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# 9.

Wave Equation

## Spherical Bessel Functions and Hankel functions : Although

this chapter deals with radiating systems, here we first solve the scalar
source-free wave equation in the spherical coordinate syatem. The
purpose is to obtain a complete set of spherical Bessel funtions and
Hankel functions, with which we will expand
p
the fields pproduced by
y
the sources.
The scalar source
source-fr
free wave equation is [see (6.32)]

## An Overview of Chapters on EM Waves : (covered in this course)

source term in wave equation
boundary
Ch. 7
none
plane wave in space or in
two semi- spaces separated
by the x - y plane
Ch. 8
none
conducting walls
-it
Ch. 9
J, ~ e
outgoing
g g wave to
prescribed, as
in an antenna
Ch. 10

Ch 14
Ch.

J , ~ e-it
outgoing wave to
induced byy incident EM waves,
as in the case of scattering of a
plane wave by a dielectric object.
moving
i charges,
h
outgoing
i wave to
such as electrons in a synchrotron

1 2 (x, t ) 0
c 2 t 2

## (x, t ) (x, )eit d

2 (x, t )

(9.77)

Let

(9.78)

Each
E h Fourier
F i component satisfies
i fi the
h Helmholtz
l h l wave eq.

(2 k 2 ) (x, ) 0,

where k
c

## In spherical coordinates, ( 2 k 2 ) 0 is written

1 r
2 1 sin
r
r 2 r
r sin

r sin
1

2
2

d ( r 2 dU ) k 2 r 2U l (l 1)U . Rewrite
U(r)
( ) is
i governedd by
b dr
i U
dr
2
d k 2 l (l 1) f ( r ) 0
as fl (r )). Then
Then, d 2 2r dr
(9 81)
(9.81)
dr
r2 l
2
2
d k 2 (l 1/ 2) u ( r ) 0 (9.83)
Let fl (r ) 11/ 2 ul (r ) d 2 1r dr
(9 83)
2
dr
l
r
r
ul (r ) J l 1 (kr ), Nl 1 (kr ) [Bessel functions of fractional order]

k 0
2

PQ

r
dr

1 d

r2

d Q
UQ 1 dd sin
i ddP UP 1
k 2UPQ 0
dr
r sin
r sin d
2

2 dU

r sin
2

Multiply by

UPQ

2 2

2 dU

## The only term with -dependence,

dependence, so this
term must be a constant. Let it be -m2

d
1
sin
i [U1 dr
(r dr ) k r P sin

d
d

l (l 1)

## Dividing all terms by sin 2 , we see that

this is the only term with r -dependence.
So it must be a constant. Let it be l (l 1).

(sin
(i

(9.79)

d Q
dP
)] Q1 2
d
d

fl ( r )

r1/ 2

J l 1 (kr ),

1
r1/ 2

Nl 1 (kr )
2

## hl(1) (kr ) jl (kr ) inl (kr )

jl (kr ) 2 kr J l 12 ( kr )
Define
and
1
nl (kr ) 2kr 2 Nl 1 (kr )
hl(2) (kr ) jl (kr ) inl (kr )

2
Hankel functions
spherical Bessel functions
1
2

2l 1 (l m)! m
Pl (cos )eim
4 (l m)!

## Thus, as in Sec. 3.1 of lecture notes,

P Pm (cos ),
) Qm (cos ); Q eim , eim PQ Ylm ( , )
rejected because of divergence at

(1) (1)
(2) (2)
(x, ) Alm
hl (kr
k ) Alm
hl (kr
k ) Ylm ( , ) [k c ] (9
(9.92)
92)
lm

Review

## 3.7 Laplace Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates;

Bessel Functions

2 1 1 2 2

0
2 2 2 z 2
Let (x) R( )Q( ) Z ( z )

2 (x) 0

## Review 3.7 Laplace Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates; Bessel Functions (continued)

Bessel Functions : If we let x k , the equation for R takes
the standard form of the Bessel equation,

z
z

2 Z
x
2
kz
z 2 k Z 0 Z e
2
y
Q
2 2Q 0 Q ei

x
2 R 1 R 2 2
2 k 2 R 0 R J (k ), N (k )
where J and N are Bessel functions of the first and second kind,
respectively (see following pages).
J (k ) ei ekz

i kz
N (k ) e
e

H(1) ( x) J ( x) iN ( x)
(3.86)
(2)
H
x
J
x
iN
x
(
)
(
)
(
)

