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Czech Technical University in Prague

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Department of Electroenergetics

Thesiss Proposal
Impact of pre-fault network conditions on
impedance measured by protection

Minh-Quan Dang

December 3, 2015

1 Introduction
1.1 Problem Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Objective and methedology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Research questions and Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






Problem Specification

Power systems suffer several disturbances during their operation. Therefore, protective methods must be applied to reduce the effects of those disturbances by separating
the faulted area from healthy area. Protective devices also recover the separated part
after the disturbances had been eliminated.
Distance protection or distance relays are used to protect transmission lines. Distance relay has ability to detect a fault within a reach point distance along a transmission line or cable from relaying location. By comparing the apparent impedance with
the reach point impedance, the relay will determine whether fault had occurred on the
lines and where was the location.
The mis-operation of distance relay could happen when the measured impedance is
incorrect. The distance relay might be trip and open the circuit breaker under normal
condition or might not trip and false to separate the fault.
Several reasons cause the mis-operation and one of the reason is impacts of pre-fault
active and reactive power flow condition of the network. [1]


Objective and methedology

Objective of this thesis is to evaluate the impacts of pre-fault condition of the system
on impedance measurement by protection. If time allows, adaptive approach in distance
protection, which is capable of improving the performance of distance protection, will
be concerned. To achieve this a number of task needed to be performed.
1. Literature Review
- Review of load flow analysis using Newton-Raphson method
- Review of fault analysis, including symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, occurrence and short circuit current calculation.
- Review of protection system, relay technology, distance protection schemes.
2. Assessment Studies
- Definition of test case scenarios, conditions and limitations.
- Performing load flow analysis on test scenarios.
- Performing fault analysis on test scenarios.
- Analysis of the impedance measured by the protection.
3. Improving the performance by adaptive approach
- Review of adaptive distance protection based on pre-fault network data.


Research questions and Hypothesis

What is the impedance measurement behavior under different fault conditions ?

What is the impacts of the pre-fault condition on the impedance measurement ?


Which are the errors in the distance protection performance due to pre-fault
conditions ?
Can adaptive approach improve the performance of the distance protection?
1. The pre-fault conditions of network will strongly influence on impedance
2. Adaptive approach can limit the influence of pre-fault conditions on
impedance measurement.


[1] K.K. Li and L.L. Lai. Ideal operating region of digital distance relay under high
resistance earth fault. Electric Power Systems Research, 43(3):215 219, 1997.