Anda di halaman 1dari 172

1.

Which one of the following correctly gives the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in a
65
neutral atom of the nuclide 29 Cu ?
Number of electrons

Number of protons

Number of neutrons

A.

65

29

36

B.

36

36

29

C.

29

29

65

D.

29

29

36
(1)

2.

In the Geiger-Marsden experiment, particles are scattered by gold nuclei. The experimental
results indicate that most particles are
A.

scattered only at small angles.

B.

scattered only at large angles.

C.

absorbed in the target.

D.

scattered back along the original direction.


(1)

3.

A sample of radioactive carbon-14 decays into a stable isotope of nitrogen. As the carbon-14
decays, the rate at which the amount of nitrogen is produced
A.

decreases linearly with time.

B.

increases linearly with time.

C.

decreases exponentially with time.

D.

increases exponentially with time.


(1)

4.

Either of the two following graphs is useful in predicting nuclear energy changes in fission and
fusion processes.
Y

0 0

Which one of the following correctly identifies the quantities X and Y?


X

A.

atomic number

total binding energy

B.

mass number

total binding energy

C.

atomic number

average binding energy per nucleon

D.

mass number

average binding energy per nucleon


(1)

5.

The unified mass unit is defined as


12
6 C.

A.

the mass of one neutral atom of

B.

1
12 of the mass of one neutral atom of

C.

1
6 of the mass of one neutral atom of

D.

the mass of the nucleus of

12
6 C.

12
6 C.

12
6 C.

(1)

6.

This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

Complete the table below, by placing a tick ( ) in the relevant columns, to show how an
increase in each of the following properties affects the rate of decay of a sample of
radioactive material.
Effect on rate of decay

Property
increase

decrease

stays the same

temperature of sample
pressure on sample
amount of sample
(2)

226

Radium-226 ( 88 Ra) undergoes natural radioactive decay to disintegrate spontaneously


with the emission of an alpha particle (-particle) to form radon (Rn). The masses of the
particles involved in the reaction are
radium:

226.0254 u

radon:

222.0176 u

-particle:
(b)

(i)

4.0026 u

Complete the nuclear reaction equation below for this reaction.


226
88

Ra

.........
.........

.........
......... Rn

(2)

(ii)

Calculate the energy released in the reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The radium nucleus was stationary before the reaction.


(i)

Explain, in terms of the momentum of the particles, why the radon nucleus and the
-particle move off in opposite directions after the reaction.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

The speed of the radon nucleus after the reaction is vR and that of the -particle is
v
v . Show that the ratio v R is equal to 55.5.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Using the ratio given in (ii) above, deduce that the kinetic energy of the radon
nucleus is much less than the kinetic energy of the -particle.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

Not all of the energy of the reaction is released as kinetic energy of the -particle and of
the radon nucleus. Suggest one other form in which the energy is released.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

Another type of nuclear reaction is a fusion reaction. This reaction is the main source of the
Suns radiant energy.
(e)

(i)

State what is meant by a fusion reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain why the temperature and pressure of the gases in the Suns core must both
be very high for it to produce its radiant energy.
High temperature: ............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
High pressure:

............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
(5)
(Total 25 marks)

7.

This question is about the production of nuclear energy and its transfer to electrical energy.
(a)

When a neutron collides with a nucleus of uranium-235 (


can occur.
235
92 U

(i)

1
0n

144
56

Ba

90
36

Kr

235
92 U)

the following reaction

+ 20n

State the name given to this type of nuclear reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Energy is liberated in this reaction. In what form does this energy appear?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Describe how the neutrons produced in this reaction may initiate a chain reaction.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

The purpose of a nuclear power station is to produce electrical energy from nuclear energy. The
diagram below is a schematic representation of the principle components of a nuclear reactor
pile used in a certain type of nuclear power station.
c o n tro l ro d s

u ra n iu m o re fu e l ro d s

g ra p h ite b lo c k
(m o d e ra to r)

The function of the moderator is to slow down neutrons produced in a reaction such as that
described in part (a) above.
(c)

(i)

Explain why it is necessary to slow down the neutrons.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain the function of the control rods.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Describe briefly how the energy produced by the nuclear reactions is extracted from the
reactor pile and then transferred to electrical energy.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

8.

This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

Complete the table below, by placing a tick ( ) in the relevant columns, to show how an
increase in each of the following properties affects the rate of decay of a sample of
radioactive material.
Effect on rate of decay

Property
increase

decrease

stays the same

temperature of sample
pressure on sample
amount of sample
(2)
226

Radium-226 ( 88 Ra) undergoes natural radioactive decay to disintegrate spontaneously with the
emission of an alpha particle (-particle) to form radon (Rn). The decay constant for this
4
1
reaction is 4.30 10 yr . The masses of the particles involved in the reaction are
radium:

226.0254 u

radon:

222.0176 u

-particle:

4.0026 u

(b)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the statement that the decay constant is 4.30 10

yr .

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the energy released in the reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The radium nucleus was stationary before the reaction.


(i)

Explain, in terms of the momentum of the particles, why the radon nucleus and the
-particle move off in opposite directions after the reaction.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

The speed of the radon nucleus after the reaction is vR and that of the -particle is
v
v . Determine the ratio v R .

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
9

A college has been using a sample of radium-226 as an -particle source for 30 years. Initially,
the mass of radium was 15.0 g.
(d)

Determine
(i)

the initial number of atoms of radium-226 in the sample;


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

the number of atoms of radium-226 in the sample after 30 years;


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(iii)

the average activity of the sample during the 30 year period.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

(e)

The -particle is composed of protons and neutrons. Describe, by reference to the


structure of the proton and the neutron, why they are not classed as fundamental particles.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

10

Another type of nuclear reaction is a fusion reaction. This reaction is the main source of the
Suns radiant energy.
(f)

(i)

State what is meant by a fusion reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain why the temperature and pressure of the gases in the Suns core must both
be very high for it to produce its radiant energy.
High temperature: ............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................

High pressure:

............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
............................................................................................
(5)
(Total 30 marks)

11

9.

Which one of the following provides direct evidence for the existence of discrete energy levels
in an atom?
A.

The continuous spectrum of the light emitted by a white-hot metal.

B.

The line emission spectrum of a gas at low pressure.

C.

The emission of gamma radiation from radioactive atoms.

D.

The ionization of gas atoms when bombarded by alpha particles.


(1)

10.

A sample of material initially contains atoms of only one radioactive isotope. Which one of the
following quantities is reduced to one half of its initial value during a time equal to the half-life
of the radioactive isotope?
A.

Total mass of the sample

B.

Total number of atoms in the sample

C.

Total number of nuclei in the sample

D.

Activity of the radioactive isotope in the sample


(1)

11.

In a fission chain reaction,


A.

energy from one fission reaction causes further fission reactions.

B.

nuclei produced in one fission reaction cause further fission reactions.

C.

neutrons from one fission reaction cause further fission reactions.

D.

gamma radiation produced in one fission reaction causes further fission reactions.
(1)

12

12.

This question is about atomic and nuclear structure.


In a nuclear model of the atom, most of the atom is regarded as empty space. A tiny nucleus is
surrounded by a number of electrons.
(a)

Outline one piece of experimental evidence that supports this nuclear model of the atom.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Explain why the protons in a nucleus do not fly apart from each other.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

13

(c)

In total, there are approximately 10


(i)

29

electrons in the atoms making up a person.

Estimate the electrostatic force of repulsion between two people standing 100 m
apart as a result of these electrons.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Explain why two people standing 100 m apart would not feel the force that you
have calculated in part (i).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

14

13.

The variation with thickness x of the number n of -particles penetrating a material is shown
below.
n

What can be deduced from the graph about the -particles?


A.

The -particles have approximately the same initial energy.

B.

The range is independent of the initial energy.

C.

The -particles produce high levels of ionization.

D.

The -particles have a large mass.


(1)

14.

K-capture is a process that occurs when a nucleus captures an electron from the innermost shell
of electrons surrounding the nucleus.
55

When K-capture occurs in iron-55 ( 26 Fe), the nucleus is changed into a manganese (Mn)
nucleus. Which equation represents this change?
55

A.

( 26 Fe) + 1 e

B.

( 26 Fe) + 1 e

C.

( 26 Fe) + 1 e

D.

( 26 Fe) + 1 e

55

55

55

55
27 Mn

56
27

Mn

55
25

Mn

56
25

Mn
(1)

15

15.

This question is about atomic and nuclear structure and fundamental forces.
In a nuclear model of the atom, most of the atom is regarded as empty space. A tiny nucleus is
surrounded by a number of electrons.
(a)

Outline one piece of experimental evidence that supports this nuclear model of the atom.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Explain why the protons in a nucleus do not fly apart from each other.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

16

(c)

29

In total, there are approximately 10 electrons in the atoms making up a person. Estimate
the electrostatic force of repulsion between two people standing 100 m apart as a result of
these electrons.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(d)

Estimate the gravitational force of attraction between two people standing 100 m apart.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Explain why two people standing 100 m apart would not feel either of the forces that you
have calculated in parts (c) and (d).
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

17

16.

This question considers some aspects of the atomic and nuclear physics associated with isotopes
of the element helium.
Atomic aspects
(a)

The element helium was first identified from the absorption spectrum of the Sun.
(i)

Explain what is meant by the term absorption spectrum.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Outline how this spectrum may be experimentally observed.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

18

(b)

One of the wavelengths in the absorption spectrum of helium occurs at 588 nm.
(i)

Show that the energy of a photon of wavelength 588 nm is 3.38 10

19

J.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The diagram below represents some of the energy levels of the helium atom. Use
the information in the diagram to explain how absorption at 588 nm arises.

0
1 .5 9
e n e rg y / 1 0

19

2 .4 2
3 .0 0
5 .8 0

7 .6 4
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

19

Two different models have been developed to explain the existence of atomic energy levels.
The Bohr model and the Schrdinger model are both able to predict the principal wavelengths
present in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen.
(c)

Outline
(i)

the Bohr model, and

(ii)

the Schrdinger model.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(6)

20

Nuclear aspects
(d)

The helium in the Sun is produced as a result of a nuclear reaction. Explain whether this
reaction is burning, fission or fusion.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

At a later stage in the development of the Sun, other nuclear reactions are expected to take
place. One such overall reaction is given below.
4
2

(e)

(i)

He +

4
2

He + 2 He C + +

Identify the atomic number and the mass number of the isotope of carbon C that
has been formed.
Atomic number: ...
Mass number: ...
(2)

(ii)

Use the information below to calculate the energy released in the reaction.
27

kg

26

kg

Atomic mass of helium = 6.648 325 10


Atomic mass of carbon = 1.993 200 10

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

21

Another isotope of helium


(f)

(i)

6
2

He decays by emitting a -particle.

State the name of the other particle that is emitted during this decay.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain why a sample of

6
2

He emits -particles with a range of energies.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

The half-life for this decay is 0.82 s. Determine the percentage of a sample of
that remains after a time of 10 s.

