative mass
1
1/1840
1

Relative charge
+1
-1
0
[9 marks]

b)
diagram
electron in shells
nucleus contains 11 proton and 12 neutrons
correct number of shells
[8 marks]
(c).
Cobalt - 60 : to destroy cancer cell
Sodium - 24 : to detect the leakage of underground pipe
Carbon - 14: to determine the age of fossils.
[3marks]
2
a)

b)

the temperature remain constant due to heat lost to the surrounding is exactly
balanced by the energy liberated by the particle.

i)

chemicals required
bahan kimia yang diperlukan
water, potassium mangganat (VII)

ii)

procedure of the experiment


kaedah eksperimen
A test tube is filled with water until it is three quarters full.
The tip of a dropper which filled with a small volume of potassium
manganate (VII) solution is lowered to the bottom of the test tube
The potassium manganate (VII) solution is squeezed into the water.
The apparatus is left aside for several hour. All observations are
recorded.
130

iii)

observation
initially only the bottom of the test tube is purple colour. After a few hours
the whole water in test tube is purple colour.

iv)

conclusion
potassium manganate (VII), KMnO4 solution is made up of tiny and discrete
particles (MnO4- and K+ ions). These particles move out randomly in all
directions and fill up the spaces in between the water particles

c)
i)

procedure
A boiling tube is filled up with substance M until it is one third full
A thermometer is put inside the boiling tube
Substance M is heated using water bath. The level of substance M is
below the level of water in the beaker
Substance M is stirred continuously
When the temperature of substance M reached 50oC, the stopwatch is
started.
The temperature and state of substance M are recorded at 30 second
intervals until the temperature reached 80oC
The boiling tube is removed from the water bath.

ii)

diagram

iii)

tabulation of data and graph.

Time (sec)
Temperature oC

30

60

90

120

150

131

180

210

240

270

300

330

CHAPTER 3 : CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION


SECTION B
2 (a) 2.

, 16

13.0 , 2.175
3.
4.
5.
6.

4.35 / 2.175 : 13.0 / 2.175 : 2.175 / 2.175


C2H6O
(2 X12) + (6X1) + (1X16)
n=1
C2H6O

(b)(i)
1. empirical formula
2. (1X2) + ( 1X16)
n=2
3. C2H4O2
(ii) CaCO3 , CO2
(c) 1. weighed
2. cleaned
3. crucible
5. covered
6. raise
7. removed
8. allow, room temperature
9. weighed
10. heating, cooling, weighing, constant
2. (a) 1. The chemical formula of carbon dioxide is NO2
2. Nitrogen dioxide is made up of two elements, which is nitrogen and oxygen
3. One molecule of nitrogen dioxide consists of one atom of nitrogen and two atoms of
oxygen.
(b) Potassium chloride = KCl
Barium sulphate =BaSO4
Sodium hydrogen carbonate = NaHCO3

132

(c) Percentage of N in (NH4)2SO4


2 X 14
= ---------------------------------------- X 100%
2[( 14 + 4(1)] + 32 + 16 X 4

= 21.21%

[2marks]

Percentage of N in NH2CONH2
2 X 14
= ------------------------------------------- X 100%
14 + 2(1) + 12 + 16 + 14 + 2(1)

= 46.67%

[2marks]

Percentage of N in N2H4
2 X 14
= ----------------------- X 100%
14(2)+ 2(1)

= 87.50%

[2marks]

Hydrazine is the best choice as it contains the highest percentage of nitrogen by mass. [1m]
Max : 5 marks

Section C
3(a) (i)
Zn + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + H2
(ii) 1- One , two , one, one
2- solid, aqueous, aqueous, gaseous
(b) (i)

4Al + 3O2

(ii) 1- RMM = (27X2) + (16X3) = 102


2- no of mole = 10.2 / 102 = 0.1
3- From the equation, 2 mol of Al2O3 produced 4mol of Al.
Therefore, no. of mole for Al = 0.1 X 2 = 0.2
4- Mass of aluminium metal = no.of mole for Al X RMM for Al
= 0.2 X 27
= 5.4 g
(c) 2. Porcelain dish
1. Weighed
2. Recorded
3. Allowed , air in the combustion tube
4. Combustion tube , test tube
5. Heated , green , grey
6. Allowed , room temperature
133

7. Hydrogen gas
8. Mass , weighed
9. Green. Changes to grey
10. Flow , remove, combustion tube
11. Hydrogen gas, continuous, air , enter
12. Heating, cooling, weighing

4. (a)

A = 2B
28 = 2B
[1 mark]
Therefore, B = 14.---------------------[1mark]
10A = 7C
10(28) =7C
[1mark]
Therefore, C = 40 ---------------------The ascending order is B, A, C

[1mark]

(b) No. of moles of atoms in 14g of A = 14/28 = 0.5 mol


[1mark]
No. of moles of atoms in 20g of C = 20 / 40 = 0.5 mol
Since the no of moles for both substances are the same,
the number of atoms are also the same.
The number of atoms are 0.5 X 6.02 X 1023 = 3.01 X 1023 atoms
Balanced chemical equation : C + H2O COH + H2

[1mark]
[1mark]
[1mark]
[2 marks]

(c) 1. A crucible with its lid is weighed.


2. About 10 cm of C metal is put into the crucible.
3. The crucible and its content is weighed again. Both readings are recorded.
4. the crucible is heated strongly.
5. the lid of the crucible is covered when the metal starts to glow.
6. the lid is opened once a while
7. when the burning is completed , the lid is removed
8. the crucible is allowed to cool to room temperature.
9. the crucible and the content is weighed again.
Precautions :

134

10. The lid of the crucible must be close quickly to prevent the loss of oxide C into the air
11. The heating, cooling and weighing process must be repeated until a constant mass is
obtained.

[max = 10 marks]

135

CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS


SECTION B
QUESTION
NO
1.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

MARK

Marking Criteria
Metal is Q Non metal is P or R

SUB
2

Electron arrangement of atom Q is 2.8.1


Atom Q located in group 1
because it has one valence electron.
Atom Q located in period 3
because it has three number of shell occupied with electron.

Atom Q vigorously reacted with element P and


roduces white solid.
No change occurs when atom Q reacted with atom R.

