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GOSPEL ACCORDING TO

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MARK

BY THE

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P.

GOULD,

S.T.D.

PROFESSOR OF THE NEW TESTAMENT LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE, DIVINITY SCHOOL


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PREFACE

THERE

is

a lack of critical commentaries in the English language

on the Gospel of Mark, and especially of commentaries based on


the more recent criticism of the sources, and of the history con

Commentaries corresponding to those of

tained in the book.

in critical
Meyer, Weiss, and Holtzmann, not in ability, but
is an attempt to
volume
This
are
results,
wanting.

method and

supply this lack.

This criticism

is

based on the evident inter

of
dependence of the Synoptical Gospels, unmistakable proof

which

is

found in the accumulated verbal resemblances of the

The

three books.

generally accepted solution of this Synoptical

problem makes Mark

the principal source of

Matthew and Luke,

account being supplemented and modified by material taken


This critical result is
from the Hebrew Logia of Matthew.
no com
accepted by many English and American scholars, but
his

mentary based on
this

has appeared

it

among

us.

modification of

uses
theory makes the Logia the older source, which Mark

to a limited extent, the principal source of his information being

the Apostle Peter.

few passages in which

probable have been noted and discussed.


this

volume

is

In carrying
Gospels,

their

dependence is
The critical theme of
this

thus the interrelation of the Synoptics.

out

this

plan,

the

relations

of the

Synoptical

harmonies and divergences, and especially their


have been made a special study, and, where

interdependence,

the fourth Gospel


discussed.

is

parallel

to

Mark,

their relation

has been

PREFACE

ffi

An

important part of the

critical

widespread doubt

question

have attempted

is

the historicity of

for the question has

This doubt

the miracles.

grown into a
meet on the general

to

ground of the credibility of the narrative as contemporaneous


history,

But

and of the verisimilitude of the miracles.

after

all,

since the result of criticism has

been

to establish

the historicity of the Synoptical accounts of the ministry of our

Lord, the main attempt has been to interpret him in the light
of this history.

have not attempted to make

thesaurus of opinions, though the

more recent

Nor have

has been cited and discussed.

curious information of any kind for


torical

and

methods,

literary

the meanings of the

life

nized that this account

made

to

it,

it

is

set forth.

sake.

sought to collect
but,

his

by

have endeavored to arrive


It is

at

recog

But the use of

it

hard to overestimate.
life

What

it

the

as

other Synoptical accounts gives

say, therefore, about the


it

book a

supplemented, and valuable additions

is

of the

importance which

own sake;

of Jesus as here set forth.

by the other Gospels.

principal source

Christianity,

its

this

critical literature

an

it

has to

and character of the founder

of

has been the main endeavor of this volume to

Other things have been used, but not

for their

own

Everything has been pressed into this service.

The volume

contains,

besides

the

Notes,

an

Introduction,

stating the Synoptical problem, a discussion of the character


istics

of Mark, and an analysis of events

a statement of the

Person and Principles of Jesus in Mark ; a discussion of the Gos


pels in the second century

a review of Recent Literature

a statement of the Sources of the Text.

There are

also

and

Notes on

Special Subjects scattered through the book.


E.

PHILADELPHIA, January, 1896.

P.

GOULD.

CONTENTS

PAGE

v ~ vi

PREFACE

ix-xvii

INTRODUCTION

THE PERSON AND


THE GOSPELS

IN

PRINCIPLES OF JESUS IN

MARK S GOSPEL

THE SECOND CENTURY

xxxiii-xlii

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

THE TEXT

COMMENTARY

CORRIGENDA

xliii-xlix

.........

ABBREVIATIONS

INDEX

xix-xxxii

li~ lv

~3O9

3"-37

3l%

A COMMENTARY ON THE GOSPEL


OF MARK

INTRODUCTION
THE main
Gospels

is its

question in a study of any one of the Synoptical


This is especially true of the
relation to the others.

If writings are independent,


questions belonging to Introduction.
the matter of their origin can be considered separately ; but where

an analysis shows intimate relations between them, the question


must be discussed with reference to this relation. Now, our study
of the Synoptical Gospels shows both interdependence and inde
pendence. There are two parts of the story where the indepen

dence amounts to divergence. In the account of the early life of


Jesus given by Matthew and Luke, Bethlehem is in Matthew not
only the birthplace of our Lord, but also the residence of his
Nazareth is introduced only as the place to which they
parents.

turned aside after their return from Egypt, because Judsea was
rendered unsafe for them by the succession of Archelaus. But in

Luke, Nazareth is their residence, from which they go to Bethle


only on account of the Roman census, and to which they

hem

And these marks of


return after the presentation in the Temple.
independent origin are found in the entire story of the infancy in
Matthew and Luke.

And

in the

account of the events from the

Matthew and Mark, omitting the


closing verses of the latter, make the scene of Jesus appearance
whereas Luke places them all in
to his disciples to be Galilee
In
the vicinity of Jerusalem, and on the day of the resurrection.
resurrection to the ascension,

one of the great arguments for the omission of the closing


Mark is that the scheme of appearances is that of Luke,
and plainly out of gear with that of the previous part of Mark.
Evidently, here, then, in the beginning and end of the Gospel

fact,

verses of

INTRODUCTION
independent of each other. And
account of our Lord s

narrative, the Gospels are quite

body of the

in the

history, containing the

public ministry, there are not wanting evidences of the same inde
pendence. The general arrangement of events is the same, but
individual events are scattered through this general

scheme with

Luke distributes discourses which


independence.
Matthew collects into connected discourse, e.g. the parts of the

a decided

And

Sermon on the Mount.


Peter,
detail,

single events, such as the call of

Andrew, James, and John, are given with differences of


which show marked independence.
But, after all, the

general impression

made
One

in this

body of the

narrative

is

that of

of the most striking features of this is


interdependence.
the selection of events and discourses out of the great body of
material open to writers.

The matter

Gospels is very small, compared to the


the whole is very small, compared with

There

is

some

individuality

shown

peculiar to either of the

common
all

material,

that Jesus said

and yet
and did.

in this selection, especially of

the discourses of our Lord, but it is not considerable.


And we
have noticed already the similarity in the general arrangement of
events.
We can imagine that in the interval of a generation
between the close of our Lord s life and the appearance of the

Gospels, the oral tradition, which was for the time the chief source
of knowledge of that life, may have acquired something like a

form

fixed

in

both these particulars.

And

so

we may

use the

oral tradition, perhaps, to account for these items in the general

account of interdependence. But when we come to the verbal


resemblances existing between the Synoptical Gospels, our depen

dence on

this solution of the Synoptical problem ceases.


It is
enough to say in this connection, that the oral tradition must
have been in Aramaic, the language of Palestine, while these
resemblances are in Greek Gospels, and verbal resemblances dis

appear in translation.

But

it

is

unnecessary to introduce

this

consideration even, in the face of such striking resemblances as


these.
Oral tradition does not tend to fix language to this extent.

This verbal similarity is found in the Synoptics, wherever they give


Good examples of it are the
parallel accounts of the same event.
accounts of the call of Peter, Andrew, James, and John, Mt. 4 18
""

Mk.
Mk.

16 20
"

21 28
"

and of the healing of the demoniac

Lk. 431

"

37
.

The

effect of this verbal

in the synagogue,
resemblance is very

INTRODUCTION

much enhanced,

of course,

when

xi

common

the words

to

two or

more accounts of the same thing are themselves uncommon words.


the words 7rpa>TOKu0e8ptus and TrpwroKAio-tus in Mt. ZT?, and
.g.
yj
43
and the parallel passage,
the parallel passage, Lk. 1 1 ; Mk. 1 2
46
in
Lk. i4 7 8 ; do not occur
connection
a
similar
Lk. 20 ; and in
writers.
ecclesiastical
elsewhere outside of
eKoAd/iWt, Mk. 13 -*,
a
is
rare
Greek word, and is
Mt.
and the parallel passage,
24^,
,

used in these passages, moreover, in an unusual sense, Tepara,


Mk. I3 22 , and the parallel passage, Mt. 24^, does not occur else

where

in the Synoptics.

dypimreiTe,

Mk.

s3

and the

parallel

does not occur elsewhere in the Synoptics, and


,
and rpvfiXiov, Mk. I4 20 , and the
N.T. e/A/SaTr
in
the
twice
only
23
are not found elsewhere in the N.T.
parallel passage, Mt. 26
passage, Lk. 2I

36

These verbal resemblances can be explained only by the interde


pendence of the written accounts. Either the Gospels are drawn
from each other, or from some common written source.
These phenomena of the Synoptical Gospels have given rise to
a most protracted and intricate discussion, in which various the
our Gospels were drawn,
ories, e.g. of original writings from which

one Gospel or another, from which the rest


were drawn, have been presented and thoroughly sifted. Fortu
for the most part,
nately, we are at the end of this sifting process,
and internal evi
Tradition
its
results.
of
and are in possession
dence have concurred in giving us two such sources, one of which

and of the

is

priority of

the translation into

Greek of Matthew

Logia, or discourses of

our Lord, and the other our present Gospel of Mark. There is
ample evidence that the Logia cannot be our present Gospel of
Matthew, and on the other hand, there is no evidence that there
is

any

original

Mark,

distinct

from our second Gospel.

Papias,

writing about 130 to 140 A.D., says that Matthew wrote his Logia
Irein Hebrew, and each man interpreted them as he was able.
naeus, Pantsenus,

there

is

no

record also

and Origen

early tradition of
its

Hebrew

all

testify to the

Matthew

character.

It is

same, and in

fact,

writing which does not


also against the identifi

cation of the Logia with our present Matthew, that the latter
It
contains matter that does not come under the head of Logia.
its narrative portions on Mark, which
within
the
range of possibility, if it was itself the work
scarcely
of an eye witness.
Papias tells us also that Mark, having become

is,

is

moreover, dependent in

INTRODUCTION

xii

Peter s interpreter, wrote down accurately all that he remembered,


not however in order, both of the words and deeds of Christ.
And tradition is consistent also in regard to this dependence of

Mark on

Peter.

in

its

vividness,

this account agrees with the character


bears evident marks of the eye-witness

Moreover,

of the second Gospel.

and

which reproduce

It

in the presence of those descriptive touches

not only the event, but the scene and

for us

surroundings as well.
Is there

any evidence that Mark

Gospel was

in part a

compila

Did he draw upon the Logia in his account of discourse


and conversation ? Does not the supposition of the entire inde
tion?

pendence of Mark imply two sources of the Synoptical narrative


which the matter of the different Gospels would

in certain cases, in

suggest only one ? In the parables, e.g.,


Matthew, and a smaller group in Mark.

independent here, as elsewhere,

this

we have

And

a larger group in

of course,

if

Mark

supposes two sources.

is

But

the parables themselves, by their homogeneousness, would suggest


rather one source, from which both drew. Moreover, Mark s state

ment that Jesus used many such parables, in this connection, is


another hint of a longer account containing more parables, from
which he made selections. And the one parable peculiar to him
would show that this was a third source, independent of either
or Mark.
Turning now to the parable of the Wicked
12
1
2
we find Mark supplemented by Matthew
Mk.
Husbandmen,
in the same way.
Mark says that Jesus spoke to them in parables,
and proceeds to cite one parable, while Matthew gives us three
Mark
parables in the course of the same controversy; that is,
abundant
more
implies in the plural Trapa/JoAais, a source giving
material than he uses, and Matthew apparently gives us that more

self

Matthew

"

abundant material.

Moreover, the traditional source of Mark

unfavorable to the production of long discourse. And


Gospel
in this
accordingly, we find only one example of such discourse
is

find
Gospel, the eschatological discourse in ch. 13. Whereas, we
it
and
and
in
Matthew
of
such
discourse
Luke,
frequent examples
is

a natural inference that

it

is

characteristic of the Logia from

It seems probable, therefore, that this


which they both drew.
one discourse in which Mark follows their example comes from
the written Logia, and not from his transcription of Peter s oral

discourse.

INTRODUCTION
INDIVIDUALITY OF THIS GOSPEL.

Mark has a way of

may be

his

xiii

ANALYSIS OF EVENTS

own of handling

his reason, the fact

is,

Whatever
on the active life of

his material.

that he dwells

our Lord, the period from the beginning of the Galilean ministry
to the close of his natural

The

life.

introduction to this career,

including the ministry of John the Baptist, the baptism and the
But it is not
temptation, he narrates with characteristic brevity.
brevity for the sake of brevity ; it
of everything not bearing directly

John the Baptist

is

comes from a

careful exclusion

purpose. The work of


introduced as the beginning of the glad tidings

on

his

about Jesus Christ, and the material

is

selected which bears

on

this special purpose.

The baptism

Christ into his office,

and only the baptism, the descent of the

is

told as the inauguration of

Spirit,

and the voice from heaven are narrated.

tion

merely noted in passing.

is

And

All of these things

the tempta
have a value

of their own, but they are evidently regarded by the writer as in


troductory to his theme, the active ministry of Jesus, and are

abbreviated accordingly.
But beginning with the Galilean ministry, our Gospel is as
in its narrative of separate events as either Matthew or Luke.

full

He

omits events and discourses, but what he does tell he tells as fully
In the matter of discourse, especially, still more of pro

as they.

this

longed discourse,

As regards the general

Gospel

is

resolutely either brief or silent.

distribution of material, there

is an earlier
group of narratives, in which Matthew and Luke are parallel to
each other
another further along, in which Matthew and Mark
;

are

parallel

and then a

But what Mark

tells

third,

in this

in

which Luke stands alone.

period he narrates with pictorial

fulness.

When we come, however, to the account of the resurrection,


and of the appearances to the disciples after the resurrection, this
Gospel returns to its policy of brevity regarding what precedes
and follows the period of the public ministry. These appearances
are to the disciples alone, they are mainly mere appearances, and
Mark gives merely the announcement of the resurrection to the

women by the
strange,

angels,

and

closes with this.

and requiring explanation,

character of

Mark

is

This, instead of being

quite in accordance with the

disclosed in the narration of the early events.

INTRODUCTION

xiv

Those were introductory, these are supplementary of the


and both are treated therefore with the same conciseness.

We

parsimony in the choice of material


main theme, the public ministry. But this is for the sake,

have discovered a

for this

subject,

like

for this purpose, Mark


evidently, of sharpness of impression, and,
He is not telling
his
matter.
of
effective
an
grouping
joins with it

number of disconnected

one story of

his public

stories of

ministry,

our Lord

and he

selects

work, but the

and groups

his

show the progress of events, their division


into separate periods, and their culmination in the final catastrophe.
The first period is one of immediate popularity, and of a corre
material in order to

The effect of Jesus miracles in spreading his


and at
fame, and in drawing a multitude after him, is emphasized,
and
forbids
the same time Jesus withdraws from the multitude,
We are not told
the spreading of the report of his miracles.
its
of
about the subjects of his teaching, but
impression, and its

sponding reserve.

effect in increasing his popularity.

The second period, beginning with Jesus return from his first
tour in Galilee to Capernaum, is marked by the contrast between
this continued popularity and the growing opposition of the Phari
are shown in a series of rapid sketches the causes of
sees.

We

this opposition in the revolutionary character of Jesus

ministry,

He

his quiet disregard of Pharisaic traditions and customs.


calls a publican to the inner circle of his disciples, and eats with

and

heals on the
publicans and sinners; he decries formal fastings,
all
and
denounces
Sabbath, defends eating with unwashed hands,
succession
this
that
doubt
There can be no
traditionalism.
rapid

of the same character, is intended to produce the


effect described, and to show us how, early in the ministry of
and so the
Jesus, he was forced into opposition to the ruling sect,
But the picture has lights as well
for the end.
was

of events,

way

all

prepared

and the mixture with these conflicts of other events,


such as the appointment of the twelve, the sending of them on a
separate mission, the teaching in parables, and sundry miracles,

as shadows,

produces the biographical effect.


But at last this short ministry in Galilee comes to an end, and
is followed by a period in which Jesus journeys with his disciples
into the Gentile territory about Galilee,
for his

and there prepares them


There is added to this

death at the hands of his enemies.

INTRODUCTION

XV

the confession of his Messianic claim, the story of his


Transfigu
ration, a few miracles in the strange places where these travels
take

him; but the

characteristic

mark of the whole period

conference with his disciples about the

this secret

crisis

in

is

his

life.

The succeeding

period, beginning with his final departure from


and ending with his entry into Jerusalem, is one into
which Matthew and Luke have put much of their characteristic
And the matter
material, and in which Mark is unusually brief.
Galilee,

selected by him is of an unusually mixed kind.


It begins with
one of those disputes between him and the Pharisees which mark
these last days.
It proceeds with various conversations and in
in
which
different aspects of the kingdom of God are
structions,

shown

it

gives a strange picture of the impression of fear pro

duced on Jesus disciples by his manner on the road to Jerusalem ;


and it tells of one miracle at Jerusalem. In brief, this is a period
of waiting, in which the events themselves, and the turn given to
them, foreshadow and prepare for the final crisis. Then comes
the last week, with its story of the final conflicts between
Jesus
and the authorities at Jerusalem, of his trial and death. The
entry into Jerusalem is evidently intended to be his announcement
of himself as the Messiah, and the cleansing of the
Temple a
manifestation of his authority.
This authority is

immediately

challenged by the Sanhedrim, and in the parable of the

Wicked
Husbandmen, Jesus makes his charge against them. Then they
ply him with their legal puzzles, attempting to discredit his teach
ing,

and

their discomfiture only hastens the end.

This brief analysis


selects his material

will show the principle on which Mark


and groups it. Both contribute to the one

The different periods are


object of sharpness of impression.
marked off, and the effect is not blurred by the introduction of
confusing or voluminous detail. The life of Jesus has not made
on him the

mere wonder which he seeks to reproduce in


but of a swift march of events toward a
end, and he marks off the stages of this progress.
effect of

disconnected
tragic

But Mark
selection

He

stories,

effectiveness as a story-teller

and grouping of material, but

writers,

in

due not only

to his

more frequently than the other


the house, or by the sea, or on the road.
On

gives us the scene of events

whether

is

also to his pictorial fulness.

INTRODUCTION

XVI

one occasion,

where he tells of the green grass on


thousand reclined, gives us an invaluable mark of
us what we should not know from the other Synop

which the

this vividness,

five

time, telling
that there was a Passover during the Galilean ministry.
He
tells us of the multitudes about Jesus, and gives us a
de
lively

tics,

scription of the
village

He

way

which they ran about as he entered one


sick to him on their pallets.

in

after another, bringing the

and

us of the astonishment

tells

went before them to Jerusalem.

fear of the disciples, as Jesus

His

same

style lends itself to the

He

uses the imperfect, the still more effective


the participle, and the historical present.
But he does
the rapid and effective way characteristic of him.
It

purpose.

stroke here, and a bit of color there, that the effect

is

-^v
it

is

with

all

in

by a

produced.

ACCOUNT OF MARK

The

Mark

places in which

name

occurs in the N.T. are


U
24
13
Tim.
i Pet.
4 , Philem.
3
5
s
From these we learn that he was the son of Mary, to whose house
Peter went after his release from imprisonment, and cousin of

Acts i2 12

13

3r

Col. 4

10

Barnabas.
His original Hebrew name was John, and to this was
appended a Roman surname Mark. Peter includes him in the
salutation of his first epistle, and calls him his son (in the faith).
He makes his first appearance in the history as the companion of
Barnabas and Saul, whom they took back to Antioch with them
on their return from Jerusalem, where they had been to carry the
And when
offerings of the churches on the occasion of a famine.
their
on
first
they start, immediately after,
missionary journey,
Mark accompanies them, but only to turn back again after the

completion of their mission to Cyprus. Then, at the beginning


of their second missionary tour, he becomes the source of conten
tion to his superiors, Barnabas wishing to take his cousin along

with them again, and Paul refusing his company on account of his
But in the epistle to the Colossians he
previous defection.

appears again as the assistant of Paul, being mentioned by him as


one who sends greetings to that church. And in 2 Tim., Paul
writes Timothy to bring Mark with him as one who is useful to

him

Again, in the epistle to Philemon he


included in the salutations of that letter.

in the ministry.

Paul,

and

is

is

with

INTRODUCTION
DESTINATION OF THE GOSPEL.

TIME OF

xv jj
ITS WRITING.

PLACE

Mark was

evidently written for Gentile readers, as it contains


explanations of Hebrew terms and customs. 1 Tradition
says that
it was written after the death of
Peter and Paul. There
is

mark of time

decisive

in the

Gospel

one

In the

itself.

eschatological
called to the sign given
by Jesus of the time
of the destruction of
Jerusalem, which leads us to infer that the
Gospel was written before that time, but when the event was im
This would fix the time as about
pending.
A.D.

discourse attention

is

Tradition
a certain sup
port given to this by the use of Latin words
peculiar to this
2
Gospel.

70

says also that

*e

it

explan

was written

*-.g. Kpa.tia.Trov, i,at. grooatus,


P

Lat. speculator;

Rome.

a,a S ater

an,l,l,oe X |,l n nalionof,

<-.*,*,,,.-;

nroAT

at

And

Noaer

there

is

th

_i

npm ,., , s
(]
where the other Svnontists use
i

of

,;,,, Lat. centurion

**-

"

*A/,,V,

>.

-x

(fAt>"

5loI

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS


IN

MARK S GOSPEL

MATTHEW begins his account of Jesus public ministry, as Mk.


does, with the statement that Jesus came into Galilee after the
imprisonment of John, and began to proclaim the good news of
the coming kingdom, accompanying this with miracles of
healing.
But he follows this immediately with the Sermon on the
Mount,
which serves as a basis for all the subsequent
teaching, and gives
us as the subject of that teaching the
Kingdom of God. Lk.
introduces this in another place, giving first some of the detached
and so preparing the way for the connected
discourse,
instead of making the connected discourse an introduction to the
detached sayings. But the effect of the discourse, and its relation
sayings,

to the teaching as a whole, are the same.

Mk., on the other


hand, gives only detached sayings, unrelated to any central group
of teachings, and in his gospel, therefore, we have to
study out
the problem of our Lord s life and
teaching after a different
fashion.

He

appears in the

first

up the work of John.

place as a herald of the kingdom, taking


calls four men into
personal

Then he

association with himself.

memorable one.

It is

His

first

Sabbath

evident that he

in

Capernaum

is

regarded as a teacher,
for he is asked to preach in the
synagogue, and his hearers are
impressed with the note of authority in his teaching, so different
from the manner of the Scribes, the
But
recognized authorities.
they are still more impressed with a miracle performed by him,
and as soon as the law allows, they bring all the sick of the
to
is

city

him, and the whole town

an uproar. The two things


together
him
a
as
stamp
prophet, making a decided advance on the char
acter of teacher, in which he appears at first.
But so far as he is
recognized at

two

titles,

all,

is

in

the popular voice after this accords to

rabbi and prophet.

him these

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF

XX

JESUS

this populai
But Jesus evidently sees elements of danger in
of
their
side
the
lack, and
on
is
wrong
The emphasis
uprising.
and
reached
had
they had
them,
his
If
message
of his power.
had
shown
and
any
of
more
hear
especially
that,
clamored to
to preach,
to follow his teaching, he might have stayed

disposition

But he did not wish to pose as a


instead of going out to pray.
Messiah follow from
inference
miracle-worker, and to have the
"

"

And so he retires to pray, he


that in the popular imagination.
when a man whom he has
refuses the clamorous call to return, and
healed disobeys his

command

wilderness to escape

to

keep

Now Mk. s method


a

it

the inevitable effect

silent,

he

retires into the

of this publicity.
Jesus does not lay

down

begins to appear.
the
of the Messianic kingdom in a set discourse, but
his activity are slowly evolved by the occa

programme

principles regulating

And after the same fashion Jesus himself begins


a herald of the kingdom of God, a
canvas
the
to appear on
who represses and depre
a
miracle-worker,
a
teacher,
prophet,
to emphasize the
multitude
the
of
desire
the
cates
impetuous
is the picture so
miracle-worker rather than the prophet. This
sions of his

far,

and

life.

of promise and suggestion.


the
connection with another miracle, Jesus claims

it is full

Then

in

The way it happened


to forgive sins.
power as the Son of Man
occasioned
by some vice, and
was this the man s disease was
sins
a
as
forgiveness of the
the cure therefore
Jesus announces
Scribes
the
this
by
being challenged
which had caused it. Then,
as an example of the
as blasphemy, he adduces the cure itself
caused
evils
the
remove
by sin. Here is
to
had
he
power which
:

veiled claim of a
another step forward, for here is a real, but
with it is that of for
Messianic title, and the authority coupled
consists in the removal of the various
which

forgiveness
giveness,
sin.
ills of mankind wrought by

but
to

it is

make

And

the

veiled, for

we do

The Messianic

claim

is

there,

not find that the people understood him


after this he uses the title familiarly.

the claim, though

as to show that Jesus


chosen, Son of Man, is such
and identified him
allied
which
work
his
that side of

title

emphasized
with man.

a physician
This intimation that his work has to do with sin, as
calls the tax-gatherer
he
when
is
with
to
do
has
repeated
disease,
into the circle of his disciples,

and defends himself by the

state-

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS


ment that he came to call not righteous men, but
when they charge him with collusion with Satan in
of demons, his answer
tion to Satan,

is

and that

sinners.

power

And

his expulsion

substantially that his attitude

his

xxi

is

opposi

demons can have


conflict, in which he had

to cast out

been obtained only as the result of a


overmastered Satan. Here, as in the case of the
paralytic, this
aspect of his work as a conflict with sin comes out in connection
with his cures, and this is
really the only chance that he has to
present it, as he has had as yet very little opportunity to deal with
sin as sin, only in its occasional intrusion into other
than the moral
But he deals with it as already master of the situation.
sphere.
He can despoil Satan of his instruments, because he has

met him and bound him. He can deal with


ously, because he has met and mastered it in

already

sin in others victori

himself.

But meantime, another element in the situation is


making itself
felt.
In dealing with the people,
Jesus has to contend against a
sudden and superficial popularity, and is able
only to cure their
diseases, not to cope with their sins.
But the necessary and
unavoidable conspicuousness of his work
bring him under the
notice of their leaders, and here he encounters active
opposition.
It develops
It is evident that the Scribes and
only gradually.
Pharisees are watching him at
first, as it is always possible that
religious enthusiasm may play into the hands of the
religious
authorities.
But the elements of opposition accumulate at
every
The first is the evident lack of
step.
sympathy or affiliation with
them, and Jesus association with men at the other end of the

social

and

ecclesiastical scale, the


despised

rance of the law

people whose igno

made them dangerous company

lous Pharisee, with the remote

and

for the scrupu

insignificant Galilean,

and even

the hated servant of a


foreign government, the Jewish
collector of Roman tribute.
Jesus answer, that, as a physician,
his business is with the sick rather
than the well, is complete, but
finally,

like all

such answers,

question is more
with their system.

only increased the irritation.


The next
it has to do not with
themselves, but
Pharisaic Judaism was the climax and reductio
it

vital, as

ad-absurdum

of religious formalism.
For ethics it substituted
casuistry, for principles rules, for insight
authority, for worship
forms, for the word of God tradition, for
spirituality the most
absolute and intricate externalism.
did not seek to break
Jesus

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

XXli

with

it,

but

was inevitable that the break should come. The


an annual fast, but they had multiplied this into

it

law prescribed
two a week, whereas, it is recorded of Jesus that he came eating
and drinking, and himself called attention to this characteristic.

he is challenged about this practice of his disciples, he


else that has a proper place in
that
shows
fasting, like everything
Men are not to
is a matter of principle, and not of rule.
religion,
And in general, he shows
fast on set days, but on fit occasions.
out the old with the new, or
to
of
the

When

absurdity

piece

attempting

The next place


wine-skins.
pour his new wine into their old
where they made a stand against Jesus innovating views was in
That it was absurd,
the matter of their absurd Sabbatarianism.
the occasions of their attack show ; first, plucking ears of corn to
to

and secondly, healing. These things, forsooth,


were expressly forbidden on the Sabbath. In answer, Jesus does
not attempt to meet them on the ground of casuistry, but, as
down principles. First, the Sabbath was made for
usual,
eat

on the

spot,

lays

man, and not man

for the

Sabbath

confer a benefit in case of need

is

and secondly, to refuse

to

to inflict a positive injury,

on

the Sabbath as well as any other day.

Here the

narrative pauses,

and passes over

Mk. has grouped

to

other matter.

this material for a

purpose.
wishes to show how, with one occasion after another, the
and shape, and encoun
teaching of our Lord acquired substance

But

it is

evident that

He

And how boldly and


tered a sharp and well-defined opposition.
How it is
out.
stand
to
himself begins
greatly the figure of Jesus
that sanity, breadth, insight, ethical and spiritual
man not relative, but absolute. And as he
quality, are in this
of
faces the gathering storm, how steadfast he is, and regardless

becoming evident

everything but truth.


see how the
It needs only a little reading between the lines to
The evidence is accumulating that our
next events come in.

Lord

own

career

is

to last not very long,

and

that he

must have

work, and that


will famil
himself
these must be men whose close attendance on
are
twelve
the
Hence
appointed.
iarize them with his message.
followers, successors, to

whom

he can commit

his

his family had started out to restrain


expressly stated that
real family were the
he
pointed out that his
him, at the time when
was not to be
own
His
God.
of
will
family
the
disciples who did

And

it is

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxiii

enemies, but it is evident that they sought to


against what they considered his own extravagance.
the parables also grew out of the immediate situation.

classed

among

his

protect him

And
They

are the first direct statement of the nature of the

kingdom

The postponement

of God.

sentation of

it,

both show

with extreme caution.

of the subject, and the veiled pre


to be a matter that Jesus approached

it

But what he treated with so much reserve

in the presence of the others, he explained frankly to his disciples.


This means that the time had come when the situation, even

among
by

the disciples, needed clearing up. They were not repelled


with the Pharisees ; the indications are rather

his differences

that they

were

in

But their

sympathy with him.

difficulty,

which

the parables were intended to meet, came from their sharing the
national expectation, that the kingdom was to be set up by a tour

de force, an expectation which Jesus methods and delay, if not


This is the immediate occasion of the para
defeat, discouraged.
But their immense importance appears from the fact that
bles.

they are the only direct statement of the nature of the kingdom,

which otherwise we should have to gather from

The kingdom

inferences.

is

seed

tudes of seed sown broadcast into


less sure

such

is

of success because

hospitable to

it,

and

it

its

is

all

it

is

side-lights

subject to

kinds of

soil

native to the soil

all

it is
;

and

the vicissi

neverthe

humanity

as

small beginnings do not interfere

with ultimate greatness.


The next event requiring special notice is Jesus visit to Naza
Other places have
reth, where he encounters his first rejection.

known only

the greatness of his public

nately,

knows the obscurity of

grown

into

life,

Nazareth, unfortu

and they reject his


greatness as spurious.
Here, therefore, he finds even his miracles
impossible, whereas in other places, cut off from everything else,
he does find a place for these. Jesus marvelled at their unbelief,
and no wonder. It was here that this perfect life had matured,
missed

it

his private life,

an unmatched beauty and power, and yet they had


because it lacked outward greatness.
But one is

all

reminded by

this

episode of a singular fact in our Lord s life


It was not a role

that he appears largely as a miracle-worker.

that he coveted, but, for the

We

most

part,

it

was

all

that he could do.

have some record of the way in which he dealt with the other
and larger half of human ill and need. We have the story of

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxiv

Matthew and Zacchseus, and the sinful woman, and the rich young
we know that he was the friend of publicans and
sinners.
But, for the most part, he was shut out from all this, and
Even here, he found a unique field
shut up to physical healings.
man, and Peter

for the display of his greatness.

His possession of a divine power

he shared with other men, but his divine use of that power is
his own ; he shares it with no one.
But if he had had an equal

chance to show us the other side of

power, what a story there

his

might have been.


But the time has

now come for Jesus to try his disciples in the


They have heard his message and seen his miracles, and
he sends them out to carry forward both the preaching and the
His instructions to them are, briefly, to pay no attention
healing.

work.

to outfit

nor entertainment, but to be occupied solely with their

ministry.

On Jesus return to Capernaum, the opposition to him comes to


a head.
His enemies are there on the watch for him, and in that
apparently careless and unscrupulous

To be

life

they soon find their

seems only a slight thing that the dis


sure,
opportunity.
should
be
with
unwashed hands.. But to those men
ciples
eating
it meant
mentioned in the law. It is
to
defilement
liability
every
it

their opportunity, but then

him

his

chance to

it

is

Jesus opportunity too.

strike at traditionalism

It gives

and ceremonialism, the

twin foes of spiritual religion.


Over against tradition, he sets the
word of God,
against the idea that a thing is true because it is

handed down, he posits the word of God, which becomes more


true as humanity grows.
And against ceremonialism, the idea
that man s spirit can be reached for either good or evil from the
outside, he puts the eternal truth, that it
only from within, by things akin to itself.

is

reached and affected

It has
This really marks the end of Jesus work in Galilee.
resulted in proving the inaccessibility of the people to his spiritual
work, in the unsympathetic attitude of his family, in his total

in active hostility on the part of the


work with his disciples is not ended,
and he accordingly departs with them to Syrophcenicia. Here,
he desired to keep his presence unknown, as his work was not

rejection at Nazareth,

and

But

his

religious leaders.

with Gentiles, but Jews.


phoenician

But the extraordinary

woman overcame

faith of the

his scruples, so that

Syrohe healed her

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

XXV

This confinement of his work on earth to his own


daughter.
while
nation,
evidently announcing the broadest universalism, is

He

easily explained.

was laying foundations, and the human


it was, existed in
only one nation.

material for that, such as

On

the occasion of only a brief return to Galilee, during this


Wanderjahr, the Pharisees make another attack on him, demand
ing a sign from heaven.
They want something plainly and indis
putably of heavenly origin, not open to the suspicion of collusion
with Satan, nor of originating in the lower air, and plainly nothing
less than an attestation by God of our Lord s claim.
Something merely a sign, not complicated with other characters
and purposes which might obscure the plain issue, was their
demand.
He would do his work, including
Jesus refused it.
cures and miracles, and let that tell his story, but a mere sign he

more nor

We

refused to give.

and

now

to say

must pause again

that

it

bears

all

to notice

method of Jesus himself.