6
2

He

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iv)

Describe the process of decay in terms of quarks.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 30 marks)

22

17.

This question is about the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom and the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle.
(a)

A postulate of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is that the electron revolves about
the proton in stable, circular orbits. State two other postulates of the Bohr model.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
(2)

th

In the n energy state, the hydrogen atom has energy En and the electron orbits with speed vn in
an orbit of radius rn. En, rn and vn are given by the following relationships.
13.606
2
En = n
eV
2

rn = 0.0529n nm
2.19 10 6
1
n
vn =
ms

(b)

Apply the expressions above, to hydrogen in its ground state, to determine the ground
state energy, the radius of the electron orbit and the electron speed.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

23

(c)

According to the Schrdinger model, the position and the speed of an electron are not
well defined. It can be assumed that the uncertainty in the position of the electron in a
hydrogen atom is equal to the radius of the electron orbit in the n = 1 state.
(i)

Apply the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to hydrogen in this state to show that
the uncertainty in the speed of the electron is approximately equal to the electron
speed as calculated in (b).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain why the result in (i) above suggests that the idea of electron orbits, as used
in the Bohr model, is a poor one.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

24

18.

Which one of the following correctly identifies the atomic (proton) number and mass (nucleon)
number of a nucleus that has neutrons n and protons p?
Atomic number

Mass number

A.

B.

n+p

C.

D.

n+p

p
(1)

19.

In a laboratory when aluminium nuclei are bombarded with -particles, the following reaction
may take place.
4
27
30
1
2 He 13 Al 15 P 0 n

This reaction is an example of


A.

nuclear fission.

B.

nuclear fusion.

C.

natural radioactive decay.

D.

artificial transmutation.
(1)

20.

Isotopes provide evidence for the existence of


A.

protons.

B.

electrons.

C.

nuclei.

D.

neutrons.
(1)

25

21.

This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

(i)

Distinguish between fission and radioactive decay.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

235
U
A nucleus of uranium-235 ( 92 ) may absorb a neutron and then undergo fission to produce
90
142
Sr
Xe
nuclei of strontium-90 ( 38 ) and xenon-142 ( 54 ) and some neutrons.

The strontium-90 and the xenon-142 nuclei both undergo radioactive decay with the emission of

particles.
(ii)

Write down the nuclear equation for this fission reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

State the effect, if any, on the mass number (nucleon number) and on the atomic

number (proton number) of a nucleus when the nucleus undergoes decay.


Mass number: ...................................................................................................
Atomic number: ...............................................................................................
(2)

26

The uranium-235 nucleus is stationary at the time that the fission reaction occurs. In this fission
reaction, 198 MeV of energy is released. Of this total energy, 102 MeV and 65 MeV are the
kinetic energies of the strontium-90 and xenon-142 nuclei respectively.
(b)

(i)

Calculate the magnitude of the momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Explain why the magnitude of the momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus is not
exactly equal in magnitude to that of the xenon-142 nucleus.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

On the diagram below, the circle represents the position of a uranium-235 nucleus before
fission. The momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus after fission is represented by the arrow.
s tro n tiu m -9 0

(iii)

On the diagram above, draw an arrow to represent the momentum of the xenon-142
nucleus after the fission.
(2)

27

(c)

In a fission reactor for the generation of electrical energy, 25% of the total energy
released in a fission reaction is converted into electrical energy.
(i)

Using the data in (b), calculate the electrical energy, in joules, produced as a result
of nuclear fission of one nucleus.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 10 J Kg K . Calculate the energy


required to raise the temperature of 250 g of water from 20C to its boiling point
(100C).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Using your answer to (c)(i), determine the mass of uranium-235 that must be
fissioned in order to supply the amount of energy calculated in (c)(ii). The mass of
25
a uranium-235 atom is 3.9 10 kg.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 25 marks)

28

22.

This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

(i)

Distinguish between fission and radioactive decay.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

235
U
A nucleus of uranium-235 ( 92 ) may absorb a neutron and then undergo fission to produce
90
142
Sr
Xe
nuclei of strontium-90 ( 38 ) and xenon-142 ( 54 ) and some neutrons.

The strontium-90 and the xenon-142 nuclei both undergo radioactive decay with the emission of

particles.
(ii)

Write down the nuclear equation for this fission reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

State the effect, if any, on the mass number (nucleon number) and on the atomic

number (proton number) of a nucleus when the nucleus undergoes decay.


Mass number: ...................................................................................................
Atomic number: ................................................................................................
(2)

29

The uranium-235 nucleus is stationary at the time that the fission reaction occurs. In this fission
reaction, 198 MeV of energy is released. Of this total energy, 102 MeV and 65 MeV are the
kinetic energies of the strontium-90 and xenon-142 nuclei respectively.
(b)

(i)

Suggest what has happened to the remaining 31 MeV of energy.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the magnitude of the momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(iii)

Explain why the magnitude of the momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus is not
exactly equal in magnitude to that of the xenon-142 nucleus.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

On the diagram below, the circle represents the position of a uranium-235 nucleus before
fission. The momentum of the strontium-90 nucleus after fission is represented by the arrow.
s tro n tiu m -9 0

30

(iv)

On the diagram above, draw an arrow to represent the momentum of the xenon-142
nucleus after the fission.
(2)

(c)

(i)

Define the decay constant for radioactive decay.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The half-life of strontium-90 is 28.0 years. Deduce that the decay constant of
10 1
strontium-90 is 7.85 10 s .
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

The decay constant of xenon-142 is 0.462 s . Initially, a sample of radioactive waste


material contains equal numbers of strontium-90 and xenon-142 nuclei.
(i)

Use the values of the decay constants in (c) and (d) to calculate the time taken for
the ratio

number of strontium - 90 nuclei


number of xenon - 142 nuclei
6

to become equal to 1.20 10 .


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

31

(ii)

Suggest why, in the long-term, strontium-90 presents a greater problem then


xenon-142 as radioactive waste.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 26 marks)

23.

This question is about atomic models.


The Bohr model was developed in order to explain the atomic spectrum of hydrogen.
(a)

Explain how the Bohr model was used to explain the spectrum of atomic hydrogen.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

State one limitation of the Bohr model.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

32

A later model of the atom was developed by Schrdinger.


(c)

(i)

State two differences between the model of Bohr and the model of Schrdinger.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain how the Schrdinger theory is consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

24.

An isotope of radium has a half-life of 4 days. A freshly prepared sample of this isotope
7N
contains N atoms. The time taken for 8 of the atoms of this isotope to decay is
A.

32 days.

B.

16 days.

C.

12 days.

D.

8 days.
(1)

33

25.

The presence of neutrons inside the nucleus is supported by the existence of


A.

isotopes.

B.

orbiting electrons.

C.

gamma radiation.

D.

neutral atoms.
(1)

26.

The source of the Suns energy is


A.

fission.

B.

radioactivity.

C.

fusion.

D.

ionization.
(1)

27.

This question is about nuclear binding energy.


(a)

(i)

Define nucleon.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Define nuclear binding energy of a nucleus.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

34

The axes below show values of nucleon number A (horizontal axis) and average binding energy
per nucleon E (vertical axis). (Binding energy is taken to be a positive quantity).

E / M eV

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250
A

(b)

Mark on the E axis above, the approximate position of


(i)

the isotope

56
Fe
26

(label this F).


(1)

(ii)

the isotope

2
H
1

(label this H).


(1)

(iii)

the isotope

238
U
92

(label this U).


(1)

(c)

Using the grid in part (a), draw a graph to show the variation with nucleon number A of
the average binding energy per nucleon E.
35

(2)

(d)

Use the following data to deduce that the binding energy per nucleon of the isotope
is 2.2 MeV.
nuclear mass of
mass of proton
mass of neutron

3
He
2

3
He
2

= 3.01603 u
= 1.00728 u
= 1.00867 u

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

2
2
3
1
In the nuclear reaction 1 H 1 H 2 He 0 n energy is released.

(e)

(i)

State the name of this type of reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Use your graph in (c) to explain why energy is released in this reaction.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

28.

This question is about nuclear binding energy.


(a)

Define nuclear binding energy.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
36

(1)

37

The axes below show values of nucleon number A (horizontal axis) and average binding energy
per nucleon E (vertical axis). (Binding energy is taken to be a positive quantity).
9
E / M eV
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

(b)

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250
A

Mark on the E axis opposite, the approximate position of


(i)

the isotope

56
Fe
26

(label this F).


(1)

(ii)

the isotope

2
H
1

(label this H).


(1)

(iii)

the isotope

238
U
92

(label this U).


(1)

(c)

Using the grid opposite, draw a graph to show the variation with nucleon number A of the
average binding energy per nucleon E.
(2)

38

(d)

Use the following data to deduce that the binding energy per nucleon of the isotope
is 2.2 MeV.
nuclear mass of
mass of proton
mass of neutron

3
He
2

3
He
2

= 3.01603 u
= 1.00728 u
= 1.00867 u

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

In the nuclear reaction


(e)

(i)

2
H
1

2
H
1

3
2

He +

1
n
0

energy is released.

State the name of this type of reaction.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Use your graph in (e) to explain why energy is released in this reaction.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

39

29.

This question is about the nuclear structure of the atom and atomic energy levels.
When the electron was first discovered it led to the idea that an atom consists of a lump of
positive charge in which the electrons are embedded.
In 1912 Geiger and Marsden carried out an experiment to test the validity of this idea. The
results of their experiment in fact suggested that the atom is mostly empty space with an
electrically charged nucleus of relatively large mass occupying only a small amount of space.
(This is the so-called nuclear model of the atom). Their experiment involved firing alpha
particles at a thin sheet of gold foil.
(a)

State the nature of an alpha particle.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

The diagram below shows a small part of the gold foil with two alpha particles A and B
approaching the foil.

g o ld fo il

(b)

(i)

Some alpha particle trajectories lead to the idea that most of the atom is empty
space. On the diagram, draw such a trajectory for the alpha particle A.
(1)

40

(ii)

Some other alpha particle trajectories lead to the idea that the atom has an
electrically charged, relatively massive nucleus. On the diagram, draw such a
trajectory for the alpha particle B.
(1)

(iii)

Describe briefly how these trajectories lead to the idea of the nuclear model of the
atom.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

n =

In 1914 Niels Bohr suggested that the electrons in an hydrogen atom occupy discrete energy
levels. The diagram below shows some of the principal energy levels.

n = 3
n = 2
e n e rg y

n = 1

41

(c)

(i)

Label with the letter X, the energy level in which an electron will have zero
potential energy.
(1)

(ii)

Explain how the line spectra of atomic hydrogen supports the idea of discrete
energy levels. You may use the diagram above to support your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

30.

In an -particle scattering experiment (Geiger-Marsden experiment), the number n of particles


incident per unit time on a detector was determined for different angles of deflection .

in c id e n t
- p a rtic le s

fo il

d e te c to r

42

Which of the following graphs best shows the variation with of n?


A .