## and the modified Bessel functions (Bessel functions of imaginary

argument)

(3)
5

I ( x) i J (ix)
(3.100)

1 (1)
(3.101)
K ( x) 2 i H (ix)
See Jackson pp
pp. 112
112-116,
Ryzhik and Abramowitz
& Stegun for properties of these special functions.

n0 ( x )
n1 ( x )
n2 ( x )

j1 ( x )
j2 ( x )

x
x

## 9.6 Spherical Wave Solutions (continued)

j0 ( x ) j0 ( x 0) 1

d 2 R 1 dR 1 2 R 0
(3.77)
dx2 x dx
x2
with solutions J ( x) and N ( x),
) from which we define the Hankel
functions:

From G. Afken,
"Mathematical Methods
for Physicists"

jl ( x)
1x sin x l2
x l

l
2
x1, l
x l
jl ( x)
(2lx1)!! 1 2(2xl 3) nl ( x)
1x cos x l2

x l
(1)
l 1 eix
2
x1, l
(2l 1)!!
(
)
(
)
h
x

i
[ spatial
x

x
nl ( x)
l 1 1 2(12l ) l

dependence
x
p
of spheri
p
cal waves.]]

See Jackson pp. 426-427 for further properties of jl , nl , hl(1) , and hl(2) . 7

## Expansion of the Green function : Solution of the Green equation

( 2 k 2 )G (x, x) 4 (x x)
(6.36)
i given
is
i
by
b (derived
(d i d in
i Sec.
S 6.4.)
64)
ik x x
G (x, x) e xx in infinite space and for outgoing- (6.40)
b
d condition.
diti
wave boundary

We may solve (6.36) in the same way as in Sec. 3.9, i.e. write
*
G (x, x) gl (r , r )Ylm
( , )Ylm ( , ),
lm

## solve for gl (r , r ) for r r and r r [where ( x x) 0],

0] and then
apply boundary conditions at r 0, r , and r r . The result is

l 0

m l

*
G (x, x) 4 ik jl (kr )hl(1) (kr ) Ylm
( , )Ylm ( , )

## Equating the two expressions above for G (x, x)), we obtain

eik x x
x x

l 0

m l

*
( , )Ylm ( , ), (9.98)
4 ik jl (kr ) hl(1) ( kr ) Ylm

Part I

Part II

## Summary of Differential Equations and Solutions :

Laplace
p
eq.
q 2 0

Source-free D.E.
Solutions
Cartesian

cylindrical

spherical

i x i y
2 2 z
, etc.
etc
e , e , e
(Sec. 2.9)

J (kr
k ),
) eim , e kz , etc.
t
m
(Sec. 3.7)

l
t
Ylm ( , )), r , etc.
(Secs. 3.1, 3.2)

## eik x x , eik y y , eik z z , etc.

etc

(Sec. 8.4)

2
J
k z2 r , eim , eik z z , etc.
etc
m c 2

(Sec. 8.7)

k )), nl (kr
k )), etc.
Ylm ( , )), jl (kr

(Sec. 9.6)

D.E. with a
point source

G ( x, x) 4 ( x x)
b.c.: G () 0

( k )G ( x, x) 4 ( x x)
b.c.: outgoing wave

Solutions
(Green functions)

Helmholtz eq.
q 2 k 2 0

## Series expansin Eqs. (3.70), (3.148), (3.168)

of Green function

ik x x

x x

Helmholtz eq. 2 k 2 0

Solutions
Cartesian

cylindrical
spherical

## eik x x , eik y y , eik z z , etc.

(Sec. 8.4)

2
J
k z2 r , eim , eik z z , etc.
m c2

(Sec. 8.7)
Y ( , ), j (kr ), n (kr ), etc.
l
l
lm
(Sec. 9.6)

D.E. with a
point source
p

( 2 k 2 )G (x, x ) 4 (x x )
b.c.: outgoing
g g wave

Wave Eq.

2 c1 t 0
2
2

A(x, t )
3

d x dt

(x, t )
x x
t(t c )

4 x x

0 J (x , t )

(x , t ) / 0

( 2 c1 t )G (x, t , x, t )
2

1
x x

Source-free D.E.

