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Zaman University

Department of Civil Engineering


No. 8, St. 315, 12151 Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Chapter 5

Reactors

Dr. BUNRITH SENG

Department of Civil Engineering, Zaman University

Mobile : +81 (0) 80 3259 9952

No. 8, St. 315, 12151 Phnom Penh, Cambodia

E-mail: seng.bunrith@gmail.com; bseng@itc.edu.kh

Type of Reactors
We have already learned the reaction orders
constants. In addition to this knowledge, in order
and estimate the performance of wastewater
processes and to design these, the knowledge of
necessary.

and rate
to analyze
treatment
reactor is

Type of Reactor

Batch Reactor/Mixed-Batch Reactor


Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
Continuous-Flow Stirred Tank Reactor (CFSTR),
Completely Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
2

Batch Reactor
Bath Reactor
o The reactants are initially changed into a reactor (no input
and no output during the reaction)
o Well-mixed (the concentration of the reactant or products
is same throughout the reactor at any time)
o After a certain period (reaction time), the resultant
mixture is then discharged
o Unsteady state operation where the concentrations of
reactions and products change with time.

Qin
Cin

t (h)

V (m3)

Qout
Cout
3

Plug Flow Reactor


Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
o The flow of fluid through the reactor is orderly (no mixing
or no diffusion along the reactor)
o Laterally (perpendicular to the axis of the reactor), no
distribution of concentrations

Cin
V (m3)

Cout

t (h)
4

Continuous-flow Stirred Tank Reactor


Continuous-Flow Stirred Tank Reactor (CFSTR)
o the contents in the reactor are well stirred or mixed
o the concentration or reactants and products in the effluent
are same as those in the reactor

Q
Cin

Q
Cout
V (m3)

Cout

t (h)
5

Mass (Material) Balance


The starting point for designing the reactor and analyzing the
reactor is the mass balance for any reactant (or product).
The material balance is expressed by:

X in

X out
Reaction

Rate of A

Rate of A Rate A Rate of A Rate of A

ACCUMULATED
IN OUT PRODUCED CONSUMED

Mass Balance for CFSTR


In Case of one CFSTR
Qin (m3/h)
C0

Qout

(kg/m3)

C
V

(m3)

(kg/m3)

t (h)

dC
V
QC0 QC V r
dt
Accumulation

Inflow

Outflow

Disappearance

* Each term has a dimension of[M/T], (kg/h)


7

Mass Balance for CFSTR (Cont.)


At Steady state condition

dC
0
dt

0 QC0 QC V r

When reactor rate follows a zero order (-r = k0)

V
C C0 k0 C0 k0T
Q

T: Hydraulic retention time

When reactor rate follows a first order (-r = k1C)

QC0
C0
C0
C

Q Vk1 1 Q k 1 k1T
1
V

T: Hydraulic retention
time

Mass Balance for CFSTR (Cont.)


In Case of CFSTR in Series
For First Order Reaction with respect to reactor 1

C0
C1
1 k1T
With respect to reactor 2

C2
1

C1 1 k1T

1
C
C
C1 C2 C3
. . ..... N N
C0 C1 C2
C N 1 C0 1 k1T

With respect to reactor N

CN
1

C N 1 1 k1T
9

Mass Balance for CFSTR (Cont.)


Example: A new disinfection process destroys coliform (coli)

organisms in water by using a completely mixed-flow reactor. The


reaction is first-order with k = 1.0 day1. The influent concentration is
100 coli/mL. The reactor volume is 400 L, and the flow rate 1600 L/d.
What is the effluent concentration of coliforms?