Reaction between Atom Q and P


Atom Q donates one valence electron.
Atom P receive two electron

(b)

(a)

20

(iv)

Reaction between Atom Q and P


No reaction between Atom Q and R
Atom R has stable octet electron arrangement and does not
required to donate, recieve share electron with other element.

(i)

2Q + 2H2O 2QOH
+ 2H2
Atom Q vigorously reacted with water
Hissing sound formed because hydrogen gas is produced
Red litmus change to blue shows the alkalian solution is
formed

(ii)

Example of element in group 18 is Neon


Neon atoms has octet electron arrangement
They do not need to donate, accept or share electrons with other
atoms
Example of element in group 17 is chlorine
Group 17 elements have similar chemical properties because they
have seven valence electron in the outermost shell.
Proton number increases because as the atomic radius increases,
the valence electron is further from the nucleus
Forces of attraction between the valence electron and nucleus are
weaker and it is difficult to accept electrons.
136

TOTAL

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

(b)

(i)

Atomic size decrease


Proton number increases
Number of shell occupied with electron is the same
Nucleus charge increase, attraction force between nucleus
and valence electron increase

1
1
1
1
1

(ii)

Electronegativity increase
Atomic size decrease
Proton number increase
Nucleus charge increase, attraction force between nucleus
and valence
electron increase
Atom is easier to accept electron
Rubidium is more reactive than potassium
Rubidium has more shell occupied with electron
Rubidium is easier to release electron

1
1
1

Electron arrangement of atom 2.7


Name of atom Fluorine

1
1

(ii)

It has seven valence electron


and two shell occupied with electron

1
1

(iii)

W2 + 2NaOH

(ii)

SECTION C
1
(a) (i)

(b)

NaW + NaOW + H2O

20
1
1
1

(iv) The size of atom W in smaller than atom iodine


Attraction force between nucleus and valence electron
atom w is stronger than atom iodine.
Atom W is more electronegative than atom iodine
Atom W is easier to receive electron than atom iodine.
Atom W is more reactive to reacted with sodium hydroxide
than iodine.

1
1

(i)

1
1

(ii)

Pour acid with carefully


Use filter funnel
Carry out experiment in fume chamber
Any two answers
Part G
Iron wool reacted with chlorine gas to formed iron(lll)
oxide
2Fe + 3Cl2
2FeCl3
Part H
Chlorine gas reacted with sodium hydroxide to formed
sodium chloride, sodium chlorate (I) /sodium hypochlorite
137

1
1
1

and water
Cl2 + 2NaOH

NaCl + NaOCl + H2O

(a)

1. Electron arrangement of atom X is 2.8.2


2. Atom X has 2 valence electron and
3. element X located in group 2 in Periodic Table of Element
4. Atom X has three period occupied with electron and
5. element X is located in period 3.

(b)

1. Electron arrangement of lithium atom 2.1


2. Electron arrangement of sodium is atom 2.8.1
3. Size atom of lithium is smaller than sodium atom
4. Force of attraction between nucleus and valence electron of
lithium atom is weaker than sodium atom.
5. Lithium atom is more difficult to release valence than sodium
atom in order to achieve a stable octet electron arrangement.
Procedure
1-A small piece of lithium is cut using a knife
2-The oil on the surface of lithium is removed using filter paper
3-Lithium is then placed slowly on the surface of water in a
beaker/basin
4-The experiment is repeated using sodium
Observation
Lithium moves slowly on the surface of water
Name of products: lithium hydroxide and hydrogen
Sodium moves rapidly/faster/vigorously on the surface of water
Name of products: sodium hydroxide and hydrogen
Equations
2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2 correct formula balanced equation
or
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2

(c)

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
10

138

20

Chapter 5: CHEMICAL BOND


SECTION B
Guided answer:
1. a)
i)

Metal/logam

Non Metal/bukan logam

[2 marks]

ii) a)

i) covalent compound = __K___ and __L___


ii) ionic compound = __J__ and ___K___
[2marks]

b)
i) Covalent compound

ii) Ionic compound


[2marks]

139

1b)

i) Ionic bonds are usually formed through the 1(transfer) of electrons between atoms
of metal and non metal.
ii) Sodium metal atoms2 (donate) one valence electrons to form positive ions, Na+
(sodium ion) .whereas non metal, chlorine atom will 3 (receive)one electrons to form
negative ions , Cl- (chloride ions), to achieve the octet electron arrangement.
iii) The sodium and chloride ions are attracted to each other by strong 4 (electrostatic).
forces of attraction. The attractive force between both ions is known as ..5 (ionic).. bond or
electrovalent bond.
iv) 6 (covalent) bonds are formed when non metal atoms, carbon and oxygen are
7 (shared)their electrons to achieve the duplet or octet electron arrangement.
v) Carbon ..8 (constributes) four electrons while oxygen constributes 9
(two) electrons. .10 (One)atom carbon share their electrons with two atom
oxygen and formed covalent compound.
[10 marks]

140

c) Complete the following by match their words according to the properties of ionic and covalent
compounds

Type of compounds

Properties
Cannot conduct electricity in all
state
Soluble in water

Ionic Compound
High melting and boiling point
Volatile
Not volatile
Soluble in organic solvent
Covalent Compound

As an conductor of electric in
molten and aqueous state
Low melting and boiling point
[4 marks]

2a)
141

i)

[1]
[2]

P ionic compound (Sodium chloride)


Q covalent compound (naphthalene)
[ 2 marks ]

ii)

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

P is an ionic compound
consist of positive ions and negatives ion which are held together by strong
electrostatic forces of attraction.
Q is a covalent compound
consist of neutral molecules which are held together by weak intermolecular
forces (van der Waals)
[4 marks]

2b)

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

2c)

Substance P can conduct electricity in molten state because the ions are
free to move.
In solid state, substance P cannot conduct electricity because the ions are not free
to move.
In solid state, the ions are vibrating in the same position in a closely packed
crystal lattice
However substance Q or covalent compounds exist as molecules, they do not
contain freely moving ions. Hence, substance Q do not conduct electricity in all
state

List the apparatus:


1. crucible jar
2. batteries
3. connecting wire
4. bulb
5. carbon electrode
6. bunsen burner
7. tripod stand