Solutions
(Green functions)

[Eq. (6.40)]

ik xx
[Eq. (6.40)]
Ge

4 (x x ) (t t )
b c : outgoing wave
b.c.:

G (x, t , x , t )

xx

Series expansin
of Green function

t (t

x x

x x
c

[Eq. (6.44)]

Eq. (9.98)

Eq. (9.98)
9

## 9.1 Radiation of a Localized Oscillating Source (continued)

Using (6.45)
(6 45) (assume in 0) on (6
(6.15)
15) & (6.16),
(6 16) we obtain the
gereral solutions for A and , which are valid for arbitrary J and .

Review
R
i off IInhomogeneous
h
W
Wave E
Equations
ti
and
dS
Solutions
l ti
:
2
1
2
(6.15)
c 2 t 2 0 in free space
space, and A
2
2
satisfy Lorenz gauge.
(6.16)
A 12 2 A 0 J

c t
Basic structure of the inhomogenous wave equation:
2

1 2
c 2 t 2

4 f (x, t )

## Solution of (6.32) with outgoing-wave b.c.:

homogeneous solution

where G (x, t , x, t )

t (t

is the solution of

( 2

1 2
c 2 t 2

x x
c

x x

## with outgoing wave b.c.

(6.45)

f (x, t ) in (6.45)
(6 45)
is evaluated at
the retarded time. (6.44)

)G (x, t , x, t ) 4 (x x) (t t )

x x

t (t c ) J ( x, t )
A ( x, t ) 1
0
3

(6.48), (9.2)
d
x
dt

x
x
(x, t ) 4
(x, t ) / 0
In general, the sources, J ( x, t ) and ( x, t ), contain a static part
andd a time
ti dependent
d
d t part.
t For
F static
t ti J ( x) andd (x),
) (9.2)
(9 2) gives
i
the
th
static A and in Ch. 5 and Ch. 1, respecticely.

J ( x)
A ( x ) A ( x ) 0 d 3 x
(5.32)
x x
4
x
x

(6 32)
(6.32)

10

( x) ( x)

(6 41)
(6.41)
11

(x )
d 3 x

4 0
x x
1

source

(1.17)

## Question: It is stated on p. 408 that (9.2) is valid provided no

boundary surfaces are present.
present Why? [See discussion below (6.47)
(6 47)
in Ch. 6 of lectures notes.]

12

## A simpler derivation of (9.3):

(9 3): We specialize to harmonic sources
from the outset. Then, only (6.16) is required.

## Fields by Harmonic Sources : Only time-dependent sources can

g are treated in Ch. 13 and
Ch. 14. Here, specialize to sources of the form (as in an antenna):
(x, t ) (x)eit
(9.1)
J (x, t ) J (x)e it
S b (9
Sub.
(9.1)
1) iinto (9.2)
(9 2) andd carry out the
h t -integration,
i
i
we obtain
b i
A (x, t ) A (x)e it
where k .

0 3 eik xx
with A (x)
d x
J (x),
x x
4

2 A ( x, t )

1 2 A ( x, t )
c 2 t 2
it

0 J ( x, t )

(6.16)

## 2 k 2 A (x) 0 J (x) [inhomogeneous Helmholtz wave eq.]

The Green equation for the above equation is

2 k 2 Gk (x, x) 4 (x x)

(9 3)
(9.3)

(6 36)
(6.36)

ik x x

Gk ( x, x) e xx

## We shall assume that J(x) is independent of A(x), i.e. the

source will
ill nott be
b affected
ff t d by
b the
th fields
fi ld they
di t Otherwise,
Oth i
(9.3) is an integral equation for A(x).

(6.40)

ik x x

which is (9.3).
which
(9 3)
14

13

Rewrite (9.3),

0 3 eik xx
A ( x)
d x x x J (x),
4

## Near -Field Expansion of A (x)

(9.3)

H 1 A (everywhere)
(9.4)

0
Maxwell eqs.
eqs give
iZ
E k0 H (outside the source) (9.5)
where
h Z 0 0 0 377 (impedance
d
off free
f space, p. 297).
297)
Thus, given the source function J ( x), we may in principle evaluate
A(x) from (9.3) and then obtain the fields H and E from (9.4) and
((9.5).
)
it

Note that e
dependence has been assumed for J, hence for all
other quantities which are expressed in terms of J.
Note: The charge distribution and scalar potential are not
required
i d for
f the
h determination
d
i i off H andd E? (why
h ?)
15

0 3 eik xx
J (x)
d x
4
x x

(9.3)

## Before going into algebraic details, we may readily observe some

general properties of A (x) near the source (r ).