90
B.

+90

+90

+90

+90

90
C.

90
D .

90

(1)

43

31.

The existence of isotopes provides evidence for the presence of


A.

electrons in atomic energy levels.

B.

electrons in the nuclei of atoms.

C.

neutrons in the nuclei of atoms.

D.

protons in the nuclei of atoms.


(1)

32.

27
Al
When a high-energy -particle collides with an aluminium-27 ( 13 ) nucleus, a nucleus of
phosphorus may be produced. Which of the following equations correctly shows this
transmutation?

A.

27
4
13 Al 2 He

B.

27
4
30
1
13 Al 2 He 15 P 0 p

C.

27
2
28
1
13 Al 1 He 14 P 0 p

D.

27
2
28
1
13 Al 1 He 14 P 0 n

30
1
15 P 0 n

(1)

33.

This question is about radioactivity and nuclear energy.


(a)

Define the following terms,


(i)

Isotope
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

44

(ii)

Radioactive half-life
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

Thorium-227 (Th-227) results from the decay of the isotope actinium-227.


(b)

(i)

Complete the following reaction equation.


227
227
89 Ac 90Th

(1)

Th-227 has a half-life of 18 days and undergoes a-decay to the isotope Ra-223 (Ra-223). A
sample of Th-227 has an initial activity of 32 arbitrary units.
(ii)

Using the axes below, draw a graph to show the variation with time t (for t = 0 to
t = 72 days) of the activity A of Th-227.
32

24

16
a c tiv ity /
a rb itra ry u n its

18

36

54

72
tim e / d a y s
(2)

45

(iii)

Determine from your graph, the activity of thorium after 50 days.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv)

Outline the experimental procedure to measure the activity of Th-227.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

In the decay of a Th-227 nucleus, a -ray photon is also emitted.


(c)

Use the following data to deduce that the energy of the -ray photon is 0.667 MeV.
mass of Th-227 nucleus
mass of Ra-223 nucleus
mass of helium nucleus
energy of -particle emitted
unified atomic mass unit (u)

= 227.0278 u
= 223.0186 u
= 4.0026 u
=5.481 MeV
2
= 931.5 MeV c

You may assume that the Th-227 nucleus is stationary before decay and that the Ra-223
nucleus has negligible kinetic energy.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

46

34.

Ag-102, Ag-103 and Ag-104 are three isotopes of the element silver.
Which one of the following is a true statement about the nuclei of these isotopes?
A.

All have the same mass.

B.

All have the same number of nucleons.

C.

All have the same number of neutrons.

D.

All have the same number of protons.


(1)

35.

Radioactive decay is a random process. This means that


A.

a radioactive sample will decay continuously.

B.

some nuclei will decay faster than others.

C.

it cannot be predicted how much energy will be released.

D.

it cannot be predicted when a particular nucleus will decay.


(1)

36.

64
Co
A freshly-prepared sample of cobalt-64 ( 27
) decays by the emission of -ray photons. The
decay may be represented by the nuclear equation

64
27 Co

64
27 Co

+ energy.

After this decay, the binding energy per nucleon has


A.

increased in magnitude because energy has been emitted from the nucleus.

B.

decreased in magnitude because energy has been emitted from the nucleus.

C.

stayed constant because the number of nucleons in the nucleus is unchanged.

D.

stayed constant because the proton number is unchanged.


(1)

47

37.

This question is about momentum and the kinematics of a proposed journey to Jupiter.
(a)

State the law of conservation of momentum.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

A solar propulsion engine uses solar power to ionize atoms of xenon and to accelerate them. As
a result of the acceleration process, the ions are ejected from the spaceship with a speed of
4
1
3.0 10 m s .
x e n o n io n s
s p e e d = 3 .0 1 0 4 m s

(b)

s p a c e s h ip
m a s s = 5 .4 1 0 2 k g

The mass (nucleon) number of the xenon used is 131. Deduce that the mass of one ion of
25
xenon is 2.2 10 kg.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The original mass of the fuel is 81 kg. Deduce that, if the engine ejects 77 10
7
ions every second, the fuel will last for 1.5 years. (1 year = 3.2 10 s)

18

xenon

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

48

(d)

The mass of the spaceship is 5.4 10 kg. Deduce that the initial acceleration of the
5
2
spaceship is 8.2 10 m s .
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(5)

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the spaceship. The
solar propulsion engine is switched on at time t = 0 when the speed of the spaceship is 1.2 103
1
ms .
1 0 .0

9 .5

a / 1 0 5m s

9 .0

8 .5

8 .0

0 .0

1 .0

2 .0

3 .0
t / 107 s

4 .0

5 .0

6 .0

49

(e)

Explain why the acceleration of the spaceship is increasing with time.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

Using data from the graph, calculate the speed of the spaceship at the time when the
xenon fuel has all been used.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(g)

The distance of the spaceship from Earth when the solar propulsion engine is switched on
is very small compared to the distance from Earth to Jupiter. The fuel runs out when the
11
spaceship is a distance of 4.7 10 m from Jupiter. Estimate the total time that it would
take the spaceship to travel from Earth to Jupiter.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 19 marks)

50

38.

This question is about radioactive decay.


A nucleus of the isotope xenon, Xe-131, is produced when a nucleus of the radioactive isotope
iodine I-131 decays.
(a)

Explain the term isotopes.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Fill in the boxes below in order to complete the nuclear reaction equation for this decay.
131

131
X e +
54

(2)

(c)

The activity A of a freshly prepared sample of the iodine isotope is 3.2 10 Bq. The
variation of the activity A with time t is shown below.
3 .5
3 .0
2 .5
2 .0
5

A /1 0 B q

1 .5
1 .0
0 .5
0
0

5 .0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

t / days
Draw a best-fit line for the data points.
(1)

51

(d)

Use the graph to estimate the half-life of I-131.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

39.

This question is about atomic models. The diagram below (not to scale) shows a simple model
of the hydrogen atom in which the electron orbits the proton in a circular path of radius R.

p ro to n
c h a rg e + e

e le c tro n
c h a rg e e

(a)

On the diagram, draw an arrow to show the direction of


(i)

the acceleration of the electron (label this A);


(1)

(ii)

the velocity of the electron (label this V).


(1)

(b)

State an expression for the magnitude of the electrostatic force F acting on the electron.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

52

(c)

The orbital speed of the electron is 2.2 10 m s .


Deduce that the radius R of the orbit is 5.2 10

11

m.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

A more complex model of the atom suggests that the orbital radius can only take certain
discrete values. This leads to the idea of discrete energy levels within the atom. Outline
the evidence that supports the existence of discrete energy levels.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

53

40.

The number of nucleons in a nucleus is the number of


A.

particles in the nucleus.

B.

neutrons in the nucleus.

C.

protons in the nucleus.

D.

protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.


(1)

41.

This question is about radioactive decay.


A nucleus of the isotope xenon, Xe-131, is produced when a nucleus of the radioactive isotope
iodine I-13 decays.
(a)

Explain the term isotopes.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Fill in the boxes below in order to complete the nuclear reaction equation for this decay.
131

131
X e +
54

(2)

54

The activity A of a freshly prepared sample of the iodine isotope is 6.4 10 Bq and its half-life
is 8.0 days.
(c)

Using the axes, draw a graph to illustrate the decay of this sample.
A / Bq

6 .4 1 0

5 .0

10

15

20

25

tim e / d a y s
(3)

(d)

Determine the decay constant of the isotope I-131


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

55

The sample is to be used to treat a growth in the thyroid of a patient. The isotope should not be
5
used until its activity is equal to 0.5 10 Bq.
(e)

Calculate the time it takes for the activity of a freshly prepared sample to be reduced to an
5
activity of 0.5 10 Bq
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

42.

The emission and absorption spectra of different elements provides evidence for the existence of
A.

isotopes.

B.

neutrons.

C.

protons.

D.

atomic energy levels.


(1)

43.

The nucleus of an atom contains protons. The protons are prevented from flying apart by
A.

the presence of orbiting electrons.

B.

the presence of gravitational forces.

C.

the presence of strong attractive nuclear forces.

D.

the absence of Coulomb repulsive forces at nuclear distances.


(1)

56

44.

Which of the following gives the correct number of protons and number of neutrons in the
11
B?
nucleus of 5
Number of protons

Number of neutrons

A.

B.

11

C.

D.

11

5
(1)

45.

The unified mass unit is defined as the rest mass of


A.

a proton.

B.

an atom of carbon-12 divided by 12.

C.

an atom of carbon-12.

D.

an atom of hydrogen-1.
(1)

46.

This question is about collisions and radioactive decay.


(a)

(i)

Define linear momentum and impulse.


Linear momentum: ..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
Impulse:

..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
(2)

57

(ii)

State the law of conservation of momentum.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Using your definitions in (a)(i), deduce that linear momentum is constant for an
object in equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

220
A stationary radon-220 ( 86 Rn ) nucleus undergoes -decay to form a nucleus of polonium (Po).
The -particle has kinetic energy of 6.29 MeV.

(b)

(i)

Complete the nuclear equation for this decay.


220
86 Rn

Po

+
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the kinetic energy, in joules, of the -particle.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Deduce that the speed of the -particle is 1.74 10 m s .


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
58

(1)

The diagram below shows the -particle and the polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
The direction of the velocity of the -particle is indicated.
-p a rtic le
p o lo n iu m n u c le u s

(c)

(i)

On the diagram above, draw an arrow to show the initial direction of motion of the
polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
(1)

(ii)

Determine the speed of the polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

In the decay of another radon nucleus, the nucleus is moving before the decay.
Without any further calculation, suggest the effect, if any, of this initial speed on
the paths shown in (c)(i).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

The half-life of the decay of radon-220 is 55 s.


(d)

(i)

Explain why it is not possible to state a time for the life of a radon-220 nucleus.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

59

(2)

60

(ii)

Define half-life.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

A sample of radon-220 has an initial activity A0.


(iii)

On the axes below, draw a graph to show the variation with time t of the activity A
for time t = 0 to time t = 180 s.
A

40

80

120

160

200
t / s
(2)

61

(iv)

Use your graph to determine the activity, in terms of A0, of the sample of radon at
time t = 120 s. Also, estimate the activity, in terms of A0, at time t = 330 s.
Activity at time t = 120 s : ................................................
Activity at time t = 330 s : ............................................
(2)
(Total 25 marks)

47.

The graph below shows the variation with mass (nucleon) number of the average binding energy
per nucleon.
m ass num ber

a v e ra g e b in d in g
e n e rg y p e r
n u c le o n
I
II

IV
III

Which direction indicates a fission reaction with a release of energy?


A.

B.

II

C.

III

D.

IV
(1)

62

48.

This question is about nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.


(a)

Compare the processes of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

A nuclear fusion reaction that is being investigated for the production of power is
2
3
4
1
1 H 1 H 2 He 0 n

(2.8 10 12 J)

12
where the energy liberated in each reaction is 2.8 10 J
4
1
Determine the rate, in kg s , of production of 2 He required for a power output of
100 MW.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

49.

