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REVIEW JURNAL THESIS

1. Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education


Judul: Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education
Penulis: Linda Darling-Hammond
Penerbit, Tahun Terbit: Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 57, No. X, Month
2006 1-15
Pentingnya pendidikan guru untuk 21st-century

Pendidikan sangat penting bagi individu dan negara. Di antara semua


sumber pendidikan, kemampuan guru sangat berkontribusi pada belajar
siswa.
Education is increasingly important to the success of both individuals
and nations, and growing evidence demonstrates thatamong all
educational resourcesteachers abilities are especially crucial
contributors to students learning.

Tugas para pengajar bertambah. Pengajar tidak hanya menyampaikan


dan menyediakan informasi yang berguna tetapi juga mampu mengatasi
masalah belajar pada kelompok siswa yang beraneka ragam. Pada
beberapa dekade sebelumnya, guru diharapkan mampu menyediakan
informasi untuk sekelompok kecil siswa. Namun sekarang, mereka
diharapkan mampu menyediakan semua siswa, tidak hanya untuk tahu,
untuk higher order thinking dan keterampilan-keterampilan.
The demands on teachers are increasing. Teachers need not only
to be able to keep order and provide useful information to
students but also to be increasingly effective in enabling a diverse
group of students to learn ever more complex material. In
previous decades, they were expected to prepare only a small
minority for ambitious intellectual work, whereas they are now
expected to prepare virtually all students for higher order thinking
and performance skills once reserved to only a few.

Dilema pendidikan guru zaman sekarang

Kebanyakan orang dan pembuat kebijakan beranggapan bahwa hampir


semua orang mampu mengajar dengan baik. Mereka beranggapan
bahwa untuk mengajar setidaknya seseorang mengerti materi pelajaran
itu.
Many lay people and a large share of policy makers hold the view
that almost anyone can teach reasonably wellthat entering
teaching requires, at most, knowing something about a subject, and the
rest of the fairly simple tricks of the trade can be picked up on the job.

Di Amerika, guru yang baru memulai mengajar memasuki kelas yang


siswanya sangat beraneka ragam. 25% siswa hidup dalam kemiskinan,
10%-20% siswa memiliki perbedaan belajar yang berbeda, 15%
berbicara bahasa selain bahasa Inggris dan 40% siswa adalah kelompok
minoritas.
In the classrooms most beginning teachers will enter, at least 25% of
students live in poverty and many of them lack basic food, shelter,
and health care; from 10% to 20% have identified learning
differences; 15% speak a language other than English as their
primary language (many more in urban settings); and about 40% are
members of racial/ethnic minority groups, many of them recent
immigrants from countries with different educational systems and
cultural traditions.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, pihak-pihak yang tidak mendukung


pendidikan guru meluncurkan program-program yang membuat guru
tidak siap. Program-progam seharusnya membangun model yang lebih
kuat untuk mencapai persiapan.
In recent years, under pressure from opponents of teacher
education and with incentives for faster, cheaper alternatives (see,
e.g., U.S. Department of Education, 2002), teacher education as an
enterprise has probably launched more new weak programs that
underprepare teachers, especially for urban schools, than it has
further developed the stronger models that demonstrate what intense
preparation can accomplish.

Apa yang membangun pendidikan guru yang kuat

Bagaimana membangun pendidikan guru yang kuat

Koherensi dan integrasi perlu ada pada pendidikan guru. Pelajaranpelajaran yang ada di universitas didesain berkesinambungan satu sama
lain. Sehingga antara teori dan praktek saling koheren.
(Coherence and Integration) In contrast to the many critiques that
have highlighted the structural and conceptual fragmentation of
traditional undergraduate teacher education programs, course
work in highly successful programs is carefully sequenced based on a
strong theory of learning to teach; courses are designed to intersect
with each other, are aggregated into a well-understood landscape of
learning, and are tightly interwoven with the advisement process
and students work in schools.