He
instead of projecting discourse from himself.
and completeness of

Mk.

method,

the appearance of being the


meets questions as they arise,

But the wisdom

answer anticipates the controversies of

his

Christendom.

This question of signs, e.g., of external evidence,


our Lord answers by refusing a sign, and he emphasizes it by his
allusion to the generation which had seen him.
He was his own

and needed no

sign,

The

other.

man

but no age nor any other


answer.

question belonged to that age,


has arrived at the wisdom of the

We are coming now to the close of Jesus ministry, and his


method has not yet led him to any declaration of himself nor of
his mission.
It would almost seem as if he had no consciousness
of a mission of any definite sort, so content has he been to let
things merely happen, great as has been his use of these happen

But now the time has come, not

ings.

for

him

to declare himself,

but to bring the thought of men about him into expression. And
first of all, his own disciples.
He asks them what men say about

what they

him,

he asks them
says
that

it

greatness.

of a

call

him.

They say

briefly,

a prophet.

Then

they have to say. No, Simon Peter


we call you the Messiah. The value of this is in the fact,
is not their assent to his claim, but their estimate of his

man

if

that

They,
in

is

all

as Jews,

whom human

had inherited an

idea, an expectation
As far as
greatness was to culminate.

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxvi

Jesus activity went, the answer of the people was enough.


But
the feeling of the disciples was, it
may describe his activity, but is

inadequate to describe
nated in him, and he

own greatness. The race has culmi


therefore the Messiah whom we are to

his
is

expect.

There are two things noticeable here

the title itself, and


no wonder that Jesus
with the title prophet, when his real title was
king,
And when we examine what he says in elucidation

then the manner of

was

dissatisfied

king of men.

we

of this claim,

emphasizes

its

assumption.

first,

It is

find that there are just

as involved in this, viz. love

two things which he


and obedience. Careless

of everything else, he proposes to himself


just this, to conquer for
himself the love and obedience of all men everywhere and in all
things.

There

And

though Jesus

yet,

is

no lack of
is

definiteness nor

very explicit in this,

adequacy

we

in this.

are altogether

We are very busy organizing his


missing the point, as usual.
church, devising the ways and means of his worship, defining his
person, and meantime the world, the flesh, and the devil are
dictating terms not only to

church.

government and

society, but to the

are well satisfied to have the church scatter

They

its

instead of concentrating its energy upon doing the will of its


Lord, and getting that will done. But besides the title, and of

fire,

almost equal importance with

men

Jesus waits for

to give

it,

it

is

the

manner of

its assumption.
This does not mean any

to him.

lowering of his claims, any disposition to meet men half-way, and


accept some compromise with them. It means just the opposite
of this, the most absolute and apparently extravagant claim that

he could make.

It means mastery, not from without, but from


a mastery of convictions, affections, and will, and from
that centre controlling the whole of life.
He will have, not the

within,

men who would

enforced obedience of
could, or any part of

it,

who come

voluntarily to him,

man.

this

By

To be
and

means, and

sure, since

it is

throw

off the

but the self-devotion and

yoke

if

homage of

they
those

the unforced mastery of man over


he will rule the world.

in this sense,

included in his programme that he

is

to die

be king, that rule is to be exercised from heaven, that


centre from which the network of law and self-enforcing order
still

overspreads the world.


free,

But that universal law leaves one domain

and within the sphere of human action

it

exercises

no com-

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxvii

And yet within


pulsions but those which leave the spirit free.
that province, it is meant that God shall exercise absolute control.
This is the meaning of our Lord s words in the light of all that
But at
he said and did, and of all that has happened since.
the
Messianic
he
is king,
that
he
has
said
king,
only
present,
and he has said it to men sure to misunderstand it if he leaves it
in its present unconditional form.

Hence he immediately

puts

He is to be
the prediction of his own fate.
Their idea of the Messianic king was
rejected and put to death.
over against

that through

been holding

it

him righteousness was to be victorious. God had


off for his own wise purposes, not asserting himself,

but in the times of the Messiah, he was to intervene with his


almightiness,

and

sin

established.

And

this

was to be put down, and righteousness


power to put down all enemies was to be

This was the Jewish Messianic pro


lodged in the Messiah.
We
have
seen
already that Jesus, in all probability, did
gramme.
time
his
at
before
death, predict his violent death and
not,
any
his resurrection with

any definiteness.

The

utter

dismay of the

disciples over the actual event, their hopelessness between the


death and the resurrection, and their failure to accept the fact of

the resurrection,

make such

a prediction psychologically impos


evident
that he did make statements
equally
which, in the light of the later events, they saw implied and
involved those events.
And this means Jesus repudiation of the
sible.

But

it

is

His enemies were not to be in his


Jewish Messianic programme.
power, but he in theirs. God was not to intervene in his behalf,
nor was his own divine power to be used in this way.
But Jesus is not satisfied with the statement about himself,
which might make it appear that his fate was unique, and that his
case stood by itself.
But he goes on to state that any one who
wishes to follow him must deny himself and take his life in his
hands in the same way. In his kingdom, to save is to lose, and
the only way to save is to lose.
Instead of getting God on his
side so that he is saved from the ordinary mishaps of life, the
disciple only multiplies indefinitely the chances of mishap without

adding anything to the safeguards.


Any one can see that if
righteousness was to become a spiritual power in the world, it
could only be by such a sacrifice of safety. A padded and steelclad righteousness protects the person, but

its

power

to propagate

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

Xxviii

And as we have seen, the Transfiguration itself was not


gone.
a revelation of the glory that was covered
up and concealed
is

human weakness of our Lord, but


itself.
It is as much as to
say that
this

and weakness, instead of power, are

by

of the glory of the sacrifice


gentleness, self-effacement,
in

themselves glorious, and

are to be crowned.

But the disciples themselves give Jesus an


opportunity to define
still further.
They were disputing who among their num
ber was greatest.
He does not deny that there is such a
himself

thing,

nor that

to be coveted, but

it is

the greatness of humility and


service.
In the world, greatness is the
power to make others
tributary to yourself, but in the kingdom of God, the greatness
even of the king is service, the
power to contribute to the com
mon weal. \
it is

At last, then, Jesus has declared himself. He is the


divinely
appointed king of men, and as such demands obedience, and
finds greatness in service.
But the obedience is to be
voluntary

and unenforced, and his own road to


kingship is through repudia
tion and death.
This absolute self-effacement
the
is,

moreover,

principle of the kingdom,

From

this,

John brings

and required of all its members.


he passes over again to more incidental matters.

to his attention the case of a

caught casting out demons in his name, but


himself to the circle of disciples.

man whom they had


who had not attached

Jesus reply is, virtually, that


they ought to have inferred from his casting out the demons that
he really belonged with them, instead of from his not
associating
with them that he had no
This
right to cast out the demons.
shows that whatever exclusiveness has
grown up since then

among

his followers did not


originate with Jesus.

He

did not organize a


society, though his principles justify the later organization ; but
those principles exclude a
hierarchy.

With the beginning of Jesus


ministry in Judaea, begins a series
of discourses occasioned
by the attempt of the Pharisees to put his
authority as a teacher to the test, and, if possible, to discredit it.
In general, the questions
propounded were either in dispute be
tween the different schools, or the
standing puzzles of the school
men.
Jesus

It

is

significant, as

showing that Mk.

position in occasional, rather than

method of Jesus

himself, that

some of

his

set,

development of
discourse,

is

the

most important teach-

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS


ing

is

the principles involved.


safeguards of civilization.

And

it shows his
position
revealing in every case
His treatment of divorce is one of the*

occasioned by these questions.


answers are

as a teacher that these

final,

His answer to the question about pay-

Roman government shows


God does not conflict with

ing tribute to the

the

kingdom

of

xxix

that citizenship in)


citizenship in the.

The

one, as the other, is based on fundamental facts.


is an inference from their political conception of
His answer is a corollary from his spiritual I
the kingdom of God.
His
to the Sadducees about the resurrection
answer
conception.
State.

Their question

not only puts that question to

rest,

but establishes the right to

argue from fundamental conceptions of God, the right of reason


In what he says about the two great com
in matters of faith.

mands, he establishes fundamental principles and sentiments in


But more than this, he selects
stead of rules, in control of life.
the one principle that does contain in itself all righteousness, and
which still condemns the essential parts of life. And still more,
final and conclusive reason why the kingdom is
Outward conduct can be controlled by civil authority,

he shows the
spiritual.

but love

is

capable of only inward enforcement.

Meantime, other things have been happening by which


tion

is still

his posi

The scene with the rich young man


him
from following our Lord leads him
kept

further defined.

whose wealth alone

to say that his difficulty is not peculiar to him, but belongs to his
The difficulty that all men have in accepting the principle
class.

of the kingdom becomes, in the case of wealth, a human impossi


This means only that the
bility to be overcome only by God.

kingdom is self-sacrifice and love, and that the


and possession of wealth, on the other hand, tend

principle of the
acquisition

almost certainly to selfishness.


Christ
kingship.

entry into Jerusalem is his public claim of the Messianic


This is followed immediately by his one act of author

the cleansing of the temple.


But the power is only that of a
the power of a prophet or righteous man.
masterful personality,

ity,

But he not only claims authority

for himself,

he denies the author

He puts
ity of the constituted authorities to judge his claim.
them to the test, as they have put him, by putting them a ques
tion in regard to John the Baptist, which will show whether they
can judge such a case or not.

The question

of authority in

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

XXX
the

kingdom of God

is

a question of fitness, of ability to

do the

thing.
It is the pre
Jesus has one more word to say to his disciples.
diction of the destruction of the temple, city, and nation, and the
transfer of the kingdom from them to others.
He sees that their

rejection of a spiritual Messiah,

and

their insistence

on

political

independence and greatness, will certainly lead to destruction.


That, moreover, will be a coming of the Son of Man in clouds,
clothed with power.
Not that that will be the beginning of his
reign, for he is to be seated at the right hand of power, and to

come

in the clouds,

immediately.

But

appearance as the arbiter of human

come

the nation will

be

this is to

affairs.

his first great

The overthrow of

directly, as for the divine side of

it,

not by

force, but by the inevitable operation of cause and effect, from


the denial of his principle of a spiritual kingdom.
And so, by the
of
the
same
in
inexorable
law
human
operation
affairs, his
working

principles are to be everywhere vindicated.

time, the spiritual

power accumulated

And

in his life

at the same
and death are to

be wielded by him in the spiritual sphere, until finally, in the


exercise of both powers, his kingdom becomes universal.
Two things remain to be spoken of the death of Jesus, and
:

his

enshrinement of that in a memorial

rite.

The way

has been

opening ever since that time for a right understanding of that


event, and yet even now one needs to weigh his words to speak
with even partial truth about it, let alone adequacy.
In the first
place, then, looked at simply as a matter governed

human
could come of

conditions of
else

religious

and

civil

by the ordinary
was natural and necessary. Nothing
the opposition that he encountered from the
life, it

authority.

There were two ways of escape

any other man, but not to him. One was to


in
some
compromise
way with the authorities, or to make some
alliance with the people, that should neutralize the opposition of
morally possible to

the Sanhedrim.
His insight, his grasp of principles, his mastery
of the situation, his influence with the people, might have given

him political power, to which his instinct for righteousness would


have given the last touch of greatness. But that was the way of
compromise, which was demanded at every turn of the perplexing
situation.

And

Jesus death.

that admits us to

It

was entirely

one secret of the uniqueness of

for righteousness

sake.

The oppo-

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxxi

him was purely on that account, unmixed with any other


out of the ordinary weakness
oppositions or repugnances, growing
or disagreeableness of men. But Jesus died because his righteous

sition to

ness was uncompromising and absolute, not because its manner


was hard and obtrusive. Another way of escape was by the use

Both friends and enemies saw this.


of his supernatural power.
The Jews did not expect deliverance, except supernaturally, and
the hope of the people was that Jesus, who evidently possessed
And the Jews
this power, would use it in the appointed way.

taunted him, because at the last moment his power had forsaken
But Jesus died because he would do his work as a man,
him.

and under the ordinary conditions and limitations of humanity.


In other words, Jesus death crowned the complete self-surren
der of his life. All of us know that just here is where ordinary
It is righteousness with a saving clause.
righteousness is lacking.
follow it just so far as it does not involve a complete sacrifice
Some draw the line in one place, and some in
of self-interest.

We

Jesus seeing more clearly


another, but everybody somewhere.
than any other the sacrifice involved, undertook the task of abso

and carried it out to the end. And he would


and exercise no self-defence,
accept no immunity, wield no power,
that would mar the completeness of that ideal.
But he was, nevertheless, king. He did not propose to himself
men might have let him
simply to be righteous, in which case
this
to
establish
He proposed
alone.
complete, and principled,

lute righteousness,

Men
its supreme law.
and he did not attempt
in any way to disguise the uncompromising nature of his demand.
He told them that if any one would follow him, he must deny

and

radical righteousness in the world as


words the note of authority,

felt in his first

himself as he did.

And

in his

own

life,

he showed them how,

at

the hostility,
every turn, the acceptance of this principle involved
not of the vicious and degraded, but that opposition of the con
stituted authorities, and of the higher class, which means loss of
caste.

But we must not think of Jesus death as simply sacrifice to a


He died primarily because he loved men supremely.
principle.
He was the Son of Man, whose life was bound up with the life of
Here was where the
the world, who was identified with humanity.
that he made upon
danger came of abating any of the demand

THE PERSON AND PRINCIPLES OF JESUS

xxxii

men, since in the law which he sought to enforce is the only true
of man, and any abatement meant something less than his
Nay, more, it meant the admission somewhere of
highest good.
the opposite principle to sap and undermine the whole fabric,
life

and the danger

upon

his authority,
this highest

And

any of the rigor of his demand


righteousness was the foundation of

also of abating

himself, since his

and

own

loss of

power here meant

loss of

power

to confer

good.

here

is

where the bitterness of

his

death came

in.

Here

was a man who loved men supremely, to whom any evil or lack
of men was known so surely and felt so deeply, and to whom in
his own death was revealed
human ill which was to find

the whole depth and bitterness of that


its only cure in him.

And, finally, it is this self-surrendering love which makes the


For love is
cross to-day the very seat and secret of his power.
Lord of life, and love culminated here. It is the constraint and

A clear
makes him king of men.
himself
the
and
chose
for
thornlove
which
sighted
far-seeing
crowned road to power and kingship, and that leads men over the
same long and hard way to ultimate and complete good.
And, as we have said, he enshrines this death in a memorial
rite.
He bids men take the bread, which is his body, and the
cup, which is his blood, and find in them the food and drink of
inspiration of his love that

their souls.

remembered.

It is

in his death that

But, above

all, it

is

he wishes especially to be
he wishes to

in his death that

be understood, and to have himself brought intimately into the


of men, until the things that made him die have become the

life

material and substance of

man

spiritual life.

THE GOSPELS

THE

IN

THE SECOND CENTURY

reason that this subject

Introduction

is

given a large place in N.T.

the fact that prominent

is

upon other writings


circulate, and so the

and

influential literature

soon as that

will leave its traces

just as

ture has time to

later literature

litera

becomes a

Especially is that the case with what is


Scripture is a court of appeal in regard to
religious matters to which other writers on the same subject
necessarily refer, and that a thing is written, that is, a part of
In turn, other religious litera
Scripture, establishes its authority.
witness to the earlier.
called

Scripture.

test by which we may determine whether,


claims to be Scripture is put in that
which
any particular writing
For instance, if we
or
is extant even.
at
category
any period,

ture

becomes thereby a

found Paul

writings generally accepted as Scripture, and, at the

same time, lack of reference to Galatians, it would raise doubts


about that epistle. However, Scripture is not in a class by itself
in this

matter

it

presents only an extreme case of a general fact

The
which applies to all prominent and influential literature.
question whether the Gospels were in existence early in the sec
ond century
a really vital question
is one to be answered by
the second-century literature.
Considering the unique position
of Jesus in Christianity, no writings of any account telling the

and this entirely apart


story of his life are going to be ignored,
But
from the question whether they are classed as Scripture.
there is another still more vital question, whether the Jesus of the
Synoptical Gospels
that

we found no

is

a true, historical figure.

Now, supposing
them

special reverence attached to the Gospels

and yet nothing else quoted in the earliest succeeding


Christian literature in regard to him, the inference would be con
selves,

were regarded at the time as the only standard


books on the subject, which would go far toward establishing the
historical character of the writings themselves and of the person-

clusive that these

THE GOSPELS

xxxiv

IN

THE SECOND CENTURY

But, on the other hand, supposing that

age presented in them.

succeeding literature quoted from other, extra-canon


sources freely and without apology, and yet the historical

this earliest
ical

remained unchanged, the additional matter, whether meagre


or abundant, being almost entirely in keeping with the account in

figure

the canonical Gospels, the historicity is more triumphantly estab


lished by the corroborative testimony than by the absence of other

In

witness.
ture

of things in the second-century litera

fact, this state

would be the most favorable possible

And

for historicity.

not whether they are


is the
the only Gospels, nor even whether they are Scripture

the historical character of these Gospels

main question
What, then,

in Apologetics.

the relation of the second-century literature to

is

We

the Synoptical Gospels ?


have, in the first place, two epistles
Rome. The second of these is
of
bearing the name of Clement
but
to
attributed
belongs to the same period.
Clement,

wrongly
In the genuine
great length.

is quoted frequently and at


epistle, then, the O.T.
But the N.T. quotations are very few and meagre.
The
mentioned.
too, the writers are not

With one exception,


words of our Lord are quoted as his, but not the writer who
In one case, i Cor. is quoted as St. Paul s, but
reports them.
are only two,
quotations from the Gospels
the writer
whether
and these are so inexact as to make it doubtful

this stands alone.

had before him

The

at the

time our present Gospels.

In the spurious writing, the number of quotations from the


and the comparison with
Gospel history is considerably greater,
favorable.
more
much
matter
But, on the
the amount of O.T.
other hand, the mixed origin and uncertain character of these
Four of them are quoted with
citations are equally noticeable.
3
Five are quoted ad sensum, but so as
considerable exactness.
to indicate that the passages in our Gospels

were

in the writer s

But three, which


mind, but were cited by him from memory.
of the Egyptians (?), contain
Lightfoot assigns to the Gospel
In one, our Lord says,
you are gathered
strange matter.
"If

I7

Par XIII. Mt. 5^


.

Vh.

Mt. 9 i

4IILMt.io
Lk.

&"-

35.

Mk.

6"

2";

7!-

III.

Lk. 128;

Lk. {&

Mk.

&<-&

i2*>;

IV. Mt. 721;

XLVI. Mt.

262* i8

VI. Mt. fl Lk. 16"


VIII. Lk.i6io.n-,

Mk.

Mt
IX

I4

21

16*
.

Mt.

42

Mk

I*. 22 22
830

12;

XIII.

THE GOSPELS
me

with

in

my

out,

and say

are,

workers of

THE SECOND CENTURY

IN

xxxv

bosom, and do not my commands, I will cast you


Depart from me, I know you not whence you
J

to you,

In another, after Jesus


statement,

lawlessness."

be as lambs in the midst of


wolves," Peter says,
then the wolves scatter the lambs?" and
will

"You

"If

Jesus answers, "Let


not the lambs fear the wolves after their
death.
And you, fear
not those who kill you, and can do
nothing to you, but fear him
who, after you die, has power over soul and
to cast into the

body

Gehenna of
says that

fire."

be

wffl

it

"

outside as the inside,

nor
[

female."

Then, as to the coming of the kingdom, he


whenever the two (things) are
one, and the
and the male with the female, neither male

In the seven epistles of


Ignatius, quotations are infrequent, but
the N.T. is treated
quite as generously as the O.T.
There are,
however, only three unimportant passages from the
Gospels, but,
in these, the
language is significantly preserved. 4 But, in a foorth,
our Lord s language, Handle
me, and see. For a spirit hath not
flesh and bones, as
you see me have," becomes, Handle me, and
see that I am not a bodiless
spirit
&u/*oW. This use of
5
Saift.6vi.ov is foreign to the N.T.
vocabulary.
"

"

The Epistle of Polycarp,


belonging to the same period, bristles
with quotations,
mostly from the N.T. Of these, however, only
five are from the
Of these, four preserve the
Gospels.
language
so as to show
undisputed acquaintance with our Gospels, and
without mixture of matter derived from other
sources. 6
The fifth
presents such a resemblance to the
Clem. XIII. as to
suggest a common

mixed quotation

in

Ep. of

extra-canonical source. 7

In the Teaching of the


Apostles, which belongs apparently to the
very beginning of the century, there are sixteen
quotations from
the Synoptics. 8
In these, the words of our Lord are
quoted
quite

exactly, the supplementary matter attached


dently the writer s own reflections.
But the

IV

Smvr^n l^
Mt. 22^a8 i

4fi

l;

^ Mt

VI! Mt
-

3l6;
613

J jf. 627- 28. 32. 33. 35

Vl!l. Mt.
?

V.

Smyrn>

^S^i^-J&f
5.
Mt
XI L m

8 I.

VII.

I233;

Lk.
I0l

VL Mt

^ Mk

"

Mt

<C9-42

25

:!

L^-

evi

which gives the

XII

14 8;

them being

title,

I9l2;

iiM; Ik? Mt.

XVI Mt

to

fi<*)

xn
.TO

lUt

IL Mt

Mt

IolC -

44 -

TTT

AT,

^
** * Mtk: UL .i
?Mt

r">fi

24^

XL M

THE GOSPELS

xxxvi

THE SECOND CENTURY

IN

to an inferior
authority of the apostles

and frequently

trivial

writing

on the way in
of the second century, is an instructive commentary
which great names may be misused for pious purposes.
of Paul,
not, however, the companion
The Epistle of Barnabas

and possibly no Barnabas

at all

rich again in O.T. quotations,

is

from the
but poor in N.T. sayings, there being only four quoted
1

Synoptics.

The Shepherd

Hermas

of

contains

infrequent reflections of

The one quotation,


rather than quotations.
scriptural language
in
Mk.
of
regard to the difficulty
therefore, of the language
obstructing a rich

man s

is

entrance into the kingdom,

the

more

noteworthy.
as
is rich in quotations, which are not scattered,
Justin Martyr
a
in
group
in the other writers of this period, but collected mostly

of showing for apologetic


Apology, for the purpose
The variations from the
was.
s
purposes what our Lord teaching
would be more difficult to deal with, if we did
synoptical accounts
from the
not find the same freedom of quotation in the passages
is to be
that
and
common
a
cause,
O.T. As it is, we have to find
than
more
him
makes
usually
which
found in Justin s idiosyncrasy,
he
of
E.g.
his
in
quotations.
handling
independent and individual

in the first

new
If ye love them that love you, what
quotes our Lord thus
s
new
same
This
this."
do
fornicators
even
For
thing do you ?
in regard to lending with hope of
below
appears again just
thing
a like inexactness in regard to the sinners
return, and coupled with
"

"

"

who do

the same thing.


4

danger of the

fire."

"

Again,

This

is

Whosoever

shall

quoted quite out of

be angry
its

is

in

connection,

only to the judgment


he
minor
which tries
offences), while only
(of the local tribunal
In
fire.
of
Gehenna
the
to
liable
who calls his brother a fool is
the
worship
Lord
our
makes
he
require
the great commandment
and other places,
of God alone, instead of love, and in this,
4
a
the
interpolation.
as
God
Creator,
pure
to
he calls attention
those
to
Another singular variation is in his quotation in regard
turn away
who claim association with Christ, but whom he has to
He has mixed together here sayings from Mt.
as disobedient.

and

in the original,

IV Mt 22n V. Mt. 913


XX. Mk. io23- 24.
;

he who

is

is liable

angry

VI. Mt. 20

XII. Mt. 22

3 T
I

A po

AP

ch. 15.

ch I0
-

THE GOSPELS
and

IN

and made the men

THE SECOND CENTURY

xxxvii

Did we not eat and drink in


1
instead of
in thy presence?
thy name?
On the whole, it is
remarkable that with all this variation in form Justin
quotes only
two extra-canonical sayings of our Lord. As for the
peculiarities
of these sayings, the combination of the different accounts in the
Lk.,

"

say,

"

"

"

Synoptics, a habit of free quotation, an evident eye for the point


of a saying, which allows freedom of detail
in other words, the
will account for these
strong individuality of the writer
phe
But, on the other hand, Justin introduces several extracanonical incidents. These are the birth of
Jesus in a cave/ the

nomena.

miraculous fire in the Jordan at the baptism, and the statement in


regard to his work as a carpenter, that he made plows and yokes. 4
These can be traced directly to their sources in uncanonical
3

Gospels. The birth in a cave we find in the Protevangelium of


James, and the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy ; 5 the fire in the
Jordan in the Gospel according to the Hebrews ; and the plows

and yokes

in the

6
Gospel of Thomas.

This settles the fact that


Justin used such writings.
By parity of reasoning, if we trace the
sayings, in spite of certain difficulties, to the Synoptics as the main
source, these incidents are to be credited to uncanonical
Gospels.

Moreover, he quotes the Acts of Pilate in confirmation of the


miracles, evidently referring to the testimony of those healed by
7
Jesus at the time of his trial before Pilate.
On the whole then,
the testimony is conclusive, that
Justin used the Synoptics, but
also other Gospels.

Athenagoras, in his Apology, makes two quotations from Mt.,8


in which he combines Mt. and Lk. J
It has been doubted

and two

whether these are quotations, but the freedom of


quotation is
slight, certainly not greater than the N.T. writers use in
quoting
from the O.T.
In the fragments preserved to us from
Papias, the statements in
regard to Mk. s Gospel and the Logia of Mt. are the most impor
tant, and they occupy the same rank among the second-century wit
nesses to the canonical Gospels. 10 We should not
expect to find

1
>

6
7

8 Dial, with
Apol. ch. 16.
Trypho, ch. 88.
4 Dial, with
Dial, with Trypho, ch. 78.
Trypho, ch. 89.
Protev. of Jas. pur. 18, 19; Arab. Cos. of Inf.
par. 2, 3.
u Mt.
Cos. Thos. par. 13.
s- Lk. 627- as Mt. 5*0 Lk.
1
Apol. ch. 48 Acts of Pil. ch. 6, 7. 8.
Euscb. Ch. His III
Mt. 528 Mt. 199.
;

632. 34

THE GOSPELS

xxxviii

THE SECOND CENTURY

IN

much in the way of quotation, as he says expressly that he prefers


the oral testimony of men who had associated with the disciples to
1
But he does make
anything that he could get from the books.
2
He is one writer who gives us distinctly
one quotation from Mk.
strange, apocryphal matter in regard to Jesus

the general absence of which

is

life

and teachings,

and important

so noteworthy

in

second-century literature.
In Tatian, a heretical writer of the

this

last part of the century,


before the discovery of the Diatessaron, there was little contribut
The only complete work of his, at that time,
ing to our subject.

an oration to the Greeks, contains several quotations from

J.,

but

none from the Synoptics. But, in a few fragments preserved in


4
The
other writings, we find two quotations from the Synoptics.
Diatessaron of Tatian, however, a compilation of the four Gospels
made some time in the third quarter of the century, is one of the

most important of the recent discoveries.

It

was partly known

before through a commentary of Ephrsem the Syrian. The only


important omissions are the genealogies of our Lord in Mt. anil
Lk.,

The

and the account of the woman taken in adultery from J. 8.


genealogies were omitted, not as a matter of evidence, but of

opinion.
tant, as

The Appendix to Mk. is inserted, but this is not impor


we already have the testimony of the versions to its exist

ence in the early part of the century, and the real question of its
But the real value of the Dia
authorship remains untouched.
tessaron is in the fact, established at last, that it was compiled
from the four canonical Gospels, and from no other source. The

importance of this is unmistakable.


In the Clementine Homilies, an Ebionite production of the
latter part of the century, falsely ascribed to Clement of Rome,
there are over seventy quotations from the Synoptics, and thirteen
either entirely strange, or very considerably modifying the synop

account. Our Lord is represented as exhorting his disciples to


become good money-changers, which obtains a significant meaning
from the mixed quality ascribed to the Scriptures in the Homilies,
tical

making

it

necessary to discriminate carefully between the good

Jerm. de vlr

Mk.

ic>!-

illust.

18

Eus. III. 39; Georg. Hamartolus.

Chron.

39.

Her. V. 33, 3, 4; Cramer, Catena ad Acta


Clem. Alex. III. 12, 86; Mt. 6i Lk. 20^.

3 Inen.

l
-

S. S.

Apos. p. 12 sq.

THE GOSPELS

THE SECOND CENTURY

IN

XXXIX

and bad, between the genuine and counterfeit coin of Scriptures.

In the same connection occurs several times a serious modification


of the text in which our Lord charges the Sadducees with not
"the
knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God, where, for
"

is

Scriptures

"

substituted

the true things of

distin

Scripture,"

In the account of the Syrophrenician


as
is
name
her
Justa, and the account of the con
given
woman,
2
this is a part of the romancing of
But
is
versation
paraphrased.
Several
this work, and does not need to be treated seriously.
guished from the false.

times the saying,


to our Lord.

3
"

this saying

money

"The

The

It is thine,

are proved

tempter

is

the wicked

among

man, to prove

my

is

attributed

extended into

words, as silver and

the

is

one,"

idea of the money-changers

The

exchangers."

blessing

which

servant is changed to a blessing


Jesus pronounces on the faithful
on the man whom the Lord shall appoint to the ministry of his
5
His prediction that many shall come from the
fellow-servants."
east and west, and recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the
"

kingdom of God, is changed to many will come from the east,


the bosom of Abraham,
west, north, and south, and will recline on
6
the luxury of this
and
and
"Gold
silver,
Isaac, and Jacob."
to
to
the
are
added
Jesus by Satan in the
things promised
world,"
"

temptation.

Different parts are run together in the saying about


reads
Many will come to me in sheep s
"

false teachers, so that it

wolves."
clothing, but inwardly they are ravening
is made to promise to
And
Satan
i. ch. 1 6.
Apol.

So

also Justin,

"send

apostles

As an offset to the state


ment that stumbling-blocks must come, but woe to him through
whom they come, Jesus says that good things must come, and
from among his subjects to

deceive."

"

blessed

is

he through

whom

"

entirely strange exhortation,

and

this

And

they

come."

then

Give no pretext to the

we have
evil

enlargement of the idea of the jnwr^piov in

remarks on

his parabolic teaching,

and the sons of

my

house."

The apocryphal Gospels

"

Keep

the
1

one,"

our Lord

the mysteries for

me

n
are of interest, not because they con

it being quite trivial and impossible,


but because they are the only writings outside of the canonical

tain

important matter, most of

II. ch.

211. ch.

Mil.

51; III. ch. 50; XVIII. ch. 20.


19.

ch. 55.

Mil.

ch. 61.
5 ill. ch. 60.

6VIII. ch.

4.

21.

VIII. ch.

8X1.

ch. 35.

XII. ch. 29.

W XIX.
11

XIX.

ch. a.
ch. 20.

THE GOSPELS

xl

IN

THE SECOND CENTURY

Gospels which carry that name. Their date is very uncertain, but
one of them, the lately discovered Gospel of Peter, is
assigned a
The Protevangelium of James, the
place in the second century.
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy, the Gospel
according to the He
brews, and the Gospel of Thomas contain the apocryphal matter
of Justin, whether they are the source of it or not ; and the Acts
of Pilate are quoted by Justin by name. 1 Now, it is evident all

through this second-century literature that the writers had and


used other sources of information, in regard to the
Gospel history,
outside of the canonical Gospels, and Lk. himself
speaks of many
such accounts. The interest that attaches to these
apocryphal
Gospels, therefore, is that they are the only literary remains of
this kind that have come down to us.
What are they therefore ?
are mostly incredible accounts of the birth and
infancy of
Jesus himself, of his mother, of Joseph, of the trial of our Lord
before Pilate, of his descent into Hades, and
a docetic

They

finally

account of his death.

The

only extra-canonical matter in the


second-century literature which can be traced to them is what
relates to the infancy, the private life, and the
baptism of
Jesus,

and possibly the rehearsal of the miracles in the Acts of Pilate.


The unwritten sayings, and unfamiliar forms of the written
sayings,
are not to be found in them.
While there are, therefore, extracanonical sources quoted by the second-century
writers, these
Gospels can figure only slightly among these sources.

The

earliest

attempt at a canon, or authoritative list of N.T.


come from an orthodox source, but was pub

writings, did not

lished
tury.

by Marcion, a Gnostic heretic of the latter half of the cen


He declared war against Judaism, and, since he believed

the original apostles to be Judaistic in their


tendency, he rejected
them, and, with them, all the extant N.T. writings, except ten
epistles of Paul (omitting the pastoral epistles) and a Gospel.What this Gospel was, we have to gather from Tertullian, who

wrote at length against him, and this question has been one of the
most debated critical problems, opinion wavering between a muti
lated Lk.,

and an

earlier

Gospel on which Lk. was based. Either


s Gospel, and
certainly no

theory makes Marcion a witness for Lk.

See paragraph on Justin Martyr.


Marcion V. 21, IV.

2 Tertullian vs.

2, 3.

THE GOSPELS

IN

THE SECOND CENTURY

xli

other theory is possible in view of the Pauline universalism that


characterizes this Gospel.
When we come to the close of the century, we are at last in the
presence of a canon, not the same as our present canon, nor a
definitely settled

list,

but

still

a selection of Christian literature

and put on the same footing as the O.T.


the
witnesses
to
this is the canon of Muratori.
This was
Among
discovered in Milan during the seventeenth century
the manu
regarded as Scripture,

belongs to the eighth or ninth century, and the writing


claims for itself a second-century date.
Though this latter date is
script

probable if we make it late in the century. Unfor


a gap at the very beginning, so that Lk. is the
first Gospel mentioned.
But as the mention begins with the title,
Third book of the Gospel according to Lk.," it becomes a wit
in dispute,

it is

tunately, there

is

"

ness to the four Gospels,


the rest as authoritative.

and

to

an acceptance of these among

What, then, is the conclusion of the whole matter? Clement


makes two quotations, the canonical source of which is doubtful.
Pseudo-Clement gives twelve,
nine of them canonical but free,
and three extra-canonical Ignatius, four,
one of them probably
;

uncanonical

four canonical but free, and one


Polycarp, five,
extra-canonical
the
probably
;
Didache, sixteen, quite canonical ;
canonical
Pseudo-Barnabas, four,
;
Shepherd of Hermas, one, nor
;

mal

the rest mere reflections of Scripture.


