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Awareness Program on Lung

Cancer
What is lung cancer?
Lung cancer happens when the cells in your lungs start to grow in an uncontrolled way and
form tumours. Tumours are lumps of tissue made up of abnormal cells. There are two main
types of lung cancer.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC-a type of cancer made up ofsmall round cells in the
lungs).
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC- cancer which grows in cellsother than small
cells inside the lungs).

What are the risk factors for lung cancer?


Several risk factors can make you more likely to develop lung cancer:1. Tobacco Smoke
2. Secondhand Smoke
3. Workplace exposure to various materials like Asbestos, Coal dust etc.
4. Inhaled chemicals or minerals such as Arsenic, beryllium, Cadmium, Silica etc.
5. Pollutants in air like Diesel exhaust and Fuel exhaust
6. Arsenic in drinking water
7. Talc and Talcum Powder containing asbestos
8. Acquired genetic changes that may lead to lung cancer

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?


The symptoms of lung cancer can include:
Coughing up blood;
A persistent cough;
Breathlessness;
Wheezing;
Hoarseness;
Chest or shoulder pain;
Tiredness; and
Weight loss.

The two different types of cancer have different stages: Stages of small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer is staged as limited or extensive or Limited means that it is only
in one lung. Extensive means that it has spread to other parts of your body.

Stages of non-small cell lung cancer-Non-small cell lung cancer has four stages
one to four. These tell you how much it has spread to other parts of your body. Stage
four is the most widely spread, or advanced.

Tests for Staging Lung Cancer

CT Scan
Ultrasound
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Bone Scan
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Thoracoscopy

Treatment for small cell lung cancer

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
Stenting
Chemotherapy
Combined Treatments
Endobronchial and Vascular Treatments
Immune treatments
Drugs that block PD-1 and PD-L1,Nivolumab (Opdivo) and pembrolizumab
(Keytruda) are anti-PD-1 drugs that have beenshown to shrink or slow the growth of some
tumors.
Vaccines - Several types of vaccines for boosting the bodys immune response against Lung
cancer cells are being tested in clinical trials. L-BLP25 (tecemotide) is avaccine that targets
the MUC1 protein. It is made up of the protein (MUC1) encased in a fat droplet (liposome) to try
to make it more effective.

Prevention of Lung Cancer


Quit Smoking
Controlling diet and nutrition
Doing breathing exercises regularly
Living in a relatively pollution free environment
Avoiding unnecessary stress and fatigue

Lung Cancer is a second most common cancer in both men and women (not counting skin
cancer), and is by far the leading cause of cancer deaths among both men and women.
Each year more people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast and prostate cancer
combined. Thus more and more awareness programs on cancer are necessary to alert
people about its effects, causes and symptoms because it is said that Prevention is
better than cure.