Guru pemula yang sebelumnya mempunyai pengalaman mengajar di


kelas lebih mudah memahami teori yang diajarkan di perkuliahan. Calon
guru melihat dan memahami bahwa teori dan praktek di lapangan
berbeda jika mereka belajar di kelas sekaligus belajar di lapangan.
(Well-Supervised Clinical Experience Linked to Course Work Using
Pedagogies That Link Theory and Practice) Many teacher educators
have argued that novices who have experience in classrooms are
more prepared to make sense of the ideas that are addressed in their
academic work and that student teachers see and understand both
theory and practice differently if they are taking course work
concurrently with fieldwork.

Untuk mewujudkan itu, maka diperlukan kerja sama antara sekolah

dengan universitas sebagai penghasil para pengajar. Sangat tidak


mungkin mengajarkan calon guru cara mengajar dengan hanya
membayangkan saja.
(New Relationships With Schools) It is impossible to teach people
how to teach powerfully by asking them to imagine what they have
never seen or to suggest they do the opposite of what they have
observed in the classroom.

2. Re-Conceptualization of Scientific Literacy in South Korea for the 21st Century


Judul: Re-Conceptualization of Scientific Literacy in South Korea for the 21st
Century
Penulis: Kyunghee Choi, Hyunju Lee, Namsoo Shin, Sung-Won Kim, Joseph
Krajcik
Penerbit, Tahun Terbit: Journal of Research Science Teaching, 2011
Latar belakang

Perkembangan yang luar biasa cepat pada bidang sains, teknologi, dan
engineering telah mengakibatkan perubahan kualitas hidup manusia.
The remarkable and rapid advances of science, technology, and
engineering have brought about unprecedented changes in the quality
of human life.

Untuk mengatasi masalah di suatu negara, warga negaranya perlu


memiliki gagasan saintifik, kemampuan intelektual, kreativitas dll. Mereka
yang memiliki kemampuan itu kemudian dipandu untuk peduli akan
masalah yang muncul di tengah masyarakat. Sehingga mereka dapat
membuat keputusan penting untuk mereka dan masyarakat dunia.
How can our world reduce toxic pollutants? To respond to these
questions, we need to prepare citizens who have an understanding of
scientific ideas, intellectual capabilities, creativity, and
reasoning, and to nurture citizens with an awareness and respect of
the issues and problems that exist throughout the world so that they
can make important environment, health, and social policy decisions
for themselves and the global community.

Kerangka yang diteliti ini adalah untuk Korea selatan. Meskipun demikian,
peneliti yang berasal dari negara lain bisa menggunakan kerangka
tersebut sebagai refleksi kebutuhan warga negara pada abad 21.
Kerangka scientific literacy juga bisa digunakan sebagai panduan
pengembangan kurikulum, materi pembelajaran, dll. yang sejalan dengan
hal ini.
Although we propose this framework primarily for South Korea,

science educators, and researchers from other countries can use this
framework to reflect upon what understandings and competencies their
citizens need for the 21st century. This framework for scientific
literacy can guide the development of new curriculum frameworks,
instructional materials, instruction, assessment, professional
development, and alignment among these elements.

Kurikulum nasional Korea Selatan tahun 2009, memfokuskan character


development as global citizens untuk sains di SMA. Makna global citizens
pada tujuan kurikulum tersebut tidak secara eksplisit dijelaskan. Sehingga
para pengajar di Korea Selatan meragukan kurikulum mampu mengatasi
tuntutan masyarakat. Mereka berusaha mencari gambaran yang lebih
jelas tentang scientific literacy untuk abad 21.
The National Science Curriculum 2009, which has been implemented
since 2011, started to emphasize character development as global
citizens for the high school science (MEST, 2009). The meaning of
character development as global citizens and strategies to help
schools and teachers move in this direction are not still explicitly
suggested. South Korean science educators, therefore, remain doubtful
of the effectiveness of the current science education curriculum to
meet the societal demands, and seek a clearer vision for the 21st
century scientific literacy.

Subjek yang diteliti

In South Korea, a total of 96 science teachers (49 middle school and 43


high school teachers), including 26 males and 66 females, with average
teaching experience of 9.4 years responded voluntarily to the survey. Four
teachers did not specify their schools and gender.