## For x outside the source and r (or kr 1), we let eik xx 1

l
1
1 rl *
and use
Y ( , )Ylm ( , ).
(3.70)
4
l 1 lm
x x
l 0 m l 2l 1 r
x
x
Since r r , we have r r and r r .
source
l
1 1
*
A ( x) 0
Ylm ( , ) d 3 xJ (x)r lYlm
( , ) (9.6)

l
1
l 0 m l 2l 1 r
kr 1

## The integral in (9.6) yields multipole coefficients as in (4.2). Thus,

((9.6)) shows that,, for kr 1,, A(x) can be decomposed
p
into multipole
p
(l 1)
fields, which fall off as r
just as the static multipole fields, but with
it
the e
dependence. However, we will show later that, far from the
source (kr 1), A(x) behaves as an outgoing spherical wave.

16

## (9 11) is an exact expression for A(x). We now assume kd 1 (i.e.

(9.11)
(i e
source dimension wavelength). Then, kr 1 and jl (kr ) reduces to
( kr)l
kd 1
j (kr
k )

(9 88)
(9.88)

Full
F
ll Expansion
E
i off A(x)
A( ): We
W may in
i fact
f t expandd A (x),
) without
ith t
approximations, by using (9.98). For x outside the source, we have
r x r , r x r . Hence,
H
(9
(9.98)
98) can bbe written
itt
ik x x

*
4 ik jl ( kr ) hl((1)) (kr ) Ylm
( , )Ylm ( , )
x x
l 0
m l

S b hl(1) (kr
Sub.
k )

0 3 eik xx
S b this
Sub.
hi equation
i into
i
A ( x)
d x
J ( x), we obtain
b i
x x
4
*
A (x) 0ik hl(1) (kr
k )Ylm ( , ) d 3 xJ ( x) jl ( kr
k )Ylm
( , )), (9
(9.11)
11)
l ,m

## where hl(1) (kr )

eikr ( 2l 1)!! l
n
a (ikr )
i ( kr )l 1 n 0 n

( 1)n (2l n )!

kr 1

source

## with an (2l 1)!!(2l 2n )!!n! (a0 1, a1 1,)

(See Abramowitz & Stegun
Stegun, "Handbook
Handbook of Mathematical Functions,
Functions "
p. 439.)

(2l 1)!!

i ( kr )l 1 n 0

an (ikr
ik ) n

x
J,

n
x

x (r , , )
x (r , , )

## 1 Y ( , ) eikr [1 a (ikr ) a (ikr ) 2 a (ikr )l ]

l
1
2
2l 1 lm

r l 1
A ( x) 0
(1)
l ,m d 3 xJ ( x) r l Y * ( , )

lm

## (1) is the combination of (9

(9.6)
6) and (9.12)
(9 12) in Jackson.
Jackson It is valid for
kd 1 and any x outside the source. The region outside the source is
commonly divided into 3 zones (by their different physical characters):
The near (static) zone:
d r ( kr 1)
The intermediate ((induction)) zone: d r ( kr 1))
d r ( kr 1)

17

Griffiths

18

Griffiths

## 11.1.2 Electric Dipole

Electric Dipole
pp
Approximation #1: Make this physical dipole into a perfect dipole.

## Consider two point charges of +q and q

separating by a distance d(t). Assume d(t) can
be expressed in sinusoidal form.
form

d r
Estimate the spearation
p
distances byy the law of cosines.
d
r r 2 rd cos (d 2) 2 r (1 cos )
2r
1 1
d
(1 cos )
r r
2r
r d
cos[ (t r / c)] cos[ (t )
cos ]

## The result is an oscillating electric dipole:

p(t ) qd (t )z qd cos(t )z p0 cos(t )z , where p0 qd .
The retarded potential is
(r, tr )
1
V (r, t )
d

4 0
r
1 q0 cos[ (t r / c)] q0 cos[ (t r / c)]

4 0
r
r

c
2c
r
d
r
d
cos[ (t )]cos(
cos ) sin[ (t )]sin(
cos )
c
2c
c
2c

19

size.
i
c

20

Griffiths

Griffiths

## The Retarded Scalar Potential

r
d
r
d
cos[ (t r / c)] cos[ (t )]cos(
cos ) sin[ (t )]sin(
cos )
c
2
c
c
2
c

r
r d
cos[ (t )] sin[ (t )]
cos
c
c 2c

2c

cos

V (r, t )

p0 cos
4 0 r

r

c sin[ (t c )