This question is about collisions and radioactive decay.


(a)

(i)

Define linear momentum and impulse.


Linear momentum: ..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
Impulse:

..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
(2)

63

(ii)

State the law of conservation of momentum.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Using your definitions in (a)(i), deduce that linear momentum is constant for an
object in equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

220
A stationary radon-220 ( 86 Rn ) nucleus undergoes -decay to form a nucleus of polonium (Po).
The -particle has kinetic energy of 6.29 MeV.

(b)

(i)

Complete the nuclear equation for this decay.


220
86 Rn

Po

+
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the kinetic energy, in joules, of the -particle.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Deduce that the speed of the -particle is 1.74 10 m s .


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
64

(1)

The diagram below shows the -particle and the polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
The direction of the velocity of the -particle is indicated.
-p a rtic le
p o lo n iu m n u c le u s

(c)

(i)

On the diagram above, draw an arrow to show the initial direction of motion of the
polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
(1)

(ii)

Determine the speed of the polonium nucleus immediately after the decay.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

In the decay of another radon nucleus, the nucleus is moving before the decay.
Without any further calculation, suggest the effect, if any, of this initial speed on
the paths shown in (c)(i).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

65

The half-life of the decay of radon-222 is 3.8 days and radon-220 has a half-life of 55 s.
(d)

(i)

Suggest three ways in which nuclei of radon-222 differ from those of radon-220.
1.

.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................

2.

.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................

3.

.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Define half-life.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

State the expression that relates the activity At at time t of a sample of a radioactive
material to its initial activity A0 at time t = 0 and to the decay constant . Use this
expression to derive the relationship between the decay constant and the half-life
T1
2.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

66

(iv)

Radon-222 emits -particles. The activity of radon gas in a sample of 1.0 m of air
3
25
is 4.6 Bq. Given that 1.0 m of the air contains 2.6 10 molecules, determine the
ratio

number of radon - 222 atoms in 1.0 m 3 of air


number of molecules in 1.0 m 3 of air
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(e)

Suggest whether radon-222 or radon-220 presents the greater hazard to people over a
long period of time.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 30 marks)

50.

Which one of the following provides evidence for a nuclear model of the atom?
A.

Natural radioactive decay

B.

The ionizing properties of radiation

C.

The stability of certain elements

D.

The scattering of alpha particles by gold foil


(1)

67

51.

When the isotope aluminium-27 is bombarded with alpha particles, the following nuclear
reaction can take place.
4
2

27
HE 13
Al X neutron

Which one of the following correctly gives the atomic (proton) number and mass (nucleon)
number of the nucleus X?
Proton number

Nucleon number

A.

15

30

B.

16

31

C.

30

15

D.

31

16
(1)

52.

The main source of the Suns energy is


A.

chemical reaction.

B.

natural radioactivity.

C.

nuclear fusion.

D.

nuclear fission.
(1)

53.

This question is about wave-particle duality.


(a)

Describe the de Broglie hypothesis.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

68

(b)

An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 1250 V. Determine


the associated de Broglie wavelength of the accelerated electron.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

54.

This question is about line spectra.


(a)

Light is emitted from a gas discharge tube. Outline briefly how the visible line spectrum
of this light may be obtained.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

The table below gives information relating to three of the wavelengths in the line spectrum of
atomic hydrogen.
9

19

Wavelength / 10 m

(b)

Photon energy / 10

1880

1.06

656

3.03

486

4.09
9

Deduce that the photon energy for the wavelength of 486 10 m is 4.09 10

19

J.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
69

The diagram below shows two of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, using data from the
table above. An electron transition between these levels is also shown.

2 .4 1

10

19

5 .4 4

10

19

p h o to n e m itte d , w a v e le n g th = 6 5 6 n m

(c)

(i)

On the diagram above, construct the other energy level needed to produce the
energy changes shown in the table above.
(1)

(ii)

Draw arrows to represent the energy changes for the two other wavelengths shown
in the table above.
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

70

55.

This question is about radioactive decay.


A nuclide R undergoes radioactive decay to form a daughter nuclide D which is also radioactive.
The daughter nuclide D decays to form a stable nuclide S. The graph below shows the variation
with time t of the percentage number of atoms of each of the nuclides R, D and S.
% 100

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
D

10
0
0

(a)

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52
56
tim e / h o u rs

Use data from the graph to determine the decay constant l for the nuclide R.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

71

The graph for daughter nuclide D shows a maximum value.


(b)

(i)

State and explain the relation between the rates of decay of R and of D at this
maximum.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

Measurement of the percentage of R, D and S in a sample that initially contained 100% of R


may be used to determine the age of the sample.
(ii)

Suggest why such measurements of percentage composition would not provide a


reliable result for samples that are about 50 hours old.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

56.

When the isotope aluminium-27 is bombarded with alpha particles, the following nuclear
reaction can take place
4
2 He

27
13 Al X neutron.

Which one of the following correctly gives the atomic (proton) number and mass (nucleon)
number of the nucleus X?
Proton number

Nucleon number

A.

15

30

B.

16

31

C.

30

15

D.

31

16
(1)

72

73

This question is about nuclear binding energy and nuclear decay.


(a)

State what is meant by a nucleon.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Define what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)

The graph below shows the variation with nucleon (mass) number of the binding energy per
nucleon.
10
56

Fe
138

16

8
B in d in g e n e rg y p e r n u c le o n / M e V

57.

Ba

208

Pb
235

Be

Li

5
4
3

2
1
0

50

100

150

200
250
N u c le o n n u m b e r

74

(c)

Use the graph to explain why energy can be released in both the fission and the fusion
processes.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

Carbon-11,
of boron.
(i)

11
6

C, undergoes b+ decay with a half-life of 20.5 minutes to form an isotope

Write down the nuclear equation for this decay.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Deduce that a sample of Carbon-11 of mass 1.0 10


atoms.

15

kg contain 5.5 10

10

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Calculate the initial activity of the sample in (d) (ii).


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

75

58.

This question is about standing waves and their application to the Schrdinger model of the
hydrogen atom.
(a)

State the difference between standing waves and travelling waves.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

A cord is held under tension between two fixed points A and B. The distance AB is 40.0 cm.
A

4 0 .0 c m
(b)

(i)

State the wavelength of the fundamental (first harmonic) resonant mode.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

On the diagram above, sketch the shape of the cord when it vibrates in the second
harmonic resonant mode.
(1)

(iii)

Explain why it is not possible to have resonant modes of frequencies between the
first and second harmonics.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

76

(iv)

The speed of the wave on the string is 200 m s . Calculate the frequency of the
second harmonic.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(v)

For a given maximum amplitude the energy of a standing wave is proportional to


2
(frequency) . Calculate the ratio

energy of the second harmonic


,
energy of the fundamental
assuming both harmonics have the same maximum amplitude.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The Schrdinger model of the hydrogen atom incorporates the concept of de Broglie
waves.
(i)

Describe what is meant by de Broglie waves.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

77

(ii)

An electron has mass m and kinetic energy EK. Show that its de Broglie
wavelength l in terms of m, EK and the Planck constant h, is given by the
relationship

h
2mE K

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Outline an experiment that supports the de Broglie hypothesis.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(5)

78

In a simple model of the hydrogen atom, the size of the atom determines the kinetic energy of
the electron. Its de Broglie wavelength is equal to the wavelength of the standing wave bounded
by the nucleus and the edge of the atom, as shown below.
e d g e o f a to m

n u c le u s
5
The edge of the atom is 5 10
(d)

(i)

11

10

11

m from the nucleus.

State the de Broglie wavelength of the electron.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

The edge of the hydrogen atom is moved closer to the nucleus. Use your answer
in (c) (ii) to describe what changes occur in the kinetic energy of the electron.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

A different model of the hydrogen atom takes into account the fact that the electrical potential
energy of the electron depends on its distance from the nucleus.
(e)

(i)

Explain the variation with the distance from the nucleus of the electrical potential
energy of the electron.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

79

(ii)

Use your answer to (e) (i) to explain the variation with distance from the nucleus of
the kinetic energy of the electron.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Use your answer to (e) (ii) to suggest how the wavelength of the standing wave of
the electron varies with distance away from the nucleus.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 30 marks)

59.

Which of the following identifies the significant interaction(s) between nucleons inside the
nucleus?
A.

Nuclear only

B.

Coulomb only

C.

Nuclear and Coulomb

D.

Gravitational, nuclear and Coulomb


(1)

60.

Radioactive decay
(a)

Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope and is produced in the atmosphere by neutron


bombardment of nitrogen. The equation for this reaction is
14
7

N 01 n 146 C X .

Identify the particle X.


...................................................................................................................................
(1)

80

(b)

Living trees contain atoms of carbon-14. The activity per gram of carbon from a living
tree is 9.6 disintegrations per minute. The activity per gram of carbon in burnt wood
(charcoal) found at an ancient campsite is 2.1 disintegrations per minute.
(i)

A living tree continuously takes in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Suggest
why the activity of the carbon from the charcoal is less than that of the living
wood.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

The half-life of carbon-14 is 5500 years. Calculate the decay constant for carbon14 and use this value to estimate the age of the carbon found at the campsite.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(5)

(iii)

Suggest one reason why radioactive dating of carbon samples that are more than 20
000 years old is unreliable.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

81

61.

The nuclear notation for cadmium-114 is


the composition of this nucleus?

114
48

Cd. Which one of the following correctly shows

Number of protons

Number of neutrons

Number of nucleons

A.

48

66

114

B.

48

114

162

C.

66

48

114

D.

66

48

162
(1)

62.

A sample of a radioactive isotope of half-life

T1
2

initially contains N atoms. Which one of the

following gives the number of atoms of this isotope that have decayed after a time

A.

1
N
8

B.

1
N
3

C.

2
N
3

D.

7
N
8

3T 1 ?
2

(1)

82

63.

Which one of the following diagrams best illustrates the first two stages of an uncontrolled
fission chain reaction?
A .

K ey :
n e u tro n
u ra n iu m n u c le u s
fis s io n fra g m e n t

B .

C .

D .

(1)

64.

This question is about nuclear energy.


(a)

Define nuclear binding energy.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

83

(b)

A neutron collides with a nucleus of uranium-235 and the following reaction takes place.
235
1
96
92 U 0 n 37 Rb

1
138
55 Cs 2 0 n

State the name of this type of reaction.