;
Justin quotes largely
but freely, and introduces incidents from apocryphal sources, one
of which, the Acts of Pilate, he cites by name as
authority for the
miracles of our Lord ; Athenagoras, four, quoted
freely ; Papias,
one from Mk., with distinctly apocryphal matter. The Clementine

Homilies give us canonical and uncanonical matter in the propor


of about seventy to thirteen.
One of these, about good

tion

money-changers, is a distinct addition to the probable sayings of


our Lord. Finally, we have the testimony of Papias to the com
position of Mk., and of the Logia, the probable witness of Marcion
to Lk., the more than probable testimony of the Canon of Mura
canonical Gospels, and the Diatessaron of Tatian, with
unmistakable use of the four Gospels as the exclusive source of

tori to the
its

information about the Gospel history.

The

conclusions are inevi

that the second-century literature certainly uses extracanonical sources of information about our Lord, and does it freely
table

first,

xlii

THE GOSPELS

and without apology


stream to which the

IN

THE SECOND CENTURY

secondly, that the four Gospels were the main


the standard writings on
was tributary,

rest

the subject ; thirdly, they were not Scripture in the sense which we
attach to that word,
they were not separated from other writ
ings by any such line ; fourthly, that the amount and importance

of extra-canonical matter

is

after

all

small.

Substantially, the

Jesus of the second-century literature is the Jesus of the Gospels.


This fact is, as we have seen, the most important and favorable

be obtained, more important

in every way than the


The unrestricted
sources.
extra-canonical
exclusion
of
attempted
use of extra-canonical sources, without any important change of
result to

the record or of the historical figure,

is

an ideal

result.

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

WHAT we may call the newer criticism of the Gospels accepts


the historical character of those writings as
being substantially
It receives our present
contemporaneous history.
Gospel of
Mk., and the Logia of Mt., both of them coming from the inner
circle of the disciples, as the

basis of our Synoptical


Gospels.
Criticism thus confines itself at present
and this may be taken
as an ultimate position
to the details of these documents, and
has ceased to attack, or even to minimize, the
historicity of the

documents themselves.

But there is one reservation which some


of the critics feel themselves justified in making as one of the
the accepted data of historical criticism,
the axiom,
axioms,
namely, that miracles do not happen. How plausible this position
is

becomes evident when we consider how

universally,

and

as a

matter of course, we apply it outside of the Biblical history. And,


in general, we can say with perfect confidence that the
grounds

on which

such as to establish the a priori improbability


of any miracle, and to justify historical criticism in
scrutinizing
with extreme care any story of supernatural
If we
happenings.
it

rests are

ask, then, in this matter, for

clusion,

we

shall

not find

it.

an ultimate

result,

an accepted con

But, on the other hand, the acknowl

edged historicity of the Gospels, we believe, carries with it a


strong presumption of the verity of the miraculous element in
their story.

And when we add

to this the verisimilitude of these


are convinced that the inherent
improbability is, in
the case of these miracles, quite overcome.
It is a modification
of this adverse criticism when the miracles are
as

miracles,

we

reduced,
they
those cures which can be explained
by the
extraordinary action of Jesus unique personality on the minds of
men, and the reaction of this on their bodies.
are

by some

critics, to

This review of the literature

is

confined to the writers repre


This is done with

senting conspicuously this newer criticism.


xliii

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

Xliv

more confidence because they

are, for the

most

part, trustworthy

exegetical guides, and in this department, as in that of criticism,


give a largely antiquarian or historical interest to the preceding
literature.

The
N.T.

of these

is

Meyer, whose commentary on the entire

that part of

it

written by himself, including everything

first

from Mt. to the pastoral epistles


being easily first among com
He had the exegetical faculty beyond all other com
mentaries.
mentators, so that you can omit any other in studying a book, but

Meyer no scholar can omit. He represents the school of which


we are speaking, accepting the history, criticising the details with
combined freedom and caution, and, as for miracles, accepting
the general fact while criticising single cases.
The next is Weiss, the posthumous editor of Meyer, with a

commentary of

his

own on Mk. and

its

Synoptical parallels, a Life

of our Lord, an Introduction to the N. T., and a Biblical Theology


Like Meyer, he is a conservative critic, but far
of the N. T.
behind Meyer in the keenness and sureness of his exegetical
In his treatment of the Gospels especially, we have to
sense.
deal with idiosyncracies of opinion that make one forget the real

At the very outset,


value of his contribution to biblical learning.
he denies that our Lord s teachings form an independent, and
especially a superior, source of Christian doctrine.

so

much consequence, but

the reason for

it

This

is

not of

betrays a singular lack

of discernment, and involves a far-reaching and destructive theory


of the Gospels.
It is that the source of both these and the other

N.T. writings

is

apostolic,

and

you cannot expect


one and the other. This

that therefore

different view of the

in the

Gospel
any
is to forget several essential things.
First, the act of reporting is
distinct from that of original presentation ; and my ability to keep
myself out of a report

done has

is

a test of

my

to be decided in each case

fitness.
;

Just

how

far

it is

and there are decisive

proofs that the Synoptical writers have made a considerable suc


In the first place, while the Synoptics are not inde
cess of it.

pendent, there are two distinct sources of their account, viz. Mk. s
But the unity of the
apostolic authority and the Logia of Mt.
matter drawn from these sources
differentiated

the impress of one strongly


it all
is the most

and individual personality upon

marked impression

left

by the three accounts.

Furthermore, the

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

xlv

person and teaching of our Lord in them make a distinct type,


with individual characteristics that make them stand out as
clearly
as the figure of St. Paul.
To take one instance of the
in

way

which the apostolic source has reported teaching different from


the apostolic teaching about the same,
it
taught the immediateness of the second visible coming of our Lord, but it does not
Another example of the
report him as teaching the same.
in

way

which the Christ of the apostolic source

is

differentiated

from

its

representation of the same thing in other persons is its story of


his miracles compared with the morals of the
apostolic miracles.
Again, Weiss maintains that Jesus upheld the entire Jewish law,

ceremonial and moral alike,


Pharisees.

but without the traditions of the

It is

enough to say, in reply to this, that Jesus abol


ished the distinction between clean and
unclean, and denied the
But the diffi
possibility of external defilement of the inner man.
culty lies deeper.

It involves forgetfulness of the conflict

between
and of the impossibility that
any man should maintain both sides of an irrepressible conflict.
priest

and prophet

It represents

in the O.T.

our Lord, of

all

itself,

men

that ever lived, as unable to

distinguish between things that differ.


Finally, Weiss asserts that
it was the intention of
Jesus to set up a political kingdom in
Judaea in accordance with the national expectation, and in fulfil

ment of the natural and obvious meaning of the


prophecies only,
was to be a righteous kingdom
it
required as the indispen
sable condition the conversion of the
nation, and it was to be
;

it

established as the voluntary act of the


people, not by violence.
point is, however, that the kingdom was to come by a Divine

The

tour de force. The form which it


ultimately took, involving the
overthrow of the national hope, was due to the final refusal

final

of the people to repent.

Here is a place in which definitions and


discriminations are absolutely
If by a political king
necessary.

dom

is

meant an enforced

rule,

and

this is

the only meaning

that accorded with the national


expectation,

then Jesus did not


All that he says implies a

intend nor expect any such kingdom.


spiritual kingdom, with worldly power arrayed against it, and no
Divine power to meet this hostile
power on its own ground. All
the subsequent history is of such a
spiritual kingdom, and what
our Lord says implies that this was not an
but the
afterthought,

permanent policy of God

in ruling his

kingdom.

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

xlvi

As

for the miracles,

Weiss admits them, and does not attempt


among them. But he does show his

any reasoned discrimination

sense of the strength of the unbelief in the supernatural by insist


ing on leaving a way of escape to the naturalistic explanation of
at least some of them, lest the unbelief in the miraculous involve
the whole history in a

common

ruin.

is another example of the same


combines
acceptance of the apostolic source and
school, which

Beyschlag, in his Leben J^esu,

historical character of the Synoptical accounts with free critical

handling of the

details.

He

modifies the theory of Meyer and


in regard to the origin of the

Weiss, and before them Weisse,

Synoptics, by relegating our Mk., as well as Mt. and Lk., to the


rank of secondary documents, and making the sources of all three
to

be an

original

Mk., and the Logia of Mt. But this does not


His work does not show

materially alter the general conclusion.

the abundant learning of Weiss, and it is not so carefully orthodox,


but it is more sympathetic ; it has a finer historical sense and a

sounder judgment. Its point of view is expressed in the author s


repeated statement that the Jesus of our faith is identical with the
Beyschlag s
Jesus of history, and is not a product of Aberglaube.
of
those
the
most
includes
performed by our
theory of miracles
Lord, but omits those in which the law of cause and effect is
manifestly broken, such as the miracle of the loaves and fishes.

The

cures of our Lord he traces to his marvellous personality, its


power over other men s spiritual natures, and the well-known reac

But
tion of a powerfully moved mind on the bodily condition.
where the process and connection of events is plainly lacking, and
he rejects the miracle as a
a command,
there is only a word,
that is, to him, as to the ordinary unbe
;
the supernatural, the miraculous, in the sense of the
The difference is that the ordi
inexplicable, does not happen.

violation of natural law


liever in

a disbelief
nary anti-supernaturalist proceeds from this denial to
in religion generally, and especially in Jesus.
Beyschlag, by

explaining the miracles, putting them in the ordinary sequence


of nature, defends the historicity of the Gospels even from the

point of view of the anti-supernaturalist.


the reaction of
in our Lord s miracles

mon

enough, only

th degree.

in Jesus

The

particular sequence

mind on body

unique personality

it

is

is

com

raised to the

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE


Holtzmann,

in his

in his Introduction,

Commentary on

is

the clearest

xlvii

the Synoptical Gospels, and


cleverest of the exponents

and

It would
of this now accepted theory of the Synoptical Gospels.
be hard to find a more transparent or convincing piece of critical

work than

his discussion of the Synoptical problem in the Intro


He wavers somewhat in his consid
duction to his commentary.
eration of the question whether our Mk. is the original Mk., but is

decided in his statement that the two are for substance identical,
that for all practical purposes, it is our Mk. which may be

and

taken as the basis of Mt. and Lk.


the combination of

Mk. with

These Gospels were formed by


This Mk. -hypothesis he

the Logia.

no longer hypothesis, but

characterizes strongly, but justifiably, as

established

and accepted

critical fact.

of these sources as historical, and


fore, as having a historical basis.

Moreover, he regards both

the Synoptical Gospels, there


are not historical in their

all

They

we may call their apologetic aim is evident in


are
intended to represent Jesus as the Messiah,
They
and to show that his death, so far from defeating his purpose and
purpose, since what
all

three.

disproving his claim, was foreseen by him, and included in his


But the events and teachings used in this showing are,
purpose.
The miracles Holtzmann rejects, however;
substantially, facts.
and, while the obvious reason for this is his acceptance of the
critical assumption that miracles do not happen, and are therefore
to be set aside simply as miracles, nevertheless, his showing up of

them

as echoes of O.T. miracle-stories

fallacious.

That a

is

very clever, although

writer of his unusual clearness

and judgment

should not see the contradiction between the general historicity


of these books and the spuriousness of the miracles is wonderful.

And
him

that the absolute verisimilitude of the miracles should escape


even stranger still. But that Holtzmann, with his evident

is

skepticism,

and

and unqualified rejection of mere

his absolute

traditionalism, should accept the general historicity of the Synop


tics, is the most noticeable element in the whole situation.
It

would be unfair to close

combines criticism and

American contribution

to

the total result of criticism

this

review of the literature which

without mentioning an admirable


1
He says that
by Dr. Orello Cone.

faith
it

"

is,

that the divine doctrine of Jesus

Gospel Criticism, G. P.

Putnam

Sons.

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE

xlviii

stands forth clearly defined, and of his personality there emerge not
only a few ineffaceable lineaments which could belong only to a

and majesty, but the figure itself emerges


and
For a balanced statement of the pre
grace."
majesty
dominance of the Jewish outlook in Mt., and of the Pauline uni-

figure unique in grace


in

its

versalism in Lk., which, however, does not prevent either writer


from introducing material which shows the true middle ground of
And this is only a sample of the
fact, we can commend this book.

and judicious spirit characterizing the whole. His estimate


of the legendary and dogmatic element in the Gospels is exagger
ated, to say the least, but his acceptance of their historical kernel
careful

is

hearty and important.


Of a very different sort

is the
commentary of Dr. James Moriwhich the present writer has had frequent recourse, and
There is an abundance of
gladly acknowledges indebtedness.

son, to

helpful information in

And

it,

especially in regard to the various

Eng

summarizing of different views is, in


many passages, exhaustive, and his archasological information
extensive.
But, while his exegetical sense is sometimes fine, it
lish translations.

is

far

free,

his

from that on the whole.

and

In his criticism of the

text,

he

is

his textual conclusions agree with those of the estab

But

lished critical texts in the main.

seems to lack judgment and


this as in other

in the

He

fairness.

But when,

departments.

is

higher criticism, he
as well

informed in

after a long review of

the literature in regard to the Synoptical problem, he concludes


that all the theories are alike baseless,

and

that there,

is

really

no

problem there ; that the resemblances are not uncommon, nor


such as may not be accounted for mostly by the growing fixity of
the oral tradition, his case becomes hopeless. And his conclusion,
after a

minute examination of the

last

twelve verses of ch. 16, that

an accidental omission in some


early copy, and that the "whole fabric of opposition and doubt
must, as biblical criticism advances, crumble into dust," is

the omission

is

probably due

to

amazing.
In view of the universal discarding of
Synoptics by English commentators,
the cumulative nature of the proof.

resemblance, on which the

it

this critical
is

theory of the

well to call attention to

The phenomena

traditional view of

to pieces, are not isolated, but prolonged

of verbal

independence goes
and repeated. And the

RECENT CRITICAL LITERATURE


same

is

x ][ x

true of the verbal


peculiarities of the last twelve verses

which many English textual critics


reject, but which English com.entanes defend with
1
unanimity and spirit.
Dr. Morison thinks
that he answers this
objection by citing with each case a
paralinstance from some other author.
But the real question is
whether he can match the
accumulation of these in
I

the same

space elsewhere.

judgment

characteristic of

^^general work

"

Wh

Sh WS here the admi

ble

THE TEXT
THE

text followed in this

commentary

is

not either of the

critical

author preferring to choose in each case between the


several texts on the strength of the evidence.
His authority for
the texts has been Scrivener s edition of the text of Stephens, with
texts, the

the various readings of Beza, Elzevir, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and the Revised Version, Cambridge,

1887.

The

ties for

independent use, while that of the Revisers

text of Treg.

tive to satisfy a critical

edition, or of

is

based too entirely on the older authori


is too conserva

judgment.

WH., would be

Either the text of Tischendorf

an independent text,
based on both, but following neither without exception, seems still
better.
The authority for the sources is Tischendorf s magnum
satisfactory, but

opus, the Editio

Major of his eighth edition.


of
the
various readings adopted shows something like
analysis
variations
from
the
Tex. Rec., and in these the several sources
650

An

appear as follows

WHOLE NUMBER,

657!

Numbers approximate
li

only.

THE TEXT

Hi

It changes somewhat the proportions of the above statement, that in C,


about three chapters are wanting, in L 32 verses, in F 86 verses, in G 19 verses,
some 7 chapters, in P all but fragments, Td the same, in
in
19 verses, in
X the first 6 chapters, and in T nearly 3 chapters. The Theb. version is also

in fragments only.

From

it appears that substantially the critical text


appears in Tisch. and WH., is that of K and B, the
two oldest mss. of the N.T., both of which belong to the fourth

this analysis,

of to-day, as
It

century.

it

moreover, strongly supported by

is,

C and D

of the

fifth and sixth centuries, by L of the eighth, and A of the ninth


The only first-rate authority that can be excepted from
century.

this

is

convergent testimony

mony

of the versions

is

of the

to the

furnishing strong support to the

The Old-Latin

version,

e.g.,

same

The testi
century.
versions
older
the
effect,
fifth

readings of these oldest mss.

concurs with them twice as frequently

and the Peshito, the oldest Syriac version, twice as


And one
later versions in the same language.
as
the
frequently
of the strong supports of these readings is the Memphitic, which

as the Vulgate,

of about the same age as these oldest Latin and Syriac versions.
far as the material now in hand goes, then, it points strongly to
the conclusion of the textual critics that the oldest texts extant

is

As

and B stood by themselves, we


had
been more open than usual to
might say that possibly they
a
and
that
purer form of the text was to be
corrupting influences,
are comparatively pure.

found

If X

some later text of a purer strain. But, as a matter of


we get back towards the fourth century, we find the text

in

fact, as

which
converging towards the form of these oldest extant sources,
shows conclusively that they belong in the main current of the
A, which
text, and not in some side-stream more or less impure.

and B in point of time, furnishes us with a


convenient comparison. Here is a text different from the combi
much nearer the later texts. Does this
nation X B, and
stands nearest to

very

represent
reverse?

towards

main stream, and K B the divergence, or the

the

The
B,

fact

that,

as

we go back,

the

text

and not towards A, proves conclusively

converges
that the

We

have, in the oldest ver


older mss. are comparatively pure.
the state of the text in
of
traces
some
in
the
and
Fathers,
sions,

two centuries, and these confirm the type of text found


There is a distinct type of text in these and in their
lacks the smoothness and orthodoxy of the later
which
cognates

the

first

in X B.

THE TEXT
texts

e.g.

the omission of Kat

Jiii

23

vijo-Teia in

g is contrary to secondto
take
a more important case,
and,

century and later orthodoxy ;


the omission of I6 9 20, with its account of the resurrection and
"

ascension, subtracts not from the creed, but from confirmations

The onward movement

of the creed.

smoothness and conformity, the

later

of the text

is

toward

text supplying here

and

there the apparent deficiencies of the earlier type.


Now, as we
get still further back, going from the fourth century to the third

and second, we

movement toward a certain rough


kept up, which shows still further,
and more strongly, that the great textual critics have not been
lacking in critical judgment in giving to K B and their cognates
find the reverse

ness and non-conformity

still

the preference naturally due to the oldest

THE PRINCIPAL

MSS.

known type of

text.

AND VERSIONS

Necessarily, the information in regard to the sources of the text

volume

is very
The student is
slight.
of
Tischendorfs
Editio Major,
Prolegomena
edited by Dr. C. R. Gregory, and to Scrivener s Introduction

possible in a

referred

to

to

like

this

the

The Criticism of

the

N.

T.,

London, 1894.

Uncials
N

= Codex

Sinaiticus, discovered by Tischendorf in the convent of St. Catha

Mt. Sinai, 1859, and now at St. Petersburg.


manuscript of
the fourth century.
Codex Vaticanus, in the Vatican Library at Rome, where it seems to
rine,

B =

have been brought very soon after the founding of the


Library
Also of the fourth century, and slightly older than

in 1448.

A = Codex Alexandrinus,

in the British

Museum from

its

foundation in 1753.

Brought from Constantinople, in 1528, as a present from the patriarch


Cyril Lucar to Charles I.
Belongs to the fifth century.

C = Codex Ephraemi,

in the

by the Medici family


Catharine de Medici.

Royal Library of

Paris.

Brought from the East


and into France by

in the sixteenth century,

valuable palimpsest of the fifth


century.
Bezae, a Grosco-Latin manuscript of the Gospels and Acts, pre
sented to the University Library at Cambridge by the reformer Theo

D = Codex

dore Beza in 1581.

Belongs

Previously in the monastery of St. Irenrcus, Lyons.


singularly corrupt text, but bearing

to the sixth century.

important witness to the accepted

The

corruptions are

on which these are


abundant confirmation of the purer form of the text.

inlaid contains

largely interpolations,

and the

text

critical text.

THE TEXT

liv

at Paris.
Belongs to the eighth
Regius, in the Royal Library
Contains the four Gospels, with some omissions. Those in
century.
Mk. are lo 16-30 I5 2 20 Though of this late date, it is so evidently a

-Codex

copy of an early manuscript that

it

acquires great value in the criticism

of the text.

= Codex Sangallensis of the

four Gospels, in the great monastery of St. Gall,

It
Switzerland, where it probably originated.
critical
copy of an old manuscript, and of great

Other uncials of

= Codex

E
F

Basiliensis, of the eighth century.

Wolfii A, of the tenth century.


B, of the ninth century.

"

"

II

K
M
N =
P

Cyprius, of the ninth century.


Campianus, of the ninth century.

"

"

Furpurtus, of the

"

"

= fragment of Lectionacy,
= Codex Nanianus I.

(1

U
V

"

=
=

r
II

containing in

Mk.

only

-37

12s6

Mosquensis, of the eleventh century.


Monacensis, of the tenth century.
Tischendorfianus, of the ninth century.

"

sixth century.

Guelpherbytanus A, of the sixth century.


Vaticanus 354, of the tenth century.

"

importance are

evidently, like L, a

value.

Borelli, of the ninth century.

"

less

is

"

Petropolitianus, of the ninth century.

"

Cursives
Codex Basiliensis, of the tenth century.

13

28
23

=
=
=

Regitts 50, of the twelfth century.

"

"

"

379, of the eleventh century.


called
14, of the eleventh century,

"The

Queen

of the

Cursives."

69
02

209
346

= Codex
=
"

Leicestrensis, of the fourteenth century.

Bibliothecae Mediceae.

An unnamed,

= Codex

valuable manuscript.
23, of the twelfth century.

Ambrosianus

Versions

Latin

This version itself belongs to the very beginning of the second


earlier than the fourth century.
century, though there are no copies
of Jerome, made in the latter part of the fourth
version
Latin
the
Vulgate,
Veins, or Itala.

century.

THE TEXT
The Egyptian
1.

2.

versions are

Memphitic, or Bohairic, in the dialect of Lower Eg/pt, and belonging to


the second century.
Thebaic, or Sahidic, in the dialect of Upper Egypt; belonging also to the
second century.
Extant only in fragments.

The

Syriac versions are

Peshito, of the

Harclean, which contains


largely

who

second century.

1.

2.

3.

lv

due

to

collated

Thomas
it

itself

a statement of

of Ilarkel, from

its

whom

it

date

with the aid of three Greek mss.

additions give this value.


Jerusalem Syriac, a lectionary of the sixth century.

508.

Value

name, and
These marginal

derives

its

ABBREVIATIONS

The Fathers

are quoted in the

(Amb., Aug., Chrys.,

manner usual

in critical

commentaries

Jer., Orig., etc.).

Egyptian Versions.

Egyptt

Memph

Memphitic.

Theb

Thebaic.

Aeth.

Ethiopic Version.

L att

Latin Versions.

Lat. Vet.

Vetus Latina.

Vulg

Vulgate.
Syriac Versions.

$yrr

Peshito.

Pesh
jjarcl

Harclean.

Jerusalem Lcctionary.

Uier

AV

Authorised Version.

RV.

Revised Version.

RV. marg.

Revised Version marg.

Ti sc h

Tischendorf.
Tregelles.

Treg

\VH.

Westcott and Hort.

Bengel.

Beng

De

De

Bib.

Wette.

Meyer.

Mey

Smith

Die

Dictionary of the Bible

(ist or

Thay.-Grm. Lex

Thayer

\Yin

Winer
Ivii

s
s

2d edition).

Grimm.

Grammar of N.

T.Greek,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


BEGINNING OF THE GLAD TIDINGS
glad tidings concerning Jesus in
the authoritative proclamation of John the Baptist. Prophe
cies of this preliminary work in the Old Testament, the
I.

1-8.

the

Beginning of

appearance of John, his proclamation of repentance, his bap

and

tism,

than

his announcement of the

coming One mightier

he.

It is evident that the key to this paragraph is found in this


announcement of the One mightier than John. Who and what
the man was who made it, the general character of his mission to
the nation, into the course of which it was introduced, and the

way

in

which

it

fulfilled

the Messianic advent,


is

the announcement.

prophecy

we

in

regard to the preparation for

are told of course, but the

That

is

theme

itself

the beginning of the good news


There are two
of the section.

about Jesus which is the title


renderings of our EV. which obscure

of the para

this intention

the translation gospel for cvayyeAibu, v. , and preach


7
The technical meaning which both these words
for Kypvcrva),
1

graph,

viz.,

v>

have acquired in our language renders them frequently unfit to


translate the Greek words, but especially in this passage, the
character of which

is

such as to make a close adherence to the

specific meaning of the original words quite necessary. The state


ment is, that with the proclamation, K-rjpva-a-f.iv, of the coming One

by John began the glad

tidings, ewayyeAiov, concerning Jesus.


stated that this beginning is in accordance with
prophecy, which foretold the sending of a messenger, dyyeA.os, to
prepare the way of the Lord. The prophecy is further identified

Furthermore,

it

is

with the event by the description of the messenger in the second


part of the prophecy as a voice crying in the wilderness, corre/sponding .tp the statement about John that he made his appearance

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

2
in the wilderness.
in his

The

general work of John

[l.

is

shown

1-8

to consist

baptism of the crowds (including mostly the people of

Judaea) who came to him,

his

proclamation being that of a bap


is, he performed a

tism of repentance for remission of sins. That


rite of outward purification, and explained that

it

meant an inward

This message
purification looking to the forgiveness of sins.
the
to
foreshadow
the
understood
would be
by
people
coming of
the expected deliverer, since repentance was the acknowledged
condition of national deliverance, and this public call to it would
naturally therefore create expectation of his advent. As for John s
appearance, his wilderness life and food and his rough dress
recall Elijah, as they are evidently

intended to do, the item about

the leather girdle reproducing the language of the LXX.in regard


8
It is obviously the picture of a man
to Elijah s dress (2 K. i ).
who has revolted from the evil world and prefers hardness to the

unclean associations of

its

comforts.

It is

a significant

commen

on the manners of the place and time that they should lead
It is such
to such revolt not in Greece or Rome, but in Judaea.
a man as this, who in the midst of his own great work of impress
tary

ing on the nation his sense of

its

sin,

and

issuing to

it

the old

Wash you, make you

prophetic cry,
of the evangel, the

first

clean, interjects the beginning


news that the Messiah is actually at hand.

This announcement takes the form of a comparison between him


There comes one
self and the personage announced by him.

So far,
stronger than he, with whom he is not to be compared.
the announcement is in line with Jewish expectation, but there is

an absence of the material, and an emphasis of the spiritual ele


ment in what follows, which does not spring from Jewish Messian-

and would not have led

It is a
to John s later doubt.
and
that
of
his
between
Jesus, making the
baptism
comparison
latter to be the spiritual reality, of which John s was merely the
It was to be a baptism in the Holy Spirit,
ritual expression.
the element of spiritual purification, while John s baptism was in

ism,

the material element of water, which could only represent that


purification in a figure.
1. This verse is a title or heading of the paragraph in regard to
1
That work, but especially the
the work of John the Baptist.

Hence

the absence of the article before

Apx. Win.

19. i. a.

I.

BEGINNING OF THE GLAD TIDINGS

l]

announcement of the coming of the one mightier than he, is the


beginning of the euu.yye Aioi the good news about Jesus Christ.
This word, which in the later Greek means glad
evayyeAibv.
news about Jesus, or
tidings, is -in the N.T. restricted to the good
of the kingdom which he came to establish, or of the salvation
accomplished by him. It is under this last head, that it comes to
have the technical sense of the scheme of truth relating to him
and to his saving work, which has come to be so associated with
the word gospel as to render that a misleading translation in a
passage like this. This word is also associated with the written
accounts of our Lord s life, the Gospels, which is also confusing
,

here.

Irjaov

Xpio-Tou.

This gen.

good news brought by him, or


evidently the latter, as John
ITJO-OVS

is

descriptive

Saviour.

may be

either subj. or obj., the

that concerning him.


is the bearer of the

Here

it

is

evuyye Atov.
21
It is a
(Mt. i ).

name of our Lord


name, as the passage in Mt. indicates, meaning
It is used once in the N.T. as the Greek form of

the personal

the official title of Jesus, denoting


).
Xpio-rov
The word itself is of frequent
as the Messiah, the Anointed.
occurrence in the O.T., where it is applied to kings as anointed

Joshua (Heb. 4

him

But as a title of the coming King, the hope of the


It is first used of him in the
it does not occur.
Book of Enoch 48 10 5 2 4 about the close of the second century
3
and afterwards frequently in the uncanonical literature. It
B.C.,
appears from this literature, that the general national expectation
of deliverance and greatness characteristic of the O.T. period had
at this time taken the definite shape of an expected deliverer in
And the N.T. furnishes abundant evidence that
the Davidic line.
this expectation was common at the coming of Jesus, and during
his life.
The title Xpio-ros became a personal name later, and the
absence of the art. would indicate that this is the use here.
Son of God. RV. puts this into the text, and
oi)
vlov TOV
omits it in the margin, which seems a good statement of the
This term, Son of God, like the title Messiah,
critical evidence.
is applied to the Messianic King in the uncanonical Jewish litera
But its use is purely theocratic and official, corresponding
ture.

of God.

Jewish nation,

1 In
Homer, it means a reward given to the bearer of good news in Attic
Greek, a thank-offering for the same. The LXX form of the word seems to be
cvayyeAi a, Thay.-Grm. Lex.
*
is the Greek form of the Heb. jn^rv, JNBM, or according to a still later
;

Ij)<rou

form,

njritt".

The

first

two mean

Whose

help

is

Jehovah.

The

last

means simply

be
help, or deliverer, and it is probably this later form to which this use is to
referred.
3
the Messi
this book, see Schiirer, A^. Z^. Div. II., Vol. III. $ 32, V. 2.
anic hope of the people in the time immediately preceding the life of Jesus, see

On

On

Schurer II. II. 29; and on the


fvip, Chald. NI-PE>C, Messiah.

name Messiah,

see II. II. 29, 3.

The Heb. form

is

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[l. 1,

to the O.T. use to denote any one whose office specially represents
36
God among men, such as kings and judges (see J. io ). Its use
miraculous
con
to denote the relation to God springing from the
35
meta
ception is confined to Lk. i , and its application to Je*sus
is
not
found in the Synoptics. The term
physical relation to God
is applied by Jesus to himself in his discourse without any expla
to
nation, whereas it would require explanation if it was intended
convey any other meaning than the historical sense with which the
at
people were familiar. It is applied to him in the theophany
/ came to take
the baptism, where the aor.
80*070-0., meaning
to his historical
pleasure in thee, limits the title and statement
It is used by Peter in his confes
manifestation, his earthly life.
thou
or Messiah,
sion, where its association with the title Christ,
also indicates the
art the Christ, the Son of the living God,
In the question of the High Priest at the trial
theocratic sense.
of Jesus, whether he is the Christ, the Son of God, the same collo
In fact, there is nowhere in
cation involves the same conclusion.
the Synoptics any indication that the title is used so as to involve
and indications,
any departure from the current theocratic sense ;
such as the above, are not wanting, that the title does retain its
common meaning at the time. When we get outside of these

we come upon the metaphysical sonship as pos


God means here,
the
prevalent meaning of the term. Son of
sibly
in which God is
then, that the Messianic kingdom is a theocracy,
the real ruler, and the Messianic king represents God.
Only, with
the new meaning that the life and teaching of Jesus had put into
all these current phrases, it would signify to a Christian writer that
this representation was real, and not merely official, that in Christ
the ideal of the theocratic king had been realized, a prince who
and spirit of God, and established the
really represented the mind
Divine law among men after the Divine method.
historical books,

vioO ToO 0eoO T. R.

AEFGHKM etc. and Versions generally, vlov *6eoO


Omit Tisch. WH. RV. marg, N 28,
N a BDL 102.

RV. Treg. WH., marg.


255.

Omission confirmed also by passages in Iren. Epiph. Orig. Victorin.

There is no doubt that this is a correction


2. eV TOIS 7rpo<r/Ttus.
of the original, to meet the difficulty of ascribing the double quo
The reading of
tation from Malachi and Isaiah to Isaiah alone.
all

the critical texts

is

ev

TO>

Homo,

lv TV Hcrafy T
Trpo^rri Tisch.
Memph. Pesh. Hier. Hard. marg.

TU>

Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BDL A

33 Latt.

This quotation is intended to prove from prophecy that the


in the procla
good news about Christ had its appointed beginning
mation of a forerunner who was thus to prepare the way for him.
In the
The first part is from Mai. 3 , the second from Is.
40".

I. 2,

BEGINNING OF THE GLAD TIDINGS

3]

from Mai. reads, Behold, I send my messenger


original, the passage
who shall prepare the way before me. Jehovah is the speaker,
some one else, whose way is to be pre
and he is not
addressing

messenger; but he declares that he is coming


himself to his temple to purge it of the profanations of the priests,
and that he sends his messenger to prepare the way for him.
Moreover, the messenger is the prophet himself, my messenger
the traditional name of the
being in the Heb. pxba, Malachi,
thus a distinct historical sense. The
has
The
prophecy
prophet.
evil of Malachi s time, as is evident from the entire prophecy, was
this abuse of their office by the priests, and the prophet announces
to do away with this abuse, and the prophecy
that God is

God

pared by

coming

is

and make ready for it. Here, it is


by the change of my and me to thy and

to announce this coming,

adapted
thee, and

to Messianic use

to prepare the
applied to the mission of the forerunner
use of a passage having
Messianic
This
way
another primary sense is the rule, and not the exception, in Messi
anic prophecy. The principle underlying it is, that the Messianic
of Jewish his
kingdom founded by Jesus is the real culmination
of near events somehow all point
tory, and that its prophecies
forward also to him. And especially, in this case, the underlying
fact is that the Jewish nation is a theocracy, and that the crises in
are due to a Divine appearance and intervention; a
its
is

for the Messiah.

history

coming of God, moreover,

for

which way

is

made by

his

messen

This common feature being shared by the


gers the prophets.
to the original
culminating intervention, gives the Messianic turn
prophecy.
It is supported by
ffov is omitted by Tisch. Trcg. WII. RV.
The quotation is a
few good authorities, and is an evident emendation.
The LXX. reads I5oO ea7rocn-AXa> rbv
free translation from the Heb.
in which
S.yye\6v /xou, *al ^ir^X^erai 68bv irpb irpoauirov /JLOV. The form
it is quoted by Mk. is also that of the other places in which it is cited in the
10
27
Lk. 7 ), pointing to some common Greek source, not the
N.T. (Mt. II
LXX. with which the evangelists had become familiar. See Toy, Quota
tions in N.T., p. 31.