## The retarded scalar potential is:

r
r d
d
1
cos[

(
t
)]
sin[

(
t
)]
cos

(1
cos

r
1
c
c 2c
2r

V (r, t )

r
r d
d
4 0
1
cos (1 cos )
cos[ (t )] sin[ (t )]

c
c 2c
2r
r
p cos
r 1
r
0
sin[ (t ) cos[ (t )]

4 0 r c
c r
c

Three approximations

d r

)
2

d r

21

Griffiths

22

Griffiths

## The Retarded Vector Potential

The Electromagnetic
g
Fields and Poynting
y
g Vector
p 2 sin
A
r
0 0 (
) cos[ (t )]
t
4 0 c
r
c
2
p sin
r
B A 0 0 (
) cos[[ (t )]
r
c
4 c

## The retarded vector potential is

determined by the current density.

E
V

dq
z q0 sin tz
dt
J (r, tr )
d / 2 q sin[
i [ (t r / c)]z
d 0
dz
A(r, t ) 0
r
r
4
4 d / 2
p
r
@ d r
0 0 sin[ (t )]z
4 r
c
I (t )

Retarded potentials:
p cos
r
V (r, t ) 0
sin[
i [ (t )
c
4 0 c r
p
r
A(r, t ) 0 0 sin[ (t )]z
c
4 r

E
V
B A

p 2 sin
r
S
(E B ) 0 0 (
) cos[ (t )] r
0
c 4
r
c
1

0 p02 4 sin 2 2
(
) r sin d d
P S da
32 2 c r
p 2 4
0 0
12 c

A
t
23

24

## 9.2 Electric Dipole Fields and Radiation (continued)

R it (1):
Rewrite
(1)
1 Y ( , ) eikr [1 a (ikr ) a (ikr ) 2 a (ikr )l ]
1
2
lm
l

r l 1
A(x) 0 2l 1
(1)
l ,m d 3 xJ ( x) r l Y * ( , )

lm

d d d
J x dxdydz
Take the l 0 term [Y00 1 ]

4
J
d
and denote it by A p (x)
dydz xJ x d x xx dx

ikr
A p (x) A(x)l 0 40 e r d 3 xJ (x)
J x J y J z
x( x y z )dxdydz
ikr
i

0 pe ,
(9 16)
(9.16)
4

where p x (x)d 3 x
(4.8)
(9.16) gives the electric dipole
contribution to the solution. It is
valid for kd 1 and any x outside
the source.
Question: Why is there no monopole
term (see p. 410)?

## give no contribution because J

is localized:

J y
y

dy J y

d
d

x Jd 3 x
Jd 3 x x Jd 3 x
i x (x)d 3 x ip

J t 0 p

i 0 eikr
p r
4
p

R it (9.16):
Rewrite
(9 16) A p (x)

From ((9.4),
), H p 1 A and from ((9.5),
), E p
0

H p ck n p e 1 1
4
r
ikr

p
ikr
1
k 2 n p n e r 3n n p p
E 4
0
In the near zone (kr 1), (9.18) reduces to

1
r3

26

25

## 9.2 Electric Dipole Fields and Radiation (continued)

ikr

iZ 0
Hp
k

H p ck 2 n p eikr 1 1
r
ikr
4

(9 18)
(9.18)
p
2
eikr 3n n p p 1 ik eikr
1
E

k
n

r3 r 2

4 0
r
In the far zone (kr 1), (9.18) reduces to a spherical wave
2
ikr
p
n p er
H ck
p component
4
(9.19)
p
n
of source
p
E

Z
H

0
x
p
p
kd
1
In (9.19), we see that E and H
d
p
p
are in phase, and E , H , and n are
mutually perpendicular. This is a general property of EM waves in
unbounded, uniform space. Given any two of these quantities, we
can find the third.

## 9.2 Electric Dipole Fields and Radiation (continued)

2

(9 16)
(9.16)

ik2 eikr
r

dP
d t

(9.18)

p componentt
1
p i
n
of source
H 4 n p r 2
(9.20)
p
x
1 3n n p p 1
E

kd 1
4 0
r3
d
((i)) E p and H p are 90o out of phase
p
average
g ppower 0.

p
(ii) E has the same spatial pattern as that of the static electric

ddipole
po e in (4.13),
( . 3), but with
w t eit dependence.
depe de ce.