...................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The mass of nuclei can be expressed in terms of unified mass units (u).
(i)

Define the term unified mass unit.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Using the data below, calculate the energy, in MeV, that is released in the reaction.
mass of

235
92 U 235.0439 u

mass of

96
37 Rb 95.9342 u

mass of

138
55 Cs 137.9112 u

mass of 01n 1.0087 u


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

84

(d)

Explain the importance of the two neutrons produced in the reaction.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Each neutron accounts for about 2 MeV of the energy released in the reaction. Suggest
what accounts for the rest of the energy released.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

The reaction in (b) is more likely to take place if the colliding neutron has an energy of
about 0.1 eV. In certain types of nuclear reactors in which this reaction might take place,
the neutrons produced have their energy reduced by collisions with nuclei of graphite
12
( C). The law of conservation of momentum can be used to estimate the number of
collisions required to reduce the energy of the neutrons to 0.1 eV.
State the law of conservation of momentum.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(g)

A neutron has a kinetic energy of 2.00 MeV. Deduce that the speed of the neutron is 1.95
7
1
10 m s .
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

85

86

(h)

You may assume that the mass of a nucleus of graphite is twelve times the mass of a
neutron. In a certain collision between a neutron and a stationary graphite nucleus, the
neutron of kinetic energy 2.00 MeV, rebounds from the graphite nucleus in a direction
along a line joining the centres of the nucleus and neutron.
107m s

1 .9 5

1 .6 5

107m s

v = 0 .3 0 0

10 7m s

g ra p h ite

n e u tro n

b e fo re c o llis io n

a fte r c o llis io n
7

The rebound speed of the neutron is 1.65 10 m s .


(i)

Deduce that the speed v of the graphite nucleus after collision is 0.300 10 m s .
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Using your answer in (i), deduce whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

87

(iii)

Use your answer to (ii) to deduce that each time a neutron collides in this manner
with a graphite nucleus it loses about 30% of its kinetic energy.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

State the fraction of the total initial energy lost by a neutron in its second collision
with a graphite nucleus.
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 25 marks)

88

65.

This question is about the photoelectric effect.


The apparatus shown below may be used to investigate the photoelectric effect.
m o n o c h ro m a tic in c id e n t lig h t

w in d o w
vacuum

e le c tro d e

m e ta l p la te
A
V

The potential difference V applied between the metal plate and electrode may be varied in
magnitude and in direction. This is repeated for different values of intensity for the same
frequency of light.

(a)

Monochromatic light is incident on the metal plate. The potential difference between the
plate and the electrode is adjusted so that the reading on the microammeter is a
maximum. The graph below shows the variation with intensity of the monochromatic
light of the maximum current.
m a x im u m c u rre n t

in te n s ity

89

Explain the features of this graph.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

The frequency and the intensity of the light are held constant. The graph below shows the
variation with the potential difference V of the current I measured on the microammeter.
I

V0

The frequency of the light is doubled at a constant intensity. On the graph above, draw a
second line to show the variation with potential difference of the current in the
microammeter.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

90

66.

This question is about atomic spectra.


An electron undergoes a transition from an atomic energy level of 3.20 10
15
level of 0.32 10 J. Determine the wavelength of the emitted photon.

15

J to an energy

..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total 3 marks)

67.

This question is about radioactivity.


(a)

A sample of radioactive material is found by chemical analysis to contain 8.90 10


2
atoms of uranium-235. The activity of the sample is 4.25 10 Bq.

19

Calculate, for the uranium-235


(i)

the decay constant;


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

the half-life in years.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

91

(b)

An isotope has a half-life of approximately four hours. Suggest why measurement of the
number of atoms and the activity of a sample of this isotope cannot be used to determine
its half-life.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

68.

This question is about a-particle scattering.


In 1913, Geiger and Marsden carried out an experiment in which a-particles were fired at a
piece of gold foil. The diagram below shows two such a-particles A and B moving toward a gold
nucleus in the directions shown.
A

n u c le u s

B
n u c le u s
(a)

On the diagram above, draw possible paths followed by A and B.


(2)

(b)

Explain how a knowledge of the initial KE of a-particles such as A enables an upper limit
for the diameter of a nucleus to be estimated.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

92

69.

This question is about nuclear energy and radioactive decay.


(a)

A neutron collides with a nucleus of uranium-235 and the following reaction takes place.
235
1
96
138
1
92 U 0 n 37 Rd 55 Cs 2 0 n

Using the data below, calculate the energy, in MeV, that is released in the reaction.
mass of
mass of
mass of
mass of

235
92

96
37

Rb = 95.9342 u

138
55

1
0

U = 235.0439 u

Cs = 137.9112 u

n = 1.0087 u

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

The reaction in (a) is more likely to take place if the colliding neutron has an energy of
about 0.1 eV. In certain types of nuclear reactors in which this reaction might take place,
the neutrons produced have their energy reduced by collisions with nuclei of graphite
12
( C). The law of conservation of momentum can be used to estimate the number of
collisions required to reduce the energy of the neutrons to 0.1 e V.
State the law of conservation of momentum.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

93

(c)

A neutron has a kinetic energy of 2.00 MeV. Deduce that the speed of the neutron is 1.95
7
1
10 m s .
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

You may assume that the mass of a nucleus of graphite is twelve times the mass of a
neutron. In a certain collision between a neutron and a stationary graphite nucleus, the
neutron of kinetic energy 2.00 MeV, rebounds from the graphite nucleus in a direction
along a line joining the centres of the nucleus and neutron.
107m s

1 .9 5

1 .6 5

107m s

v = 0 .3 0 0

10 7m s

g ra p h ite

n e u tro n

b e fo re c o llis io n

a fte r c o llis io n
7

The rebound speed of the neutron is 1.65 10 m s .


(i)

Deduce that the speed v of the graphite nucleus after collision is 0.300 10 m s .
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

94

(ii)

Using your answer in (i), deduce whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Use your answer to (ii) to deduce that each time a neutron collides in this manner
with a graphite nucleus it loses about 30% of its kinetic energy.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

Explain briefly, why quite a lot of collisions are necessary to reduce the energy of
the neutron to 0.1 eV.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

95

(e)

Determine the de Broglie wavelength associated with a neutron that has a kinetic energy
of 2.00 MeV.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

(f)

The nucleus of

138
55

Cs produced in the fission reaction


235
92

U 01 n

96
37

Rd

138
55

Cs 210 n

is radioactive. It undergoes b decay to a nucleus of barium (Ba).


(i)

Write down the equation for the decay of

138
55

Cs .

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

State the name of the force and the name of exchange particle involved in b decay.
Force: ..........................................................................................................
Exchange particle: .......................................................................................
(2)

96

(g)

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the percentage of nuclei of caesium138 and the percentage of nuclei of the isotope of barium formed from the decay of a
pure sample of caesium-138.
100
90
80
C s

70
60
% o f n u c le i

50
Ba

40
30
20
10
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

t / m in u te s
Use the graph, explaining your working, to estimate the half-life of

(i)

caesium-138.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

97

(ii)

the isotope of barium.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 30 marks)

70.

Radioactivity

42
One isotope of potassium is potassium-42 19 K . Nuclei of this isotope undergo radioactive
decay with a half-life of 12.5 hours to form nuclei of calcium.

(a)

State what is meant by the term isotopes.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Complete the nuclear reaction equation for this decay process.


42
19

K 20 Ca
(2)

98

(c)

The graph below shows the variation with time of the number N of potassium-42 nuclei
in a particular sample.
N

1
2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70
t / h o u rs

The isotope of calcium formed in this decay is stable.


On the graph above, draw a line to show the variation with time t of the number of
calcium nuclei in the sample.
(1)

99

(d)

Use the graph in (c), or otherwise, to determine the time at which the ratio
number of calcium nuclei in sample
number of potassium - 42 nuclei in sample

is equal to 7.0.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

71.

This question is about energy levels and atomic models.


(a)

Diagram 1 below shows some of the energy levels (measured in electron-volts) of the
hydrogen atom. Diagram 2 is a representation of part of the visible spectrum of atomic
hydrogen (not to scale).

D ia g r a m 1
0
0 .5 4
0 .8 5

D ia g r a m 2

1 .5
= 660nm

= 470nm

= 430nm

3 .4

e n e rg y / e V

re d

b lu e

v io le t

1 3 .6

100

(i)

State the value of the ionization energy of hydrogen.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

The wavelength corresponding to the red line in the visible spectrum of atomic
hydrogen is 660 nm. Deduce that the energy of a photon of wavelength 660 nm is
1.9 eV.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

On diagram 1, draw an arrow to show the electron transition between energy


levels that gives rise to a photon of energy 1.9 eV. Label this arrow with the letter
R.
(1)

(iv)

On diagram 1 and using your answer to (iii), draw arrows to show the electron
transitions that give rise to the blue line and to the violet line in the visible
spectrum of atomic hydrogen. Label these arrows B and V respectively.
(1)

(b)

The kinetic energy of an electron in the ground state of a hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
Deduce that an electron in the ground state of the hydrogen atom has a de Broglie
10
31
wavelength of approximately 3.3 10 m (mass of electron = 9.1 10 kg).
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

101

...................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

10

The radius of the hydrogen atom is of the order of 10 m. Outline how the value of
the de Broglie wavelength in (b) is consistent with the Schrdinger model of the
hydrogen atom.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

72.

Which one of the following correctly identifies the mass and momentum of a photon?
Mass

Momentum

A.

zero

zero

B.

zero

non-zero

C.

non-zero

zero

D.

non-zero

non-zero
(1)

102

73.

This question is about wave phenomena and the particle nature of light.
Travelling waves
(a)

Graph 1 below shows the variation with time t of the displacement d of a travelling
(progressive) wave. Graph 2 shows the variation with distance x along the same wave of
its displacement d.

G rap h 1
d / m m

4
2
0

0 .0

0 .1

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4

0 .5

0 .6
t / s

0 .0

0 .4

0 .8

1 .2

1 .6

2 .0

2 .4
x / cm

2
4
G rap h 2
d / m m

4
2
0
2
4

(i)

State what is meant by a travelling wave.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

103

(ii)

Use the graphs to determine the amplitude, wavelength, frequency and speed of the
wave.
Amplitude:

.................................................................................................
(1)

Wavelength: .................................................................................................
(1)

Frequency:

.................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
(1)

Speed:

.................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
(1)

Refraction of waves
(b)

The diagram below shows plane wavefronts incident on a boundary between two media A
and B.

m e d iu m A
m e d iu m B

refractive index of medium B


is 1.4.
The ratio refractive index of medium A
The angle between an incident wavefront and the normal to the boundary is 50.

104

(i)

Calculate the angle between a refracted wavefront and the normal to the boundary.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

On the diagram above, construct three wavefronts to show the refraction of the
wave at the boundary.
(3)

Interference of waves
(c)

State two conditions necessary to produce observable interference between light from
two sources.
1.

.........................................................................................................................

2.

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

A Youngs double slit experiment for red light is set up as shown below.
re d filte r

d o u b le s lit

so u rc e o f
w h ite lig h t

s in g le s lit
sc ree n
(n o t to s c a le )

An interference pattern of light and dark fringes is observed on the screen.

105

(i)

The red filter is now replaced by a blue filter. State and explain the change in
appearance, other than change of colour, of the fringes on the screen.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

The filter in (i) is removed. State and explain the appearance of the central
maximum fringe and also of fringes that are away from this central position.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

Particle nature of light


(e)

The photo-electric effect cannot be explained on the basis of a wave theory of


electromagnetic radiation. State two experimental observations, other than the existence
of a threshold frequency, that led to this conclusion.
1.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

2.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

106

(f)

Monochromatic light is incident on a metal surface in a photo-cell as shown below.