Solution:

dC
V
QC0 QC V r
dt
0 QC0 QC V r

0 1600 L / d (100 coli / mL C) 400L 1 d -1 C

C 80 coli/mL
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Mass Balance for Batch Reactor


No Inflow QC0 =0
No Outflow QC = 0

dC
V
V r
dt

dC
r
dt

For Zero Order Reaction, -r = k0

dC
k0
dt

C k0t C0

1
t C0 C
k0

For 1st Order Reaction, -r = k1C

dC
k 1C
dt

1 C0
t ln
k1
C
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Mass Balance for Batch Reactor (Cont.)


Example: An industrial wastewater treatment process uses activated
carbon to remove color from the water. The color is reduced as a firstorder reaction in a batch adsorption system. If the rate constant (k) is
0.35 d-1, how long will it take to remove 90% of the color?

Solution:
Let C0 : Initial concentration of the color
C : concentration of color at any time t
C = 0.1 C0

C0
ln
kt
C
C0
ln
0.35t
0.1C0

2.30
t
6.6 days
0.35

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Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor


Consider a small element of the reactor and apply mass balance

dC
AS
QCx QCx x (r ) Ax
dt
Where Cx and Cx+x are substrate concentration at x=x and x=x+x
At a steady state dC/dt = 0

Q C x x C x
( r )
A
dx

x 0

Q dC
( r )
A dx

dC
Q
( r )
dV
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Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor (Cont.)


For Zero order reaction, -r = k0

Q dC
k0
A dx
A
dC k0 dx
Q
A
C k0 x const
Q
At x = x0, C=C0 Const=C0

A
C k0 x C0
Q

dC
Q
k0
dV
k0
dV
dC
Q
V
C k0 const
Q
At V=V0, C=C0 Const=C0
V
C k0 C0
Q
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Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor (Cont.)


Putting x = L to obtained
effluent concentration Ce

AL
Ce C0 k0
Q
V
Ce C0 k0
Q

Putting
V (variable) = V (reactor volume)

V
Ce C0 k0
Q
Ce C0 k0T

Ce C0 k0T
Or more directly, applying integrate!

15

Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor (Cont.)


For 1st order reaction, -r = k1C

Q dC
k1C
A dx

Ce

C0

dC
A L
k1 dx
C
Q 0

Ce
A
ln
k1 L k1T
C0
Q

Ce C0e

Ce C0e

k1T

k1

dC
Q
k1C
dV

Ce

C0

dC
k1 V
dV
C
Q 0

Ce
k1
ln
V
C0
Q
Ce C0e k1T

A
x
Q

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Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor (Cont.)

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Mass Balance for Plug Flow Reactor (Cont.)


Example: An industry wants to use a long drainage ditch to remove

odor from their waste. Assume that the ditch acts as a plug-flow
reactor. The odor reduction behaves as a first-order reaction, with the
rate constant k = 0.35 day1. The flow rate is 1600 L/d. How long must
the ditch be if the velocity of the flow is 0.5 m/s and 90% odor
reduction is desired?

Solution:

Ce C0e

k1

A
x
Q

T 6.58 days

C
ln
kT
C0

L 0.5 m/s 6.58 d 86400 s/d

0.1C0
ln
0.35T
C0

L 2.8 105 m
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Comparison between CFSTR and PFR


PFR

CFSTR

V
C0 C (r ) T (r )
Q
The required HRT to obtained
effluent concentration of Ce

TCFSTR

(C0 Ce )
re

dC
Q
r
dV
The required HRT to obtained
effluent concentration of Ce

TPFR

C0

Ce

1
dC
(re )

TCFSTR or TPFR can be obtained as an area under the curve.


To obtain same effluent concentration, Ce, PFR required
shorter HRT than CFSTR.
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Comparison between CFSTR and PFR (Cont.)

CMF = CSTR = CFSTR

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Comparison between CFSTR and PFR (Cont.)


Example: Consider a first-order reaction, requiring 50% reduction in
the concentration. Would a plug-flow or a CMF reactor require the least
volume?

Solution:

VCSTR
VPFR

Q C0

A C

Q C0
ln

k C

A CMF reactor would require


44% more volume than a PFR

For 50% conversion

C0
2
C

VCSTR 2 1

1.44
VPFR
ln 2
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