Materials:
1. magnesium chloride powder
Diagram:

142

Procedure:
1. two third of crucible is filled with solid magnesium chloride.
2. the crucible with its contents is placed on pipe clay triangle on a tripod stand.
3. two carbon electrodes are dipped in the magnesium chloride powder and are
connected to the batteries by connecting wires as shown in diagram below
4. the magnesium chloride powder in crucible is heated until it melts.
5. the switch is turned on and the light bulb is observed.
Results:
Substance
Magnesium
chloride

State of compound
Solid
molten

Observation
The bulb does not light up
The bulb light up

Conclusion:
Magnesium chloride can conduct electricity in a molten state but not in a solid
state

[ 10 marks]

SECTION C:
1. a

i)

Guided Answer:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

G atom with electron arrangement (2.4)..


its needs (4).. electron to achieve octet electron arrangement.
P atom with electron arrangement (2.8.7)
its needs (1) electron to achieve octet electron arrangement.
Each atom G constributes (4) ...electron, while each atom P
constributes one electron for sharing.
one carbon atom and and four atom P ((shared). their electrons to form a
covalent compound with low boiling point.
[ 6 marks]

ii)
143

Guided answer (choose the answer)


move freely, cannot move freely,
the positive ions of magnesium
ions and negative ions of chloride ions, fixed positions,
In the molten state, magnesium chloride can conduct electricity because
( the positive ions of magnesium ions and negative ions of chloride
ions ).are( move freely ).. While in solid state, the positive ion and negative
ions of magnesium and chloride ions are in ( fixed positions)
..and ( cannot move freely )...
[ 4 marks
b i)
Guided answer (complete the table)
Formation of Ionic Bonds
Its formed when metal atoms
combined with non metal
atoms.

Atom lose or gain their


electron to form positive ions
or negative ions
Its involve the transfer of
electrons from metal atoms to
non metal atoms

Formation of Covalent Bonds


It involves the sharing of electrons
between atoms of non metal
atoms

Each atoms constributes


electrons for sharing.

an

Its formed when two non metal


atoms are combine together.

Two atoms share 1, 2 or 3 pairs of


electrons to achieve a stable octet
or duplet electron arrangements.

The formation of ions enables


to achieve stable octet/duplet
electron arrangements

The molecules are held together


by weak forces of attraction.

The opposite charged ions are


attracted together by strong
electrostatic forces

[ 6 marks]

144

b) ii)

Guided Answer

[ 4 marks]

2a)
i) electron arrangement of atom M is 2.6 while atom N is 1
ii) the position of atom M and N is in group 16 and 1 due to
no. of valence electron M is 6 and and T is 1,
besides that, M located in period 2, since its have 2 no. of shells

[ 6 marks/markah]

2b)
Ionic compound : magnesium chloride ( NaCl ).
1. Atom sodium which have proton number 11 and its electron arrangement is 2.8.1 is not
stable
2. To achieve stability, an atom sodium (Na) donates its valence electron to chlorine atom
and form a positively charged ion, Na +
3. Na Na+1 + e
4. Atom chlorine with electron arrangement 2.7 is also not stable yet.
5. To achieve stability, an atom chlorine gain an electron to form a negatively charge ion,
Cl6. Cl + e Cl-

145

7. Positive ion of Na + and negative ion of Cl- are attracted to one another by strong
electrostatic force to form ionic compound, NaCl
8. Diagram

Covalent compound: methane (CH4)


1. Atom carbon with electron arrangement 2.4 is not stable yet.
2. Carbon needs four electron to achieve a stable octet arrangement.
3. Atom hydrogen with electron arrangement 1 is not stable and its needs one electron to
achieve a duplet electron arrangement.
4. Each atom carbon constributes four valence electron and each atom hydrogen
constributes one valence electron for sharing.
5. One atom carbon and four atom hydrogen achieve stability by sharing four pairs of
electron to form a molecule CCl4
[ 14 marks/markah]

146

CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY
SECTION B
1. (a)(i) ions , ions in the electrochemical series
(ii) Electrode P : hydrogen gas
Electrode Q : oxygen gas
(b) 1. H+ , OH2. Na+ , Cl3. H+ , Na+
4. OH- , Cl5. H+
6. Cl7. Cl- , concentration
8. H+ , position in the electrochemical series
9. 2H+ + 2e H2
10. 2Cl- Cl2 + 2e
(c) 1. Anode , cathode
2. cathode, circuit
3. anode, cathode
4. Cell A : converts chemical energy to electrical energy
Cell B : chemical
5. Cell A : donate electrons
Cell B : Positive terminal : donate electrons
Negative terminal : accept electrons
6. Cell A : Electrodes : two different type of metals

2. (a) (i) Electrolysis is a process of decomposing of copper(II) sulphate and water into
copper(II) ions, sulphate ions, hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions when electric
current passes through copper(II) sulphate solution.
(ii) - When the switch is on, copper(II) ions and hydrogen ions are attracted to
cathode..
[1mark]
- Copper(II) ions is selectively discharged because its position is
lower than hydrogen ions in the electro chemical series.
1 mark]
-The product formed at cathode is copper metal.
[1mark]
- Sulphate ions and hydroxide ions are attracted to anode.
[1mark]
- Hydroxide ions is selectively discharged because its position is
lower than sulphate ions in the electro chemical series.
[1mark]
-The product formed at anode is oxygen gas.
[1mark]

147

(b)

Porous pot
Copper(II) nitrate solution

Zinc nitrate solution

Copper strip

Zinc strip
13. Mark for functional
diagram
14. Mark for correct label
1. Copper strip is immersed into copper(II) nitrate solution.
2. Zinc strip is immersed into zinc nitrate solution.
3. Both electrolyte is separated using the porous pot.
4. The circuit is completed using connecting wire with crocodile clip.