A
m o n o c h ro m a tic
lig h t

The metal surface has work function 2.4 eV and the threshold wavelength for light
incident on the surface is lS. The current in the photo-cell is measured using a
microammeter.
Calculate the threshold wavelength lS.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)

(g)

Light of wavelength 2 S and intensity I is incident on the metal surface in (f). (Intensity
is the light power incident per unit area.) The current in the photo-cell is iP.
State and explain the effect on the current iP in the photo-cell for light incident on the
surface
(i)

of wavelength

1
2

S and intensity 2I;

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

107

(ii)

of wavelength less than

1
2

S and intensity I.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 30 marks)

74.

Radioactivity
(a)

State what is meant by the term


(i)

isotopes;
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

decay constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Complete the nuclear reaction equation for the decay process indicated below.
42
19

K 20 Ca
(2)

108

(c)

(i)

42

One isotope of potassium is potassium-42 19


Nuclei of this isotope undergo
1
radioactive decay with a decay constant 0.0555 hour to form nuclei of calcium. At time
t = 0, a sample of potassium-42 contains N0 nuclei.
On the graph below, label the x-axis with values to show the variation with time t /
hours of the number N of potassium nuclei in the sample.

t / h o u rs
(2)

(ii)

The isotope of calcium formed in this decay is stable. On the graph above, draw a
line to show the variation with time t of the number of calcium nuclei in the
sample.
(1)

109

(d)

Use the graph, or otherwise, to determine the time at which the ratio

number of calcium nuclei in sample


number of potassium - 42 nuclei in sample
is equal to 4.0.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

75.

Which of the following provides evidence for the existence of neutrons?


A.

The Geiger-Marsden experiment

B.

Isotopes

C.

Natural radioactive decay

D.

Artificial transmutations of elements


(1)

76.

233

A nucleus of uranium-233 92
undergoes a- decay. Which of the following correctly
identifies the number of protons Z and the number of neutrons N of the nucleus produced by this
decay?
Z

A.

90

229

B.

90

139

C.

88

231

D.

88

141
(1)

110

77.

The equation of a nuclear reaction is shown below.


2
1

H 21 H 23 He 01 n

The reaction is an example of


A.

artificial transmutation.

B.

fission.

C.

natural radioactivity.

D.

fusion.
(1)

78.

Nuclear decay
(a)

State the nature of an a-particle.


...................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

In the Rutherford-Geiger-Marsden experiment to investigate the structure of the atom, aparticles were directed towards a gold foil. Explain why a-particles, rather than electrons,
were used in this experiment.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

111

(c)

Uranium-238
238
92

(i)

238
92

U undergoes a-decay to form thorium (Th). The half-life of uranium

U is 4.5 109 years.


Define half-life.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Write down the nuclear equation for the a-decay of uranium to thorium.
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Thorium is radioactive and further decays occur, eventually giving lead which is stable.
These further decays all occur within a time that is short compared to the half-life of
238
92

U. In a sample of rocks the ratio of the number of uranium atoms to the number of

1
.
lead atoms is 7
(i)

Estimate the age of the rocks assuming that no lead was initially present in the
rocks.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

State one further assumption that is made in this estimate.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

112

79.

This question is about photoelectric emission.


A piece of metal is placed in an evacuated container. Light of wavelength 444 nm is incident on
the surface of the metal. The surface has a work function of 4.60 eV.
(a)

(i)

Calculate the energy, in joule, of a photon of light of wavelength 444 nm.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Deduce whether photoelectric emission of electrons will occur.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The wavelength of the light incident on the surface is now reduced to 222 nm. State and
explain why electrons having a range of kinetic energy from zero to approximately 1.0 eV
will be emitted.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

113

80.

This question is about radioactive decay.

A cobalt-60 nucleus decays with the emission of a b -particle to form a nucleus of nickel-60.
The nickel nucleus then decays with the emission of two -ray photons of energies 1.17 MeV
and 1.33 MeV.
(a)

Explain why the decay of nickel-60 leads to the conclusion that atomic nuclei have
discrete energy levels.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A fresh sample of cobalt-60 contains N0 cobalt nuclei. Initially, there are no nickel-60
nuclei in the sample. After 3.0 years, the ratio

number of nickel - 60 nuclei


number of cobalt - 60 nuclei
1
.
is 2

(i)

2
N0
Deduce that the number of cobalt-60 nuclei remaining after 3.0 years is 3
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the half-life of cobalt-60.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

114

81.

The atomic line spectra of elements provides evidence for the existence of
A.

photons.

B.

electrons.

C.

quantized energy states within nuclei.

D.

quantized energy states within atoms.


(1)

115

82.

Emission of electrons
The diagram below shows an electron on the surface of a metal. Electromagnetic radiation is
incident normally on the surface.
in c id e n t e le c tro m a g n e tic ra d ia tio n

e le c tro n
m e ta l s u rfa c e

5 .0

10

11

a re a fro m w h ic h e le c tro n
c a n a b so rb e n e rg y
According to a model based on the electromagnetic theory of light, the electron absorbs all the
11
energy that is incident on the surface within a distance of 5.0 10 m from the electron. The
2
intensity of light incident on the surface is 1.6 W m . The energy required to remove an
electron from the surface is 1.8 eV.
(a)

Calculate, on the basis of this model, that the time taken for the electron to gain sufficient
2
energy to leave the surface is 23 s. (The area of a circle of radius R is pR .)
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

116

(b)

Experimental observation indicates that electrons are emitted from the surface in less than
9
10 s. Explain how this observation is consistent with the particle theory of light.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The diagram below illustrates an apparatus used to investigate the photoelectric effect.
lig h t
m e ta l p la te

e v a c u a te d tu b e
c o lle c tin g p la te

v a ria b le v o lta g e

(i)

Describe how, using this apparatus, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted
electrons may be determined for incident light of frequency f.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

117

(ii)

On the axes provided below draw a sketch graph to show the variation with
frequency f of the maximum kinetic energy EK of the emitted electrons. (Numerical
values are not required.)
E

(2)

(iii)

State and explain what is represented by the gradient (slope) of the graph.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

The incident light has intensity 1.6 W m , wavelength 520 nm and 5.0% of the incident
photons cause the ejection of electrons from the surface. Determine the number of
electrons ejected from 1.0 m2 of the surface per second.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 15 marks)

118

83.

Plutonium as a power source


The alpha decay of plutonium-238 is to be used as a power source. Plutonium-238
decays by emission of an a-particle to form an isotope of uranium (U).
(a)

238
94

Pu

Write down the nuclear equation for this decay.


...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The nuclear masses of the isotopes and the a-particle in this decay are

(i)

Plutonium

237.9979539 u

Uranium

233.9904441 u

a-particle

4.0015050 u.

Deduce that the energy released in this reaction is 8.9 10

13

J.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

The plutonium nucleus is at rest before the decay. Explain why most of the energy
in (b)(i) is kinetic energy of the a-particle.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

119

(c)

The half-life of plutonium is 88 years.


(i)

Explain why over a period of six months the activity of a sample of plutonium-238
may be considered to be constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

13

The activity of the sample of plutonium-238 is 4.1 10 Bq. Calculate the rate at
which energy is released.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

The mass of the sample of plutonium-238 in (c)(ii) is 65 g. Using your answer to


(c)(ii) calculate the rate at which the temperature of the plutonium sample is
increasing. Assume that no energy is lost from the sample. (The specific heat
1 1
capacity of plutonium is 150 J kg K .)
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

120

(d)

As the temperature of the sample in (c) rises the plutonium will eventually melt. Describe
and explain, in terms of atomic behaviour, the processes of
(i)

the temperature rise of plutonium;


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

the phase change of plutonium.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 19 marks)

84.

Which of the following provides evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels?
A.

The absorption line spectra of gases

B.

The existence of isotopes of elements

C.

Energy release during fission reactions

D.

The scattering of -particles by a thin metal film


(1)

121

85.

Which of the following statements best describes the random nature of radioactive decay?
A.

The decaying nucleus emits either an a-particle, or a b-particle or a g-ray photon.

B.

The type of radiation emitted by the decaying nucleus cannot be predicted.

C.

The time at which a particular nucleus will decay cannot be predicted.

D.

The decay of a nucleus is unaffected by environmental conditions.


(1)

86.

The graph below illustrates the variation with nucleon number (mass number) N of the binding
energy per nucleon E of nuclei.
Which of the labelled nuclei is the most stable?
E

C
B

A
N
(1)

122

87.

Radioactive decay
(a)

The nucleon number (mass number) of a stable isotope of argon is 36 and of a radioactive
isotope of argon is 39.
(i)

State what is meant by a nucleon.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain, in terms of the number of nucleons and the forces between them, why
argon-36 is stable and argon-39 is radioactive.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

A particular nucleus of argon-39 undergoes the decay shown by the nuclear reaction
equation below.
39
18

(i)

Ar K

State the proton (atomic) number and the nucleon (mass) number of the potassium
(K) nucleus.
Proton number:

.........................................................................................

Nucleon number: .........................................................................................


(2)

123

(ii)

Use the following data to determine the maximum energy, in J, of the b particle in
the decay of a sample of argon-39.
Mass of argon-39 nucleus

= 38.96431 u

Mass of K nucleus

= 38.96370 u

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

124

(c)

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the activity A of a sample of argon39.
1750
1600
1450
1300
1150
1000

a c tiv ity / B q

850
700
550
400
250
100

10

11

12

tim e / 1 0 2 y e a rs
Use the graph to determine the half-life of argon-39. Explain your reasoning.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

125

88.

Radioactive decay
(a)

The nucleon number (mass number) of a stable isotope of argon is 36 and of a radioactive
isotope of argon is 39.
(i)

State what is meant by a nucleon.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Outline the structure of nucleons in terms of quarks.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Explain, in terms of the number of nucleons and the forces between them, why
argon-36 is stable and argon-39 is radioactive.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

126

(b)

Argon-39 undergoes b decay to an isotope of potassium (K). The nuclear reaction


equation for this decay is
39

18 Ar K

(i)

x.

State the proton (atomic) number and the nucleon (mass) number of the potassium
nucleus and identify the particle x.
Proton number:

...........................................................................................

Nucleon number: ...........................................................................................


Particle x:

...........................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

The existence of the particle x was postulated some years before it was actually

detected. Explain the reason, based on the nature of b energy spectra, for
postulating its existence.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Use the following data to determine the maximum energy, in J, of the b particle in
the decay of a sample of argon-39.
Mass of argon-39 nucleus

= 38.96431 u

Mass of K nucleus

= 38.96370 u

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

127

(c)

The half-life of argon-39 is 270 years.


(i)

State what quantities you would measure to determine the half-life of argon-39.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain how you would calculate the half-life using the quantities you have stated
in (i).
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 21 marks)

89.

The Geiger-Marsden alpha particle scattering experiment provides evidence for the existence of
A.

atomic nuclei.