2
2
2
(iii) 0 H (kr ) 0 E E-field energy B-field energy.

Questions
Q
ti : (i) Wh
Why ddoes E p hhave th
the static
t ti fi
field
ld pattern?
tt ?
(ii) To obtain (9.20), we have neglected a few terms in (9.18).
But some of the neglected terms are still important in the near zone?
What are they and in what sense are they important?

time-averaged
time averaged power in the far zone/unit solid angle

12 Re r 2n E p H p*

c2Z0
32 2

((9.21))

k 4 | n p n |2

(9.22)

## This vector gives the direction of Ep , i.e. the

polarization of the radiation (see figure below.)

## P t total power radiated

c 2 Z0k 4
12

(9.24)

In general, p p x ei e x p y ei e y p z ei e z . If

## , then p has a fixed direction, p p 0ei

with p 0 p x e x p y e y p z e z , and
dP
d t

c2Z0
32 2

k 4 p sin 2 .
2

p
x H

(9.23)

27

Ep n

dP
d t

28

## 9.3 Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Fields (continued)

Rewrite
i (1):
(1)
1 Y ( , ) eikr [1 a (ikr ) a (ikr ) 2 a (ikr )l ]
lm
1
2
l

r l 1
A(x) 0 2l 1
(1)
l ,m d 3 xJ ( x) r l Y * ( , )
lm

A ( x)

l 1

0 eikr
3 r2

## ( ikr ) Y1m ( , ) d xJ (x)r Y1*m ( , )

(1
m1,0,1

m 1,0,1

43 sin
i sin
i cos(( ) cos cos
43 cos 43r n x

3
d xJ (x)(n x)

(9 30)
(9.30)

eikr 1
( ik )

40

{ d 3 x 12 (n x)J (n J )x d 3 x 12 (x J ) n}

ik

ikr

t id the
th source
x outside

## with m 12 (x J )d 3 x [magnetic dipole moment]. A m gives the

magnetic dipole contribution through (9.4) and (9.5) (see p.15):

n
x

H m 1 k 2 (n m) n eikr 3n(n m) m
4
r

ikr
Em Z0 k 2 (n m) e 1 1
4
r
ikr

set l 1 in (3.68)

1
r3

ik2 eikr
r

(9.35)
(9 35)
(9.36)
(9 36)
30

29

## In the far zone (kr 1),

1) we have the spherical wave sloution:
dP Z0 k 4 | m
n |2
H m k 2 n m n eikr

2
d

t
32
4
r

m
Em Z 0 H m n
P Z 0 k 4 | m |2 direction of E
t 12

relations
between ,
J , E, and B

In the near zone (kr 1), (i) Em and H m are 90o out of phase

## average power 00.

H m 1 3n n m m 13
4

r
(ii) H m has the same spatial pattern
m Zk

## as that of the static magnetic dipole

E 40 i n m 12

r
it
in (5.56), but with e dependence.
(iii) B-field energy E-field energy
energy.

di
discussed
d in
i (9.37)-(9.52),
(9 37) (9 52) is
i more
complicated. Here, we only illustrate its
di i pattern by
b the
h figure
fi
to the
h right.
i h

1
where A m (x) 40 (n m) e r 1 ikr
ik

## 43 cos cos 83 sin sin ei ( )

eikr 1
( ik )

A(x)l 1 40

AQ A m ,

p 109
p.

Thus,

pattern
p
31

static
case

timedependent
case

( x ) E( x )
J ( x) B ( x)

( x)
E( x )

J ( x)
B ( x )

EM waves

multipole
expansion

definition of multipole
moments

spherical
harmonics
expansion
[(3 70)] or
[(3.70)]
Taylor series
[(4.10)] of
1
x x

p x (x)d 3 x
Qij (3 xi xj r 2 ij ) (x)d 3 x
m 1 x J (x)d 3 x
2

spherical
harmonics
expansion
[(9.98)] of

There is no time-dependent
monopole for an isolated
source (see p. 410).
p, Qij , and m have the
same expressions as those
of their static counterparts,
but with the eit time
dependence.
In time-dependent
i
d
d cases,
electric multipoles can
generate B-fields and
magnetic multipoles can
generate E-fields.