Explanation :
5. The reaction occurs is each atom releases electrons.
6. Zinc atoms released two electrons to form Zn2+ ions.
7. The released electrons flow through external circuit and received by copper(II) ions.
8. Copper(II) ions received two electrons to form copper atom.
9. The flow of electrons from zinc strip to copper strip produces electricity.
10. Zn Zn2+ + 2e / Cu2+ + 2e Cu
Section C
1 (a) 1. electroplated
2. silver , silver nitrate solution
3. anode
4. silver
(b) carbon electrodes, sodium chloride solution
1. OH-, Na+ , Cl2. H+ , Na+ , H+
3. hydrogen , electrochemical
4. hydrogen gas
5. OH- , anode, lower position, chloride
6. oxygen gas
(c) aluminium sulphate solution, zinc electrode, sulphuric acid solution
1. dilute sulphuric acid
2. zinc sulphate solution
148

3. aluminium sulphate solution


4. salt bridge
5. aluminium sulphate
6. zinc sulphate
7. complete

2. (a) 1. Copper(II) sulphate crystal is an example of solid ionic compound.


2. Copper(II) sulphate dissolves in water to produce copper(II) sulphate solution.
3. The ions present in the solution are Cu2+ , H+, SO42- , OH-.
4. During electrolysis, cations are attracted to the anode.
5. Anions are attracted to the cathode.
6. At anode, OH- ions are dischared to produce oxygen gas.
7. At cathode, H+ ions are discharged to produce hydrogen gas.

(b) (i) 1. Two sets of apparatus set-up is prepared. Experiment I using carbon electrodes,
while Experiment II using copper electrode. Both experiments using copper(II)
sulphate solution as electrolyte.
2.
3.
4.
5.

In Experiment I, OH- ions are selectively discharged at anode to produce oxygen gas.
4OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4e
Cu2+ ions are selectively discharged at cathode to produce hydrogen gas.
2H+ + 2e H2

(ii) 6. In Experiment II, copper electrode at anode ionizes to produce copper(II) ions.
7. Cu Cu2+ + 2e
8. Copper electrode at cathode discharged to produce copper atom.
9. Cu2+ + 2e Cu
10. It proves that type of electrode used in an electrolysis process will affect the product
produced.
(c) 1. In purification process of impure copper block, the pure copper block is used as the
cathode.
2. The impure copper block is used as the anode.
3. The electrolyte used is copper(II) sulphate solution.

149

CHAPTER 7: ACID AND BASE


SECTION B
Question no. 1

Answer / explanation

Score

(a)

CH3COOH, H2SO4

(b)

Sulphuric acid is a strong acid

It ionises completely in water to form a high concentration of


hydrogen ions

In addition, sulphuric acid is a dwibase acid

It produces two hydrogen ions per molecule

H2SO4 2 H+ + SO42-

Ethanioc acid is a weak acid

It ionises partially in water to form a low concentraion of


hydrogen ions

In addition, ethanoic acid ia a monobase acid

It produces one hydrogen ions per molecule

CH3COOH H+ + CH3COO-

Sulphuric acid is used to make a detergent / fertilisers/


electrolytes in a car battery

Ethanoic asid is used as vinegar

(i)

Reaction between an acid and an alkali to form salt and water


only

(ii)

H2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2H2O /


CH3COOH + KOH CH3COOK + H2O

(iii)

Agriculture : calcium hydoxide is used to neutralise acidic soil

Medical : gastric pills which contain bases, can be consuned


to treat gastric pains

Industry : factory effluent can be neutralised by alkali it is


acidic before being discharged into drains

TOTAL

20

(c)

(d)

150

Question no. 2
Answer / explanation
(a)

(b)

(i)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

Score

When ethanoic acid dissolves in water, it forms hydrogen


ions, H+.
CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+
With the presence of the H+ ions, the ethanoic acid shows its
acidic properties
Without H+ ions, ethanoic acid does not show its acidic
properties
Average volume of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 used,
= 24.10 + 24.05 + 24.05
3
3
= 24.07 cm [ must have unit ]
H2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2H2O
MaVa = a
MbVb
b
(0.1) (24.07) = 1
Mb(25.00)
2
Mb = 0.193 mol dm-3
= 0.193 x (39 + 16 + 1) g dm-3
= 10.81 g dm-3
Materials :
0.1 1.0 M hydrochloric acid, 0.1 1.0 M sodium hydroxide
solution, phenolphthalein
Apparatus :
Burette, 25 cm3 pipette, retord stand and clamp, white tile,
250 cm3 conical flask
Procedure :
1) Exactly 25.0 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution are
151

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

transfered into a clean conical flask by using a pipette.


2) Two or three drops of phenolphthalein indicator is
added into the conical flask.
3) The hydrochloric acid is filled into a clean burette and
the initial reading is recorded.
4) The tap of the burette is opened and the acid is added
drop by drop into the conical flask.
5) The tap is closed immediately when the colour of
solution in the conical flask changes to colourless.
6) The final reading of the burette is recorded.
7) The titration process is repeated for three times to
obtain a more occurate volume of hydrochloric acid at
the end point.
Observation :
The pink colour of phenolphthalein indicator changes to
colourless

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
Max = 10

MAXIMUM MARK

20

Answer / explanation

Score

SECTION C
Question no. 1

(a)

Hydrochloric acid // sulphuric acid // nitric acid


Acid react with a base / alkali to produces salt and water //
hydrochloric acid react with sodium hydroxide / (any base /
alkali) to produces sodium chloride and water.
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

Acid react with a metal to produces salt and hydrogen gas //


hydrochloric acid react with magnesium / zinc to produces
magnesium chloride / zinc chloride and hydrogen
HCl + Mg MgCl2 + H2

Acid react with metal carbonate to produces salt, carbon dioxide


and water // hydrochloric acid react with calcium carbonate (any
metal carbonate) to produces calcium chloride, carbon dioxide
and water.
HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
(b)

Solution R :
152

1
1

1
1

1
Max 6

Ethanoic acid ionises in water to produces hydrogen ion


The presence of hydrogen ions causes solution A / ethanoic acid
to show its acidic properties
Solution T :
Without water / in tetrachloromethane ethanoic acid still exists as
molecules
No hyrogen ion present, does not show its acidic propertie

1
1

1
1
Max 4

(c)