B.

neutrons.

C.

protons.

D.

nuclear energy levels.


(1)

128

90.

The initial activity (rate of decay) of a sample of mass 25 mg of a radioactive isotope is A0. The

T1 .

half-life of the isotope is 2 Which of the following gives the initial activity and half-life of a
sample of mass 50 mg of this isotope?
Activity

Half-life

A.

A0

T1

B.

2A0

T1

C.

A0

2T 1

D.

2A0

2T 1

(1)

91.

A neutron is captured by a nucleus. Which of the following gives the changes in the atomic
(proton) number and mass (nucleon) number of the nucleus?
Atomic number

Mass number

A.

unchanged

unchanged

B.

unchanged

increases by 1

C.

increases by 1

unchanged

D.

increases by 1

increases by 1
(1)

129

92.

Nuclear reactions
(a)

(i)

State what is meant by radioactive decay.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Radioactive decay is said to be a random process. State what is meant by random


decay.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

In 1919, Rutherford was investigating the bombardment of nitrogen by -particles. He


discovered that, in the interaction between an -particle and a nitrogen nucleus, the
nitrogen nucleus was transformed into an oxygen nucleus with the emission of a proton.
(i)

Complete the nuclear reaction equation for this transformation.


14
7

N 42 He
O

p
(2)

(ii)

The rest masses of the particles shown in the reaction equation are given in the
table below.
particle

rest mass / u

He

4.00260

14.00307

16.99913

1.00783

130

Calculate the minimum energy, in MeV, of an a-particle required to cause this


transformation to occur. Explain your answer.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

93.

This question is about power generation in nuclear power stations.


(a)

State one example of a renewable source and one example of a non-renewable source of
thermal energy.
Renewable:

....................................................................................................

Non-renewable:

....................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The production of electrical energy in a power station involves the conversion of thermal
energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical
energy. State the means by which the mechanical energy is converted into electrical
energy.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(1)

131

(c)

In a nuclear power station, the source of the thermal energy is nuclear fission. The
diagram below represents the fission of a uranium nucleus in which two neutrons are
produced. (The fission nuclei produced are not shown.)
fis s io n
n e u tro n

in c o m in g
n e u tro n

235

fis s io n
n e u tro n

Use the diagram above to describe what is meant by a chain reaction.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Neutrons that collide with nuclei of uranium-235 can either produce fission of the nuclei
or be captured by the nuclei. Outline, in a nuclear power station, the method used to
ensure that the majority of nuclei colliding with nuclei of uranium-235 produce fission of
the nuclei.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

132

(e)

Outline how the energy liberated in fission is converted into mechanical energy. A
labelled sketch could assist your answer.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 11 marks)

94.

A proton and an alpha particle are accelerated from rest through the same potential difference.

kinetic energy of alpha particle


is
kinetic energy of proton
After acceleration the ratio
2.

A.
B.

2.

C.

2 2.

D.

4.
(1)

95.

Momentum
(a)

State the law of conservation of linear momentum.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

133

(b)

A toy rocket of mass 0.12 kg contains 0.59 kg of water as shown in the diagram below.
h ig h -p re s s u re a ir

w a te r
n o z z le , r a d iu s 1 .4 m m

The space above the water contains high-pressure air. The nozzle of the rocket has a
circular cross-section of radius 1.4 mm. When the nozzle is opened, water emerges from
1
3
the nozzle at a constant speed of 18 m s . The density of water is 1000 kg m .
(i)

Deduce that the volume of water ejected per second through the nozzle is 1.1 10
4 3
m.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Deduce that the upward force that the ejected water exerts on the rocket is
approximately 2.0 N. Explain your working by reference to Newtons laws of
motion.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

134

(iii)

State why the rocket does not lift off at the instant that the nozzle is opened.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

96.

A student suggests that the following transformation may take place.


14
7

N 42 He178 O 11 p

Measurement of rest masses shows that


14
4
17
1
total rest mass( 7 N 2 He ) < total rest mass( 8 O 1 p )

The student concludes that the reaction will


A.

take place if the helium nucleus has sufficient kinetic energy.

B.

always take place and the proton will be emitted with kinetic energy.

C.

always take place but the proton will have zero kinetic energy.

D.

never take place because there is no mass defect.


(1)

97.

Which of the following provides evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels?
A.

Alpha-particle scattering

B.

Continuous emission spectra

C.

Discrete energies of gamma radiation

D.

Line absorption spectra


(1)

135

98.

Nuclide X has a half-life of 1 day and nuclide Y has a half-life of 5 days. In a particular sample,
the activities of X and Y are found to be equal.
When the activity is tested again after 10 days, the activity will be
A.

entirely due to nuclide X.

B.

due equally to nuclides X and Y.

C.

mostly due to nuclide X.

D.

mostly due to nuclide Y.


(1)

99.

This question is about nuclear reaction.


(a)

State the meaning of the terms


(i)

nuclide
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

isotope
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

A nucleus of
(i)

24
11 Na

undergoes radioactive decay to the stable nucleus

24
12 Mg.

Identify this type of radioactive decay.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
136

(ii)

Use the data below to determine the rest mass in atomic mass unit of the particle
24
emitted in the decay of 11 Na .
rest mass of

24
11 Na

= 23.99096u
Mg
rest mass of
= 23.9850u
energy released in decay = 5.002160 MeV
24
12

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The isotope sodium-24 is radioactive but the isotope sodium-23 is stable. Suggest which
of these isotopes has the greater nuclear binding energy.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

137

(d)

At time t = 0, a sample of sodium-24 contains N0 atoms of sodium-24. The half-life of


T1
sodium-24 is 2 .
(i)

Using the axes below, draw a sketch graph to show the variation with time t of the
number N of sodium-24 atoms in the sample.
N
N

1
2

2T

1
2

3T

1
2

(2)

(ii)

State how the rate at which the sample is decaying at any time t can be found from
your sketch graph.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

100. This question is about models of the hydrogen atom.


(a)

Outline how the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom accounts for the spectrum of
hydrogen.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

138

(b)

The diagram below shows some of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom.
E /e V

(i)

0 .8 5 0
1 .5 1

n=4

3 .4 0

n=2

13.6

n=1

n=3

Outline, by reference to the diagram, what is meant by the term quantization of


energy.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Deduce that for the transition from the level n = 2 to the level n = 1, the wavelength
7
of the photon emitted is 1.2210 m.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Suggest why the lines in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen become closer together
as the wavelength of the emitted photons decreases.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

139

(c)

Outline how the concept of matter waves leads to the Schrdinger model of the hydrogen
atom.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

101. This question is about nuclear energy levels and radioactive decay.
A thallium nucleus (
(a)

207
81Tl )

undergoes decay to form a nucleus of lead-207 (

207
82 Pb ).

State the nuclear reaction equation for the decay of thallium-207.


.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain for the decay of thallium-207


(i)

why -ray photons are also emitted.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

why the particles emitted do not all have the same energy.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

140

(2)

(c)

State for the decay of thallium-207 in (a)


(i)

the name of the fundamental interaction involved.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

the name of the exchange particle.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

102. This question is about nuclear reactions.


(a)

State the meaning of the terms


(i)

nuclide
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

isotope
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The isotope sodium-24 undergoes radioactive decay to the stable isotope magnesium-24.
(i)

Complete the nuclear reaction equation for this decay.


24
24
11 Na 12 Mg

(2)

141

(ii)

One of the particles emitted in the decay has zero rest-mass. Use the data below to
estimate the rest mass, in atomic mass units, of the other particle emitted in the
24
decay of 11 Na
rest mass of

24
11 NA

= 23.99096u

24
12

rest mass of Mg = 23.98504u


energy released in decay = 5.002160 MeV
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The isotope sodium-24 is radioactive but the isotope sodium-23 is stable. Suggest which
of these isotopes has the greater nuclear binding energy.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

142

103. This question is about photoelectric effect.


In the photoelectric effect, electrons are emitted from a metal surface when light of a suitable
frequency is incident on the surface. The diagram below shows an arrangement for investigating
some aspects of the photoelectric effect.
lig h t

Q
e v a c u a te d q u a rtz tu b e

A
A

v a ria b le d c s u p p ly
P and Q are metal plates. Monochromatic light of frequency f is incident on plate P.
In the situation shown, the microammeter (mA) registers a current. The intensity of the light is
kept constant throughout the experiment.

(a)

As the potential difference between P and Q is increased, the current in the circuit
decreases until it is zero. State and explain the polarity of the metal plate Q.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

143

(b)

The potential difference in the circuit is increased until the current in the circuit just
becomes zero. The potential difference is then kept constant. The frequency f of the light
is increased to a new value and the intensity is kept constant. The microammeter again
registers a current. Outline how Einsteins theory of the photoelectric effect accounts for
this observation.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Explain why in (b) as f is increased at constant intensity, the current registered by the
microammeter decreases.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

15

At a frequency f of 3.010 Hz, the potential difference between P and Q at which the
current just becomes zero is 8.0 V. The work function of the metal surface of P is 4.4 eV.
Determine a value for the Planck constant.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

144

104. This question is about models of the hydrogen atom.


(a)

The Bohr model provides a partially successful explanation of the spectrum of the
hydrogen atom. The model predicts that the energy, E, of the electron in the hydrogen
atom is given by

E=

2.18 10 18
n2

where n is an integer and E is in joules.

(i)

By reference to this equation, describe how the Bohr model accounts for the line
spectrum of the hydrogen atom.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii)

Calculate the shortest wavelength of light in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

State one characteristic of the spectrum of atomic hydrogen which cannot be


accounted for by the Bohr model.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

145

(b)

Outline by reference to position and momentum how the Schrdinger model of the
hydrogen atom is consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

105. A nuclide X has a half-life of 10 s. On decay the stable nuclide Y is formed. Initially a sample
contains only atoms of X.
After what time will 87.5% of the atoms in the sample have decayed into nuclide Y.
A.

9.0 s

B.

30 s

C.

70 s

D.

80 s
(1)

106. Which of the following best describes why alpha-particles travel only a short distance in air?
A.

They undergo radioactive decay.

B.

They undergo elastic collisions with air molecules.

C.

They ionize air molecules.

D.

They are attracted by the nuclei of air molecules.


(1)

146

90
107. A nucleus 38 Sr decays by the emission of an electron. What are the mass (nucleon) number and
the atomic (proton) number of the resulting nucleus?

Mass number

Proton number

A.

89

38

B.

90

39

C.

91

38

D.

91

39
(1)

108. This question is about the de Broglie hypothesis.


(a)

State the de Broglie hypothesis.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength associated with an adult of mass 80 kg running at a


1
speed of 5.0 m s .
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

147

90
109. A nucleus 38 Sr decays by the emission of an electron. What are the mass (nucleon) number and
the atomic (proton) number of the resulting nucleus?

Mass number

Proton number

A.

89

38

B.

90

39

C.

91

38

D.