3.
<f><t>vr)

wilderness.

Ttie voice of one crying in the


quoted directly from the LXX. of
the quotation from Mai., the coming to be

jSooWos ci/ Tfl


This passage

cp>/ju,a>

3 1

is

Here, as in
40
his
prepared for is that of God to his people. The purpose of
coming is to deliver2 his people from their captivity in Babylon by
It is the note of deliverance which is com
the hand of Cyrus.
mon to this with the Messianic advent and intervention, and the
this
preparation for this by the prophetic message is shared by
with the passage from Mai.
Is.

avrov

-l

See

is

Is.

substituted for TOV


4125 43

44 -45 46

toG
"

^wv
47

i-is

after rpi /Sous.

8>.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[l. 3,

in the Heb. belongs with eroi^aaare.


See Is. 40- RV.
ip-fiiiip
evident that Mk. intends to join it with l3ou>vTos, as this makes the
prophecy anticipate the appearance of John in the wilderness.
tv

But

ry

it is

the Lord, stands for Jehovah, or Yahweh, in the origi


But it is
being the LXX. rendering of that name of God.
probable that Mk. understands it to refer to Jesus, this being one
In this way, the passage becomes more
of his familiar titles.
directly adapted to his purpose, making the advent, and the mis
sion of the forerunner both figure in prophecy.
4. In this verse, the art. should be inserted before /3a7rTiwj/,
Whether KOI should be dropped before
without any doubt.
If it is
on the other hand, admits of much doubt.
K-qpvo-o-aiv,

nal, this

dropped, the passage reads, John the Baptizer came preaching.


If it is retained, it reads, John came, who baptized and preached,

RV.

On

the whole, the reading without KOL

6 pairrlfav Tisch. Treg.

Treg. (KCU) Tisch.

RV.

BDL A

WII. RV. N

ADLP A,

is

33,

preferable.
*al

Memph.

Verss. generally.

Omit

/cat

WH.

Treg.

marg. B. 33, 73, IO2.

In order to get at the right connection of this verse, we must


read it as if the preceding quotations were omitted
Beginning
.John came, etc. eyeWro
of the good news of Jesus Christ
The verb is used to denote the appear
there came, or appeared.
ance of a person on the, stage of history. The wilderness in which
.

the wilderness of Judaea, on the south


it empties into the Dead Sea.
The
means to exercise the office
word
proclaiming.
Kypvcro-Mv
of a herald, to proclaim officially, and with authority. John is not
represented as preaching, taking baptism for his text, but as mak

he made his appearance


ern banks of the Jordan,

is

just before

ing public proclamation, calling men to his baptism.


This rite of
a baptism of repentance.
/?a7moyxa. /xcravotas
immersion in water signified the complete inward purification of
It took up into a symbolical rite the figurative wash
the subject.
2
16
Ez. 36^ Zech. I3 1 Ps. 5i
ings of such passages as Is. i 4* Jer.
of
the
in
the
Levitical
it
had
its
counterpart
washings
Outwardly,
21. a. 27
But its
etc ^_
l6 26. 28
law (Ex. 2 9 4 Lev. i4 8 9 T 5 & M. is. M.
2
use by John was quite unique.
of repentance. The
/xeravotas
gen. denotes the significance of the rite, the inward act of which
The word denotes primarily a
it is the outward sign and pledge.
.

4"

^M

change of mind, such as comes from an afterthought.

person

1 This word is one of


having different
several, such as KaTayye AAw, evayyeAt
shades of meaning, but all translated preach in the EV., whenever sacred matters
are spoken of.
2 The
question of the outward form of this rite has been discussed so thoroughly
In this passage, the indica
that it is unnecessary to go over it again in this place.
tions corresponding to the common usage of the word itself are the river, the
immersion into the river, the going up out of the water, but especially, the entireness and completeness of /neTdvoia, which is expressed by the rite.
e<r0ai,

I.

BEGINNING OF THE GLAD TIDINGS

4-6]

does something from failure to consider certain things necessary to


wise action, and when afterwards these neglected things come to
him, there comes the corresponding change of attitude and pur
It denotes in the N.T. a change, arising from such recon
pose.
sideration, from a life of sin to rectitude and holiness. Such a call
to repentance was not unexpected by the Jews, who believed that
it was the sin of the nation which
delayed the coming of the Mes

The call to repentance therefore, by one wearing the


prophetic appearance and authority, would signify to the nation
that the deliverer was at hand, and that they must prepare for his
s a^eo-iv a^a/mw
coming.
for remission of sins. This states
the purpose of the baptism of repentance.
It is the repentance
evidently which is the real cause of the remission, repentance
being the normal and constant Scriptural condition of forgive
1
ness.
Baptism is related to the repentance as the outward act
in which this inward change finds formal
expression.
Baptism is
an act of profession, and is related to repentance as the declara
tion of forgiveness is to forgiveness itself.
It is contended some
times (so Meyer and Weiss) that this is an anticipation of the
significance of Christian baptism, in which the forgiveness of sins
was first realized. But surely, if this was a baptism of repentance,
sianic King.

would result in forgiveness, since repentance


necessarily connected.
it

and forgiveness are

5. -rravTes should be removed from its


position after e/?a7m ovTo,
so as to follow lepoo-oAv/AiTcu, and the verse reads,
and all the
inhabitants of Jerusalem, and were baptized.
.

lepoffo\vfj.irai irdvTes

28, 33, 102, Latt.


.

cally.

7ravT9

We know
- 10

oi

Memph.
that
-

^airrifovro Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BDL A

etc.

all.

John

These words are to be taken rhetori


s severity must have turned many
away

7
Lk. 3 7 14 ).
And the leaders of the people did not
(Mt. 3
27 -33
believe in him (Mk.
But the Aao?, the people, all recog
).
32
nized John as a prophet (Mk.
This general
was
).

outpouring

to be expected from the nature of John s proclamation, since a


prophetic call to national repentance would be hailed as a call to

national

deliverance.

e^o/xoAoyov/nevoi

fession of sins gave reality to the baptism,

confessing?

making

it

This con
a baptism of

repentance.
6. T/ai
camel s hair. Since it says camel s hair,
xas KCLfjLrjXov
and not skin or fur, we are to understand probably a coarse cloth
1
On the relation of repentance to forgiveness, see Is. iiG-18 Ez. 33 14 -20 Hos. 14
Amos 5 10-15 Jon. 3-4-10. i n fact the whole burden of prophecy is, that the nation is
_

afflicted because of its sins, but that it needs


only to repent.
2 In its
compound form, this is a Biblical word. The later language, Win. says,
loves compound verbs which bring out something
implied in the principal verb,
16. 4. B. b.
The preposition here denotes that what is hidden comes tut in confes

sion.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[l. 6,

There are examples moreover of the cloth, but


of the hair.
a
not of the skin, being used in this way.
^vrjv SeppaTivyv
This is selected to describe Elijah s general
leather girdle.
8
And it is a distinguishing mark of
appearance in 2 K. i
coarse dress, the girdle gathering in the loose robe about the
waist being generally a place for luxury and display in dress.
There is some reason to suppose, too, that the description, hairy
man, may refer to Elijah s dress, which would be another corre

made

So RV. marg. /cat ecrflwv


and wild honey}

spondence.

and was

d/cptSas

KO.I

/ae At

aypiov

eating locusts

e<r9wv

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BL* A

33.

This food was wilderness food, and corresponds to the coarse


his con
dress.
Together, they represent the spirit of the man,
tempt of ease and luxury, his revolt against a sinful generation,
from men, and to
everything which caused him to dwell apart
contemn their manners. Locusts were an article of food espe
Levitical Law, and they are still eaten, pre
cially allowed by the
wild honey may
pared in various ways, by Eastern peoples. By
be meant that made by wild bees, and deposited in hollow trees,
and other places in the woods ; but as a matter of fact, the term
seems to be applied generally to the sweet sap of
/te Xi aypiov
certain trees.

The translation preached


he was proclaiming.
since what follows is not the general
of
out
here,
place
especially
that particular an
subject of the Baptist s preaching, but only
nouncement of the coming of the Messiah which has led the
writer to say that the proclamation by John in the wilderness was
the beginning of the good news about Jesus Christ. He was mak
as /o/pv, the herald of the
ing proclamation by virtue of his office
Messianic King. The whole work of the Baptist in this Gospel is
treated as this dpxv evayyeAiov, a peculiarity which is obscured in
7.

eK^pvo-o-e

is

our version.
tic/ipvo-fff

habit of

life

continues the impfs. ^v IvSeSv/Mtvos and evOuv, denoting John


and speech in the wilderness.

he that is mightier than I (RV.). This


6 to-xupoVepo s pov
is common to all the Synoptics,
description of the coming one
but in Mt. and Lk. it is introduced between the statement of
such a way as to
John s baptism and that of Jesus baptism in
show more distinctly than in Mk. s account that in these different
3

is might
baptisms is contained the point of the to-xvporepos. Jesus
than John by reason of his baptizing in the Holy Spirit. Mk. s
OTR O-W pov
after
order shows this also, but not so distinctly.

ier

1
cV6(i)b>v

2
8

is in

the

same construction as

ei/SeSu/xeVos,

a poetic form of the participle.


See Meyer s Note.
The art. indicates the definite person had in mind.

eating.

etrfW

is

was

clothed

and was

I. 7,

me.

BEGINNING OF THE GLAD TIDINGS

8]

This is a
of whom I am not fit.
John s depreciation of himself by the side

ou OVK dfu i/oxvos

rhetorical statement of

of the coming one.


lKav6s denotes
tion in this case.

He was

not fit

to tie his shoes.

any kind of sufficiency or

fitness.

Fit

is

a good transla

T. {iiroS^/xaTwv
the thong of the sandals.
The sandals
protected the soles only, and were bound to the feet by a thong.
This apparently superfluous addition about stooping serves
Kityas.
to heighten the impression of the menial character of the act.
8.
/ baptized you with water.
eyw 6/3a7mcra vSan

Omit fi.lv after


Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
mss. Vulg. Meniph. Pesh. etc.
Omit tv before
<?-yib

BH A

WH.

6, 33, 56, 58,

258^ Vulg.

BL

33, 69, 124, Lat. Vet.

05an Tisch. Treg. mar?.

etc.

Without the prep, the element vSart becomes the instrument with which
is performed.
See Win. 31. 7. d.

the act

We

ev Uv^vfiaTL "Aytw
in Holy Spirit.
are not to look for
Christian terms, nor Christian uses of terms, in
John s teaching.
The line that divides them in this matter of the
is

Holy

Spirit

but distinguishable.
In the Jewish conception,
personality is
ascribed to the Holy Spirit only figuratively.
In the Christian
use, on the other hand, the impersonal sense is the figurative one,
e.g. where it speaks of a pouring out of the Holy Spirit
(Tit. 3*
Acts 2 17 18 ). But the Spirit of God, or of Yahweh, or the
Spirit of
holiness, figures more or less largely in the O.T. as the animating
power in the universe, as the inspiration of the prophet, the sol
dier, the king, and even the workman. And the possession of this
Spirit by all men is prophesied as one of the marks of Israel s
13
10
golden age. See Job 26 33* Ps. IO4 30 Is. 42 1 6i l Mi.
Jud. 3
M
6 Is. ii 2 Joel 2 Is. S9 21 Ex. i 3
3
John s reference to the Holy
Spirit, the tzhp nil, would not therefore be strange to his Jewish
fine,

3"

The absence of the art. indicates that the Spirit is


regarded here as an element, a pervading presence, like the air,
in the ocean of which we are
submerged. The epithet holy would
not in itself suggest moral quality, as it denoted what is invested
hearers.

with awe or reverence, and only secondarily and


rarely, moral
But in the connection, since the Spirit is regarded here
purity.
as the purifying element, it is evidently holiness in the moral
sense that is predicated of it.
The contrast between the work of
the Baptist, and that of the Messiah, amounts to
this, that the
mightier one who is to follow John will do the real work of which
the Baptist is able to perform only the sign.
Water cleanses only
the body, and represents figuratively the inward
cleansing of the
man. But the Holy Spirit is the element in which man is cleansed
1

On

the use of the adverb as a preposition, see Thay.-Grm. Lex.;

Win.

54. 6,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

!O

[I.

8-11

which the coming


inwardly and really, and it is this real baptism
one was to perform. So far as it is given us in the Gospels, John s
annunciation of the Messiah includes only the spiritual side of his
with the historical fact.
anticipated work, and thus corresponds
But John s later doubt could have arisen probably only from the
failure of Jesus to carry out the kingly part of the Jewish Messianic
2 19
And it would be quite improbable
See Mt.
expectation.
that John would be so far separated from his time as to expect a
purely spiritual Messiah.

In this paragraph, the signs of Mk. s use of the Logia are not wanting.
In the first place, O.T. citations are not common in Mk., but are quite
And especially, the first part of the double
characteristic of the Logia.
2 3
Lk. 7 27 taken unquestionably from that source.
quotation is, in Mk. I
The somewhat clumsy junction of the two passages is due apparently to
And Mt. 3 12
the original source.
bringing together what was separated in
Lk. 3 17 show signs of being connected with what precedes in the original
Mk. omits this, but gives what precedes with the identity of
source.
For the verbal
three.
language that shows a common source for all
3
I
resemblance, implying the interdependence of the Synoptics, cf. Mk^
LXX, to afirov in
Mt. 3 s Lk. 34 especially the change of rov 6eoO
Lk. 3).
Mt.
Mt. 34 5 6 Mk. i
them all (Mk. I* Lk. 3 3 Mk. !
-

i)/j.u>v,

3"

THE BAPTISM OP JESUS


9-11. Jesus is baptized by John. The Holy Spirit descends
his Divine
upon him, and the voice from heaven attests

mission.

As he comes
the rest, Jesus comes to John s baptism.
in
the form of
on
him
up out of the water, the Spirit descends
into
which
work
him for the
a dove,
baptism has inau

Among

preparing
his reign; and a
gurated him and signifying the gentleness of
Messianic Son of
the
him
to
be
heaven
of
voice out
proclaims

God who

won

the special Divine favor.


as it
paragraph begins the story of Jesus life, but
treats of events preceding his public ministry, the story of the
and of the temptation conforms to Mk. s plan outside of

With

has

this

baptism

given briefly. E.g. Mk. does not consider


it necessary to explain the evident difficulty attending the baptism
The visible form
of Jesus, as Mt. does, but gives only the fact.
is
in
its
descent
the
evidently intended
taken
upon Jesus

that ministry,

by

and

is

Spirit

But the
to be, like the voice, a theophany, attesting his mission.
is intended to prepare him for his work, and so
itself
Spirit
descends upon him

now

at the beginning of that

work

cf. v.

12
.

I. 9,

THE BAPTISM OF JESUS

10]

9.

Ktu eyevero rj\0cv

ev e/cetVats rats

1 1

^epais

in those days,

a general designation of time, and denotes here the period


of John s ministry.
Nazareth of Galilee.
Naaper T^S FaAtAatas
The explanatory T?}S FaXtXatas is for the information of the unin
formed, and is a sign therefore, that this Gospel was written for
This is the only place in Mk. where Nazareth is
Gentile readers.
mentioned, though Jesus is called a Nazarene in several places
24
io47 i6 G i467 ).
It was the home of Jesus during his private
(i

This

is

life.
2G 4 39 51 1G this was
4 ,
According to Lk. I 2
owing to the previous residence
of his parents in Nazareth.
Mt., however, tells us that they took up their
abode there after their return from Egypt, because they were turned aside
from Bethlehem by the succession of Archelaus to his father s throne,
which made Judaea no longer a safe place for them (2- 3 ).
-

Nazareth was in the interior about midway between the Lake


of Galilee and the Mediterranean.
It is at present a town of
about 5000 inhabitants, going by the name of En Nazira. 2
into the Jordan.
The prep, here coincides
eis TOV lopSavtyv
with the proper meaning of the verb, indicating that the form of
the rite was immersion into the stream.
The prep. IK in the next
verse,
going up out of the water,
implies the same.
10.

And immediately?

Kat eu0vs

dva/foiVajv

e/c

going up out

of-

K (instead of dirty Tisch. Treg.

TOUS

The

oupavous

WH. RV.N BDL

the

pres. part, denotes action in

action.

13, 28, 33, 69, 124.

heavens opening, not opened.


its progress, not completed

as a dove.
Lk. 3 22 says that this resemblance
was in bodily shape. And the language itself implies that. The
dove was the emblem of guilelessness (Mt. io 16 ). It was not a

Trepio-Tepav

bird of prey.
The appearance accords with the gentleness of
Christ s reign.
The descent of the Spirit was moreover a real
It was not merely
event, while the appearance was only a vision.
a sign that here was a person endued with the Spirit, but a special
influence beginning at the time, and preparing him for his new
work. It was like the descent of the Spirit at Pentecost, prepar
ing the disciples for their new work. Neither event implied in any
5
And
way that the Spirit was not present in their lives before.
1

This circumlocution for the simple verb is a translation of the Heb. l ^rw, and
foreign to the Greek idiom. The absence of a conj. between the two verbs is
also a solecism.
2 See Bib. Die.
On the form of the Greek name, see Thay.-Grm. Lex.
3 This adverb is one of the marks of
the style of this Gospel.
It is used by Mk.
nearly twice as often as by Mt. and Lk. together, eiflu? is substituted for cvOc ut in
the critical texts in most of these passages in Mk. See
Thay.-Grm. Lex.
is

See Burton, N. T. Moods and Tenses,

On

this office of the Spirit, cf. Is.

na

125.
.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

12

[I.

10-12

we

find in all the Synoptics mention that Jesus began his ministry
under the impulsions of the Spirit. See Mt. 1 2 28 Mk. i 12 Lk. 4*- 18
This descent of the Spirit is moreover indicative of the meaning
of our Lord s baptism. It has already been indicated that the
real baptism, of which that in the water is only the sign, is a bap
tism in the Holy Spirit, and it is this which is signified by the
baptism of Jesus, but without the accompanying repentance which
belongs to the baptism of the rest of the people.
11. Kal
And a voice (came).
(eye vero)
"

<o)VT/

Omit *y&ero Tisch. (WH.) N

is

ff.

2.

Thou art my beloved Son. This


2v et 6 vtos /tiov 6 dyaTT^Tos
one of the passages in the Synoptics which indicate that the

Synoptical use of vtos (row


eoS) applied to Jesus, conforms to
current Jewish usage, omitting the metaphysical Sonship, and
including only the theocratic, or figurative meaning of the word.
The aor. evSoKrja-a, I came to take pleasure, denotes the historical
process by which God came to take pleasure in Jesus during his
The
earthly life, not the eternal delight of the Father in the Son.
title here would denote one, therefore, who has been received
into special love and favor by God, as Paul calls Timothy his son
2
It accords with Lk. s statement, that Jesus grew in
(i Tim. i ).
1
52
in thee I
favor with God and man (Lk. 2 ).
cv a-ol evSo/o/cra

came

to take^ pleasure.
lv aol (instead of ev

69, Lat. Vet. Vulg.

y) Tisch. Treg.

Memph.

WH. RV.N BDLP

I,

13, 22, 33,

Pesh.

THE TEMPTATION
12, 13.

Jesus

retires into the wilderness,

forty days, tempted by Satan,

where he remains

and attended by

angels.

after the baptism, Jesus is impelled

Immediately

by the

Spirit

He remains
has taken possession of him into the wilderness.
the
wild
attended
there forty days, surrounded by
beasts,
by

who

angels,

and tempted by Satan.

It is especially the story of the temptation, in the

period pre
He
the public ministry, which is abbreviated by Mk.
the
the
wild
fact
of
the
the
us
place,
temptation,
simply
gives
erness, the time, forty days, and the descriptive touch, that he

ceding

was with the wild

beasts.

Kai

And

12.

evflvs

event, with
1

On this

its

This
immediately, viz., after the baptism.
is of the nature of an inaugural

accompaniments,

use of the

aor., see

Win.

40, 2

Burton,

N. T. Moods and

Tenses, 55.

I.

THE TEMPTATION

12, 13]

13

followed immediately by his retirement into the


time, the circumstances, and the nature of the
all point to the probability that this retirement was
temptations,
for the purpose of meditation upon the work into which he had
been inaugurated. Moreover, the IIvtv/j.a, the Spirit, connects this
He begins now immediately to
with the account of the baptism.
act under the impulsions of the Spirit which he has just received.
Mt. and Lk. both use the milder
thrusts him out.
fx(3d\Xu
This
the wilderness.
this,
rrjv ep^ov
ayuv, to lead, to describe
But,
is the same general region in which the baptism took place.
inasmuch as it was from the wilderness into the wilderness, and

And

act.

is

it

wilderness.

The

that he was with the wild beasts,


still further into its solitudes.

Mk. adds

it

must mean that he

penetrated

And he was in
This period is given by both Mk. and
Lk. as that of the temptation, though Mt. and Lk. both give us
Mt. makes
the three special temptations following the forty days.
Used here
these the only temptations.
tempted.
7reipaoju,evos
of an actual solicitation to evil.
13.

Kat

rjv

i/

rrj

ep^/Aw Tecro-epaKOVTO. ^juepas

the wilderness forty days.

of weipdfav is to try, in the sense both of attempt


through the latter meaning that it comes to be applied to
of character, whether by trial, or by solicitation to evil.

The proper meaning


and

test.

the test

It is

1
The name is Hebrew, but the personage
Satan.
in O.T. narrative or discourse (i Chr. 21*
much
not
does
figure
1 2
6 9
In the N.T., he is represented, in
2 lslw -)Zech. 3
Job i
accordance with current Jewish ideas, as the ruler of a kingdom
of evil, having subjects and emissaries in the shape of demons,
corresponding to the angels who act as God s messengers. His
with
/U.CTO. TUJV dtjpwv
special function is to tempt men to evil.
The desert of Judaea is in parts wild and un
the wild beasts.
tamed, and abounds in beasts of the same description, such as
the leopard, the bear, the wild boar, and the jackal. This descrip
tive touch, in which, just as with a word, the wildness and solitari
ness of the scene are brought before us, and equally, the omission
of details of the temptation, are characteristics of Mk. The omis
sion accords with the plan of his Gospel, but, also, with a certain
See Introduction. SIT/KOVOW
objective quality belonging to it.
This ministry, like the temptations, is rep
were ministering?
In our
resented in Mt. as taking place after the forty days.
account, it is evidently an offset to the presence of the wild beasts.
The visible things figuring in the scene were these beasts, but

2Q.Ta.va
-

there were invisible presences as well, and these were minister


Mk. does not tell us what the ministrations were.
ing to him.

(Nor Mt.)
1

The

Heb. word, meaning the Adversary.


in the wilderness.
impf. describes the act as taking place during his stay

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


The

[I.

14-20

account of the temptation is attacked with some


There are certain things about it on which a just historical
criticism throws some doubt.
There is a concreteness about the appear
ance of Satan, and of the angels, an air of visibility even, an
impression of
actual transportation through the air, and the introduction of a
typical
1
number (forty), which can, however, easily be eliminated without touch
ing the essential history. The account which has been preserved is evi
dently the pictorial and concrete story of what really took place within the
soul of Jesus.
But the temptations themselves, just because they
represent
the actual temptations of his later life, are a portrait, and not an
imagina
tive picture.
Holtzmann, in his Note on the passage, gives an admirable
statement of the way in which the story corresponds to the real
temptations
of Jesus life.
But his argument that some one made up this story from
those falls to the ground.
It implies that some one understood that life
better than any contemporary did understand it.
historicity of the

plausibility.

BEGINNING OF JESUS MINISTRY


14-20. After John s imprisonment, Jesus goes to Galilee,
where he begins his ministry with the proclamation of the
kingdom of God.
After the imprisonment of John, Jesus departs into Galilee,
where he begins his ministry with the proclamation of the good
news of the kingdom of God, announcing the completion of the

time for

He

it.

finds Peter,

Andrew, James, and John fishing in


them to follow him and become

the lake of Galilee, and calls


fishers of men.

The order

of events in the Synoptics

is

as follows

MATTHEW.

MARK.

Delivering up of John

Delivering up of John

(mere mention).

(mere mention).

Departure into Galilee.

Departure into Galilee.

Change of residence

Delivering up of John
(account), 3

19

2.

Departure into Galilee.

Beginning of teaching.

from Nazareth to Ca

Rejection at Nazareth.

pernaum.

Coming

to

Capernaum.

First miracles.

Beginning

of

Jesus

teaching.
Call of first disciples.

Beginning

of Jesus

Call of

first

General teaching in syn

agogues

teaching.
disciples.

Call of

in Galilee.

first

disciples.

The
of

all

The evident intention


general order of events is the same.
is to connect the beginning of Jesus ministry with the close

1 Moses was in the


in the wilderness forty

mount forty days and forty


days and forty nights (i K.

18

28

nights (Ex. 24
34 ), Elijah was
8
iQ ), and the Christophanies after
the resurrection covered a period of forty days (Acts i 3 ).
,

THE

I 14, 15]

FIRST DISCIPLES

15

this is more evident in Mt. and Mk. than


mark
at the beginning that it is a Galilean
in Lk.
They
and
tell
us that it was the good news of the
Mt.
Mk.
ministry.

of John

work, though
also

kingdom of God which was proclaimed by


this in incidentally.

He

Jesus.

Lk. also brings

also introduces the rejection at Nazareth,

evidently to account for the removal to Capernaum, and inserts


the first miracles and a tour of preaching in Galilee before the call

of the

first

disciples.

MCTO, Se TO TrapaooOfjvai TOV Ivdvvrjv

14.

And

offer the deliv

Mt. and Mk. assume this as a well known fact.


ering up of John.
20
The others tell it later (Mk. 6 17 29 )
Lk. tells the story of it (s 18 )
into Galilee.
The connection of events is lost
rrjv TaXiXaiav
here in the brevity of the narrative. We are not told whether
Jesus came into Galilee because of the imprisonment of John,
and being there, began his ministry; or whether he began his
.

ministry because John s ministry was ended, and chose Galilee as


the scene for it.
But, inasmuch as Jesus is represented by the
Synoptics as continuing his work in Galilee until the end, it is
It is the demands of his work that take him
evidently the latter.
to Galilee, and John s imprisonment is the occasion of his begin
ning his work, and only indirectly of his coming to Galilee. More
over, they do not tell us why Galilee became the scene of his
But the reason is evident. It was not the headquar
ministry.
ters of Judaism ; and events showed that Jesus work would have
been impossible in the stronghold of that unsympathetic faith.
The fourth gospel tells of a preliminary work of eight months in
Judaea, but the Synoptics are not only silent about it, but exclude
it by their evident intention to
represent this as the beginning of

Jesus work.

Heb. Wlj circle, was originally the name of only a small circuit
one of the tribes inhabiting the northern section of Palestine. But in
the time of our Lord, it had come to be applied to the Roman province
including the whole territory of the four northern tribes. It was inhabited
11
7
32 I K.
by a mixed population of Jews and Gentiles. See Jos. 2O 2i
9
Galilee,

in

2K.

IS

29 .

TO ewxyyeAioi TOV

Omit

rrjs /SacriXefas

eov

glad tidings of God.

before TOV GeoC Tisch. Treg.

69, 209, mss. of Lat. Vet.

WH. RV.

BL.

i,

28, 33,

Memph.

glad tidings of God is here the glad tidings from God, who
the author and sender of the message (subj. gen.). The good
news itself, as the next verse shows, is that of the kingdom.
15. The words, /ecu Ae yw, and saying, at the beginning of this
verse, are to be omitted.

The

is

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[l.

15

Kal Mywv Tisch. \VH. (/ecu \4yuv) N one ms. of Lat. Vet., Orig.
insertion of /ecu \^yuv is caused probably by the interpolation of rijs
The two go together.
in the preceding verse.

Omit

The

/#
/w/ has been filled up, or completed.
7r7rAi/pamu 6 Kaipo s
EV. is etymologically correct, but misleading, on account
of its technical use to denote the accomplishment of expectation,
promise, or prophecy. What is denoted here is the filling up of
the time appointed for the coming of the Kingdom. This idea
of an appointment of times, as well as of events, is thoroughly
But to Jesus, who read the
Jewish, referring all things to God.
3
signs of the times (Mt. i6 ), the language signified not only a
The time revealed itself to
theology, but a philosophy of events.
Fulfilled,

him

as ripe for the event.


TOV
17 /focriAeia

The kingdom of God has come


eou
This message assumes evidently the existence of the idea
of a kingdom of God among the Jews as a familiar thought. The
announcement is, that this expected kingdom is at hand. Jesus
does not announce a new fact, nor does he enter here upon any
exposition of the nature of the kingdom, such as belonged to his
He
later teaching, but simply announces the expected kingdom.
does not enter into the question of the difference between his
iJyyiKcv

near.

spiritual kingdom, and the earthly kingdom of Jewish expectation.


It is enough for his present purpose to announce it as a kingdom

of God, and so to prepare the

way

for his call to repentance.

This announcement has to be located


Jesus; secondly, in

its

relation to

John

first,

in the life

message; and

and teaching of

thirdly, in current

Jewish thought. In Jesus own thought it is central; the kingdom of God


is the subject of his teaching, and his object is to revolutionize the current
And moreover, in its con
idea; but that necessary change comes later.
nection with his later activity, it constitutes the announcement that the
object of that was the establishment of the kingdom of God, and not

merely the instruction of the people as to its nature. He was in his earthly
In its relation to John s message, this
work prophet, but also king.

announcement of Jesus was the continuation and development of that,


of
repeating his call to repentance, but substituting for his announcement
the coming One, that of the coming Kingdom. This is in accordance with
Jesus impersonal

manner of

treating his work.

In

its

relation to current

This is
Jewish thought, this announcement fulfilled national expectations.
evident from the reception given to Jesus by the nation, and from the
This literature shows that the idea of
books of the
Jewish deliverance and greatness, started in the prophetic
O.T., had not been allowed to lapse, but had gradually taken shape in the
idea of a universal kingdom ruled by God himself, with the Messiah as his
uncanonical Jewish literature.

as its
earthly vice-gerent, having Palestine as its centre and Jerusalem
who had been raised to
capital, and including in itself the righteous dead,

I.

THE FIRST DISCIPLES

15, 16]
share

its

And

glories.

shows that

this

I/

the attitude of the people during the life of Jesus


at this time a subject of fervid popular hope

had become

and expectation.

This

repent.

jueravoeire

Kat

is

a continuation of John

and believe

message.

in the

good news, is,


however, a distinct addition to that message. The ewyyeXiov,
good news, is that the expected kingdom is at hand. Our word
TTiCTreuere

(.v

ru>

evayyeXia)

gospel, with its acquired meaning, is again singularly out of place


here, as it inevitably obscures this obvious reference to the evayyeeov just mentioned.
Trio-revere, believe, is another word
It is purely and
that has to be evacuated of its theological sense.
simply belief of the message brought by Jesus, that the kingdom
If a crisis is coming, and men are to be pre
of God is at hand.

Xiov row

pared for it, the first requisite is, that they believe in
And going along by?
16. Kai Trapaywv Trapa
Kal irapdyuv, instead of

WH. RV.

BDL

irepi.ira.TCiv

8,

is

13, 33, 69, 124, 346, Latt.

its

coming.

the reading of Tisch. Treg.

Memph. Hard. marg.

etc.

sea of Galilee.
This lake was
rrjv 0oXacro-av rr/s FaXtXatas
On its NW. shore were the towns
the scene of Jesus ministry.
of Capernaum, Magdala, Chorazin, and Bethsaida, referred to by
Jesus himself as the district in which his mighty works were done.
And its eastern shore, being uninhabited, was the place to which
he used to retire to escape the multitudes. It was a lake 12
The
miles long, and 6 miles wide at the place of greatest width.
Jordan river enters it about 20 miles from its source. The use of
<9oXao-o-a

in

its

name

is

uncommon

In Lk., it is called commonly TJ


of Gennesareth, from the district on
Tiberias, from the principal city on

in Greek.

\l/j.v-rj

the lake ; once, Lk. 5 1 , the lake


1
shore.
J. 2I , calls it the sea of

its

W.

its

shore.

or rn-UD sea of Chinnereth, or Chinneroth.

TOV
eV TTJ OaXdaro-r)
a net in the sea.

e<ov

The Heb. name


See Nu.

34"

is

Jos. I3

rn:i:>

0^

27 12^.

TOV

Simon and Andrew

the brother of

Simon

casting

BAE LM

2
StVwoos instead of aurou, Tisch. Treg. W1I. RV. M
number of other texts read atrroD TOV
69, Lat. Vet. (a) Memph.
RV. N
Sl/j-uvos.
d/j.<pipd\\ovTas without dfjt,(filfi\r]ffTpov, Tisch. Treg.

(TOV)

I,

WH.

BE*FGHKLSUV.
The
teristic

repetition of the

of

Mk.

noun 2tV wl/0 s

dfJL&pXrjo-Tpov

is

in a case like this is charac


a thing thrown round another,

regular construction after TnorTeu eiv is the simple dat. In the N.T. we find
but also ei? with ace. and TTI with ace. or dat. This construction with iv is
found only here, and in John 3 15 .
2 The common construction after
napdyw is the simple dat. This repetition of
irapd is not found elsewhere.
1

this,

The

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[I.