Materials : solid potassium hydroxide and distilled water


Apparatus : 50cm3 beaker, 250cm3 volumetric flask, electronic
balance, filter funnel, glass rod
Calculation: determine the mass of potassium hydroxide , KOH :
No. Of moles of KOH = MV = 1 x 250
1000
1000
= 0.25 mole
Mass of KOH
= 0.25 X [39 + 16 + 1]
= 14 g.
Steps :
1. using an electronic balance, 14 g of potassium hydroxide
is exactly weighed and placed into a beaker.
2. Distilled water is added to the beaker to dissolve all the
solid potassium hydroxide
3. Then, the solution is poured into a 250 cm3 volumetric
flask. The beaker is rinsed with distilled wated and the
solution is poured in the volumetric flask.
4. The solution in the volumetric flask is topped up with
distilled water until its calibration mark.
TOTAL

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Max 10
20

Question no. 2

(a)
(b)

(i)

Answer / explanation
Mg(OH)2
To neutralise the acid produced by bacteria
Sulphuric / hydrochloric / nitric acid
Ethanoic acid or any suitable weak acid
153

Score
1
1
1
1

(ii)

(c)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Strong acid ionises completely in water


to produce high concentration of hydrogen ions
Weak acid ionises partially in water
to produce low concentration of hydrogen ions
The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower
the pH value // The lower the concentration of hydrogen
ions, the higher the ph value

1
1
1
1
1
( max = 4)

Acid used : Ethanoic acid


Two test tubes are filled with 20 cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid
and aqueous ethanoic acid respectively. The following test are
carried out.

Test
Put a piece of
blue litmus paper
into the test tube
Add the acid into
an electrolytic cell
Add a spoon of
calcium carbonate
into the the test
tube
Add a magnesium
ribbon into the
test tube

Glacial ethanoic
acid
No visible
reaction

Aqueous ethanoic
acid
Blue litmus paper
turns red

Bulb does not


light up
No reaction
occurs

Bulb lights up

1+1

Carbon dioxide
gas is released

1+1

No reaction

Hydrogen gas is
released

Conclusion :
Ethanoic acid shows its acidic properties in the presence of
water

154

1+1

1+1

1
(total = 10)

CHAPTER 8: SALTS
Section B
1(a)

(i) Soluble salts : Potassium carbonate


Sodium carbonate

Insoluble salt : Magnesium carbonate

1
----2

(ii) Magnesium nitrate, sodium carbonate

(b)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dissolve
Heat
hot
crystals
Filter
Dry

1
1
1
1
1
1
-----6

(c)

Cation test
1. Dissolve the salt in distilled water.
1
2. Pour about 2 cm3 of the solution into two test tubes.
1
3. Add sodium hydroxide solution in the first test tube until in excess.
1
4. A white precipitate is formed, dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide solution. 1
5. Add ammonia solution in another test tube until in excess.
1
6. A white precipitate is formed, dissolves in excess ammonia solution.
1
7. This is confirmed that Zn2+ ions are present.
1
Anion test
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pour about 2 cm3 of solution containing SO42- ions into a test tube.
Add excess dilute hydrochloric acid.
Add about 2 cm3 barium chloride solution.
A white precipitate is formed.
This is confirmed that SO4 2- ions are present.

1
1
1
1
1
-----12
Max 10

2(a)

(i) Reaction between nitric acid and magnesium oxide


Reaction between nitric acid and magnesium hydroxide
Reaction between nitric acid and magnesium carbonate
155

1
1
1

Reaction between nitric acid and magnesium

1
----2

Any two
Answers refer to the reactions given
(ii) 2HNO3 + MgO Mg(NO3)2 + H2O
2HNO3 +
Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 + 2H2O

1
2HNO3 + MgCO3 Mg(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2
1
2HNO3 + Mg Mg(NO3)2 + H2

1
------2

Any two
(b)

(i) Pb(NO3)2 + K2CO3 PbCO3 + 2KNO3

(ii) No. of mol of K2CO3 = 0.5 X 25 = 0.125 mol


1000

1 mol of K2CO3 produces 1 mol of PbCO3

0.125 mol of K2CO3 produces 0.125 mol of PbCO3

Mass of PbCO3 = 0.125 X 267 = 3.34 g

(c)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1
--------4

25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is poured into a beaker.


The beaker is heated.
Excess zinc oxide is added into the hot sulphuric acid.
The mixture is stirred.
The mixture is filtered.
25 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate solution is added into the filtrate.
White precipitate is produced.
Filter and dry zinc carbonate between two filter papers.
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Chemical equations:
ZnO + H2SO4
ZnSO4 + Na2CO3

ZnSO4 + H2O
ZnCO3 + Na2SO3
156

1
1

-----------

10
Section C
1(a) Accept any two examples of soluble salts and any two examples of insoluble salts. 4
(b) PbSO4 + 2NaNO3
2
Pb2+ , SO4 21
------3
(c) 1. b

2. a 3. d 4. c

2KI +

Pb(NO3)2 PbI2

+ 2KNO3

2
------6

(d) Anion test : Cl1. nitric acid


2. silver nitrate solution
3. White precipitate

1
1
1

Anion test : NO3 1. sulphuric acid


1
2. iron(II) sulphate solution
3. sulphuric acid
1
4. Brown ring

1
-----7

2(a) (i) No. of mol of X2+ ion = 0.2 X 5.0 = 0.001 mol
1000
2No. of mol of CrO 4 ion = 0.2 X 5.0 = 0.001 mol
1
1000

No. of mol of X2+ ion : No. of mol of CrO 42- ion


1: 1
(ii)

X2+

CrO 42-

XCrO4

157

1
-----4

(b) 1. Fill a burette with 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid. Record the initial reading.
2. By using a pipette, transfer 25.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide
solution into a conical flask.
3. Add three drops of methyl orange.
4. Slowly adding the acid into the conical flask and shake well, until the
Indicator changes colour from yellow to orange.
5. Record the final burette reading. Determine the volume of acid used, V cm3.
6. Pipette, 25.0 cm3 of the same potassium hydroxide solution into the
conical flask. Do not add any indicator
7. Add V cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid into the conical flask.
1
8. Pour the contents into an evaporating dish.
9. Heat the solution until saturated.
10. Cool the saturated solution to allow it to crystallise.
11. Filter the crystals.
12. Dry the crystals between two filter papers.

1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
----Max 10

(c) 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Copper(II) carbonate is dissolves in water and pour into two test tubes.
Add sodium hydroxide solution into the first test tube.
A blue precipitate is formed.
Add dilute hydrochloric acid into another test tube.
Pass the gas produced through lime water.
Lime water turns cloudy.