In the US, a total of 126 teachers (42 middle school and 78 high school
teachers) including 43 males and 79 females responded. The average
teaching experience of the US teaching was 15.7 years. The nationality of
the US teachers included 120 USA citizens.

Metodologi penelitian

Suvey menayakan pandangan para guru tentang pentingnya scientific


literacy yang dibagi dalam empat dimensi (conceptual understanding,
habits of mind, motivation and attitudes, and the nature of science).
The survey consisted of 42 items using a Likert-type format (1: not
very important to 5: very important) that asked teachers perception
on the importance of key elements of scientific literacy in terms of
four dimensions (i.e., conceptual understanding, habits of mind,
motivation and attitudes, and the nature of science). Chronbach Alphas
for internal consistencies of the four dimensions ranged from .56 to .90
(total .91).

The survey also included one openended item asking teachers to


write their opinion about what they anticipate their students to be
like as citizens in the 21st century society? We created a web site
for the on-line survey and distributed advertisement through a website
and list servers of science teacher associations to request teacher
participation.

To receive feedback and validate our framework, we invited five science


educators from the US and Australia to review our documents.

Data dan analisa

Dalam dimensi conceptual understanding, para pengajar memfokuskan


pentingnya pengetahuan sains untuk memahami fenomena alam,
mengerti majalah sains, dan membantu menyelesaikan masalah yang
memerlukan sains.
First, in the category of conceptual understanding, the science
teachers emphasized basic scientific knowledge to understand
natural phenomena, science terms and vocabulary presented in
newspaper or magazines, and science knowledge necessary for
students to understand or make a decision on science-related issues.
(Korea: M= 4,31, US: M=4,63)

Dalam dimensi habits of mind, para pengajar memfokuskan pada


pengetahuan sains untuk berpikir kritis, menyelesaikan masalah, dan
kemampuan mengambil keputusan mengenai masalah sehari-hari.
Second, in the category of habits of mind, the teachers generally put
most emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and informed
decision-making skills for everyday life issues.

Dalam dimensi affective, para pengajar membagi pentingnya


pengetahuan sains menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu: ketertarikan dalam bidang
sains, partisipasi dalam sains, dan kepedulian pada makhluk hidup lain.
Third, the type of responses teachers made in the affective realm
included three areas: Interest and positive attitudes toward
science, responsibility, and participation in science, and ethics about
caring for other people and living creatures.

Dalam dimensi sains sebagai hasil usaha manusia, para pengajar


memfokuskan memahami keterbatasan sains karena pengetahuan ilmiah
adalah hasil dari manusia.
In the category of science as a human endeavor, teachers openended responses generally put emphasis on understanding limitation
of science because scientific knowledge is a product of human activities.

Kesimpulan

Dari hasil survei yang dilakukan pada pengajar di Korea Selatan, peneliti
menambahkan metacognition and self-direction sebagai dimensi dari
scientific literacy. Dari hasil pemeriksaan survei, dimensi metacognition
and self-direction ini perlu untuk mengikat empat dimensi lainnya dan
mendukung individu merefleksikan pembelajaran.
We included metacognition and self-direction as a major dimension
of global scientific literacy. Our consideration for including this dimension
to the framework was initiated by examining the opened-ended
survey responses because this dimension is saliently missing from
other documents on scientific literacy. Yet, we see this dimension as
critical for 21st century scientific literacy as it is the process that ties
the other four dimensions together and supports an individual in
reflecting and managing cognition and learning, in solving complex
problems, and dealing with challenging local and global issues.