17-19

as a net about fish, clothes about a person.


Hence a/x.<i/2oAAoi/Tas,
used absolutely here, and suggesting the d/A^t/SAijo-Tpov, the net, as
1
it certainly does, means to throw the net about the fish.
2
17. SetJrc oTrto-o) /xou
Come after me.
Following is in the

N.T. a figurative expression for discipleship, especially for that


which involved personal attendance upon Jesus. This use of
follow belongs to a general use by which it is applied to any per
attendance, as of a soldier. oAtets avOpw-n-wv
fishers of
i6 16
This is the first instance of the use of para
bolic language, so common in the discourse of Jesus.
The para
ble is not necessarily drawn out into a story, or a stated comparison ;
it may be
expressed in a word as here. In it, Jesus simply brings
together things of the outer and inner world, expressing the
unfamiliar in the terms of the common and familiar.
The effec
tiveness of it depends on the general likeness of the two worlds.
sonal

men;

18.

cf. Jer.

Kat tvOvs d^evTcs

TO,

SIKTVO,

And

immediately having

left

their nets.

WH.

N L 33. Omit avruv after TO. dlKTva


et/0i)j, instead of ei)0<?ws, Tisch.
Tisch. Treg.
RV. N BCL, some mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.

WH.

This immediate following is due probably to a previous ac


quaintance with Jesus and his teaching. They had been attracted
to him before, and so were prepared to heed this apparently abrupt
35 43
call to become his personal followers.
tells us that they
John i
became disciples a year before this, during the ministry of John
the Baptist.
19.

Kat

7rpo/3as oAtyov

And having gone forward a


WH.

Omit ciceWev thence, Tisch. Treg.


RV.
209, Lat. Vet. (some mss.) Memph. Pesh. etc.

BDL

I,

little.

28, 118, 124, 131,

the O.T. Jacob.


He is named commonly
ld.K(af3ov
James
before John, implying that he was the older brother. Ze/3e8ut ou
Zebedee.
Known only as the father of his two sons, and men
tioned only in connection with the present event (Mt. 4 21 ).
The

mother was Salome.3 Kai aurovs


who also, EV., gives the sense
of these words. They express the identity of the occupation of
these two with that of Peter and Andrew.
They were also in
their fishermen s boat, though they were mending their nets, in
stead of casting them.
KaTa/3Tiovras
mending*

Thay.-Grm. Lex. explains the word as meaning

place,

and then

2 Aeure is

throw about,

SeCpo.

The

first

in

one

use of the adv.

onia-ia /now, is a sign of the Hellenistic Greek of the N.T. (Win. 54, 6).
Mt. 27 56 with Mk. is 40 .
KaTapn ^eiv means in general to put in complete order, and may be applied

as a prep.,
3 Cf.
4

to

in another.

a plural imperative, formed from the adv.

either to the original fitting out, or to repairs.

T.

THE FIRST MIRACLE

20-28]

19

And immediately he called them.


avrovs
attaches to the call itself, in the former
He called them immediately, i.e., without
case to the response.
act on his part.
or
preparatory
any preliminary
20.

Kcu tvOvs

e/coAeo-cv

The immediateness here

ei)0i>s

is

here again substituted for evOtus.

most of the cases where


authorities in each case.

it

is

In brief

used in Mk.

they went away after


a.Tnj\Oov oVicrw /xou
illustration of the way in which this act

good

it is

so substituted in

unnecessary to cite the

It is

him. This is a very


of following acquires

and in which also the original and figurative


figurative meaning,
outward act was going
meanings may be combined. Here the
in the sense
away after Jesus, but the meaning of it was following

its

of discipleship.

The accounts of this call in the Synoptics furnish a good example of the
Between Mt. 418- 22 and Mk., there is
varying relations of these gospels.
the close verbal resemblance which can be explained only by their interde
Lk., on the other hand, presents a different version, evidently

pendence.
from an independent source, and it differs from the others just as we should
of the same event to differ. The points of
expect independent accounts
difference in Lk. s account are: (a) he found the boats empty; (b~) the
fishermen belonging to both were washing their nets; (c) the different
occasion of the promise about catching men, which is in this case addressed
to Peter alone; (d) the introduction of the discourse to the multitude

from the boat, and of the miraculous draught of fishes, which can be
the connection given
brought into the account of Mt. and Mk., but not in
event in which all four men
a
whole
the
makes
he
single
Lk.;
(e)
by

Mk. give two calls addressed successively


participated, while Mt. and
independently to the men in each boat.

and

THE FIRST MIRACLE


at
Healing of a demoniac in the synagogue
Capernaum.
21-28.

in the Synagogue in
Jesus comes to Capernaum, and teaches
such a way as to impress the people with the authority of his

utterance,

and with the marked difference

himself and

the Scribes.

in this respect

The impression

between

deepened by his
healing a demoniac in the
is

demons displayed in
synagogue, and his fame travels over the surrounding country.
This is the first miracle recorded in Mk. and Lk. And it is
that the miracle selected, the casting out of demons,

authority over

significant

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

20
is

Mk. 1

the representative miracle in

gogue

at

Capernaum.

This

The scene

[l.

is

in the

21

Syna

another beginning, the synagogue

is

being the chosen place for Jesus teaching in the early part of his

The journey through

ministry.

lowed

Galilee, which immediately fol


described as a preaching tour in the syna
2
After
synagogue is again the scene in 3*, and in 6

this event, is

gogues.

The

and probably this means that the freedom of the


synagogue was allowed him only at first. The effect of the mira
cle on the people, and Jesus refusal to follow up this effect, his
that

it

drops out,

evident desire to avoid the notoriety accompanying it, are begin


nings of a more important character. They show us at the very
outset the kind of success which he had, and the estimate which
he placed upon it. And we also get the impression which Jesus

made upon

the people from the very start, in which it is


contrasted
with
that of the Scribes.
He was without
expressly
outward authority, while they were the acknowledged teachers of

teaching

the nation

and yet the impression which his teaching made and


make, was that of authority. Holtzmann remarks

theirs failed to

that the sketchiness peculiar to Mk. s opening verses ends here,


and gives place in this account to greater amplitude of narration.
21.

Kat

ao-Tropeuovrai eis

Ka<apvaou/A.

And

they

enter into

Capernaum.
otVt

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BD

33, 69, Latt.

Memph.

WH.

App. p. 1 60, say that Ka-rrepvaov/j. is a distinctly Syrian corruption of the


name. Ka^apvaou/t is substituted by Tisch. Treg. WH. in every place in
which the name occurs.

Mk. does not tell us that Capernaum became the residence of


He does not even tell of his leaving Nazareth,
Jesus at this time.
though he has implied, v. 9, that that was his home at the time of
the baptism.
See Mt. 413 Lk. 4 16 31 . Mt. and Lk. have very much
the
more
appearance of ordered narration, locating what is intro
duced into the narrative. Capernaum is on the NW. shore of the
Lake of Galilee, though there is a dispute as to its more exact
It does not appear in the O.T.
location.
The general opinion identifies Capernaum with Tell Hum, about three
miles S. of the place where the river enters the lake.
Some three miles
further S., is Khan Minyeh, the site defended by Dr. Robinson. The only
considerable ruins are at Tell Hum.

See

v.39 6 7

cf.

Mt. xo 1 Lk.

91.

I.

THE FIRST MIRACLE

21, 22]

Keu

v0i>?

TOIS

<rd(3(3a<nv

And

21

immediately on the Sabbath.

coming into Capernaum, on the first Sabbath,


Immediately on
he began his teaching in the synagogue. eSi Scur/cej/ eis TT)V
his

was

he

yr/v

Omit

teaching in the synagogue.


having entered, before

et s TTJV (rvvayuy-fiv Tisch.


(Treg.)
The external
28, 69, 346, Memph. (2 edd.) Pesh. etc.
evidence is not conclusive, but etVeX^cov seems to be an emendation of a
form of expression characteristic of Mk.; cf. v. 39 (Tisch. Treg.
RV.).

WH.

fiffeXdoiiv,

marg. N

CL

WH.

The

construction fdidaa-Kfv et s is very nearly equivalent to the dat. of indir.


See Thay.-Grm. Lex., eh, I, A,
obj., and denotes the direction of the act.
5,b.

The

provision of the synagogue service, which made it available


purpose, and caused him to choose that as one of his
means of obtaining access to the people, was the freedom of its
The performance of public worship or instruction was
service.
not committed to any officials, but to any one selected for the
purpose by the dpxio-waywyo?, the ruler of the synagogue. For an
connected this teaching with
example of the way in which Jesus
the Scripture reading, see Lk. 4 1G 30 .
for Jesus

The synagogue was the formal assembly in Jewish towns, or in the


No
Jewish quarters of the Gentile cities, for instruction in the law.
provision for such an institution was made in the law itself, and it dates
probably from the

exile.

The

service consisted of prayer, reading of Scrip

and exposition by any rabbi, or other person present and competent


to teach.
There was a body of elders, generally the civic authorities in
Jewish towns, who had charge of the general affairs of the synagogue.
The special officers were an apxivvvdyuyos, or synagogue ruler, who had
ture,

charge of the synagogue worship, appointing readers and exhorters; the


alms-receivers; and the vwrjp^Tai, whose chief function was to bring forth
the Scriptures for public worship, and to return them to their
place, but
who, in general, were the subordinate functionaries, the beadles of the
congregation.

Km

And they were astonished.


etirXr)(T(rovTo
strong
descriptive word for amazement, meaning strictly to strike a person
out of his senses by some strong feeling, such as fear, wonder, or
even joy.
The
teaching (RV.) not doctrine (AV.).
SiBaxfj
reason given for their astonishment concerned the manner of his
eSt Sao-Kev
he was teaching, not he
teaching, not its substance.
22.

taught (EV.).
1

Heb.

ws eovo-iav

?x wv

as having authority

a rest-day.

(RV.).

This dat. plur. of the third declension is frequent in


plural is used frequently in the N.T. for a single
Sabbath, a use either corresponding to the plur. of festivals, ri cyxaiVia etc., or
from
the
coming
emphatic Chald. form Nrott
2 This use of
o-uvaywyij to denote an assembly, or the place of assemblage,
to
the
N.T. In the Gr., it denotes the act of assembling.
belongs
rosy,

the N.T., not in the Sept.

The

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

22

[l.

22,

23

What
They

this authority was, the contrast with the Scribes indicates.


had, and constantly cited, external authority for their teach
His authority then, which
says this.
They said, Rabbi
ing.
they did not have, was internal, proceeding from vision. The diffi
culty with the Scribes, and with men of their class, is that they
carry external authority into the realm of intuitive truth.
1
These were the men with whom
the Scribes.
ot ypap.fjLarf.l<i
chief
his
controversy. They were the authors of the
Jesus had
f 13
tradition, which he claimed made void the word of God.
The Pharisees were the party of adherents to this traditional law,
whom they gathered about themselves. Their function was that
of interpreters and expounders of the law, and especially the decis
.

ion of difficult cases under its different commands. They sought


in this way to apply such a general law as the Sabbath, e.g. to all
possible cases that could arise under it, in such a way as to safe
guard it against possible violation. They were ignorant of the
modern historical interpretation, and of Jesus spiritual exposition,
and they systematized the allegorical method. To this body of

an authority
casuistry and essentially false interpretation they gave
equal to that of Scripture, and even superior to it. The conse
quence was that they built up a system, in which the spiritual ele
ment of the O.T. was minimized, and the external, formal,
positive element
i,

was emphasized.

25.
23.

Insert

between Kai and ty Tisch. (Treg.)

e0i>s

II.

And immediately.

Kai eu0us

131, 209,

See Schurer on Scribism,

Memph.

WH.

RV. N

BL

I,

33,

etc.

immediately, here and in v.

21

shows the rapid sequence


,
of events after he entered Capernaum. He was no sooner in the
in the syna
city than he entered the synagogue, and no sooner
gogue than this demoniac appeared.
The prep, is used
in an unclean spirit.
ev irvc.vpa.Ti aKa.Qa.pTu>
to denote possession by the evil spirit, in the same way as ev Xpiorw,
in Christ, cv ILvf.vpa.Ti Ayi w, in the Holy Spirit, denote the intimate
connection between the Christian and Christ, or the Holy Spirit.
The two beings are conceived as somehow ensphering each other,
and sometimes one, sometimes the other, is said to enclose the
in the
being identified with it. The demon, e.g., is said to be
man, or the man in the demon. In this case, the man is said to
be in the unclean spirit, and v. 27, the unclean spirit is said to
evflus

1 In the
to an official
Gr., ypa^arev? denotes a clerk or recorder, and is applied
class whose general function corresponds to that of the clerks of judicial and repre
sentative bodies. Among the Jews, it meant a lettered man, one acquainted with
the sacred writings. They are called also popiicot, lawyers, or men versed in the
the law; iepoypannarets, because they dealt with
law; Ko/aoSiSao-xaAoi, teachers

of

the sacred writings

and Rabbis, great

ones.

I.

THE FIRST MIRACLE

23-25]

come

out of him.

demon (AV.

1
devil), to designate these spirits.
their chief, or Satan.
See 3^- 2S.

8aip.ovi.ov,

bul

is

used interchangeably with

aKa.6a.prov is

Trvtvp.0.

33

The

demoniacal possession

reality of

argument against it
It was the
natural.

that the

is

Beelze-

The

a matter of doubt.

serious

are mostly natural, not super


unscientific habit of the ancient mind to account for
is,

phenomena

abnormal and uncanny things, such as lunacy and epilepsy, supernaturally.


in such cases, outside of the Bible, we
accept the facts, but ascribe

And

them

Another serious

to natural causes.

epilepsy are

common

and

that

is

difficulty

in the East, as elsewhere,

lunacy and

yet, unless these are

we do not find Jesus healing these disorders as such, but only cases
of demoniacal possession in which these Were symptoms. The dilemma is
very curious. Outside the N.T., no demoniacal possession, but only lunacy
and epilepsy; in the N.T., no cases of lunacy and, epilepsy proper, but only
cases,

demoniacal possession.
24.

What

Ko.1

aveKpae

to

us

and

See, however, Weiss, Life of Jesus, III. 6.

and he
to

thee,

which gives you the right


Omit

Tisch. Trejj.

"Eci

cried out?

literally.

to interfere

W1I. RV. x*

rjfuv KO.L crot

("Ecr.)

What have we

in

common

with us ?

BD

157,

LaU.

Pesh.

Memph.

etc.

did you come to destroy us / The demons


^A0es u7roAeo-ui
were afraid that Jesus was not only going to cast them out, but to
remand them to the torments of Gehenna. See Mt. S 29 Lk. 8 31
I know thee who thou art. The change from the
ol8d o-e TIS ct
plural yp.lv, to us, to the sing. olSa, I know, simply brings us back
to the person speaking for himself, whereas in the fjp. iv, the demon
speaks for his class. The question is, what have we demons to
do with you? The statement of the demoniac, / know thee, is
34
inspired by the demon, and is so explained in v.
i)p,a.<;

Memph.

WII. marg. N L A
agree with the plur.

substituted for ol5a by Tisch. Treg. marg.

is

etc.

probable emendation to

make

this

rjufv.

6 ayios TOU

the holy one of God.


The one consecrated
in his service. 3
It gives here
See J. io;}6
the demon feared that a part of Jesus mission

eou

God, and employed

to

the reason

why

(rjA0es) was to dismiss them to their place.


25. Kat eTrert/ATjcrej/ aura) 6

I^troCs, (frip-wOyTt.

him

sharply,

Be

Omit \tyuv, saying, T. (WH.) K A*.


over the roughness of eirerL^ffev alone.
*

This use of

The
The

And Jesus charged

still.*

iri/eC/ua

It is inserted

apparently to get

belongs to Biblical Greek.

and late." Sec. aor. ivexpayov common.


only other place in which this term is applied to Tesus is
(Tisch. Treg.
RV.).
4 For other
examples of this meaning of en-in/ua^, see Mk. 8 30 3 la Mt.
3

first

aor.

"

is

WH.

rare

John
I2K>.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

24

[l.

25-28

Its metaphorical use to denote


literally, be muzzled.
to later Greek.
in
other
to
silence
belongs
ways
putting
It is used in medical
26. o-7rapauv
having convulsed him.
falJiuOrjTi

And

writers of the convulsive action of the stomach in retching.


it is evidently in this secondary sense of convulsing that the

used here, not of actual tearing or lacerating,


having cried with a great cry.
ft.tydX.rj
Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BL 33, etc. ^uvr/trav instead
is

CLVTOVS,

(fxavrja-av

(jj<avfj

of Kpa^av.

so that they discussed.

wore arv^Tetv aurovs

27.

word

WH.

instead of Trpds avrovs (eauroi;?) Tisch.

B and

mss. of

Lat. Vet.
to discuss,

tru^r/retv
KO.T

(.^ova-Lav

ing according
didaxr)
33. 102.

KM

Tt eori TOVTO

or question?

What is

TOIS Trvev/xacrt, etc.

to authority.

KO.IVT} /car

And he

i!-ovffla.v is

commands,

SiSa^r)

this ?

new

KCIIVT)

teach

etc.

WH. RV.

the reading of Tisch. Treg.

BL

texts which adopt the above reading, with the


of
They connect KOT
Tisch.,
punctuate differently.
exception
eouo-iav with what follows, so that it reads, a new teaching; with
But according to
authority he commands even the unclean spirits.
22
v. , this new element of authority resides in the teaching itself,
ouo-iav belongs more naturally with StSa;(?) Kaivi/.
so that Kar
This new, authoritative teaching makes the first ground of their
And in addition to this, not a part of it, is their
astonishment.
astonishment at the submission of the spirits to his command.
This is the third instance of this word
28. tvOvs, immediately.
in this short paragraph.
Lk., in spite of his general verbal resem
blance to Mk., omits it in every case. Here it shows the immediateness of the fame which followed such exhibitions of authority.

The

critical

Tfavraxov

eis

oXtjv ryv

Trcpix>pov

everywhere, into all the neigh

borhood?
Insert
mss.),

ira.vTa.-x.ov

Tisch. (Treg.)

WH.

RV. N

BCL

69, Lat. Vet.

(some

Memph.

n?s TaXiXatas

is

partitive gen.,

denoting the part of Galilee that

lay about Capernaum.


Lk. is parallel to Mk. here

31 - 37
resemblance
), and the minute verbal
(4
again shows obvious interdependence. The secondary character of Lk. s
account appears unmistakably in the report of the popular discussion that
followed the miracle.

For instances of the literal meaning, see i Cor. 98 i Tim. 518


This is a Biblical meaning. In Greek, it is restricted to its proper sense, to
search together. The N.T. meaning is a legitimate derivation from that.
3 The
The
proper ending of adv. of place with verbs of motion is ot, not ou.
N.T. Greek does not observe this distinction, but invariably uses the ending ou.
understood
with
of
Our confusion of where and whither. The use
^ nepix<apos
-yij
1

is

Biblical.

I.

A POPULAR UPRISING

29-31]

2$

A POPULAR UPRISING
29-34.

Healing of Peter s wife

popular uprising, bringing all


the close of the legal Sabbath.
This story
in

tJie

followed by a
sick of tlie city to him, at
s mother,

a continuation of the account of this

is

first

Sabbath

The

miracle in the synagogue is followed by the


house, and at evening, the whole population,

Capernaum.

healing at Peter s
restrained only by their fear of breaking the Sab
bath, gather at the house, bringing all their sick to him.

who have been

29.

And

Kui tvOvs

immediately.

The

characteristic use of

See v. 30
It is omitted in
the parallel accounts. The whole series, taken together, shows
how straight events marched from his first appearance in Caper
naum to the climax of v. 32 33 These two, v. 21 and 30) show more
particularly the immediateness with which the miracle at Peter s
house succeeded that in the synagogue. One miracle follows
ee\another, until finally the whole city bring their sick to him.
tfovTcs rjXOov
having gone out, they came.
this

word continues

in this paragraph.

i f \66vTes 7i\eov Tisch. WH. txt. RV. txt. N ACL PAH Vulg. Memph.
Pesh. Harcl. txt. e&Xduv ^\6ev, having gone out, he came, Treg. WH. marg.
RV. marg. BD I, 22, 69, 124, 131, 209, 346, Lat. Vet. 2 rnss. of Vulg. Harcl.

marg.

The subj. remains the same as in v. 21 , viz.


they came.
16 20
,
Jesus and his disciples, whose call to follow him is given in v.
since
are
the
writer
Simon
and
Andrew
adds
But,
mentioned,
James and John specifically, in order to avoid the possible infer
ence that only Simon and Andrew are meant. The touch of the
eyewitness, Peter, is seen here.
rjXOov

"

Holtzmann, by coupling this with Jesus instruction to his disciples (6 10 ),


that they should stay in any house that they entered, infers that Peter s
house became Jesus residence. But that injunction does not apply here,
as it belongs to Jesus instructions about their conduct when they entered
a town for only a short stay during a missionary journey.

was lying prostrate with a fever.


descriptive, the prep, in KareVeiTo denoting the
The imperf.
prostration of disease, and the part, the fire of fever.
denotes that this was her state at the time.
30.

KareVeiTo

The language

31.

Trvpeorrowa

is

raised her,

ijyetpev

and

o TTvperos

Omit eiWws

Memph.

i.e.

he

made her

sit

up}

Tisch. Treg.

WII. RV. x

BCL

I,

28,

The

d^xev

33, 118, 131, 209,

etc.

K<U

the fever left her.

vb. in

Greek means

to rouse, not to raise.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

26

she served, or waited on them.

avrois

BirjKovfi

show the

to

reality

This

[l.

31-34

is

added

and completeness of her recovery.

^4^/ evening having come. The Jew


was the Sabbath, this
been restrained before
became
by the strict Rabbinical interpretation of the Sabbath law, to
1
Mk. adds ore ISu 6 ?]Aios, when the sun
bring their sick to him.
set, in order to make it more definite that the day was closed, 6i//ta
being a general term including time before sunset, whereas the
32.

Oi//ias Se yevo/aeV???

at evening, and as this


the signal for the people, who had

day closed

ish

day closed with the going down of the sun. It is significant that
Mt., who does not mention the Sabbath, omits also the sunset.
those possessed with demons, not devils,
for devil, and it is never applied to the

Tois 8cu/xovio/x,vous

AV. 2

Sia/3oA.os is

the

word

though they are represented as subjects of the devil ;


In the Gospels, demoniacs are placed in a class by
themselves, separate from those afflicted with ordinary diseases.
In this case, the people brought demoniacs especially, because it
was the healing of a demoniac that had so excited them.
evil spirits,

cf.

on

v.

23

In the earlier language, it


8a.lfj.wv is not a word of bad omen in Greek.
used interchangeably with 0e6s, though more commonly it denotes the
In the later language, it denotes inferior deities,
abstract notion of deity.
is

beings between
33.

o\rj

rjv

T]

God and man.


TroAis

ein<Tvvr)yp.fvr)

all the city

was gathered?

the sick that were brought, and all the city that gath
ered at the door. The miracle in the synagogue caused a popu
It

was

all

lar uprising.

TroAAovs KaKws

34.

x VTas

Sm/AoVia rro/XXa

many sick, and

held by most (Meyer, Weiss, Holtzmann, and


32
But
here is in contrast with the all of v.
that
the
many
others)
the all
out
of
it
was
that
not
mean
it does
necessarily
only many,

many demons.

It is

It may mean equally


to him, who were healed.
number included in the all was not few but many.
not necessarily the same as many of the sick. The

who were brought


well that the

Many

sick

is

Such a
would not be inexplicable, since the condition of
But the
required by Jesus might not be present in all cases.

latter requires the partitive gen. for its exact expression.

partial healing
faith

explanation

is

unnecessary.

and he cast out the


Mt.
says that they brought many demoniacs,
demons, and healed all the sick. Lk. says that all who had sick persons
each one; and that
brought them, and he healed them, laying his hand on
demons went out of many. In Lk. s account certainly, it is not intended
to contrast the cure of many demoniacs with that of all the sick.
8 16

See Lk.

13".

RV. text retains devils, marg. demons. American Revisers substitute


occurs.
in text in all passages where Sain<av, Soufioviov, or
8 The double
ei^a-w^y^evr, is not found in classical Greek,
3

demons

j<u/u.oi>iofi<u

compound

the simple compound awayeiv is common.


gathering upon or towards some point.

ri

adds

to the

though

word the idea of

I.

JESUS

34-45]

POLICY OF SILENCE

2^

And he did
Kcu OVK rj&c XaXetv ra 8ai/Ao vta, on rjSeurav avrov
AaAelv is
knew
him.
because
to
demons
they
speak,
not suffer the
Where the
used in the N.T. with a direct obj., but not with on.
cf. Mt. 23*
words follow, they are introduced with Aeyw, saying;
6
Where cm is used, without any intervening word,
Mk. 6 50 Lk. 24
2
The demons are said to speak, instead of the man,
it is causal.
a

and
because the knowledge of Jesus is attributable to the demon,
not to the man. The man is represented as inhabited by an alien
of speech.
spirit, who used his organs
to be the Christ, after ySetffav avr6v, they knew him,
tlva.i.
RV. marff. c BCGLM i, 28, 33, 69, 124, mss. of Lat. Vet. and
WTI. RV. text, N
Mcmph. Hard. etc. Omitted by Tisch. Treg.
Lk.

Xpio-T^K

(\VH

Vulg.

ADEFKSUV

Latt. Pesh. etc.

This knowledge

is

and one of the

cases,

of them.

And

it is

Probable insertion from

one of the arguments


difficulties in

the

for the supernaturalism of these

way

of the naturalistic explanation


But the reflections of the

not to be set aside lightly.

from their statement of facts. And i


evangelists are to be distinguished
once posited naturally gathers supernatural phenomena.
supernatural cause

JESUS POLICY OF SILENCE


35-45. Jcsns

Cure of a

ing.

makes a tour of

Galilee,

preaching and heal

leper.

After the popular uprising following Jesus first day s ministry in


His disci
to pray.
Capernaum, he withdraws to a solitary place
his
of
return to take advantage
popularity,
ples beseech him to
but Jesus refuses, saying that he came out to proclaim the king

In pursuance of the same policy, he enjoins


he heals during this tour of Galilee, and
silence on a leper
him to retire from the towns and
forces
s
disobedience
the man
follow him.
uninhabited
to
places, whither the people
synagogues
This section is of first-rate importance in this narrative of the

dom

elsewhere.

whom

at the beginning as a
beginning of Jesus ministry. He appears
miracle worker, and maintains that character consistently to the
end of the Galilean ministry. But here, at the very beginning, he
about
is represented as maintaining whatever secrecy is possible
And
them.
to
and avoiding the notoriety attaching
his

miracles,

the
* *. with the augment on
is a rare form of the impf. of a^V. from
See Win. 14. 3. b.
rats
concerning
2
Thay -Grm. Lex. explains this as equivalent to n-rpi TO.JTOU on,
the causal
But it supposes a difficulty requiring an explanation, whereas
that.
1

^ie

prep.

sense of 5n leaves nothing to explain.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

28

[l.

35,

36

the only account of a miracle in this first missionary


journey is
that of one in which disobedience to this injunction of
secrecy

made

it

that he

impossible for him to continue his work in the towns, so


retire into solitary places.
The reason for

was forced to

secrecy about what was nevertheless a prominent feature of


work is to be found in the fact that he sought from men a faith
which was hindered, not helped, by external signs.
this

his

The

miracles lent themselves also to

of himself and his work.

And

false,

outward conceptions

evidently they had their raison

d etre in themselves, and not in any effect which they were


intended to produce. They are primarily works of benevolence,
not of supernaturalism.
35.

RV.

Trpan

fvwxa

in the morning,
night}

Xt av

Literally, very

evvvxa, instead of

a great while before day.

much at
e

vvvxov, Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV.

BCDL

I,

28, 33, 131,

209, etc.

denotes the last watch of the night from three to six, and
a Atav, the part of this watch which reached back very much
into the night,
a solitary place. The story points
fpr)/j.ov TOTTOV
to some place of this kind near Capernaum,
he was
irpoa-rjvx^ro

praying. The imperf. denotes what he was doing when Simon and
the rest pursued and found him.
We are not told the subjects of
But the occasions are sig
Jesus prayers, except in Gethsemane.
nificant.
The only other in Mt. and Mk. is after the miracle of
feeding the 5000, where the fourth Gospel explains the urgency of
Jesus to get rid of both disciples and multitude by the statement
that they are about to force him to be a king.
Lk. adds to these
three, which are all of which we have an account in Mt. and Mk.,
several others of less significance.
But he gives one of the same
character.
After the healing of the leper, Jesus is represented in
that Gospel as not only retreating before the sudden access of his
One of these cases might not be
popularity, but as praying.
enough to warrant the conclusion, but taken together they indi
cate that Jesus was praying that he might not be ensnared by this
popularity, or in any way induced to accept the ways of ease
instead of duty.
36. KaTt8i o)ev avrov
pursued him closely. See Liddell and
The
Scott, Gr. Lex.
., followed after, is inadequate.
Kara, as
in our expression, to hunt down, gives the idea of hard,
persistent
search.
The word occurs only here in the N.T. mi 01 /ACT O.VTOV

1 ei
fu, o? is

occurs in the

properly an adj. meaning nocturnal. This


its adverbial use is
quite late.

N.T and
,

is

the only place

where

it

I.

JESUS

36-39]

and
See

v.

those with him.

POLICY OF SILENCE

29

Andrew, James, and John are meant.

29
.

Kai erpov

37.

avroi/

/cat

Xeyouorv

And they found

evpov avrbv Kai, instead of evpbvres avrbv, Tisch. Treg.


one ms. of Lat. Vet. Memph. etc.

him and say.

WH.

RV. N

BL

that all are seeking for thec} All the


OTL Trai/res i/Tovo-i o-e
The
people of Capernaum, which he has just left, are meant.
disciples bring him the news that the excitement of the previous
day is not abated, and are anxious evidently that he should not
fail to follow up so notable a success.
38. "Ayw/nev dAXa^oG
let us go elsewhere?

Memph.

oO, elsewhere, is inserted


etc.

e^ojuteva?

/cwjMOTroXeis

by Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BC*L

RV.

33,

The noun denotes


approximating a city in

neighboring towns.

something between a village and a

city,

3
but unwalled.

size,

TOVTO yap cfjXOov


for for this did I come out. The context
shows plainly that he refers to his coming out of Capernaum,
Not out of heaven,
which has been mentioned just before, v. 35
an expression and idea which belong to the fourth Gospel, and are
not found in the Synoptics.
Moreover, the purpose to preach to
other towns than Capernaum is singularly inapposite as a state
eis

ment of the object of

his

coming

into the world.

It is

commensu

rate with his leaving Capernaum, but not with his leaving heaven.
He did not wish to confine himself to one place, and his coming

out as he did, early, would enable him to escape the importunity


of the people, who sought to confine him to this.
39. Kai rjXOev Krjpvtrcruiv cis ras o-waya>yas avrwv i? oXrjV ryv
And he came, preaching to their synagogues, into all
FaXiXatav
Galilee, and casting out demons.

BL Memph. The
RV.
7i\eev eis, instead of Tfv tv, Tisch. Treg.
construction with this reading is not without difficulty, especially the use of
ets with xripvffcrwv, to denote those to whom the proclamation is made.
And probably, this original form of the text was changed to avoid this
roughness. But, while the Lexicons consider it necessary to explain this
use of eis, they admit it. This leaves the second et s with S\rjv r^v FaXi-

WH.

\aiav to depend on ^\6ev.


cat

vv.

-"

and casting out the


Saiju-ona e/3aXXa)v
this miracle is separated from the rest.

ra

34
,

tioned by
1

and
2

o-e,

itself

Here

it

Before,
is

men

without the rest in such a way as to represent

An

thee, turns this into direct discourse.


incongruous blending of direct
in N.T., as in other Greek.
more or less
this termination, ou instead of 01, see footnote on iravraxov v. 28 .
This

indirect discourse,

On

demons.

common

word does not occur elsewhere


3

/coj/xdiroAis

in N.T.
does not occur elsewhere in N.T.

It

belongs to the later Greek.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

30

[I.

39^2

them. Although it is the only miracle mentioned, it was evidently


not the only one performed. It is selected as the great and rep
And it is not improbable that it was, so to
resentative miracle.
favorite
s
miracle, because here the physical and
speak, our Lord
spiritual parts
40. AeVpos

of his

1
work coincided.

The reason for introducing this one mir


leper.
45
the many belonging to this journey, is told in v. . It
turned him aside from his original purpose of visiting the neighbor
him into retirement. TrapaKoAwv ai-rov
ing towns, and forced
to
Ae ycov avrw
beseeching him and kneeling, saying
a

among

acle,

K<U

yovinrerwv,

him?
Omit avrbv

after yovvtreruv, Tisch.

WH.

I,

209,

some

mss. of Lat.

RV. marg.
Vet Vulg. etc. Omit /cat yovvireruv avrbv Treg. marg. (Treg.)
Omit /cat before \tyuv
of Lat. Vet. etc.
(WII.) BDG T 124, some mss.
Tisch. WH. N* B 69* Memph. etc.

With this reading, Ae ywv, saying, is not co-ordinate with TropaSwaKaAwv and yovmerStv, but subordinate to them, eav 0%s
the ability,
doubt
not
does
He
canst.
thou
thou
o-at
wilt,
if
the point that
but the willingness of Jesus. This willingness is
that it seeks to remove.
all petition seeks to carry, the doubt
and dan
cleanse.
Leprosy was not only a repulsive
Katfapurai
so that
it made a man unclean ceremonially,
but
disease,
gerous
and
their
with
assigned
fellows,
intercourse
from
off
cut
lepers were
3
It was a part of Jesus
a place by themselves outside the gates.
the law that he allowed
of
ceremonial
the
of
part
merely
disregard
It did not accord with
these unclean persons to approach him.
no scruples when
his nature to obtrude this disregard, but he had
ever the law interfered with higher things.
And having been
Tivas rrjv ^Ci?0
41. Keu <T7rAayxvr0e,
moved with compassion he stretched out his hand?
.