158

1
1
1
1
1
1
------6

ANS; 10(a)
1. Sulphur is bumt in the air to form sulphur dioxide

1m

2. S+O2 ---------------> SO2


1m
3. Sulphur dioxide is burnt in the air to form sulphur trioxide
4. 2SO2

1m

---------------> 2SO3
1m

5. Temperature : 450- 550oC,

Pressure1: atm

1m
6. Catalysed: Vanadium (V) Oxide,V 2 O 5
1m
7. Sulphur Trioxide is dissolved in concentrated of Sulphuric acid to form oleum.

1m

8. 2SO3+ H2SO4 -------------> H2S2O7

1m

9. Oleum is diluted with distilled water to form Sulphuric acid


1m
10. H2S2O7

H2O -------------> 2 H2SO4

1m

10
marks
10(b)
1. Molar mass of ammonium sulphate = l32 gmol 1
2. Percentage of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate
= 28/132 x 100
= 21.2 %
1m
3. Molar mass of urea = 60 gmol-1
1m
4. Percentage of nitrogen in urea
= 28/ 60 x l00
= 46.7%
1m

159

1m

5. Molar mass of hydrazine = 32g/mol


6. Percentage of nitrogen in hydrazine :
=28/132 x l00
= 85.7%
1m

1m

7.Hydrazine has the richest source of nitrogen compares with other fertilizers.

1m

8. The farmer should choose hydrazine

1m
8 marks

10(c)
1. The gas produced is Sulphur dioxide. It is acidic and poisonous.
2. Can cause acid rain which corrodes buildings and metallic structures /
It pollutes the air which causes bronchitis and lung diseases.
1m

1m

2marks

Total : 20 marks

160

CHAPTER 10: RATE OF REACTION


(a) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the set-up of apparatus for the experiment.
Lukiskan rajah berlabel bagi alat radas yang digmakan untuk eksperimen.
[ 2 marks]
Buratte
buret

(ii)

Volume of carbon dioxide gas/ cm3


Isipadu gas karcon dioksida / cm3

Time/ s
Masa/ s

2 marks

(b)(i)
CaCO3 + 2 HCl

CaCl2

+ CO2 + H2O -----------1m

No. Of moles acid = (0.1)( 50)


1000
= 0.005 mole
------------1m
2 mol of HCI reacted evolve I mol of CO2
0.005 mol of HCl reacted evolve 0.005/ 2 mole CO2
= 0.0025 mole CO2
-----------1m
Volume of CO2 gas = 0.0025 mole x 24dm3/ mole
= 60 cm3
161

-----------1m

4 marks

(ii) Overall rate of reaction = Total volume of CO2 gas


Time taken
= 60 cm3
-------------------1m
300 s
= 0.2 cm3 s-1
-------------------1m

2
marks

(c)
Rate of reaction in Exp. II is higher than Exp. 1
Experiment II is at the higher the temperature
The kinetic energy of the reacting particles increases and the particles move faster
Frequency of collision between marble and Hydrogen ion increases
Frequency of effective collision increses

Rate of reaction in Exp. III is higher than Exp. 1


Powdered marble in Exp. III has greater total surface area
Pqwdered marble is more exposed to collision
Frequency of collision between marble and Hydrogen ion increases
Frequency of effective collision increses

(a) 2H+

S2O32- All formulae correct


[1m]
- Equation balanced

SO2

5
marks

+ H2O

[1m]

(b) Rate of reaction = Fixed mass of sulphur formed


Time taken
[2m]

162

5
marks

(c)
Factor
Concentration of
Sodium thiosulphate
solution

Effect
The higher the concentration of Sodium thiosulphate
solution, the higher the rate of reaction

Temperature of Sodium
thiosulphate solution

The higher the Temperature of Sodium thiosulphate


solution, the higher the rate of reaction

1+1
m
1+1
m

( d) [The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction]


1. Measure 50 cm3 of 0.2 rnol dm-3 Sodium thiosulphate solution with a rneasuring
cylinder and pour into a conical flask.
[1m]
2. The conical flask is placed on top of a filter paper marked with a .X' mark.
[1m]
3. Measure 5 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid with a l0 cm3 measuring cylinder. [1m]
4. Pour the acid into the conical flask quickly and carefully at the same time start stopwatch
[1m]
5. Swirl the rnixture in the conical flask slowly

[1m]

6. Observe the 'X' mark on the filter paper from vertically above through the solution.[1m]
7. When X' marked is not visible through the mixture stop the stopwatch and
record the time taken

[1m]

8. Repeat step I to 7 by using the volume of sodium thiosulphate solution , distilled water
and acid as shown
[1m]

163

9.Result:
Volume of solution
/cm3
45
40
35
30

Volume of distilled water


/cm3
5
10
15
20

Volume of acid
/ cm3
5
5
5
5

Time taken
/s

[ Table showing the above with volume of acid fixed and time recorded ]

[1m]

10 Skecth a graph of concentration against time


Concentration mol dm-3

[1m]
Time /s
11.[ inference from graph]
As the concentration of Sodium thiosulphate solution increase, the time
taken of fixed mass of sulphur formed decrease

[1m]

12.[ Conclusion]
The higher the concentration of Sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher
the rate of reaction
[1m]
[12m]

Total: [20 m]

164

CHAPTER 11: CARBON COMPOUND


No.
2(a)

Marking Scheme

Mark

1+
1
4
Butan-2-ol

2(b
)

(c)

2-methylpropan-1-ol

2-methylpropan-2-ol

(i) 100 85.7 = 14.3


(ii)
Mole

1+
1

C
:
H
85.7/12
14.3/1
= 7.14
= 14.3
Simplest mole
7.14/7.14
14.3/7.14
=1
=2
Hence, empirical formula: CH2
(iii)
Let, (CH2)n = molecular formula
14n
= 56
n
= 56/14 = 4
Hence, molecular formula = (CH2)4 / C4H8
(iv) But-2-ene(major product)/ But-1-ene(minor product)