ikk x x

x x

q (x)d 3 x

r -dependence
dependence of E
and B (d : dimension
of the source)
2
E or B 1 / r ll
For r d , all multipole
fields can be significant.
For r d , multipole
fields are dominated by
the lowest-order
nonvanishing term.
(a) near zone r d
E or B eit / r l 2
Approx. the same field
pattern and r -dependence
as for the corresponding
static
t ti multipole,
lti l but
b t with
ith
eit dependence (hence
called quasi-static fields.)
(b) far zone r d
E, B eikr it / r
(spherical EM waves)
All multipole
p fields 1 / r ,
relative power levels
unchanged with distance. 32

## A Qualitative Look at the Center - Fed Linear Antenna :

Traveling wave

Energy
gy
source

Transmission i
line
C
Center-fed
f d li
linear antenna

R
LC oscillator

33

far zone
near zone
In the near zone, E and B are principally generated by and J ,
respectively ( largely static field patterns). In the far zone, E and
B are regenerative through dtd B and dtd E ( EM waves).
9.4 Center-fed Linear Antenna (continued)

## Detailed Analysis: The center

center-fed
fed linear antenna is a case of
special interest, because it allows the solution of (9.3) in closed form
for any value of kd, whereas in Secs. 9.2 and 9.3, we assume kd
kd<<1
1

eik xx
A ( x ) 0 d 3 x
J (x),
4
x x

## Note: (i) J is symmetric

y
z 0. J ( z ) J ( z )
((ii)) I is the peak
p
current
only when kd .

d
2

r

d
2

d
2

d
2

## Hence, if r d , we can write x x r z cos .

sin kd2 k z eikz cos
0 Ieikr d / 2
dz
A ( x) e z
cos
4 d / 2
rz

rd

ez

z0

## Question: The antenna appears to be an open circuit

Question
circuit. How can
there be current flowing on it?

cos
0 Ie
I

2 kr

Note: z cos in

ikr

1
r z cos
ik ( r z cos )

35

x x r n x if r r

r n x 21r [r 2 (n x)2 ]

ik x x

d
2

(9.53)

d
2

(9.3)

k z e
sin kd
0 I d /2
2

A ( x) e z
dz
4 d /2
x x

34

x
r=x
r = x

(2)

(9.54)

(9.55)

sin 2

## can be neglected if r d . But z cos

kd
2

in e
makes an important contribution to the phase
angle even at r d .

36

## In the far zone,

dP
d t

H 1 A ik n A H

E Z0H n

12 Re r 2n E H*

Z0 I 2
8 2

Z0 2
r
2
2
cos(( kd2 cos ) cos(( kd2 )
,

sin

k 2 r 2 sin 2 A
z
for
r

d
and any kd
2

## (9.16 & 9.19)

Z0

dP
d t

(3)

2 02

Rewrite (9
(9.56)
56)

k sin
i A
0

z0

2
d
i 2 , kd
cos ( 2 cos ) / sin
Z0 I
2
(9.57)
2
4
2
8
4
cos

(
cos

)
/
sin

,
kd
2

2
full-wave antenna
half-wave antenna
(kd 2 )
(kd )
z
z
dP superposition of 2 half-wave
dP
d

d
2

d
2

## d antennas excited in phase

Z0 I

lless coherent
h
t
narrower beam width

37

## cos kd cos 1 k 2d 2 cos 2

2
8

2 2
kd
k d
cos 2 1 8
2 2

dP
d t

dP
d t

P t

I 02
2

dP
d t

Z0 I 2

4
2
2 ( kd ) sin

Z 0 I 02

( kd ) 2 sin 2 (9
(9.28)
28)

512
128 2
2
1
Z I2
0 d 1 d cos ddP t 480 0

(kd ) 2

(9.29)

i partt off the
th field
fi ld definition
d fi iti off
impedance, see 2nd term in (6.137).