91

39
(1)

110. Radioactive element P has a half-life of 30 days and element Q has a half-life of 20 days.
Initially a radioactive source contains equal numbers of each element.
number of atoms of P
What is the ratio number of atoms of Q after 60 days have elapsed?

A.

1
2

B.

2
3

C.

3
2

D.

2
(1)

148

111. Monochromatic light is incident on a metal surface in a photocell. Which of the following
statements is correct?
A.

The rate at which electrons are emitted from the surface is proportional to the intensity of
the radiation.

B.

The rate at which electrons are emitted from the surface depends only on the frequency of
the radiation used.

C.

The intensity of the radiation used must be greater than a threshold value in order to emit
electrons.

D.

The wavelength of the radiation must be greater than a threshold value in order to emit
electrons.
(1)

112. Which of the following is the correct relationship between the kinetic energy Ek of a particle
and its associated de Broglie wavelength l?
A.

l Ek
1
Ek

B.

C.

1
l Ek

1
D.

Ek
(1)

149

113. The diagram below shows the deflection chamber of a mass spectrometer.
s o u rc e o f io n s

A
B
X
C

re g io n o f u n ifo rm
m a g n e tic fie ld

Track X shows the path of a singly-charged carbon-12 ion in the chamber.


Which track best shows the track of a singly-charged C-14 ion that has the same initial speed?
A.

B.

C.

D.

D
(1)

150

114. The diagram below shows the path followed by an alpha-particle in the vicinity of the nucleus
of a gold atom.

a lp h a -p a rtic le
n u c le u s
Which of the following is correct for the alpha-particle?
A.

The force acting on it changes direction.

B.

The force acting on it is smaller than that acting on the nucleus.

C.

Its potential energy is constant.

D.

Its kinetic energy is constant.


(1)

115. This question is about radioactivity.


(a)

Outline a method for the measurement of the half-life of a radioactive isotope having a
9
half-life of approximately 10 years.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

151

T1
(b)

A radioactive isotope has a half-life

. Determine the fraction of this isotope that


T1
remains in a particular sample of the isotope after a time of 1.6 2 .
2

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

116. This question is about nuclear decay.


(a)

Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The sketch graph below shows the variation with mass number (nucleon number) A of the
binding energy per nucleon E of nuclei.
E

A
One possible nuclear reaction that occurs when uranium-235 is bombarded by a neutron
to form xenon-142 and strontium-90 is represented as
235
92

90
1
U 01 n 142
54 Xe 38 Sr 4 0 n .

152

(i)

Identify the type of nuclear reaction represented above.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

On the sketch graph above, identify with their symbols the approximate positions
of the uranium (U), the xenon (Xe) and the strontium (Sr) nuclei.
(2)

(iii)

Data for the binding energies of xenon-142 and strontium-90 are given below.
isotope
xenon-142
strontium-90

binding energy / MeV


1189
784.8

The total energy released during the reaction is 187.9 MeV. Determine the binding
energy per nucleon of uranium-235.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iv)

State why binding energy of the neutrons formed in the reaction is not quoted.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

153

Li

117. The binding energy per nucleon of the nucleus 3


is approximately 5 MeV. The total energy
required to completely separate the nucleons of this nucleus is approximately
A.

15 MeV.

B.

20 MeV.

C.

35 MeV.

D.

50 MeV.
(1)

118. The initial activity of a sample of a radioactive isotope of half-life 10 hours is A. What is the age

A
?
of the sample when its activity is 32
A.

30 hours

B.

40 hours

C.

50 hours

D.

320 hours
(1)

154

119. When the isotope aluminium-27 is bombarded with alpha particles, the following nuclear
reaction can take place.
4
2

He

27
13

Al X neutron

Which of the following correctly gives the atomic (proton) number and mass (nucleon) number
of the nucleus X?
Proton number

Nucleon number

A.

15

30

B.

16

31

C.

30

15

D.

31

16
(1)

155

120. This question is about nuclear power production.


(a)

The purpose of a nuclear power station is to produce electrical energy from nuclear
energy. The diagram below is a representation of the principal components of a nuclear
reactor pile used in a certain type of nuclear power station that uses uranium as a fuel.

The function of the moderator is to slow down the neutrons produced in a reaction such
as that described above.
Explain,
(i)

why it is necessary to slow down the neutrons.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

the function of the control rods.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

156

(b)

With reference to the concept of fuel enrichment in a nuclear reactor explain,


(i)

the advantage of enriching the uranium used in a nuclear reactor.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

from an international point of view, a possible risk to which fuel enrichment could
lead.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

157

(c)

A particular nuclear reactor uses uranium-235 as its fuel source. When a nucleus of
uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, the following reaction can take place.
235
92

U 01 n 144
54 Xe

90
38

Sr 2 01 n

The following data are available.


rest mass of
rest mass of
rest mass of
rest mass of
(i)

235
92

144
54

Xe

90
38

1
0

Sr

= 2.1895 10 MeV c
5

= 1.3408 10 MeV c
4

= 8.3749 10 MeV c

= 939.56 MeV c

Show that the energy released in the reaction is approximately 180 MeV.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

State the form in which the energy appears.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

158

(d)

The energy released by 1 atom of carbon-12 during combustion is approximately 4 eV.


(i)

Using the answer to (c)(i), estimate the ratio


energy density of uranium - 235
.
energy density of carbon - 12

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Suggest, with reference to your answer in (d)(i), one advantage of uranium-235


compared with fossil fuels.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

159

(e)

When a uranium-238 nucleus absorbs a neutron the following reaction can take place.
238
92

U 01 n

239
92

The isotope uranium-239 is radioactive and decays with a half-life of 23 minutes to form
an isotope of neptunium-239 (Np-239).
(i)

Define radioactive half-life and explain what is meant by an isotope.


Radioactive half-life:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
Isotope:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Complete the reaction equation for this decay.


239
92

U
(3)

(iii)

The isotope neptunium-239 undergoes radioactive b decay to form an isotope of


plutonium. Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of this decay in relation to
nuclear power production.
Advantage:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
Disadvantage:
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 25 marks)

160

121. Radioactive decay


(a)

Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5500 years. It is produced in the


atmosphere by neutron bombardment of nitrogen. The equation for this reaction is
14
7

(i)

N 01 n 146 C X.

Explain what is meant by isotopes.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Identify the particle X.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

10

Each gram of a living tree contains approximately 4 10 atoms of carbon-14.


On the axes below, draw a graph to show the variation with time of the number of carbon14 atoms in one gram of wood from a tree. Your graph should indicate the number of
4
atoms for a period of 1.8 10 years after the tree has died. (Half-life of carbon-14 =
5500 years)

(3)

161

(c)

The activity of a radioactive sample is proportional to the number of atoms in the sample.
The activity per gram of carbon from a living tree is 9.6 disintegrations per minute. The
activity per gram of carbon in burnt wood found at an ancient campsite is 1.9
disintegrations per minute.
(i)

Estimate the number of atoms of carbon-14 in the burnt wood.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

From the graph you have drawn in (b), estimate the age of the burnt wood.
.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

122. This question is about wave-particle duality.


(a)

Describe the de Broglie hypothesis.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 1250 V. Determine


the associated de Broglie wavelength of the accelerated electron.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

162

123. This question is about line spectra.


(a)

Light is emitted from a gas discharge tube. Outline briefly how the visible line spectrum
of this light may be obtained.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The table below gives information relating to three of the wavelengths in the line
spectrum of atomic hydrogen.
9

Wavelength / 10 m

Photon energy / 10

1880

1.06

656

3.03

486

4.09

Deduce that the photon energy for the wavelength of 486 10

m is 4.09 10

19

19

J.

...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

163

(c)

The diagram below shows two of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, using data from
the table above. An electron transition between these levels is also shown.

(i)

On the diagram above, construct the other energy level needed to produce the
energy changes shown in the table above.
(1)

(ii)

Draw labelled arrows to represent the energy changes for the two other
wavelengths shown in the table above.
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

124. This question is about the photoelectric effect.


In an experiment to investigate the photoelectric effect, light of frequency f is incident on the
metal surface A shown in the diagram below. A potential difference is applied between A and
electrode B. The photoelectric current is measured by the microammeter. (Note: the complete
electrical circuit is not shown.)

(a)

Indicate on the diagram the polarity of A and of B.


(1)

164

(b)

The frequency f of the light is reduced and it is found that there is a frequency f0, the
threshold frequency, below which the microammeter does not indicate a current. Explain
how Einsteins photoelectric theory accounts for this observation.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

165

(c)

The potential difference between A and B is now reversed. For a particular frequency of
the light, the potential difference is changed until there is zero current in the circuit. The
graph below shows the variation of frequency f of the light with the potential difference,
Vs, for zero current.

Explaining your working, use the graph to determine the


(i)

threshold frequency.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

work function, in eV, of the metal.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

125. Nuclear power production


(a)

With reference to the concept of fuel enrichment in a nuclear reactor explain,


(i)

the advantage of enriching the uranium used in a nuclear reactor.


.........................................................................................................................

166

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

from an international point of view, a possible risk to which fuel enrichment could
lead.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)

167

(b)

A particular nuclear reactor uses uranium-235 as its fuel source. When a nucleus of
uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, the following reaction can take place.
235
92

U 01 n 144
54 Xe

90
38

Sr 2 01 n

The following data are available.


rest mass of
rest mass of
rest mass of
rest mass of
(i)

235
92

144
54

Xe

90
38

1
0

Sr

= 2.1895 10 MeV c
5

= 1.3408 10 MeV c
4

= 8.3749 10 MeV c

= 939.56 MeV c

Show that the energy released in the reaction is approximately 180 MeV.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

State the form in which the energy appears.


.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The energy released by one atom of carbon-12 during combustion is approximately 4 eV.
(i)

Using the answer to (b)(i), estimate the ratio

energy density of uranium - 235


.
energy density of carbon - 12
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

168

(ii)

Suggest, with reference to your answer in (c)(i), one advantage of uranium-235


compared with fossil fuels.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

A sample of waste produced by the reactor contains 1.0 kg of strontium 90 (Sr-90). Sr-90
8
has a half-life of 9.1 10 s.
For the strontium in the sample,
(i)

15

show that its initial activity is 5.1 10 Bq.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

calculate its activity after a period of 70 years. (1 yr =3.2 10 s)


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(3)

169

(e)

Based on your answers to (d), comment on a problem associated with using uranium-235
as an energy source.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 20 marks)

170

126. Photoelectric effect


A metal is placed in a vacuum and light of frequency f is incident on its surface. As a result,
electrons are emitted from the surface. The graph below shows the variation with frequency f of
the maximum kinetic energy EK of the emitted electrons.

(a)

The graph above shows that there is a threshold frequency of the incident light below
which no electrons are emitted from the surface. With reference to the Planck constant
and the photoelectric work function, explain how Einsteins photoelectric theory accounts
for this threshold frequency.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(4)

171

(b)

Use the graph in (a) to calculate the


(i)

threshold frequency.
.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Planck constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(4)

(iii)

work function of the metal.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

172