1
1
1

1
1
1

1. Latex particle has negatively charge protein membrane.


2. Ammonia is a weak alkali.//In water, ammonia produces OH- ion.
3. Ammonia/ OH- neutralises acid produced by bacteria.
4. The latex particles remain repels to each other.
5. Latex particles do not collide.
6. Butanoic acid is a weak acid// In water,butanoic acid produces H+.
7. H+ neutralises the negative charge on the protein membrane.
8. The latex particles collide to each other.
9. The protein membrane break.
10.The rubber molecules inside the latex particle release and coagulate.
Total
165

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

10

1
20

No.
2(a) (i)

Marking Scheme
Molar mass = (12x57 + 6x16 + 104)/(684+96+104)/ 884 gmol-1

2(a)(ii)

Fatty acid P: HOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3/


CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH

Mark
1
1

Alcohol Q:
CH2OH
1
CHOH
CH2OH
3

2(b)(i)

Rubber X: unvulcanised
Rubber Y: vulcanised

1
1

2(b)(ii)

1.Rubber Y is harder than X. // Rubber X is soft while Y is strong


2.Rubber Y is more resistance to oxidation.// Rubber X is easily
oxidised while Y is not easily oxidised.// Rubber X is easily attack by
oxygen/UV light while rubber Y is not easily attack by oxygen/UV
light.
3.Rubber X is less resistant to heat than Y // Rubber X easily to
become sticky/soft at high temperature than Y.
(any two)

1+
1

2(a)(iii)

2(b)(iii)
1. Sulphur atoms form cross-linkages/ sulphur bridges between rubber
molecules/ polymers.
2. The cross-linkages prevent the rubber molecules from sliding over
one another when the rubber is stretched.
3. Rubber becomes more elastic.
2(c)

Suggested answers:
Material and apparatus:
1.Rubber strips, X and Y // Unvalcanised and vulcanised rubber strips.
2.Bulldog clip
3.Weight [10 100]g
4.Retort stand and clamp
5.Metre rule
accept: material and apparatus from labelled diagram and procedure.
Procedure:
1.Clip the rubber X/Y strip and hang.
2.Measure the initial length of rubber strip.
166

1
1
1

1+
1

Max
6

3.Hang a 50g weight to the end of rubber strip.


4.Let aside for [30-60] minutes.
5.Take off the weight.
6.Measure the final length of rubber strip.
7.Repeat the experiment using rubber Y/X strip.
Result:
Type of
Initial
Final
rubber
length(cm)
length(cm)
X/
Unvulcanised
5.0
5.1
rubber
Y/ Vulcanised
5.0
5.0
rubber

1
1
1
1
1
1
Extension(cm
)
1
0.1
0.0

8.Vulcanised rubber will return to its initial length when weight is


taken off while unvulcanised rubber does not.

Conclusion:
9.Vulcanised rubber is more elastic than unvulcanised rubber.
1
20

Total

167

CHAPTER 12 : OXIDATION AND REDUCTION


Question No.
2

(a)

Explanation

Mark

Able to draw a functional labeled diagram that


shows:
1. Label for iron, water(droplet) and oxygen
Sample answer:
O2

Total of
mark

Water droplet
O2
Iron

Able to describe the reaction that happens at the


positive terminal during the rusting of iron by
stating:
1. Fe 2+ and OH ions combine to form
iron(II) hydroxide / Fe(OH) 2
2. Iron(II) hydroxide is oxidized iron(III)
hydroxide // Fe(OH)2 is oxidized to form
Fe(OH)3 // Fe 2+ is oxidized to Fe 3+
3. Iron(III) hydroxide form hydrated iron(III)
oxide/rust // Fe(OH)3 form Fe2O3,xH2O

1
4
(b)

Able to suggest metal X and give reason


Sample answer:
1. X: copper/silver
[any metal less electropositive than iron]
2. X is less electropositive than iron// x is
lower than iron in electrochemical series
3. Iron rust/oxidised/lose electron to form [Fe
2+
] ions
Ie: Iron rust, Fe Fe 2+ + e.
Able to suggest metal Y and give reason
Sample answer:
4. Y: magnesium/aluminium/zinc
[any metal more electropositive than iron]
5. Y is more electropositive than iron // Y is
higher than iron in electrochemical series
6. [Y] oxidised/lose electron to form [Y] ions
// prevent /inhibit iron from being
oxidised/rusted
168

1
1

6
1. Able to name a metal as a reducing agent
2. Able to name a halogen as an oxidising
agent
3. Able to describe the procedure for the
conversion
4. Able to describe a test to show the present
of Fe 2+
5. Able to describe a test to show the present
of Fe 3+
Sample answer:
Fe 2+ Fe 3+
1. [suitable metal]
Magnesium/zinc //
[any
other
suitable
metal
more
electropositive than iron]
2. Add the [metal] to [solution containing Fe
3+
]
3. Heat/shake/stir
4. Decant/filter the mixture/solution
5. Add
sodium
hydroxide
/potassium
hexacynoferate(II)/(III) solution
6. Green/blue/dark blue precipitate is formed
[note: if insoluble iron(III) compound is
used, no marks for P2,P4 and P6. Ie.
Fe2(CO3)3

1
1
1
1
1

Fe 3+ Fe 2+
7. [suitable halogen]
Chlorine/bromine/iodine
8. Add chlorine/bromine water to [solution
containing Fe 2+ ]
9. Heat/stir/warm
10. Add sodium hydroxide /KSCN/Potassium
hexacynoferate(II)/(III) solution
11. Brown /blood red solution/blue/dark blue
precipitate formed

169

1
1
1
1

10

Total mark

Question No.
4

(a)

Explanation
Chemical Equations : II and III
Reasons : Involving oxidation and reduction
occurring simultaneously/at the same time
Reaction II
Oxidation: Cu loses electron to form Cu2+
Reduction: Ag+ gain electron to form Ag
// Electron transfer from Cu to Ag+
or
Oxidation: Oxidation number of Cu increase from
0 to 2+
Reduction: Oxidation number of Ag+ decrease
from +1 to 0
Reaction III
Oxidation: Zn loses electron to form Zn2+
Reduction: 2H+ gain electron to form H2
or
Oxidation: Oxidation number of Zn increase from
0 to 2+
Reduction: Oxidation number of H+ decrease
from +1 to 0
// Electron transfer from Zn to H+
Bromine water
Terminal
negative

Half- equation
Observation
Fe2+ Fe3+ Green to
+e
brown/yellow

positive

Br2 + 2e
2Br-

brown to
colourless
/decolourises

Mark

1+1

1+1
Max 6

1+1

1+1
5
1

170

Total of
mark

1+1

Draw out 1 cm of the solution from terminal


negative into a test tube.