5t

Kal, instead of
Vet. Memph. etc.

Tisch. Treg.

Jycrovs,

WIT. RV. N

BD

mss. of Lat.

The touch, or laying on of the


action
accompanying the cure,
hand, was the natural symbolical
to Jews and Chris
common
of
benediction,
the
any
sign
being
he touched him.

nJraro avrov

tians.

42.

KCU evOvs

dTT^Atfev

^ AeVpa

And immediately the leprosy

departed.

Omit

efcrivros a. /roO before

mss. of Lat. Vet.

i.

u.

Memph.

g ee

The meaning and form

15. 22.

67. 13.

form, and its meaning


auguries from them.

is

WH.

Tisch. Treg.

RV. N

BDL

16, 69,

Tesh. etc.
2

eM>s

to later Greek.
yofun-erav belongs

is the pr pe
are late
^y\ v
of <-Aa7 X
or to obtain
to eat the inwards of a victim after sacrifice,
-

tf>"

,!"

the Heb., wmc


compassionate comes from
the inwards, as the seat of pity and tenderness.
3 i Tim.
17
2 Tim. i.
9 is

regarded the an-Aavx"",


5 See io 16 Acts 8 18

The meaning

4"

JESUS POLICY OF SILENCE

1.42,43]

31

of
eWvs denotes the immediateness, and so the miraculousness
Mt. tells of twelve cures, in two of which he specifies
he describes the
immediateness Mk. of thirteen, in six of which
in seven of which he
cure as immediate ; and Lk. of fourteen,
This includes only the
uses the word irapaxmf**, on the spot.
There are
s is used.
cases in which either this word or
And
used.
in which such a phrase as from that hour is

the cure.

et>0v

others,

of the cure is
not only the immediateness, but the completeness,
1
dwelt
upon.
frequently
AV. he straitly charged him. RV. strictly
43. iuppimvfavas
these is an inadequate translation. The
of
Either
him.
charged
is to be angry but the difficulty is to
word
the
of
N.T. meaning
Weiss finds it in the fact that the man
find any cause for anger.
had broken the wholesome law forbidding persons with this dan
into contact with their fellows, and
gerous disease from coming
him to the same cause.
attributes Jesus urgency to get rid of
cure was only gradual,
the
that
he
with
supposes
this,
Consistently
he left
and that the leper was still liable to infect others when
of course, as it is plainly
becomes
s
Mk.
secondary
story
Jesus
that Mk. introduces
inconsistent with this hypothesis. Weiss thinks
a different version of
this word inadvertently, as it shows plainly
2 -4
But
The original account he finds in Mt. 8
the whole affair.
inadvertent
his
ip^pipipKipcit is Mk. himself who betrays this by
much on a small peg. If anywhere,
i/os.
Verily, this is to hang
Mk. shows here the indubitable marks of originality. And how
much more probable is his account of Jesus urgency to get rid of
and
the man than Weiss s, who lays it to the danger of infection,
it to
so to an imperfect cure.
Mk., on the other hand, attributes
our Lord s dread of the notoriety caused by his miracles. Weiss s
whole theory of the gradualness of Jesus cures, and of his regard
for the Levitical law, of which this makes a part, is unsupported.
But neither is Meyer s explanation, that he foresaw the man s dis
It puts its finger on the source of the
obedience, quite probable.
in
making it foresight on the part of Jesus.
trouble, but it mistakes
Our Lord is vexed at the whole situation of which the man makes
a part, at the clamor over the mere externals of his work, and this
he accompanies the
is expressed in some sharp word, with which
It may be
house
the
of
him
out
of
synagogue).
(or
thrusting
It does not denote the
him?
to
translated, having spoken sternly
of
tone with which Jesus spoke the words given here, as the action
it denotes some
But
distinct.
are
and
the verb
apparently
participle
the e&fiaXev, and partaking of its spirit.
utterance
,

accompanying

Of

See
See

these

i3i.

Mt
Mt

212

o30
o3<>

529 Mt. c^.ss Mk. 7^.


for the other instances of N.T. use ot word.
]. ii^is
the
shares
ambiguity of this passage. The original meaning
makes room for it to denote an expression of feeling, as

Mt. I2i3 Mk.

Mk.

I4

which certainly
well as the feeling itself.
to snort,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

32

[l.

43.

44

AV. sent him away. RV. sent him out. Both in


Thrust, or put him out, conveys the idea. This.

adequate again.

e
/A/fyi^cra/Aevos, indicates the urgency of Jesus action.
wishes to repress the natural, but misguided, impulse of the
leper to stay and contribute to the adulation and excitement
gathering about Jesus.

as well as

He

44.

Take heed

lest

you say anything


not the urgency
of his performance of the legal requirements, with which nothing
must be allowed to interfere, but the danger in which Jesus stood
of just the results which followed his disobedience. His spread
ing the story prevented Jesus work in public, and forced him into
And the words in
retirement, and so Jesus forbade his telling it.
which he warned him off this dangerous ground are made as sharp
show thyself
as possible,
o-taurov Seiov TW le/ati Kai TrpocreVeyKe
to the priest, and offer?
eis p-aprvpiov avrots
for a testimony to
them. These words are to be connected with Seiov and vTreVeyKc
to

ju^Sevt /x^Sev

"Opa,

The reason

anybody.

177775

for this prohibition

is

show thyself to the priest, and make the prescribed offering, for
a testimony to them. Take this official way, authorized and pre
This case, taken by
scribed by the law, of testifying to your cure.
And Weiss makes
itself, would be one of subservience to the law.
it the text of a discourse on Jesus strict conformity to the law,
ceremonial as well as moral.3 But this is an evident overstate
ment, to say the least. Jesus general position is that of a Jew,
conforming himself, as any sane man would, to Jewish law and
custom. And yet, sometimes he acts as if there was no such law.
But in both observance and non-observance, he acts simply as a
rational spirit,

bound by

definite

fixed rules only so far as they

principles, but conforming to


interfere with the principles.

do not

law in its relation to the


e.g., what he says about the higher
In this very case,
Sabbath, and about the principle of fasting.
his touch of the leper made him unclean, so that his action com
bined both observance and non-observance. And in his discourse
about eating with unwashed hands, he abrogates the distinction
between clean and unclean. No, to judge of his action here in
a large way, it is apparent that Jesus would not have encouraged
the man to disregard the law, and might very likely have bidden
him observe it, just as he would himself. But this insistence on it
can scarcely be attributed to Jesus anxiety or scrupulosity about
ceremonial law. But the provision for official announcement of
the cure to a single person in Jerusalem, by taking the place of

Take,

publishing
1

See Win.

it

abroad in Galilee, gave Jesus an opportunity to sup-

56, 2, b,

/3.

On

the double negative, nothing to nobody, see

Win.

55, 9, b.
2

The

prescribed ceremonial and offerings for the cleansing of a leper are found

in Lev. 14.
3

Life of Jesus, II. ch. II.

I.

JESUS

44, 45]

POLICY OF SILENCE

33

piement his prohibition with a reminder of what the law provided


in such cases.
45. rfp^oLTO Krjpv<Tcreiv TroAAo, Kal Sta^^ynt^etv TOV Aoyov
began to
TOV
publish much (extensively} and to spread abroad the event.
Ao yov
is the object of both verbs,
calls attention to
^p^aro
the beginning of this action.
no sooner went out than he
so that
began to publish the affair. wore /u^/cm avrbv Swacr&u
he was no longer able.
An inability arising from the condition
and principles of Jesus work, eis TroAtv
into a city.
Jesus was
on a tour, going about from place to place, and as TroAtv has
therefore the proper meaning of the anarthrous noun.
eV tp^/Aots

He

in solitary, uninhabited places.

7ravro0ev

33>

etc.

(TTT

Tisch. Treg.

fyij/xois

The command not


to this case, but

WH.

to tell the story of the cure

was so frequent as

all sides.

WH. RV. N ABCDL,


BL A 28, 124.

iravroQev, instead of TravTax&Of, Tisch. Treg.


i

from

etc.

was not confined

to justify us in saying that

it

was the custom of Jesus. And this account gives the result of
disobedience to it in an extreme case.
It made a turning-point
in the history

plans,

which

is

of this mission, producing a change in our Lord


apparently the reason for introducing it here.

But why should Jesus try to preserve this secrecy about his
?
Evidently, his thought about them was different from

miracles

the ordinary thought of the Church, as it was different from that


of his own time.
But the reason is very simple. The miracles
were sure to be treated as external signs, whereas Jesus relied on
internal signs.

As

external, moreover, exhibitions of a supernatu


the people in their expectation of a
confirmed
power, they

ral

national, worldly Messiah, and raised in them just the false hopes
which Jesus was seeking to allay. And finally, by the excitement
which they created, they interfered with the quiet methods of

Jesus spiritual work.

THE MIRACLES OF JESUS


Holtzmann

rationalizes this miracle by explaining KaOapta-ai, the


of
the
cleansing
leper, as a removal of his ceremonial uncleanness

The man was cured already before he came to our


Jesus.
Lord, and he wishes Jesus to pronounce him clean, in order to
save him the journey to Jerusalem.
He admits that the evange

by

lists

do not mean

cure.

this,

but intend to

But he contends that

this

tell

the story of a miraculous


how the story of

simply shows

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

34

[l.

45

Un
in their hands.
grew into supernatural form
of
the
the
he
Synop
theory
accepts
fortunately for his hypothesis,
which traces them to apostolic sources, and especially
tical

natural events

Gospels

makes Mk. the rehearser of Peter s story. This does not give
is
the required time for myths to grow. This first-hand testimony
of the miracles.
the starting-point in establishing the credibility
fall with the historicity of the whole account
or
stand
Then, they
the first princi
of Jesus, which is not generally denied. One of
to
criticism is, that any attempt
patch out a story
ples of a true
the
incongruities of the
with unreal details will betray itself by
from the rest of
miracles
the
But you cannot separate
addition.
of the story.
texture
the
of
are
part
the story in this way.
They
character
the
to
which
a uniqueness
belongs
Especially, they have
makes
which
and
his
of
action,
the
and to
of
principles
Jesus,

invention an impossibility.

scheme of miracles which

rigor

all mira
but works of beneficence
ously excludes everything
mere thaumaturgy,
cles of personal preservation, of punishment, of
we go forward
never occurred to any one but Jesus. The moment

And yet,
or back from him in Jewish history we find all these.
and
Sapphira,
the same generation tells us the story of Ananias
the Sorcerer, and, with entire unconsciousness of
and of
Elymas

His miracles are


the difference, the story of Jesus miracles.
divine unique
of
this
because
but
of their power,
signs, not because
endeavor to
his
about
reticence
them,
ness of their spirit. Jesus
of
this unique
feature
another
is
them into the
background,

push

ness.

It is

of which

is

a revelation in action of his deep spirituality, the story


his contemporaries with evident unconscious
told

by

In fact, the grounds of Jesus solitary


in the miracles, as in the rest of the life,
found
to
be
are
greatness
and in the teaching, and they are of the same kind.

ness of

its

significance.

THE PERIOD OF CONFLICT


With the second chapter begins the period of conflict

in the

life

of

not
our Lord. It is apparent in the preceding chapter that Jesus is
sudden
his
created
situation
the
popularity,
by
at all satisfied with
But now, instead
hindrance to his work.
reoo.rding it as a serious

he has to encounter
of the superficial enthusiasm of the people,
At first, this is aroused
of
their leaders.
the
opposition
growing

THE CHARGE OF BLASPHEMY

II.

i]

by

his extraordinary claims,

35

then by his revolutionary act in

call

to
personal disciple, and
ing Levi, the tax-gatherer,
in
regard to fasting and Sab
finally by his revolutionary teaching

become

his

this impression as plainly by his


he had given this section the title Period
Lk. gives the same grouping, while Mt. distributes

bath observance.

Mk. produces

selection of events as if

of Conflict.
these events.

THE CHARGE OP BLASPHEMY


Healing of a
Jesus return to Capernaum.
a
as
cure
the
announces
forgiveness of
Jesus
paralytic.
The Scribes
the sins which have produced the disease.
this blasphemy.
Jesus defends his claim to
1-12.

II.

protest against

forgive sins,

and proves

it

in this case by the cure.

Capernaum, the crowd


numbers as to prevent access to him. But
him a paralytic, not to be turned back, gain
access to the roof of the house in which he was, tear up the roof,
and let the paralytic down. In healing him Jesus says, Thy sins
after the return of Jesus to

Immediately

gathers again in such


four men bringing to

are forgiven, meaning the sins that have produced the disease.

who make

The

Scribes,

this

as blasphemy.

forgiveness

is

1.
.

Kat eio-\0wv
it

was

appearance here, protest against


that

his right to forgive sins,

their first

Jesus meets their charge by showing


But he asserts
here only another name for cure.

7raA.iv

and proves
.

it

by the

rjKoiKrdrj

cure.

And having

entered again

heard.

RV. N BDs L 28, 33,


elvf\01av, instead of V7;X0ex, Tisch. Treg.
Omit /ecu before ^KovcrOr] Tisch. Treg.
124, mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. etc.
RV. N
28, 33, 124, mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. etc.

WH.

BL

WH.

It is a peculiarity of Mk. that he notes


See i 21
again.
Lk. uses this
the recurrence of scenes and places in his narrative.
word only twice, and Mt. uses it almost entirely to denote the
different parts of discourse, not the recurrence of the same, or
ev OIKW
Si
similar occasions.
after (some) days}
^/xepwv
.

in the house, or at

home?

lv otKc?, instead of els olxov, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BDL

33, 67,

of Lat. Vet. Vulg.


1

See Win.

The

47,

i.

64, 5.

prep, with the anarthrous

noun

constitutes a phrase.

most mss.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

36
2.

Kal a-vvvjxOyo-av ToAAot

Omit eiWws

Mcmph.

Tisch. (Treg.)

[II.

2-5

and many were gathered together.


RV. X BL 33, mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg.

WH.

1 esh.

so that not even


wpetv y^ 7?^* T
Trpos T?)V 0u/oai/
towards the door (on the outside} would hold them any
Not only was the house too small for the crowd, but not
longer.
even outside, near the door, was there room for them. 1 Kal eAaAet
and he was speaking. The imperf. denotes what he was doing
when the bearers of the paralytic came. AV. preached. RV.
the word.
The word of the Gospel, or glad
TOV Xoyov
spake.
the parts

tidings of the

repentance.

kingdom of God, with

See

u-

the

15 2

accompanying

call to

a paralytic?
Kat firj 8wa.fjif.voL TrpocreveyKcu
And as (they saw that) they
were unable to bring him to him. p.r] shows that their inability is
not viewed simply as a fact, but in their view of it, as it influenced
4
their minds.
3.

TrapaXvTiKov

4.

ir poverty KO.I,

BL

33, 63, 72

WH. RV. marg.

instead of Trpoo-eyytffai, Tisch. Treg. marg.


marg. 253, two mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.

Hard.

etc.

they unroofed the roof.

aTreo-re yao-av rrjv (niyijv


Uncovered,
5
EV., does not render the paronomasia of the Greek.
e^op^avrts
having dug it out. This describes the process of unroofing.
It would imply probably some sort of thatched roof.
yaXwui TOV
The noun denotes any
they let down the pallet.
Kpa/3a.TTov
slight bed, such as might be used to carry the sick about the

a stretcher?

streets,

OTTOV

where (on).

WH.

BDL

N
two mss. Lat. Vet.
Sirov, instead of
y Tisch. Treg.
The roofs of Eastern houses were flat. Access to the roof would he easy
by an outside stairway or ladder. The description, moreover, implies that
this house had only one story, according with what we know of the humble
position and means of Jesus and his followers.
e</>"

5.

rr/v

paralytic
his faith,

TTi

oriv O.VTWV

their faith.

and his friends. That it was


would show several things.

That

is,

the faith of the

their faith, and not simply


First, that faith is not the

psychological explanation of the cure, through the reaction of the


mind on the body, in which case, the faith of the others would
1
for its subject.
On the repetition
xwpcii is transitive and has rd wpbs Trjv
of the negative, see Win. 55, 9, b. On the construction of coo-re with
and the
inf.
see Win. 55, 2, d.
always so in N.T.
2 For other instances of this use of 6
Ad-yos to denote in a general way the subject
of Christian teaching, see 41-1-33 Lk. i 2 .
s This word
The Greeks said jrapaAeAuju.e cos.
to
Biblical
Greek.
belongs
6\>pav

XO.See
6

Win.

55, 5, g, p.

the only case of the use of this verb in the N.T.


commonly means to slacken, or relax, and to let down, when this
xaAiic
involves slackening.
Kpa.pa.TTov is a late Greek word copied from the Latin grabaThe Greeks said OXI>JTOVS.
tus.
6

rii.<=

is
t

THE CHARGE OF BLASPHEMY

H. 5-8]
have nothing

to

This

miracle.

is

37

do with it,
but the spiritual condition of the
also shown by the cure of demoniacs.
Secondly,

meant here by the forgiveness of the man s sins only


removal of the physical consequences of some sin affecting
the nervous organization. The removal of the spiritual penalty
would be conditioned on the faith of the man himself. However,
that Jesus

this

this is

simply the reflection of the writer on the

facts.

And

it is

in the narration offacts, that the value of contemporaneous witness


In the historical judgment of the Gospels, this distinc
appears.
tion between facts and reflections has frequently to be remem

bered.

Te/ci/ov,

om

d</>ievTcu

Child (EV. Son), thy

at a/xaprtai

sins are forgiven.


instead of
d(f>ievTai,
Vet. Vulg. Pesh. Hard.

TWV

6.

&<j>uvrai,

ypafji/jLarfoiv

Tisch. Treg.

1
of the Scribes.

WII. N B

This

is

28, mss. of Lat.

the

first

encoun

ter of Jesus with the formalists and dogmatists of his time.


So
also in Mt. and Lk.
And the matter in controversy, the extraor

dinary claims of Jesus, was sure to become an issue between them.


opposition to Jesus is easily explained. SiuAoyt^o/Aevoi ev rats
debating in their hearts.
/capoYcus
KupoYa, in the N.T., does not
denote, like our word heart, the seat of the affections, but the
inner man generally, and more specifically, the mind. This cor
responds to the Homeric use, the common Greek use being like

The

ours.
7. Ti OVTOS OVTOJ AaXet
thus ? he blasphemes.

P\a(r<f>r]fji(.i.

Why

instead of p\a<r(pri/j.Las, Tisch. Treg.


of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.
P\a<r<pr)ij.ei,

does this one speak

WII. RV. N

BDL

msi.

is used of any speech


derogatory to the Divine
The generic sense of the word is injurious speech, among
majesty.
men, slander. In this case, the supposed blasphemy consists in
the assumption of the.Divine prerogative.
els 6
cos
except
(3\a(T<f>r)iJ.f.iv

God?

This

a good example of the ill usage that good


principles receive at the hands of men who deal only with rules
and formulas. As a general proposition, this statement of the
Scribes is undeniable.
The difficulty is, that they ignored the
possibility of a man s speaking for God, and the fact that they had
before them one in whom this power was lodged preeminently. 2
8.
in his spirit.
This is contrasted with
Trveu/aaTi auroC
the knowledge acquired through the senses, e.g. in this case, by
one,

is

T<O

hearing what was said. Without their saying anything, he knew


inwardly, intuitively, what was going on in their minds.
Jesus
knew generally their intellectual attitude, and their position towards
1

See on

122.

2 in
j.

2Q

-2,3
i

Jesus extends

this

power

to his disciples.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

38

fll.

8-10

any attempt to live according to the spirit, instead of the letter of


and the mere look of their faces would put him on the

things,

Ae ya aurots

track of their thoughts.


instead of
Vet. Vulg/

elTrev,

Tisch. Treg.

says to them.

WH.

RV.

BL

33, mss. of Lat.

Which is easier ? l Jesus does not make


9. Ti cVrtv evKOTrwrepov
the contrast here between healing and forgiving, but between say
The two things would be them
ing be forgiven and be healed.
selves coincident, and the difference therefore would be only
between two ways of saying the same thing. The disease being a
consequence of the man s sin, the cure would be a remission of
Thy sins are forgiven.
A^iWcu o-ov at d/tap-a ai
penalty.
;

mss. of Lat.
AQlevrai, instead of A^uvrai, Tisch. Treg. WH. K B 28,
crou instead of aoi, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N
Vet. Vulg. Pesh. Hard.
C
A, and inraye
BEFGHKL, etc. iiiraye, instead of TreptTrdret, Tisch. ft
difficult case to decide, as
eh r&v olKov crov,
33, mss. of Lat. Vet.
may be taken from Mt. and Lk., and viraye from v. n.

LW

but that ye may know. Here was an oppor


Iva Se eiSijTe
As a general thing, the
to a practical test.
his
to
power
tunity
put
power to forgive sins admits of no such test, but only of those
10.

tests by which a change of spiritual condition and


becomes known. But here the forgiveness was manifested
an outward change, making itself known in cure, as the sin had

inward

finer

relation

in

This
itself in disease,
e^owtav
authority, or right.
the proper meaning, rather than power, and it evidently fits
this case.
This is a Messianic
the Son of iffan.
6 wos TOV avOpwirov
traced to the Messianic interpre
title, the use of which is to be
13 - 27
In the post-canonical Jewish literature, it
tation of Dan. 7
2
It is the favorite
in the Book of Enoch.
times
several
appears
title applied by Jesus to himself in the Synoptical Gospels, Son of
3
God being used by Jesus himself only in the fourth Gospel. In
a
fifth
in
vision
sees
the
the passage in Dan.,
power suc
prophet
the four great world-powers, only this is in his vision like
discovered

is

ceeding
a son of man, while the preceding powers have been represented
as beasts.
v.

18 22 27
-

And

) this

in the interpretation that follows (see especially


is said to be the kingdom of the saints of the

power

when

Most High.

But

trated finally

on a Messianic

fVKoirioTepov is

jruTepov

e<TTi.

later,

late

the hopes of the people were concen


king, this passage was given Messi-

is used in the N.T. only in this phrase, CVKOwhich of two is irorepov. ri means strictly what,

word, and

The Greek word

for

not which.
2 For
of the date of the alle
passages, see Thay.-Grm. Lex. For a discussion
see Schiirer, N.Zg. II.
gories in which the Messianic portion of the book occurs,
III. 32. 2.
Schiirer, on the whole, favors the pre-Christian date.
ia
27
37
3 Son alone is used
to the Divine Son2i
28
in Mt.
, referring
by

Jesus
ship in the theocratic sense.

II.

THE CHARGE OF BLASPHEMY

10-12]

39

Man came to be a Messianic title,


nor so commonly accepted, as the name
Messiah. The choice of it by Jesus was
partly for this reason.
To have called himself plainly the Messiah would have
precipi
tated a crisis, forcing the people to decide
prematurely on his
claim.
And it is evident from the doubt of the people, not
only
about what he was, but in regard to this
very point, what he him
self claimed to be, that the title used
by him familiarly was inde
cisive.
However, there can be little doubt, that the reason for
the choice of the name Son of Man
lay deeper than this, and is to
be found in the significance of the name
itself, aside from its his
toric sense.
Everywhere, Jesus uses the Messianic phraseology
of his time, but rarely limits himself to its current
meaning. This
name, Son of Man, was to the Jews a Messianic title, only that and
But Jesus fastens upon it because it identified him
nothing more.
with humanity, and owing to the
generic use of the word Man in
it, with the whole of humanity.
His chosen title, as well as his
life, showed that his great desire was to
impress on us his brother
anic interpretation, and

though not so

Son of

distinctive,

hood with man.

rjys
upon the earth. Contrasted with the power of
to forgive sins in heaven.
Of course, the power to forgive
sins, involved in the mere cure of diseases
resulting from them, is
in itself small.
But the significance of these words lies in the
7ri

y>;s

God

unity of our Lord s work implied in them.


deliverer of mankind, he is appointed to

As the redeemer and


cope with the whole power
of evil among men, to strike at its
roots, as well as its twigs and
branches, and at its effects, as well as its causes.
And the whole
is so far the one
power trusted to him, that one part becomes the
sign of the other.
11.

o-ot Ae
yw This is to be connected with JW cufyre, the clause
TW TrapaAwtKuJ being parenthetical. This is what he
says in
order to put his power to
forgive sins to a test.
?y pe apov

Ae y

arise, take up.

Omit

KO.L

of Lat. Vet.

Kat

12.

arose,

before Apov Tisch.


Treg.
Memph. Pesh.

f/yepOr), *cai

ev6v<;

apas

and immediately having

Kal

WH.

RV. N BCDBrL n, 28

mss

And he
c&j\6ev yti7rpoo-0ev
taken
went out before.
.

instead of ei506os, nal Tisch.


RV. x
Treg.
enTrpovQev, instead of tvdvnov, Tisch. Treg. marr.

WH.

ei)0i>s,

Memph.

T.T.

WH

BC*L
x BL

33,

187

marg.

The
licity
i

e/A7rpoo-0ev TravTwv, before all, is introduced to show the


pub
attending Jesus proof of his power. There was a great crowd

and the active is used here in the sense of the passive or


the meaning of the verb, see on 181 footnote.
In the passive or mid
in the sense peculiar to the
is to rise
N.T., the
a reclinine
is transitive,

Y>

middle.
dle

On

meaning

position.

from

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

40

[II. 12,

13

of people, Jesus had performed his miracle in distinct answer to a


the cure was therefore purposely
challenge of his authority, and
It contrasts therefore with Jesus ordinary reserve in the
public.
with his depreciation of their
performance of his miracles, and
of the event lies
testimony to his mission. And one significance
in this indication of his varying method, and of his power to in
clude all the facts in the broad range of his action. eioTao-0ai

Soav

were amazed}

TOV

eov

glorified

God?

we

et&x/xtv

saw?
Tisch. Treg.
etdafJLev, instead of etSopev,
determines the probability of this reading.

WH.

CD.

The unusual form

CONSORTING WITH SINNERS


13-17.

The

of Levi the tax-gatherer. Jesus answer*


with this and other obnoxious classes,
had eaten with him.

call

the charge of consorting

many of whom
This

is

the second cause of offence.

the house to the shore of the lake,


gatherer, at the

customs

station.

The scene changes from

where Jesus

He

finds Levi, a tax-

calls this representative

of a

his disciples, and follows


despised class into the inner circle of
this up by entertaining at his house many of the same, and of the

who

open sinners generally. Again it is the scribes


open association with outcasts. Jesus answers
a physician, and his business is with the sick.

class of

him
is

for this

attack

that

he

This differs
to the side of the sea.
which denotes motion by the side of, whereas
TraXiv
this is motion to the side of.
again* The only previous
16
event at the lakeside had been the call of the four disciples, i sq.
and
Galilee
a
tour
on
had
;
The week following, Jesus
through
gone
now, on his return, he resorts to his usual place again. Caper
naum and the shore of the lake were the scenes of his ministry,
Trapa Trjv 0aXao-o-av

13.

from

irf.pnro.TCiv Trapa,

resorted to him, and he was


ouro v, KOI cSuW/cev
the acts in their progress,
denote
here
The
them.
impfts.
teaching
the gradual gathering of the crowd, and Jesus discourse as they
came and went. 5

lypxero

Trpos

sometimes by itself, but


1 In
Greek, e|i<rnj(ni means to displace or alter, and
In the
to put one beside himself, to derange.
or TOV
generally with
13
21
be
or
of
amazed,
in
the
sense
except 3 2 Cor. 5
amaze,
N.T., it is used always
where the stronger meaning, to be distraught, reappears.
2
an opinion. To praise, or glorify,
Sof afeiv means properly to think, to have
3
is sec. aor., with the vowel of the first aor.
is the only N.T. use.
4 See note on Mk. s use of waAti/, v. 1
6 Note the difference from the aor. ef ijAfle which denotes the momentary past act.
<f>pfvSv,

<f>povflv,

e"i6anei>

II. 14,

14.

CONSORTING WITH SINNERS

15]

41

Aevelv rov TOV

AX^atbu
Levi, the son of Alphceus.
So
Lk. s 27
In Mt. 9 9, however, where the same event is told in
almost identical language,
Ma00a>v, Matthew, is substituted for
Levi.
The two are to be identified, therefore, as different names
of the same person.
.

Alphas

also the

name

of the father of
James the less. But as
list of the
apostles, there
sufficient reason for
identifying this Alptueus with the other.
is

thew and James are not associated in


any

Mat
is

no

cVi TO

T\WVIOV, not in the toll-house, but near it.


See Thay.rcAwvtoj/ denotes the place in which the customs
were
1
collected.
It is a late Greek word.
*AKoAoiJ0
/tot
follow me
This is the common
language of Jesus in summoning disciples to
personal attendance on himself, which is
evidently the meaning
here.
The apparent abruptness of the call, and the immediateness with which it is
answered, are relieved of their strangeness by
the fact that Jesus had now been
teaching long enough to call the
attention of men to himself, so that the summons
probably brought
to a
and decision thoughts already in Levi s mind.

Grm. Lex.

crisis^^

15.

Kai yiWnu KaraKflaOai

reclining (at table)

And

it

comes

to

pass that he

is

ylvtrtu instead of iytvero, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BL

33

Omit

tv

I02

TW

I2 4

avrov ev rrj OIKIO. O.VTOV


he was reclining at table
n his house.
Meyer, Holtzmann, and others say that this was the
house of Jesus. This is
contrary to the statement of Lk., who says
expressly that Levi made him a great feast at his house.
But the
recurrence of the pronoun avrov .
avrov makes it reasonably
certain that they refer to the same
Mt. does not insert
person.
.

any pronoun

after rrj oiVa,

and

makes his language point in


the fact that Mt. and Mk. use different
language, which nevertheless points to the same conclusion, makes
that conclusion
doubly certain. The connection between this
event and the call of Levi is thus
simply that both show Jesus
revolutionary attitude towards the despised classes of his time.
same

the

direction.

TA&KU

that

And

tax-gatherers.

The name

publicans, given them in our

EngBibk, comes from the Latin publicani, but in


English it has becoirfe
practically obsolete in that sense.
the
Latin publicani does not
Moreover,
the whole class of
tax-gatherers, but only to the Roman
knights to
whom the taxes were farmed out in the first instance.
l.sh

The

repetition of the somewhat peculiar ?*; T b -r f


v , ov in
strong sign of the interdependence of the Synoptics.
l
e
* C m ta t s fAaf is a periphrase not
Orppt "h^t
recurrencc ln the Coptics is
qU

?tT

usTge

<r9

"

";

Mt and

unknown to the
Hebrew

probably due to

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


sinners;

i.e.

[II. 15,

16

here, those guilty of crimes against

1
degraded and vicious class.
with?
table
were reclining at
awavf.Kf.ivro
The common word used to describe the
disciples.

society

and

law, the

joa0r?Tats

followers of Jesus, corresponding to the title SiSao-KaXo? applied to


It is significant, that the names teacher and pupil are chosen
him.
the relations between them.
by Jesus and the disciples to describe
to the best text, that the last two clauses
It is

probable, according
of this verse are to be separated, so that the verse ends with
3
The statement is, that there were many of this class of
TroXXou
It does not denote the number present, which
sinners.
open
would be superfluous, but the number of the class. Holtzmann
calls attention to the situation of Capernaum on the borders of
of Herod as the cause of the number of tax-gatherers,
the
territory
as this made

an important customs station. 01 ypap. TWV


the sect that
of the Pharisees. The Pharisees were
adhered not only to the Law, but to the rabbinical interpretation of
the Law, which gradually formed a traditional code by the side
of the written Law. Their scribes, therefore, would be the rabbis
Morison is
believed in the rabbis.
that
of the
it

<J>apio-.

the Scribes

specially
party
the genus inquisitor
right in calling them the arch-inquisitors,
being the Pharisees.

In the N.T., the use of fj.adrjral is confined to the Gospels and Acts. In
of
the Gospels, it is applied to the twelve, who formed the inner circle
In the Acts, it is the general
outside.
disciples, as well as the larger group
name for Christians, the official title apostles being given to the twelve.
mss. of
tKo\oMov V instead of jnokoAOriffav, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BL
Lat. Vet. Vulg.
16.

Kat r/KoXovOovv

curra>

/cat

(ot) ypa/XjttaTt?

Ttov

xai
<f>api<raiW,

iSo i/Ts on iadiu (rjcrOuv) /xera TWV a/AapTwXw^Kai TcXwvwv, eXeyoi/


TOIS //.a^rais avrov, "Ort //.era. TWV rcXwvwr icai d/AaprcoXcov ivdtti
there followed him also (the] Scribes of the
(jcal irCv*i)And
eats with the sinners and taxPharisees, and having seen that he
;

his disciples,
gatherers, they said to
with the tax-atherers and sinners ?

Why

does he eat

(and drink]

Kal YpayUyuareis T&V &apicralui>, Kal Id6vres instead of Kal ol


is the reading
A 33. rdv
K al ot Qapiffaioi, I5t>vres, Tisch. N
RV. txt. Insert /cat before Id6vres also Treg. 6 rt ifffflei,
also of Treg.
RV. B 33, mss. of Lat. Vet. Tesh. Memph.
instead of avrbv effOiovra,
mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. edit.
some edd. 6rt ijffdifv Tisch. Treg.
Hard. a uapTw\w Kal reXwvtDi , instead of the reverse order, Treg.
of Vulg., Memph. edd. Omit rl before
RV.
33, mss. of Lat. Vet. and

3>apiaal<av

WH.

WH.

DL

WH.

BDL

The word afiapruW is rare in Greek


The double compound (rvKaveiceivTo

writers.

is found, outside of Biblical Greek, only


itself belongs to later Greek, the
in Byzantine and
See Thay.-Grm. Lex.
earlier writers using icet^.at and KaraKtlnai.
makes it necessary to connect ^KO3 The insertion of xai before iSovre? in v.

ecclesiastical writers.

Xoudovi-

with eAcyov, instead of with jaav.

ixaKe^at

II.