3. NGSS and the Landscape of Engineering in K-12 State Science Standards


Judul: NGSS and the Landscape of Engineering in K-12 State Science
Standards
Peneliti: Tamara J. Moore, Kristina M. Tank, Aran W. Glancy, and Jennifer A.
Kersten
Penerbit, tahun terbit: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2014
Latar belakang

Untuk menghadapi tantangan abad 21, keterampilan-keterampilan abad


21 diperlukan. Cara berpikir engineering adalah cara berpikir

menyelesaikan masalah. Cara berpikir seperti ini membantu


perkembangan keterampilan abad 21.
Engineering practice, at its core, is a way of thinking in order to solve
problems for a purpose. This way of thinking is useful beyond engineering
as a career; it can help with the development of 21st century
skills; i.e., the skills necessary to be successful in the 21st century.

Next Generation Science Standards memandang pendidikan sains dengan


cara yang berbeda. NGSS memasukkan unsur engineering yaitu
engineering design dalam pembelajaran di kelas.
The Next Generation Science Standards represent a shift in the way we
view science education. One major shift is the endorsement for
increasing the visibility and understanding of engineering by
raising engineering design to the same level as scientifc inquiry in
science classroom instruction at all levels, and by emphasizing the
core ideas of engineering design and technology applications.

Di sisi lain, K-12 di US juga mendukung hubungan antara engineering dan


pendidikan sains. Tujuannya adalah menyiapkan siswa dan masyarakat
untuk menghadapi tantangan masa depan. K-12 dapat mengintegrasikan
engineering dalam kelas.
Integrating engineering into the K-12 classroom is gaining national
and international attention. Recent national documents pertaining to K12 education have fostered a connection between engineering and
science education to help better prepare our students and our society
to meet the current and future challenges of our modern and
technological society.

Dalam penelitian ini, peneliti tertarik untuk melihat gambaran tentang


perubahan yang NGSS lakukan di US. Peneliti menggambarkan negara
bagian yang mengintegrasikan engineering sebelum munculnya NGSS.
Given the attention the NGSS is receiving, an important question that we
should be asking is just how much change the NGSS represents in
comparison with current policies among U.S. States? To help answer this,
our research specifically compares the engineering within the NGSS to
recent state science standards documents.

Metodologi penelitian

Untuk melihat gambaran engineering sebelum NGSS, dokumen standar


sains dari 50 negara bagian dikumpulkan dan dianalisa. Dokumen standar
sains tersebut dianalisa apakah mengandung unsur engineering atau
tidak. Analisa menggunakan content analysis yang disarankan oleh
Krippendorff.
To evaluate the landscape of engineering prior to the release of the NGSS,
the science standards documents from each of the 50 states were

compiled and analyzed using document content analysis as


suggested by Krippendorff (2013). The NGSS document was also
analyzed using this method. Content analysis is often used to analyze
large quantities of text (Weber, 1990) such as standards documents.

Kelompok penelitian yang meneliti kasus ini terdiri dari seorang profesor
STEM dan empat peneliti bergelar master pendidikan. Mereka mempunyai
pengalaman mengajar di K-12.
The research team that participated in the content analysis consisted
of one professor of STEM education, with emphasis in engineering
and mathematics, and four graduate researchers. There were two
graduate researchers from mathematics education and two from science
education. One of the science education researchers also had a master's
degree in engineering. Additionally, each member of the research team
had K-12 teaching experience.

Dokumen dianalisa dan diterjemahkan oleh para peneliti dengan arah


yang sudah ditentukan sebelumnya.
Another important consideration when conducting a large content
analysis that requires the work of multiple researchers is to formulate
clear directions for coders to ensure the eplicability and reliability of
the coding between researchers (Krippendorff, 2013).

Hasil dan analisa

Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa 12 dari 50 negara bagian secara

explisit memasukkan engineering dalam standar mereka. 24 dari 50


negara bagian memiliki standar dengan unsur engineering namun tidak
dituliskan di teks (implisit). Sementara 14 negara lainnya tidak
memasukkan elemen engineering ke dalam standar mereka.
The results presented in Figure 2 show that only 12 out of 50 states
(24%) explicitly include engineering in their standards. Almost half of
the states, 24 out of 50 (48%), were found to have elements of
engineering implicitly stated in their standards. There were 14 states
(28%) that did not include any evidence of engineering and were
therefore classified as none in terms of the engineering included in their
science standards.