Z0 I

Z0 I 2

V0e it

circuit
i i

dimensions

d
2
d
2

I 0e

sin

8 2

512

(4)

## This has the same k and depedence as in (9

(9.23,
23 electric dipole)
dipole),
which was derived by assuming kd 1.
38

Problems:
1. The full-wave antenna radiation in (9.57) can be thought of as the
superposition
p p
of two half-wave antennas,, one above the other,,
excited in phase. Demonstrate this by rederiving dPd for the
full-wave antenna

kd = 2 by
y surperposing
p p
g the fields of
two half-wave antennas (each of length d/2, see figure below).
2. If the two half-wave antennas in problem 1 are excited 180 out of
phase, derive dPd again by the method of superposition.
3. Plot the approximate angular distribution of dPd in problems 1 P
and 2. Explain the difference qualitatively.
z
r
d
2

it

V0e it

## where Rrad 240 (kd ) 2 5(kd ) 2 ohms [See pp. 412-3.]

I 0e it

2 2

1 k 8d cos 2 1 k 8d

## J (x) I sin kd2 k | z | ( x) ( y )e z kd

I 1 2|dz| ( x) ( y )e z
2

I 0 (peak current, z d )
kd 1
Thus from (4),
Thus,
(4)

(9 56)
(9.56)

## Radiation Resistance and Equivalent Circuit:

, for r d
andd any kd

cos x 1 x2 ( x 1)

most coherent
J

sin

8 2

Limiting
g case (dipole
p approxima
pp
tion):
) kd 1 (i.e.
( d)

(9 56)
(9.56)

## cos kd2 cos cos kd2

Equivalent
E
i l t
circuit for
center-fed
e ed
a ce
antenna

z0

d
2

39

single
i l antenna
of length d

antenna 1 of
length d2

d
2

r
r2

antenna 2 of
length d2

d
2

d cos
4

These 3 line
Th
li are nearly
l
parallel when point P is
far from the antenna,
antenna as
is assumed here.
40

## Solution to problem 1: Principle of superposition requires that we

add the fields (not the powers) of the 2 antennas, each of total length d2 .
z
Rewrite (9
(9.55)
55)
d n
2
0 Ieikr cos kd2 cos cos kd2
z0
A ( x) e z
(9.55)

2
d
2 kr
sin

2
(9 55) applies to a single antenna of total length d (see fig.
(9.55)
fig above
above.))
So the field of each of the 2 antennas in this problem can be obtained
from (9.55)
(9 55) by replacing d in (9.55)
(9 55) with d2 and expressing r with r
1
respect to the center of each antenna (i.e. by r1 and r2 ).
r

## cos kd4 cos cos kd

4
r2
A1,2

, (5)
2
d
sin
antenna 2 2

d
d
d cos
where r1 r 4 cos and r2 r 4 cos .
4
We may approximate r1,2
in
the
denominator
of
(5)
by
r
,
but
must
12
use the correct r1,2 for the phase angles in the exponential terms.
41

antenna 1

ikr

12
Ie
I 1,2
ez 0
2 kr1,2

d
2

It is
i assumedd that
th t eachh antenna
t
in
i this
thi problem
bl is
i excited
it d in
i the
th
d
half-wave pattern, hence we set k 2 in (5) and the superposed
field of the 2 antennas (excited in phase) is given by

## 0 I ikr i2 cos i 2 cos cos((2 cos )

A A1 A 2 e z
e [e
e
]
( )
(6)
2 kr
sin 2
2
0 I ikr cos (2 cos )
d
ez
e
antenna 1 2
2
kr
sin
From (3),

dP
d t

Z0
2 02

k r sin A
2 2

antenna 2 d2

same as the
h ffull
ll wave
cos 4 2 cos sin 2

solution
in
(9.57)

S l i to problem
Solution
bl 2:
If the two half-wave antennas in problem 1 are excited 180o out
of phase, we simply replace the " " sign in (6) with a " " sign.

Z0 I 2
2 2

42

## 9.4 Center-fed Linear Antenna (continued)

Thus,
Th

I
i cos
i cos cos( 2 cos )
A A1 A 2 e z 0 eikr [e 2
e 2
]
2 kr
sin 2
sin(2 cos ) cos(2 cos )
I
ie z 0 eikr
kr
k
antenna
t
1 d2
sin
i 2
)
From ((3),

Z0 2 2
2
k r sin 2 A
2 02
2
2
Z 0 I 2 sin ( 2 cos ) cos ( 2 cos )
2 2
sin 2

dP
d t

antenna 2

Homework of Chap. 9

d
2

Z0 I 2

sin 2 cos

8 2

sin 2

## Problems: 3,, 6,, 8,, 9,, 14,,

16, 17, 22, 23

Solution to problem 3:

out of