CONSORTING WITH SINNERS

16, 17]
Tisch. Treg.

on.

WH. RV.

>,iarg.)

WH.

BL 33, 108,
BD mss. of Lat.

RV.

marg. X

246.*

Omit

43
KO.I

irivet

(Treg.

Vet. etc.

l
he eat (and drink)
?
OTI
eo-0i
Z//!j
(xat Trivet)
This charge of eating with tax-gatherers and sinners was fitted to
For the Scribes
discredit Jesus claim to be a rabbi, or teacher.
and their followers would not even associate with the common
people for fear of ceremonial defilement ; much less with the
vicious class, to eat with whom was an especial abomination.
The
tax-gatherers were classed with sinners, that is, with the vile and
degraded, not only by the Jews, but all over the Roman Empire.
The secret of this was, that the taxes were collected, not by the
paid agents of the government, but by officers who themselves
paid the government for the privilege, and then reimbursed them
selves by extortion and fraud.
They let it out to others, and these
to still a third class, who were selected generally from the inhabi
tants of the province, because their knowledge of the people would
expedite the work. This last is the class called reXaivai in N.T.,
and the unpatriotic nature of their employment was added to its
extortionate methods, placing them under a double ban.
17. 01 IO-XUOVTCS
EV. whole. The con
they that are strong.
.

</<?.$

expressed figuratively by strong and sick is given literally in


the latter part of the verse in the terms righteous and sinners.
Jesus justifies his conduct in associating with sinners, from the
point of view of the Pharisees themselves. Admitting them to
be righteous and the publicans to be sinners, his office of physi
cian put him under obligation to the sick rather than the strong.
But he shows elsewhere that he does not admit this distinction.
The Pharisees were extortionate as well as the publicans; they
devoured widows houses ; but they added to their wickedness by
assuming a cloak of respectability, and thanking God that jthey
were not as other men. The publicans, on the other hand, had
the grace of honesty, and by their acknowledgment of sin, ful
filled the first condition of cure.
trast

oAAo. d/aapTwAous

Omit

efr fjifriivoiav,

mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg.

but sinners.
unto repentance, Tisch. Treg.

Memph.

WH.

RV. N

ABDKL

Pesh. Ilarcl. etc.

This omission leaves /caXcVai to be explained.


It means to
summon; but to what? The answer is to be found by
As a physician, Jesus sum
following out the terms of the figure.
mons sick souls to be cured. Or, dropping this figure, as a
Saviour, he summons sinners to be saved.
Owing to the blind
ness of men, the ordinary relation between them is reversed.
Instead of the sick summoning the physician, it is here the physi
cian who has to call the sick.

invite or

1 on is here the
indirect interrogative, taking the place of the direct, a usage
unknown to earlier Greek, but occurring a few times in the Sept. and N.T.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

44

[II.

18

NONCONFORMITY IN MATTER OP FASTING


18-22. Jesus answers the complaint of the Pharisees and
of the disciples of John that his disciples do not fast.

The third ground of complaint is the failure of the disciples,


under the influence of the free spirit of Jesus, to observe the fre
quent
ism,

fasts

prescribed by the Pharisees as a part of their formal


disciples of John as a part of their asceticism.

and by the

divided into two parts. The first shows the


incongruousness of fasting at a time when joy, and not sorrow,
was the ruling feeling of the disciples, v. 1 ^20
The second shows
Jesus

answer

is

the incongruousness of such observances as fasting with the


It is the incongruity of
dispensation set up by our Lord.

and

old.

18.

and

new
new

01

/juiOrjTal

TOV Iwdvvov KGU

ol

4>upwutoi

the disciples ofJohn

the Pharisees.

ol Qapiffcuoi, instead of rwv Qapio-aluv, Tisch.


Treg.
mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Hard. txt. etc.

WII. RV.

ABCD

were fasting} Fasting, as a religious observ


yo-av vrjo-Ttvovres
ance, was prescribed in the Law only once in the year, on the
But the traditional code of the rabbis
great day of atonement.
had multiplied this indefinitely. Twice in the week was the boast
And the importance attached to this empty
of the Pharisee.
piece of religiosity made it a part of the formal religion of the
ami they come, viz. the disciples of John
KOI Zpyovrai
period,
and the Pharisees.
Mt. 9 14 names only the former. Lk. 5 33 makes this a part of the pre
ceding controversy with the Pharisees and Scribes, in which they call atten
tion to the practice of the disciples of
01 p.a6r)Tal

TWV

<3>a/3raiW

33, mss. of Lat. Vet.

the disciples of the Pharisees.

ruv Qapiffaluv Tisch. Treg. marg.


Hard. marg.

Insert naOrjral before

John and of the Pharisees.

WH.

RV. N BC*

The disciples of the Pharisees is a singular expression, much as


one should speak of the disciples of the Platonists. The Phari
The dis
sees were themselves disciples of the Scribes, or Rabbis.
in regard to the
ciples of John and of the Pharisees were at one

if

1
^v with the part, is a stronger form of expressing the idea of the impf. than
It is characteristic of Mk., and belongs to the picturesqueness of his
the tense.

style.

II.

18-21]

NONCONFORMITY IN MATTER OF FASTING

45

act of fasting, but not in the spirit of the act.


The Pharisees
fasted in a formal, self-righteous spirit, and the teaching of John
was directed against this spirit. So far as the fasting of his dis
ciples reflected the teaching of John and his spirit, it would be a

part of the asceticism ; the mortification of the body, characteristic


of him.
viol T.
sons of the bridechamber.
A Hebra
form of expression by which wos, with the genitive of a thing,
denotes a person who stands in intimate relation of some kind to
that thing.
The sons of the bridechamber were friends of the
bridegroom, whose duty it was to provide for the nuptials what
ever was necessary.
The principle contained in this analogy is
that fasting is not a matter of prescription, but of fitness.
If you
set times for fasting, the circumstances of the set time
may be
such as to produce joy, instead of sorrow, and so make your fast
ing out of place.
Fasting, i.e., is an expression of feeling, and is
out of place unless the feeling is there which it is intended to
But it is a matter, not only of feeling, but of fitness. If
express.
the circumstances of the time are such as to make sorrow the fit
ov Swavrat V^O-TCWV
feeling, then it is a fit time for fasting also,
This is said, of course, not of the outward
they cannot fast.
act, which is possible at any time ; but of fasting in the only sense
in which it becomes a religious act, or the
expression of the feel
It is as much as to say, in a time
ing to which it Is appropriated.
of gladness it is impossible to mourn.
20.
It is evident here that Jesus,
a.Trap6y &TT avriav 6 w/*<ibs
still
keeping to the figure, points forward to the time when he
shall be taken away from the
disciples, and then, he declares, will
be the time for them to fast. This is the first time that he has
prophesied of his taking away, but we can see that even as a pre
monition it is not premature, because of the
revolutionary charac
ter of his teaching.
He had already brought on himself the charge
of blasphemy, consorted with publicans, one of whom he had intro
duced into the immediate circle of his disciples, and shown his
indifference to the strict law of
And he knew that there
fasting.
was much more of the same kind in reserve, 6Vav
whenever.
The
leaves the time of the taking
away indefinite.
1

19.

vu/u.<j!>wvos

istic

expression

eV fKtLvrj rrj rj^pa.

in thai day.
Days and that day in this verse
are simply a case of oratio variata, both
denoting in a general way
a period of time.

KL
21.
ei

oe

v-Q T0 fi/j.tpq. instead of the plural, Tisch. Treg.


mss. of Lat. Vet. Pesh. Hard. etc.

ovSas

P.T),

fTfi(3\ir)fj.a pa/cous
aipet TO irXrjpoiiw. O.TT

ayvdfov

WH.

tTripaTTTCi CTTI

RV. x

lfj.oi.TLov

avrov TO KCUVOV TOU TruAcuov

dtv is

a Biblical word.

ABCD

TraXatov

no one

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

46

[II. 21,

22

sews a patch of undressed cloth on an old garment; otherwise the


new filling of the old takes from it.
Omit Kal before ovSds Tisch. Treg.
mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. Vulg. Pesh.
RV. N
of dat., Tisch. Treg.
RV. N BL, also
Tisch.
33.

RV.

Hard.

BCDL

WH.

WH.

it,

WH.

etc.

dir

33.

ABCKLS A

I. 13, 33, 69,


t/xdnov iraXaibv, instead
avrov, instead of at/rov,

The RV. translates else that which should fill it up takethfrom


But this seems to require a repetition
the new from the old.

of the prep, oVo before TOV TraXaiov. TO KCUVOV TOV TraXcuou is in


apposition with TO TrX^pw/ia, so that it would read literally, the fill
ing takes from it, the new of the old. The substitution of unfutted
It is the
for new is necessary to make the parable an exact fit.
shrinking of the undressed cloth that strains and tears the old cloth
to which it is sewed.
22.

/cat

ouSeis jSaXXei otvov veov ets a<TKOVS TraXatovs


TOUS dcr/cows, Kal 6 o vos a,7roXXuTat Kal ot OXTKOI

one puts

and

new wine
wine

the

is

into old skins

destroyed,

and the

else the

8e

ei

p-rj,

and no

pr/^ei 6 otvos

wine will durst the

skins,

skins.

BCDL
WH.

WH.

RV. N
33, mss. of Lat.
prifa instead of pijo-<r, Tisch. Treg.
RV. N EC*
Vet. Vulg.
Omit 6 vebs after 6 olws, Tisch. Treg.
13,
d7r6\\i;Tcu, Kal
69, 242, 258, 301, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh. etc.
ol dffKol, instead of ^/cxetrai, Kal oi dffKoL &iro\ovvTai, after 6 o!i/os, Tisch.
RV. BL. Memph. Omit the clause dXXa
^Xijr^ov Tisch.
Treg.
RV.
Omit pXrjrtov only (Treg.)
mss. of Lat. Vet.
(Treg. WH.)
N* B. The omission is more in Mk. s manner, and it looks as if the clause

WH.

The

where

it is

undoubted.

substitution of skins for bottles, AV.,

wine, as

it

tell

WH.

was borrowed from Lk.

the parable

DL

its

story.

The

is

necessary to make
and the new

skins rot with age,

ferments, bursts them.

These analogies, among the homeliest and aptest used by our


Lord, are a further answer to the question why his disciples do
not fast. For this is evidently the part of the question which it is
intended that he should answer, not why the disciples of John do
1

Nor

simply a repetition of the preceding, showing the


2
But it
of
incongruity
fasting at this time under another figure.
with
of
class
the
of
the
things
incongruity
generalizes, showing
which fasting belongs with the new life of Christianity. The gen
fast.

is it

eral teaching

is

that the

new

teachings and the old forms

do not

belong together. But this is expressed in the two parables in dif


ferent ways.
In the first, it is the unfitness of piecing out the old
In the
religion with the new, like anew patch on an old garment.
1

So Weiss.

So Morison.

II.

22-28]

second,

it is

ALLEGED VIOLATION OF THE SABBATH


the

unwisdom of putting the new

The whole

an anticipation of

47

religion into the old

Paul

s teaching that
not
a
mere
that Jewish
extension
of
and
Judaism,
Christianity
Dr. Morison sees in the
laws are not binding upon Christians.

forms.

is

St.

is

employed by Jesus only an expression of the incongruity


But this would be
of fasting at a time better adapted to feasting.
of
the
a
repetition
simply
preceding teaching contained in the
of
the
and
not
so apt an expression of it either.
figure
wedding,

figures

The

principle of this interpretation

is

a good one, that

it is

well to

seek in each parable the single point of comparison, and there


Here the single idea is that of incongruity. But surely the
stop.
figure of the

wedding has brought out not simply the idea of

incongruity, but the special unfitness of this particular act.


it is no violation, therefore, of the rule of interpretation to

And
make

these other comparisons not merely suggest the general idea of


In
incongruity, but show also the special incongruity involved.
the

it is the incongruity of fasting and


in
out
these
;
pointed
figures, it is the incongruity of
and old. The old religion attempted to regulate conduct by

figure of the wedding,

joy that

new

is

and forms, the new by principles and motives, and these are
It is not fasting to which objec
foreign, the one to the other.

rules

taken, but fasting according to rule, instead of its inherent


As a piece of legalism, or asceticism, in which fasting
per se becomes of moral obligation, it is incongruous with the
free spirit of Christianity.

tion

is

principle.

ALLEGED VIOLATION OF THE SABBATH


23-28. Jesus defends his disciples for plucking ears of
grain on the SabbatJi.

The

fourth ground of complaint

is

the violation of the law of

Jesus and his disciples are going through the grainfields on the Sabbath, and the disciples, careless of the strict Sabbatism of the Pharisees, pluck the ears of grain and eat them.
Evidently there was the usual crowd following him, and the Phar
the Sabbath.

In the first part of his reply,


Jesus argues from an analogous case the admissibility of infringing
the law to satisfy hunger.
In the second part, he shows the nature

isees attack this act as unlawful.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

48
of the law

itself,

that

it is

the servant of man, and not

[n.

man

vant of the law, involving the lordship of the Son of


the law.

23-25

the ser

Man

over

23. crTropt/Acov
sown fields. rjpavTO 6Sov Troteiv TI AAovres
This is the translation natu
began, as they went, to pluck, EV.
rally suggested by the context, as it prepares the way for Jesus
explanation of their conduct by the parallel case of David. But
the phrase 686v TTOICIV does not mean to make way in the sense of
merely going along or advancing, but to make a road. The middle,
however, has the former sense. Moreover, this translation makes
the participle, instead of the verb, express the principal thought.
On the other hand, the translation, to make a road by plucking the
ears, besides making Jesus answer quite unintelligible, presents
an absurd way of making a road. You can make a path by
plucking the stalks of grain, but you would make little headway,
if you picked only the ears or heads of the grain.
There are two
ways of explaining this. We can take oSov TTOLW in its proper
sense, but make the participle denote merely concomitant action,
not the means or method.
They began to break a path (by tread
ing down or plucking up the stalks of grain that obstructed their
path), meanwhile plucking and eating the ears that grew on them.
Or we can minimize the difficulties in the way of the ordinary
interpretation, without doing much violence to the laws of speech.
Surely, in a language so careless of nice distinctions as the N.T.

Greek, it is not difficult to suppose that an active may be substi


tuted for the middle.
And there seems to be no doubt that the
And as for making the
active is used in this sense in Judg. 17:8.
principal and subordinate clauses exchange places, in this case
the peculiarity is not so great.
They began to go along, plucking
the ears is not so very different from they began, going along, to
pluck.
24. o OVK e&ori
what is not lawful.
meant, which forbids work on that day.
rabbinical interpreter found here its most

The Sabbath law is


The casuistry of the
fruitful field in

drawing

work and not-work, and managed to get in its


most ingenious and absurd refinements. But the great difficulty,
as with all their work, is that they managed so to miss the very
spirit and object of the law, that they made its observance largely
a burden, instead of a privilege.
Whenever they speak of that
which is lawful, or unlawful, their standard is not simply the writ
In the same way,
ten law, but this traditional interpretation of it.
the line between

we can conceive of men now accepting

the Bible as their stand

to an equal authority an interpretation of


it contained in creed or confession, and really referring to this
when they use the terms, Biblical or unbiblical.
ard,

and yet admitting

25.

Kat Aeya

And he

says.

II.

ALLEGED VIOLATION OF THE SABBATH

26]

Omit avros

Memph.

CL

etc.

WH.

49

BCL

RV. N
33, 69, mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg.
\tyei, says, instead of eXeyev, said, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N

Tisch. Treg.

33, 69, mss. of Lat. Vet.

Memph.

etc.

the house

of

God

a generic term that


which the Jews at
first worshipped, or to the later temple.
Here, of course, the
former.
It was called the house of God, because in a sense God
dwelt there, manifesting his presence in the inner shrine, the Holy
of Holies.
em Aftiadap apx l
in the high-priesthood of Abiathar.
26.

OLKOV TOV

eov

is

would apply either to the tent or tabernacle

in

p^

WH.

Omit roC before dpxieptus Tisch. Treg. marg.

In the account of this in

Saml. 2i

RV. N

sqq.,

high-priest, and Abiathar, his son, does not


until the reign of David.
See ch. 22 21

BL F

etc.

Abimelech was

become

high-priest

To

be sure, other
passages in the O.T. make the same confusion of names, making
Abimelech, the son of Abiathar, high-priest in David s time. But
this does not explain our difficulty ; it only shows that there is the
same difficulty in the O.T. account.
Nor does it relieve it to
suppose that this means simply that the event took place during
the lifetime of Abiathar, not during the high-priesthood.
For the
transaction took place between David and the high-priest, and the
object of introducing the name would be to show in whose highpriesthood it took place, not simply in whose lifetime. The impro
priety would be the same as if one were to speak of something
that took place between the Bishop of Durham and some other
person in the time of Bishop Westcott, when, as a matter of fact,
Lightfoot was bishop, and it was only during the lifetime of Bishop
Westcott. And the phrase itself means strictly, during the highpriesthood of Abiathar. If such disagreement were uncommon, it
would be worth while to try somewhat anxiously to remove this
.

; but, as a matter of fact, discrepancies of this unimpor


tant kind are not at all uncommon in the
Scriptures.
TOWS aprons Trjs 7rpo0o-ca>s
the bread of setting forth.
It is a
translation of the Hebrew, ffjan
? bread of the face, or

difficulty

pres

D!?

ence, given to twelve loaves of


in the holy place of the

two rows on the table


tabernacle, or temple, and renewed by
the priests every Sabbath. S. Lev. 24^.
The Greek name, taken
from the Sept., denotes the bread set forth before God. The
Hebrew name, about which there has been naturally much curi
ous writing, seems to mean that the bread, in some way, symbol
ized

God s
robs

presence.

lepeis,

bread

rows icpets

set in

the priests.

instead of rots iepevvi, Tisch. Treg. marg.

WH.

N BL.

TOUS te/aeis is the subject of <ayeiv.


The priests were allowed
to eat the bread after it had been
In
replaced by fresh loaves.
this case, there was no other bread, and when David and his hun-

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

5O

[II.

26-28

men

appeared, it became a case of physical need against rit


Jesus cites it as a case decided by a competent authority
and accepted by the people, showing the superiority of natural
law to positive enactment, the same principle involved in the
And he evidently upholds
alleged illegal action of his disciples.
the correctness of the principle, and not simply the
authority of
gry

ual law.

this

precedent.
TO cra/3/3aTov Sta rov avOpwirov
the Sabbath was made on
account of man, not man on account of the Sabbath. This is
introduced to show the supremacy of man over the Sabbath. The
statement that the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath follows
If the law antedates man, having its seat in
directly from this.
God, as the moral law does, it becomes a part of the moral con
stitution of things, resident in God, to which man is subservient.
But if it is something devised by God for the uses of man, then
the subserviency belongs to the law, and man can adapt it to his
uses, and set it aside, or modify it, whenever it interferes with his
good. The law of the Sabbath, if not moral, is either natural or
positive.
Regarded as natural law, the principle involved is that
of rest, and this places it in the same category as the law of day
and night. As positive, it is a matter simply of enactment, and
not of principle. And in both aspects it is liable to exceptions.
It is only moral law which is lord of man, and so inviolable.
28. Kuptos
the noun is emphatic from its position.
TOV
also of the Sabbath, as well as of other things belong
o-a/J/Sarou
ing to the life of man. This lordship, as we have seen, is true of
Of that he would be adminis
everything else except moral law.
trator and interpreter, but not Lord.
He would be ruler under
the supreme law, but without the power to modify or set aside, as
in the case of that which is made for man.
27.

K<U

Weiss, Life of Jesus, contends that Jesus did not here, nor in fact any
where, assume an attitude of independence towards the Jewish Law, but
only towards the current traditional interpretation of it. But surely, the

made for man, not man for the Sabbath,


puts the Sabbath law in a separate class, and subordinates it to the moral
law.
Whereas, the O.T. throughout, not only makes the Sabbath a matter
statement that the Sabbath was

of moral obligation, but of the highest moral

system of rules, Christianity of principles.


is

a rule, that

is,

so far as

it is

And

obligation.
Judaism is a
so far forth as the Sabbath

Jewish, Jesus does abrogate

Weiss confuses matters by neglecting

it

in these words.

this distinction.

This early statement of Jesus lordship, and its use of the term
Son of Man as his official title, is a good specimen of the way in
which he tacitly assumed his Messianic character under this title,
while the doubt in which the whole nation stood of his claim shows
that he was not understood to

make

it

formally.

III.

ALLEGED VIOLATION OF THE SABBATH

1-6]

THE PERIOD OP CONFLICT CONTINUED


The
flict.

third chapter continues the account of the Period of Con


the period,
It contains matter, however, which belongs to

but not to the conflict.

crowds than ever,


whole country, as

It

shows us Jesus attended by larger


his deeds from the

drawn by the report of


far

south as Jerusalem, and as far north as

The growth of hostility against him is thus


Tyre and Sidon.
shown to be accompanied by an access of popularity with the
The combination of these two features seems to his
people.
to make the situation so dangerous, and his own action so

family
and seek to restrain him.
unwise, that they think him distraught
In the midst of this is introduced the account of the appointment

of the apostles, evidently in the connection, as assistants to him in


The occasions of conflict are, first, the heal
his increasing work.

arm on the Sabbath, causing a renewal


and secondly, the charge of the Scribes
that he casts out demons through Beelzebul, and that he himself
He himself brings on
is possessed by that prince of the demons.
his
the
Sabbath
about
question whether the
the controversy
by

ing of a man with a palsied


of the Sabbath controversy,

is a day for good or evil deeds, for killing or healing.


the charge of collusion with the devil he meets with the ques
tion whether Satan casts out Satan.

Sabbath

And

HEALING ON THE SABBATH


l_6,

Jesus heals a withered hand in the synagogue on the

Sabbath,

and stirs up fresh

opposition against himself.

offence of Jesus against the current Judaism is a case


It belongs evidently to a period
of healing on the Sabbath.
of this sacred day had
treatment
of
when the freedom
Jesus
are on the watch
enemies
for
his
created considerable notoriety,

The

fifth

him to give them a fresh charge against him. The scene


the synagogue, and the case is that of a man with a withered hand.
this time, as he calls the man out
Jesus himself is the challenger
is

for

into their midst,


it is

and meets

allowable to confer the

of refusing to heal.

their scruple with the question,

good of

whether

healing, or to inflict the injury

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

52
1.

again into the synagogue?

TraXiv eis (Tvvaytdyrjv

Omit rty

[ill.

before ffwaywyriv Tisch. Treg. (Treg.)

WH.

N B.

The

art

is

an apparent emendation.

The

again, keeps up the connection with preceding visits


manner of Mk. See i 21 28
ffypapucth e hand withered.
The article is the possessive
vrjv TJJV x^P a
2
The participle, e^payn/uieV^v instead of the adjective,
article.
denotes a process, and not simply a state, and hence, an effect
produced by disease, and not an original defect.
TroAtv,

to the synagogue, after the

were watching.
The imperfect denotes
There is no subject expressed here, but it
is easily supplied from our
knowledge of the class who insisted on
these rigors of Sabbath observance.
And v. 6 tells us that it was
the Pharisees who went out and conspired with the Herodians
2.

they

TrapcTT/pow

the act in

its

progress.

against him.
3.

WH.
3.

TV

x e V a fyovri Z.TIP&V (or TV Z-rjpav x/xi Zx ovTi Tisch.),


RV. x BCL A 33, one ms. of Lat. Vet. Memph. Hard.

*Eype

TO

etc.

Arise (and come) into the midst.

/le crov

Eyeipe instead of

Tisch. Treg.

Tisch. Treg.

"Eycipcu,

WH.

ABCDL A

etc.

a pregnant construction. The action begins with eyeipe


? TO /u,rov ; but between these, there is an inter
mediate act, of coming or stepping.* By this act, Jesus challenged
the attention of the carpers to the miracle that he is about to per
form.
Not as a miracle, however, but as a case involving the
principle in dispute between himself and them in regard to healing
on the Sabbath.
4
4. "Extern
Is it allowabk to do good?
dyafloTroi^crai
ayaOoits
and
contrasted
verb KaKoiroifja-at, may mean to do good
TTOIT/O-CU,
or evil, either in the sense of right and wrong, or of benefit and
The connection here points to the latter meaning.
injury.

This

is

and ends with

Mt. says that the Pharisees began by asking him if it was lawful to heal
that he knew their thoughts, and so asked them the
Both are attempts to explain the
question about doing good and evil.
apparent abruptness of Jesus question.

on the Sabbath; Lk.,

This question of Jesus not only suggests the general principle


makes healing permissible on the Sabbath, but is aimed

that

1 The omission of the


art. is probably due to the fact that eU <rvvayiayjv had
passed into a phrase, like ei? olieoj or our to church.
2 Lk. 6 6
the
hand.
Dr. Morison contends that this is the reason for
says
right
the use of the art. But evidently, the art. is insufficient for this discrimination, as
the other use, allowing it to apply to either hand, is so much more obvious.
3 On the use of
11
lyfipr, see on 2
4
ayafloiroirjcrai IS a Biblical word.
eiitpyertiv IS the Greek word, Or e5 jroteiv.
KaicoTroiiv is a good Greek word.
,

ALLEGED VIOLATION OF THE SABBATH

III. 4, 5]

53

They
directly at the specious distinction made by the Scribes.
admitted no healing, except where life was in danger, on that day.
The point of Jesus answer is found in the substitution of the posi
second part of the contrast. They
simply an omission of ayaOoTroLrjo-ai ;
Not to do good to a per
Jesus treats it as a positive KaKoiroLTJa-ai.
son needing it is the same as to do him evil ; to withhold a good
But he deals more directly and boldly with
is to inflict an injury.
their fallacy in the second part of the question, showing that not
The case in
to heal is in any case to be classed with killing.
which life is in danger is not therefore a case by itself, but includes
in itself a principle applicable to all cases of sickness. To weaken
life is not the same thing in degree as to end life, but of the same
kind notwithstanding, and therefore morally in the same class.
The principle is analogous to that stated in the Sermon on the
Mount, where Jesus shows that the law against murder is directed
In all these discus
equally against any manifestation of anger.
13
sions, beginning with 2 , Jesus appears as the emancipator of
the human spirit, revealing principles, instead of rules, as the guide
of human conduct, and so delivering all men possessed of his
spirit from the fetters of conventional morality.
5. eo-twTTwv
This is a case in which the
they kept silence.
imperfect denotes the continuance of a previous state, /uer 6pyi}s
Anger is legitimate in the absence of the personal element.
Anger caused by wrong done to me, and seeking to retaliate on
tive for the negative in the
regarded the not healing as

But anger against wrong


it, is clearly wrong.
simply as wrong, and without evil design or wish against the per
The preposi
petrator, is a sign of moral health.
o-vAXvTrou/xcvos
tion in composition may denote merely the inwardness of the act,
as in o-woiSa, to be conscious, i.e. to have inward knowledge ; or it
may denote what is shared with others, as the same word crwotSa
may mean to know with others, to be privy to. Probably it is the
latter here, denoting the sympathetic character of his grief.
He
was grieved because they hurt themselves, eirl rfj
TTJS
at the hardness of their heart. The expression does not
KapStas
denote, as with us, the callousness of their feelings, but the unsusceptibility of their minds.
They were hardened by previous con
The collocation of anger and
ceptions against his new truth.
sympathetic grief excited by the same act is significant of the
nature of Christ s anger, showing how compatible it was with
the person doing

7ra>pw<re,

goodwill.

a.TTKaTf.(TTa.Orj

//

was

restored.

WH.

instead of dtroKa.Te<rT<i6ri, Tisch. Treg.


X e P a Tisch. (Treg.)
mart?. I5EMSUV F
Doubtful.
Omit vyifa &* <*Mi? Tisch. Treg.
RV. N
etc. mas. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr. etc.
Or)

Omit

<rov

after

WH.

TTJI>

WH.

etc.

r>

On

the double augment, see

Win.

12, 7 a.

ABL
Jl",

etc.

126,

A15C*

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

54

[ill. 6,

The immediateness of this act is noted by Mk. only,


quite characteristic of his style, hitting off a situation with
a word. The immediateness is here a sign of the violence of the
To estimate their fanatical zeal, we
feeling excited against Jesus.
evOvs

6.

and

is

must remember that they valued the Sabbath far beyond any mere
morality, and reacted with corresponding violence against any sup
posed violation of its sacredness. Fanaticism is always busy and
eager over the mere outworks of religion.

The adherents of Herod


the Herodians.
TWV H/awSiavoiv
Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee. The Pharisees were zealous patriots,
and as such were generally opposed to any foreign yoke. But
here was an opportunity to use the foreign power against a com
mon enemy. The common opinion ascribed Messianic preten
sions to Jesus, and on more than one occasion attempted to force
him to play the role according to the popular conception of the
Messiah. This would be the argument by which the Pharisees
excited the temporal power against him, as they did finally at
us a view of
Jerusalem. The preceding paragraphs have given
Jesus in his work of undermining one after another of the Phari
saic positions, and this conspiracy is the natural result.
l
they took counsel.
eVotTjouv (or c&i Sow)

BL

av, instead of tirolow, Tisch. N


13, 28, 69, etc.

CA

238

etc.

eSldovv, Treg.

WH.

GROWTH OF POPULARITY
7-12.

Jesus departs
great multitude.

to the

sea of Galilee, followed by a

The narrative of opposition is interrupted here, and we are


introduced to a scene of another kind. The multitude about
a sprinkling of hos
Jesus heretofore has been from Galilee, with
tile

Scribes and Pharisees (from Jerusalem ?)

But now we see

it

swelled by people from Judaea, and from the Gentile districts both
north and south. It is an eager crowd, moreover, who fall upon

him and threaten

to crush

him

in their attempt to obtain his heal

a boat to be in attendance
ing touch, so that Jesus has to procure
the period of conflict
it
all
that
on him. The meaning of
is,
rather that the great
but
of
a
loss
does not
popularity,
signify

access of favor with the people swells the tide of opposition.


7.

dvex^p^o-ev

withdrew.

ment from public view


1

as

The verb

is

would be natural

o-u/n/SouAioi/

used of such retire


such a position of

in

belongs to later Greek.

III.

GROWTH OF POPULARITY

7-10]

55

Mt. uses the same verb, i2 15


danger as Jesus found himself in.
It does not seem probable, in these
circumstances, that he would
choose the part of the lake near to Capernaum which was the
scene of his usual work, because it was a place of resort. This
time, he was seeking retirement, and he would find it in some
.

more secluded
8. The last

part of the lake.


clause of v, 7 should be included in this verse.
As
it stands in the T.R., the first
statement, with rfKoXovOrjo-ev as its
verb, goes as far as Trepav TOV lopSdvov ; the second, with rjXQov as

But with the omission of ol


verb, begins with ol irf.pl Tvpov.
before Trepl Tvpov, we can make the break where we please. Tisch.
makes it at the end of v. 7 , transferring ^KoXovOrja-ev to the end of
the verse.
But this separates Judaea and Jerusalem in an unwar
rantable way.
Most probably, the first statement is about Galilee,
the district near at hand, and the second includes all the remote
its

Those from the neighboring


beginning with Judaea.
represented as following him, and those from the
remote districts as coming to him. Read, And a great multitude
from Galilee followed. And from Judcea, and from Jerusalem,
andfrom Idumcea, and beyond Jordan, and about Tyre and Sidon,
a great multitude, hearing what things he is doing, came to him.
districts

Galilee

are

WH. ABGL

P etc. mss. of
riKo\o66r}crev, instead of riKo\oiL>6ri<Tav, Treg.
Lat. Vet. Vulg. -ffKoKovd^av Tisch. N
etc. mss. of Lat. Vet.
This
verb is transferred to the end of v. 7 after rijs lovdaias
by Tisch.
marg. N C A 238 Lat. Vet. Vulg. Placed after TTJS Ta\i\a.las by Treg.
T etc. Memph. Syrr. After Itpo<ro\6/j.wv by
The
235, 271.
separation of Judcea and Jerusalem caused by the transfer is clearly against
it.
Omit avrf after TjKoXoM-rjffev Tisch. Treg.
RV. N BCL Memph.
etc.
Omit oi before irepl Tvpov Tisch. Treg.
RV. N * and c BCL A mss.
of Lat. Vet. Pesh. etc.
aKovovres instead of aKoto-avres Tisch. Treg.
RV. K
I, 13,69, etc. mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.
wotet, instead

CEFK

WH.

ABL

WH.

WH.
WH.

WH.

B A

of

tirolei,

Idumaea

Treg.

WH.

BL.

the Greek

Internally probable.

name

for Edom, a district situated E. of


the Jordan, between Southern Palestine and Arabia.
Tyre and
Sidon were the two great cities of Syro-Phoenicia on the Mediter
ranean Sea, NW. of Galilee.
9.

is

he

he gave orders. Trpoo-Kaprtpfj


should
The verb expresses this idea of assidu
ous waiting.
It was rendered
necessary by the crowd, which was
in danger of crushing him.
10. wore eTriTrtTTTctv awrw
so that they were falling upon him.
Not
hostile sense, but the verb is a
strong word, like -rrpovin^a
KapTtprj and 6\i(3wo-Lv, and is intended to bring before us vividly
the turbulent eagerness and excitement of the crowd.
ai/oDvrcu
touch him. They believed that there was some virtue in his
touch,
and that it made no difference whether he touched them, or
they
19
him. See 6 .
/u,acmyas
scourges, a strong figurative term for
eiTre

told,

i.e.

be in constant attendance.

diseases.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

56

[ill.

11-14

11. TO. -irve.vfjM.Ta TO. aKadapra


The unclean spirits are here put
by metonymy for the men possessed by them, because the action
1
orav eOeupow
is directed by them,
whenever they beheld him.
tOcupovv, wpocrtTrnrrov,
N
etc.
61, 69 etc.
marg. N
.

Treg.

WH.

DK

ABCDL

expafov, instead of the

Myovres, instead of

singular,

X^yoj-Tci, Tisch.

Tisch.