20

Add NaOH / NH3 solution /


Potassium Hexanocyanoferrate(II) solution to the
test tube
Observation: Brown ppt / brown ppt / dark blue ppt
respectively.
Shows that iron(II) ion is changed / oxidised to
iron(III) ion

Energy
change

Halfequation at
anode
Electron
flow

Electrolytic
Cells
Electrical
energy
Chemical
energy
Cu Cu2+ +
2e

Chemicals
Cells
Chemical
Energy
Electrical
Energy
Zn Zn2+ +
2e

Electrons flow
from anode to
cathode.

Electrons flow
from zinc to
copper./

1+1

1+1

1+1
6
20

171

CHAPTER 14: CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS

Question
(a) (i)

(ii)

Description/answer
Cleaning agent P soap
Cleaning agent T detergent
Part X soluble in grease, insoluble in water
Part Y soluble in water , insoluble in grease
1. Soap anion consists of hydrophilic part and hydrophobic part.
.

Marks
1
1
1
1
4
1
1

2. Hydrophilic part dissolves in water.

3. Hydrophobic dissolves// penetrates in oils/grease.

4. Soap reduces surface tension of water.


5. Rubbing/scrubbing helps pull the oily stains free/lifted off the
surface

6. Soap anions break the grease into small droplets/ emulsify oil

1
7

or
grease.
7. During rinsing, the grease is removed
(iii) 1. Hard water contains Mg 2+ ion and Ca 2+ ions
2. In Expt 1, soap anions reacts with Ca

2+

ion and Mg

1
2+

ion to

form

insoluble salt//precipitate/scum

3. No foam// amount soap anion available for cleansing is reduced


4. In Expt II, detergent anion react with Ca 2+ ions and Mg 2+ ion
to
form soluble salt/ no precipitate/no scum

1
1
1

5. foam is formed
6. detergent is more effective than soap
(b)
Ingredients
aspartame
tartazine
octyl butanoate
citric acid

Food additives
sweetener
Colouring
Flavouring agent
anti oxidant
172

1
1
1

Max
:
20

Total

Question
2 (a) (i)

Description/Answer

Marks

Traditional medicine
They are usually not processed

Modern medicine
They
are
processed
chemically
They are derived from plants or They are synthesized based
animals
on substances found in
nature
They are not tested
They are tested to make
sure it is safe to be used

1
2

Any
two
(ii)

Function:Stimulant to reduce fatigue

Antidepressant to reduce tension and anxiety

Antipsychotic to treat psychiatric illness

173

(b)

Salt preservative
Ethyl butanoate flavour
Lecithin - stabilizer
Vitamin C antioxidant

1
1

Salt :
- Draws the water out of the cells of microorganism,
- Retard / slow down the growth of microorganism
- food can be kept for longer (period) of time

1
1

Monosodium glutamate:
- Improve the taste of food,
- Restore the taste loss because of processing,
- Enhance the taste of food

1
1

1
1

(c)

1
Detergent is more effective
Hard water contains Mg 2+ ion and Ca 2+ ions

In Expt 1, soap react with Ca 2+ ion and


Mg 2+ ion to form insoluble salt//precipitate/scum
No foam

1
1

1
In Expt II, detergent react with Ca 2+ ions and Mg 2+ ion form soluble
salt/ no precipitate/no scum
1
Foam is formed

6
Max
:
20

Total

174

Question
3

(a)

Description/Answer
Materials: palm oil/corn oil/olive oil/any vegetable oil,
concentrated sodium hydroxide
Procedure:
1. Pour (5-10 cm3 )of palm oil/corn oil/olive into a beaker.
2. Add 50 cm3 of (5-6) mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide/ NaOH /
Concentrated sodium hydroxide
3. Stir and heat the mixture until it boils
4. Add 50 cm3 of distilled water and 3 spatulas of sodium
chloride / NaCl / Add 50 cm3 NaCl solution
5. Boil the mixture for another 5 minutes.
Filter out the soap
6. The soap is put into a test tube
7. the water is added and shake the test tube
8. foam is form

Marks
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9

(b)
X

(i)Soap

(i)Detergent,

(ii) Effective only in soft water

(ii)Effective in soft water and


hard water,
(iii)Does not form scum in hard
Water
(iv) Does not form precipitate in
acidic water,

(v) From synthetic sources such


as petroleum.
(vi) Non-biodegradable kill
aquatic lives.

(iii) Forms scum in hard water


(iv) Forms precipitate in acidic
water
(v) From natural sources
(vi) Biodegradable cause no
polution
(c)

Patient A : Antibiotic
The patient must complete the whole course
Immunization/Prevent the disease from coming back
Patient B: Antioxidant
Taken only when needed/Do not overdose/Stop when
calmer
Could cause addiction/death if overdose
Total marks

175

1
1

1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
Max:
20

Question
4

Descriptipn/Answer

Marks

(a)
Food additives
Flavouring

How food additives reacts


Makes food tastier

1+1

Colouring
more attractive

Colours food so that it looks

1+1

Preservative
microorganism on food

Prevent the growth of

1+1
1+1

Antioxidant
food
(b) (i)

Slow down the oxidation of


8

Process: Saponification
Name: Sodium/Potassium palmitate

1
1

Part X: Hydropbobic
PartY: Hydrophilic

1
1

Hydropobic disasolves in grease


Hydrophilic dissolves in water

1
1
6

(b) (ii)

Anions of detergent are more effective than anions of soap


in hard water.

Anions of soap react with calcium ions/magnesium ion

to form scum / insoluble precipitate.


1
Amount of anions of soap is reduced /decreased.
1
Anions of detergent do not form scum/precipitate /the salts
formed are solubled
2 CH3(CH2)14COO- + Ca2+
-

2+

Or 2 CH3(CH2)14COO + Mg

[CH3(CH2)14COO]2Ca
1
[CH3(CH2)14COO]2Mg

6
Total marks

176

20

177