WII.

would fall down before him and cry


Kpaov
2
6 mos TOV
impf. denotes repeated action. "On

Trpoo-eTriTrTov /mi

The

out.

OeoC

the

theocratic

<rv

Son of God. This title was a Messianic title, denoting


sonship, and there is nothing here to indicate that it is

used in any other than

this

common

sense.

The onus probandi

not on those who deny the use of the term in the Synoptical
Gospels, of metaphysical sonship, but on those who claim this use.
Unless it was accompanied by language pointing out the meta
physical sonship, no Jew would have understood it.
is

APPOINTMENT OF THE TWELVE


13-19. Jesus goes up into the mountain,

and

chooses the

twelve.

The appointment

of the twelve

But in them

in the Synoptics.

is

all,

put in different connections


is such as to

the connection

point to the growth of our Lord s work as the occasion of the


appointment. They are to aid him in his work of proclaiming

But
the kingdom, and of healing.
named, the association with himself,

after
is

all,

the other purpose

the one most in evidence

in the subsequent history.

mountain, i.e. the one in the neighborhood,


he himself wished. The pronoun is
emphatic, the form of the verb being enough to indicate the per
son.
Those who came to Jesus at this time came not of their
own accord, but in accordance with his desire.
14. cTroirjcre SwSe/ca.
he appointed twelve. This use of the
verb comes under the head of making one something,
king or
13.

ous

TO opos

y]OfXf.v

the

awes

whom

Only here, that to which they were appointed


expressed, not as an office, but as the purpose of the appoint
ment. This purpose is expressed under two heads, the first being
priest, for instance.
is

1 OTO.V
fdfiapow is a rare construction. Generally, OTO.V is used with conditions
belonging to the future, or with general conditions belonging to any time, and is
construed with the subjunctive. The indefiniteness in the time of past conditions
expressed in our -ever is denoted by -Trore.
15
2 On this use of on to introduce direct
quotation, see on i .

III.

APPOINTMENT OF THE TWELVE

14-17]

57

association with himself, and the second, to act as his messengers


in the work of proclaiming the good news of the kingdom and of
Apparently^the former was the only one fully
healing the sick.
carried out during our Lord s life, the second becoming their work

when they were made

necessarily independent of him by his


death. And in accordance with this, the name generally given in
the Gospels is disciples, and afterward, in the Acts and Epistles,
they are called apostles.
ovs Kal

airo<TT6\ovs

wv6[j.aei>,

whom

he also

named

apostles, is inserted

by WH. RV. marg. N BC* A 13, 28, 69, 124, 238, 346,
13
But
Memph. Hard. marg. Tisch. thinks it has been copied from Lk. 6
on the whole, considering the strength of the testimony for it, it seems at
least equally possible that Lk. found it in the original Mk.
after lirolijffe SuSeica

to herald, or here, where it is used absolutely, to


KT/puWeiv
The word conveys the idea of authority, a herald
act as heralds.
being an official who makes public proclamation of weighty
The proclamation which they were to make was the com
affairs.
ing of the kingdom of God.
15. f.\uv e ^oucrtav
to have power to cast out.
This
K/3aAAeiv
is in the same construction as
K-rjpvvauv, and denotes one of
the objects of sending them forth.

Omit
marg.)

Bepaireiieiv

WH.

RV.

raj
N

v6<rovs,

Kal, to

heal diseases, and, Tisch. Treg. (Trcg.

BC* L A Memph.

With this omission, the casting out of


So frequently. 1
representative miracle.
16.

demons

is

taken as the

KOL fTTtOrjKe.

Kal

tTrolTjffev

K al lTrt6i)Ke

rods 5ci5e/ca,

by Tisch.

WH.

and he appointed the

RV. marg.

BC*

tivelve, is inserted

before

A.

interrupts the structure of the sentence, which is


next verse. The names that follow are in apposi
tion with TOWS SciiSeKa in the inserted clause, and the enumeration
is interrupted to give the
descriptive names assigned to some of
Kal

cTrfOrjKe.

resumed

in the

them by

Jesus.
Peter.
Mt. gives the only explanation of this name
IleVpov
But neither in this passage nor in
given to Simon, in ch. 16 18.
that, is there any definite indication that it was at either time
42
that the name was given him.
J. i , however, assigns the giving
:

of the name to a time much earlier than either, immediately after


the Baptism.
The masculine form, instead
TleVpov means a rock.
of lleVpa, is due to its being appropriated as the name of a man.
17. Kal laKwySov
This resumes the structure of v. 14 as if v. 16
read SI/AWO. w fTreOrjKe.
Boavepye s. This is a modified form of the Heb. ttJ^n Jp.
t^i.
properly means tumult or uproar, of any kind, and thunder, as a
,

See on i3.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

58

[ill. 17,

18

secondary meaning, is not improbable, though we have no example


of it in Hebrew literature. The name probably describes a fiery,
vehement temperament, rather than a thunderous eloquence, or a
sonorous speech. The little that is told us about the disciples
makes it impossible to follow out these hints about their character

and temperament. These four, Peter, James and John, and


Andrew, always stand first in these lists of the twelve, and among
them, Peter is always first. Mt. calls him TT/JWTOS. But Mt. and
Lk. put Andrew into the second place, evidently to associate him

Mk. s order is the order of their rank, Peter,


James, and John being the three disciples chosen by Jesus to
attend him on special occasions, e.g. the Transfiguration, the rais
ing of the daughter of Jairus, and the scene in the garden of
with his brother.

Gethsemane.
18.

Philip heads the second group in

<iAt7r7rov

pels, as Peter the

The name

all

a Greek name.

the

Gos

We

hear
nothing more about him in the Synoptics, though he is mentioned
several times in the fourth Gospel.
This name does not occur in the Gospels out
EapOoXo/jLOLov
side of these lists, and elsewhere only in Acts i 13
And in the
first.

is

passage in Acts, Bartholomew s name is associated, as it is here,


with those of Philip and Thomas.
In the fourth Gospel, on the
other hand, we find that Nathanael is associated with Philip and
Thomas, as Bartholomew is in the Synoptics and the Acts. In J.
46 50
i
, Nathanael is the one whom Philip introduces to Jesus, while
in J. 2 1 2 , Nathanael s name is associated with Thomas.
This,
together with the fact that so important a personage as Nathanael
appears to be in J. is not mentioned in the list of the twelve, has
led to the quite reasonable supposition that the two are to be
identified.
In that case, Bartholomew, which means Son of
Tolmai, would be a patronymic, and Nathanael would be the real
"

name.
MaOOalov
On the identification of this disciple with Levi the
U
He is not mentioned after this, except in
publican, see on 2
Acts i 13
This disciple, who is a mere name in the
Synoptics and the Acts, becomes a personage in the fourth Gos
16
5
24 28
This group of four is the same in all
pel.
i4 20
J. ii
three Synoptics, but in Mt., Thomas precedes Matthew.
TOV TOV
This James is probably the same as
laK<a(3ov
.

<j)fji.av

"

AA</>atbv

James the little, the son of Mary and Clopas.


25
The supposition, however, that in this pas
ig

laKwySos 6 /AiKpos,

See I5 40 I6 1 J.
sage from J., Mapt a
.

TOV KXwTra is in apposition with 17 MT"T)P


17
that thus the brothers of our Lord were his cousins
included in the list of apostles, is decisively negatived, first,

O.VTOV,

and
by
by

M.

and

giving us two sisters having the same name, Mary ; secondly,


7
fact, that in Lk. 2 , Jesus is called the firstborn son of
14
\* mplying that there were other sons ; thirdly, by Acts i ,

"s

*.

III. 18,

19]

APPOINTMENT OF THE TWELVE

59

which the brothers of our Lord are distinguished from the apos
and finally, by J. f which states distinctly, that at the Feast
;
of Tabernacles, six months before the death of Jesus, his brothers
in

tles

did not believe in him.

This must be the same as Lebbseus, Mt. io 3 (AV.


and Jude the son of James, Lk. 6 16

aSScuov
Tisch.),

TOV Kavavaiov

the Zealot.

Kavavcuov, instead of KavavLrrjv, Tisch. Treg. WII.


Memph. (Pesh.) etc.

RV. N

BCDL A

33,

Latt.

If this name meant an inhabitant of Cana, it would be KavaTov.


Probably, it comes from the Heb. K3[3, Chald. JK3, with the termi
nation aios which denotes a party (^apiomos, 2a88ou/catos), and is
15
the same as Zi/Aomjs zealot, the name given to him in Lk. 6
This was the name of a party of fanatic nationalists among the
Jews, leaders of the national revolt against the foreign yoke.
19.
Heb., n Tn|5 tTK, Man of Kerioth.
Judas is
lo-KapiwTT/v
.

designated thus as an inhabitant of Kerioth, a village of Judaea.


delivered up.

The word

for betrayal

is

There can be no doubt what significance Mk. means to give to


It is preceded and followed in
the appointment of the twelve.
his account by the gathering of the importunate crowds about our

And

the connection points plainly to the conclusion that


Jesus appoints them to be his helpers in the work thus growing on
his hands.
This is indicated in the purpose, that he may send

Lord.

them forth to preach, and to heal; that is, to share in the work
1
But we do
which has been described before as done by him.
done
them
not find that much of this active work was
during
by
Jesus lifetime. The purpose which was more fully carried out

was that of permanent association with himself, expressed


words, that they

may

be with him.

Instead of the

in the

fluctuating

attendance on his person of the ordinary disciples, he desired for


these twelve such constant association that they could afterwards

and carry forward his work. Mt. p 35-! 4 gives


the same general reason, but the immediate occasion is a mission
ary tour made by Jesus through Galilee, in which he is impressed
be

his witnesses,

by the greatness of the

spiritual harvest,

and the small number

Lk. 6 1M9 places the concourse of people after the


appointment of the twelve. The inclusion of Judas in the num
ber of the apostles is a certain indication that he was at the time

of laborers.

See

34
.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

60
a genuine disciple.

[ill.

In his case, as in that of

there was a failure to understand our Lord

all

20-35

the apostles,

purely spiritual pro


gramme, but the personal equation, the faith in Christ himself,
overcame this doubt at first. Later, the doubt predominated in
the case of Judas, and even in the rest of the apostles it led to
the temporary desertion of the ten, and to the denial of Peter.

CHARGE OF DIABOLISM
the

of

family
It

is

relation

home again, is met by the opposition


and by the attempt on the part of his

Jesus, at

20-35.

Scribes,

to restrain

him.

evident that there

between

is

both a logical and a chronological

this attitude of our

Lord

family and this

new

The logical relation is


phase of the opposition of the Scribes.
His
two.
the
of
in
the
found
family said, he is beside
language
is
he
the
Scribes
said,
possessed by the devil himself.
himself;
The close juxtaposition of these in the narrative shows that Mk.
On the other hand, the
relation in his mind.
had this
logical

to restrain him by
s
interruption of the story of his family attempt
the introduction of the other account, and the resumption of the

not explained so well by any other assumption


as that there was really such an interval between the family s
arrival on the scene of action, which
original purpose and their

former in

v.

31

is

Scribes.
Jesus makes
of
occasion
of
which
it
the
is easy to
this opposition
teaching,
In
miss the point, and which has been badly misunderstood.

was

filled

up by the controversy with the

regard to the charge that he is in collusion with Satan in casting


out demons, his point fully stated would be, that such collusion is

up to the point where it involves an actual arraying of


Satan against himself. And Jesus turns their charge against them
selves by his counter-claim that his whole action is hostile to

possible

making such collusion impossible. And this is the acumen


In the
of his statement about the sin against the Holy Ghost.
case of the Scribes, their charge had been very close to that sin,
Satan,

when they said that the Spirit in Jesus was the Devil instead of
the Holy Spirit, involving a complete upsetting; of all moral values,
and a stupendous and well-nigh irrecoverable moral blindness

in

III. 20,

CHARGE OF DIABOLISM

21]

That

themselves.

the moral element

is,

their

in Jesus

61

whole error lay in their failure to value


It is not implied at all that
works.

sympathy with the Scribes, their apprehension


mind was unsettled, and that he needed to
be put under restraint. This lack of sympathy with him on the
his family

was

in

being simply that his

to point out the higher reality


part of his human family led Jesus
of spiritual relationship and association.

comes,
eis OLKOV is here probably the colloquial
20.
px Tat
anarthrous phrase, equivalent to our home. The gathering of the
Scribes from Jerusalem and the visit of his family would probably
both of them be at Capernaum, and this points to his own house
as the one meant here, RV. margin.
/>X

CTCU instead of fpxovrai, Tisch.

Kai o-wepx^ai

TraXiv (6)

o^Xos

WH.

RV. N B T

And

(the)

ABDL

mss. of Lat. Vet. etc.

crowd gathers again.

c rr A
edd .
6 before
209, 300, Memph.
x** Tr. (WH.) RV. x
The article is rather favored by Mk. s habit of correlating persons and
in his account.
things with previous mentions of the same
-

1 2
and denotes a repetition of
again. This refers to 2
not
what occurred then in the same place, p.r) Swao-ftu ^Se
-

able even.
,

instead of jon^e, Treg.

WH.

RV.

ABKLU A

28,

33

etc.

31

21. 01 Trap avrov


v. , which is evidently a resump
his family,
tion of this part of the narrative, says his mother and his brothers.
Literally, this phrase would denote those descended from him, but
it

has

come

to

have

this

modification

of

its

strict

meaning.

to lay hold of him, to get possession of him.


They
Kparrjo-ai
wanted to protect Jesus against his own madness. For they said
that he is beside himself, ig&rrty. 1
dKow-avres has for its object the

preceding statement. Jesus permitting the multitude to gather


about him in this tumultuous way and to engross him so entirely,
seemed to them an unwarranted absorption in an entirely visionary
work. This absence of prudence and of care of himself seemed
to

them misplaced.
Weiss, with some show of reason, makes the subject of e\eyov the persons
whom the family received their account. But the more natural sub
ject is the same as that of 4^7j\dov, unless a different one is pointed out.
And it is just as probable that the family inferred the t^ffTTj from what they
heard, as that it made a part of the report.

from

Where

when

the
the result

used with wore, the N.T. invariably


stated as a fact. See Win. 55, 2 d.

inf. is
is

the

nog.
employs
2 See on a -.
1

nj,

even

62

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

Kai

01

Scribes

ypa^areis

ot

OTTO

lepocroAv/Awv

who came down from Jerusalem.

[m. 2 2

/caraySavTes

And

the

This delegation is introduced here with the


article, as if it had been
mentioned before. But the article
may be taken as meaning the Scribes
who were present, and ot Karapdvres as an incidental
statement
of the

reason of their presence. This


slight change of meaning would be indiand the Scribes, who came down
by a comma,
from Jerusalem.
i

22. Kara/Savres
It was down from
Jerusalem, which was
situated on high land, to most other
parts of the country
This is
the first mention of the
presence of Scribes from Jerusalem, and
it is an indication of an increased
activity and hostility of the
religious leaders against Jesus.
he has Beelzebul. This is a modification
BeeACe/SovA l^i
of

a Heb. name, and

one of

their names for Satan. 1


One is said
the
here,
prince of demons, as he is said to
have a disease, that is, to be afflicted with it.
The particular form of this charge, that he is
possessed, not
with an ordinary demon, but with the devil
is in order to

to have a

is

demon, or

himself,

account for his power over


demons, as representing their prince
But we may suppose that they took a malicious
pleasure in making
his an exaggerated case,
h rJJ fy x ovn TV fidt/tovtW in the
prince of the demons. The preposition has the same force as in
the phrases in Christ, in the
Holy Spirit. It is a local designation
F intimate
union, as if the two were so absorbed in each other
that they dwelt, one in the other.
The charge is, that Jesus cast
out demons by virtue of this connection with their
It is
prince.
not merely an attempt to explain these
miracles, so as to do away
with the effect of them, but a distinct
charge on the strength of
them. They said, this man is in collusion with the devil.
It is
evident all through his course, but this assumed miracle is
distinct
else does this insignificant
proof of it.
person

How

coming among

us without any credentials, get this


extraordinary power over
demons, unless there is some connection between him and their
ruler.
The devil has power to order them round, and has author
ized this man to actfor him, and so
further the dangerous delusion
about himself which is spreading
among the people. There is no
connection between the attitude of the
and of
^

religious leaders,

Jesus own family here.


Rather, the hostility of the Scribes was
one of the dangers of the situation, to which
Jesus himself seemed
rashly indifferent, and which led his family to seek to restrain him.
Mt. i222 -23 and Lk. 11" g i ve us a more immediate occasion for
this
charge in their account of the casting out of a demon at this time. In this
Gospel, the connection is general, the charge being occasioned
by Jesus
frequent performance of this most prominent of all his miracles.
i
The Heb.
god offilth.

is

<7?37

^3,

fcni

being a rabbinical form of

>>y.

The whole means

III.

23-25 j

CHARGE OF DIABOLISM

63

A parable is an analogy. It assumes a


between higher and lower things, such that what is true
It serves the purpose
in one department holds good in another.
not only of illustration and of figurative statement, but also of
23.

ev 7rapa/3oAats

likeness

proof.

Here the apologetic purpose

is

evident.

The analogy

story, or description, as in most of Jesus


In this case, Jesus begins with
parables, but this is not essential.
an abstract statement of his position, and then gives several

may be drawn out into a

analogous cases proving the general principle.


Satan is the Heb. name of the
Saravas 2<mxva eK/2aAAv
It means the Adversary, and
demons.
of
the
the
devil,
prince
3
except in this passage, and Lk. 22 , the name is written with the
1
article.
Jesus shows the fallacy of the scribes position by call
attention to one essential element in his casting out of
their
ing
demons, which makes it impossible to account for it in their way.

And that is, that


To be sure, his

his action

toward the demons

is

hostile action.

ordering them round, in itself considered, may


be merely an exercise of the power which their ruler exercises
over them. But when his authority is exercised, not for them, but
against them, and against everything for which they and their
ruler stand, he must be representing, not some friendly power,
but a distinctly hostile force. They are so identified with their

what he does to them he does virtually to himself, and


he does not cast himself out from one of his principal vantage
points, possessing a special strategic value for his cause.
And if a kingdom is
24. /cat eav /ScunAeiu
eavrrjv /u,epio-0iy
divided against itself. This is the analogy which lies nearest at
hand. Indeed, it may be called the generic statement of the pre
ruler, that

e<f>

ceding principle. Satan and his subjects constitute a kingdom,


and what is true of any kingdom is applicable to them. There is
no difference between human kingdoms and this kingdom of evil
In the form in
spirits, which would invalidate this common truth.
which this analogy is stated, it contains the reason why it is
It is, that such
morally impossible for Satan to cast out Satan.
The condition is here a general
division leads to destruction.
one, not confined to any time.
The word is used
25. The second analogy is that of a house.
by metonymy for the family inhabiting a house. Here, too, divis
ov Sw^o-erai
will not be able. The
ion ends in destruction,
form of the conditional statement in this case belongs to the
future, and not to a general condition.

WH.

RV. N BCL A mss. of


instead of Stvarat, Tisch. Trcg.
Svvarai is an evident emendation, to correspond to
Vet. and of Vulg.

SWITCH,
L,at.
v. 21 .

See on

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

64
26.

Kal

o Sararas avt cmy

el

And if

arrival

<

[ill. 26,

cavrov, e^epcrrOr}

KU.L

27

ou Suvarat

Satan arose against himself, he was divided and

cannot stand}
*
C * A mss. of Lat. Vet.
r], KCU instead of Kal /ue/^ptcrrcu, Tisch. N
Kal eneplcrBri Treg. marg.
RV. N c BL. Kal tfj,eplaei) is a probable
emendation to bring the aorists avivrri and ^nepL<r6rj together, instead of
/j.epicr9r) and the pres. ov ovvarai.
ffrijvai, instead of ara0T}vai, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

Vulg.

WH.

BCL.

This verse applies the principle to the case in hand, and the
form of conditional statement corresponds. It states the condi
tion as belonging to past time, and says of an event actually past,
In the conclusion, the aor. states
if it was of such a character.
what was involved, the pres. what is involved.
27.

ou SvvaTcu ouSets

and plunder

eis T-TJV otKiav

TOV Icr^ypov eicreA$a>i/ TO. (TKtvr)


the strong man s house,

no one can enter into

CLVTOV 8tap7rao-ai

his tools.

els TTJV olidav TOV Icrxvpov elaeXOiav ra ff/cewj avrov, instead of ra ffKevi)
rov iffxvpov eiffe\f)iav s rrjv oiKiav avrov, Tisch. Treg.
RV. N
A

WH.

33,

Memph.

BCL

Pesh.

In what precedes, Jesus has simply taken the negative attitude


towards their charge that he is in collusion with Satan, showing
that that is impossible.
But in this verse he shows what is the real
relation to Satan involved in his casting out demons.
What it
does mean is conflict with Satan, and victory over him. This
also is stated in the form of an analogy, that no one can enter a
strong man s house, and despoil his tools, except he first bind the
strong man.
O-KCVT] is here not possessions or goods, but utensils,
and denotes the demons as Satan s instruments, or tools. What
Jesus says is not simply an inference from his casting out of
demons, though that is the proof of it to others. But this victory
over Satan is a part of his self-consciousness. He knows that he
has met Satan here on his own stamping ground, where he has
been accustomed to take advantage of the weakness of men for
their undoing ; moreover, that Satan has approached him on this
same side of his human weakness, and for once, has met his mas
ter.
Instead of mastering, he has been himself mastered, and the
mastery has been followed up by crippling ; he has been bound.
Here we come upon one of the deepest truths of Jesus life, that
the real basis of his power, which is a spiritual power, is to be
found in his own righteousness under difficulties, and those diffi
culties the same which are inherent in human nature, and due to
the exposure of that nature to a subtle and victorious power of
evil which had so far dominated the world.

1
avi<rrn

to translate

and epcpt
are aorist, and it preserves the flavor of the original
them as simple pasts, arose, and was divided, instead of perfects.
<r0ij

better

CHARGE OF DIABOLISM

III. 28,

29]

28.

A/x^v

This has the effect of solemn emphasis.

Verify.
.

a</>e$^crTai

The statement

65

all sins shall be forgiven,

TO. dfj-aprrj/JiaTa

men

be forgiven is not to
but of classes, or kinds of sin. at
This word means primarily injuri
the blasphemies.
ous speech, and, as applied to God, speech derogatory to his Divine
oVo. av /JAuo-^/AT/craxnv
Literally, -whatsoever things
majesty,
that

all

the sins of

be taken of individual

shall

sins,

(3\a(T<}>r)p.La.L

they blasphemously utter?


at before
etc.

off a,

p\<ur<t>iuda<.

instead of

WH. RV. N ABCEFGHL A Memph.


WH. RV. N BDE * GH A etc.

Tisch. Treg.
Tisch. Treg.

So-ay,

Blasphemy is not here regarded as that into which all sins may
3
be resolved, but it adds to the general term sins, the special class
to which the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit belongs.
29. ei? TO Hvtv/jM To"Ayiov
against the Holy Spirit*

What

is

meant by the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit? The difficulty


on one side, has been the consideration of this question without
reference to the case in hand, and on the other hand, so superfi
cial an explanation of this case as to leave what Jesus says about
the enormity of the sin involved practically unexplained.
Plainly,
the Holy Spirit is not to be considered here in his independent
What Jesus says
action, but as the inward source of Jesus acts.
is occasioned by their charge that he had an evil spirit ; that is,
that the power acting in him was not good, but bad.
Now, the
Holy Spirit is the Divine power to which the acts of Jesus are

The Spirit is represented as descending on him at his


baptism, and driving him into the wilderness, and Jesus is said to
have begun his ministry in Galilee in the power of the Spirit.
Especially, Jesus ascribes his expulsion of evil spirits to the Holy
Hence, a distinction is to be made between his other acts,
Spirit.
and those which manifestly reveal the Holy Spirit in him, and
between slander directed against him personally, as he appears in
his common acts, and that which is aimed at those acts in which
the Spirit is manifest. Just so far as there is in the man who
utters the slander any recognition, however vague, of this agency,
or so far as there is in the person against whom it is directed so
manifest a revelation of the Spirit as should lead to this recogni
tion, so far, there is danger, to say the least, of this blasphemy
attributed.

Its proper
A^rjv is the Heb. particle of affirmation from f SN, to be firm, sure.
place is at the end of the sentence, and disconnected with it, like our Amen. This
adverbial use of it, placed at the beginning of the sentence, belongs to the report
of our Lord s discourses in the Gospels. Elsewhere in the N.T. it is used after
the Heb. fashion.
2 otra. is the
cognate ace. after /SXao-^q/bDjo-oKrii and independent of both /BAao^SnMII and ofiapTjjuaTa. See Col. 3 14 where & is used in the same way.
3 See Morison s
singular note. (
4 In this use of a
7)077, there is a return to the earlier
preposition after
the N.T. employs the simple ace.
for
which
construction,
1

Aaa<f>Tjfi

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

66

[ill.

29-31

against the
spirits

Holy Spirit. Moreover, this act of driving out evil


was the act in which the holiness of the Spirit operating in

It is not in the power shown in the


Jesus specially appeared.
miracles that the operation of the Holy Spirit is most evident,
but in their moral quality. There is the moral uniqueness about
the miracles of Jesus which appears in the rest of his life, only
And this quality
there, it is, if anything, most conspicuous.
appears specially where he not only cures the bodily diseases of
men, but frees them from an evil spirit which deranges their inner
life.
To call that evil, instead of good, and especially to ascribe
it to the
very prince of evil, is the blasphemy against the Holy
The only alleviation of it is the failure to recognize fully
Spirit.
these facts.
OVK e^ei a^eo-iv cis TOV aiwva
hath never forgive

ness^ ttAAa evo^os tcmv cuaw ou a/xapTTy/iaros


eternal sin.
s, instead of /cpkreus, Tisch. Treg.
13, 69, 346, a/uapT/as), Latt. Memph.

(C*

An

eternal sin

but

WH.

is

guilty of

RV. N

BL A

an

28, 33

may be one

subjecting the person to an eternal


2
But certainly it
consequences, that is.
is equally allowable to suppose that it describes the sin itself as
eternal, accounting for the impossibility of the forgiveness by the
endless consequences attached to end
permanence of the sin,
less sin.
This is the philosophy of endless punishment. Sin
reacts on the nature, an act passes into a state, and the state
continues.
That is, eternal punishment is not a measure of
God s resentment against a single sin, which is so enormous
that the resentment never abates.
It is the result of the effect of
any sin, or course of sin in fixing the sinful state beyond recovery.
This is more accordant with the inwardness of Jesus ordinary
view of things.
30. Trvtvfjia axdOapTov e^et
he has an unclean spirit. The report
of their saying above is, he hath Beehebul, and it is changed here
in order to make the contrast between 7n/eu//,a
aKa.6a.prov and HvcvfM

punishment, eternal in

"Ayiov,

31.

the

Holy

KO.I

Spirit.

IPXOVTCU

O-T^KOVTCS
his brothers,
.

its

77

prJTrjp

avrov

KaAoui/Tes avroV

and standing

outside

/cat

and
.

01

dSeXcpoi

there

came

avrou,
his mother
K<U

!a>

and

calling him.

"Epxojrat otv, Treg. WH. RV. (Tisch. Kai


epxercu) x BCDGL A i, 13, 28, 69, 118, 124, 209, Latt. Memph. Pesh. etc.
i) fj.^rrjp afoov Ka.1 ol d8e\0o2 atrov, instead of ol d,5eX0oi ical ij \ii\ri\p avrov,
Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BCDGL A Latt. Memph. Pesh. (rr^/covres, instead
of ^TTwres, Tisch. Treg. WH. EC A 28.
KaXovvres, instead of (txavovvres,
Tisch. Treg.
RV. N BCL i, 13, 28, 69, 118, 124, etc.

Kai epx(oKTcu), instead of

WH.

tive,

The Hcb. form of the universal nega


Literally, hath not forgiveness forever.
joining the negative with the verb, instead of with the adverb.
So Meyer, Weiss, Holtzmann,

etc.

III.

JESUS SPIRITUAL FAMILY

31-35]

67

Though the resumptive ow is omitted, it is plain that this is a


resumption of what is said about his family coming out to restrain
him in v. 21 The preliminary statement is put there, in order to
connect c&jXOov with its cause in the tumultuous gathering of the
with
people. Then it is interrupted by the story of the dispute
It
the Scribes, because that event precedes in the order of time.
.

unsympathetic attitude of his family in this visit which gives


On the brothers
force to what Jesus says about his true family.
18
of Jesus, see on v.
dSeX^ot is used sometimes to denote less
intimate relationship, but it is not at all common, and aside from

is this

else
usage, the supposition that the dSeX^ot of Jesus were anything
than brothers is quite against the evidence. The names of these
brothers are given in Mt. ly* as James, Joseph, Simeon, and Jude.

and standing outside. Evidently on account


o-T^Kovres
1
of the crowd surrounding the house.
and they
around him? KOL \eyawriv avrw
32. Trepi avrov
say to him.
Kal

Zo>

WH.

RV. N BCDL A
Hard. marg.

K al \tyovo-iv, instead of elirov 5*, Tisch. Treg.


69, 124, 346, mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh.

v)

and

p-T^Trjp

crov /cat ot

thy brothers,

a~ov Kal at

d8eX<oi

and

dSeX<iat

crov

13,

thy mother,

thy sisters.

WH. marg. ADEFHMSUV T

Tisch. (Treg. marg^


Kal al &df\<pal crou
22, 124, 238, 299, 433, mss. of Lat. Vet. Hard.
33
to accord with v.
**, and with Mt. and Lk.

marg.

Omitted probably

33.

KOI a7ro/cpi0ets

And answering,

Xeya

he says.

WH.

RV. N
airoKpiOds \4yci, instead of direKpldtj, \tyuv, Tisch. Treg.
of
BCL A Vulg. Memph. Hard, xai ol
/J.QV, and my brothers, instead
RV. N BCGL A i, mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.
77, or, Tisch. Treg.
d5e\<t>oi

WH.

Jesus does not wish, in this question, to deny or underrate the


But he feels with a strength, not common among
relations.
men, the Divine relation and the human relations to which this
Moreover, the present errand of his family has made
gives rise.
him feel that they come short of the real connection which alone
gives worth to the family relation.
32
34. TOWS Trept avrov Kaflrj/xevous
v.
those seated around him.
has stated that the crowd was seated about him.
But evidently
from what follows, this was made up in this case of his disciples.
35. TOV
eov
Mt. 1 2 50 says TOT) Trarpos /J.QV TOV fv oupavw, which
It is
defines more closely the nature and reason of this relation.
a common relation to the heavenly Father, and not to an earthly

human

See

With

19

and especially Lk. 8


the ace., jrepi is used locally, with the gen., of subject matter
around a
person or thing, and about a subject.
3 The Greeks used the
middle, instead of the pass, of a.TfOK.pivu, in the sense of
answer. This use is peculiar to N.T. Greek.
v.20,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

68

[ill.

35-IV.

father, that is at the basis of the kinship acknowledged by him.


Moreover, the relation to God is of the moral kind, shown by doing
His will. It is due to a new nature begotten in the man by God,
but it shows itself in obedience.
Jesus own relation to God,

making

his

it

meat and drink

to

do

his will, is the

uppermost and

central thing in his life, and those who share with him this relation
come nearest to him. Spiritual kinship surpasses the accidents of
birth.
os av 7ro7(r?7

whoever

does.

Omit y&p,for, Tisch. (Treg.) WH. B mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. -yap is
Omit /J.QV, my, after d5eX^^ Tisch. Treg. WH. RV.N ABD

an emendation.

LA

mss. of Lat. Vet.


order of Mk. here, connecting this paragraph with the teaching in
parables which follows, is also the order of Mt., and the latter marks this as
a chronological order by the use of en avrov \a\ovvros, I246 , and iv rrj ^Keivg
1
On the other hand, Lk. 87 connects this attack of the Phari
I3
sees with Jesus denunciation of them by another definite chronological
mark, tv d T XaX^uat. And Mt. puts this denunciation among the events of
the passion week, and fixes it there by his introductory T6re. This is a spec
imen of the disagreement of the Evangelists in their attempts to give chro

The

i)l>itpq.,

Dr. Gardiner, Harmony, p. 70,


nological sequence to their narratives.
explains this by the supposition that such expressions as ert atfroO \a\ovvros
and tv rip XaXijcrcu may be used by the Evangelist to indicate that an event
took place, not necessarily in the midst of that particular discourse, but
simply of some discourse or other; that is, while he was talking, instead of
walking, or healing or something. This is a good example of the ingenui
Such use of language
ties and curiosities of harmonizing interpretation.
by the Evangelists would discredit them equally with the inconsistencies
that it is intended to remove.

THE PARABLES OP JESUS


IV. With one exception, the prophetic discourse of ch. 13,
And it is
the parables are the only connected discourse in Mk.
the only specimen of teaching without any statement of the cir

cumstances in which

it

originated.

Indeed,

it

follows from

what

Jesus says about the object of his teaching in parables, that it


would be without any such ground in events or questions, as would
Like all our Lord s
furnish a key to the meaning of the parable.
teaching,

it

grew out of the conditions of the time, but the con

not indicated, except as one reads the riddle of the


And in this way, it serves his purpose of veiling
itself.
parable
But when one understands the
the truth, except to the initiated.
nection

is

fjiva-T-^piov,

the secret of the kingdom, the occasion is obvious.


at the time by any one but Jesus, and not

That secret, not known


to be communicated to

outsiders,

was that the kingdom

is

a seed

THE PARABLE OF THE SOWER

IV. 1-3]

69

to be externally set up and


thus the hindrances to the work of

which grows, and not an authority

The occasion

enforced.

is

and

Jesus, the opposition of the rulers, the dulness

superficiality

of the multitude, and the question even of the disciples, why he


does not brush these obstacles away and set up the Messianic

kingdom.

THE PARABLE OF THE SOWER


Jesus comes again

1-9.

he

is

followed

from a boat
1.

whom

where

he teaches

in parables.

again connects

TroXtv

the shore of the lake,

to

by the ustial multitude,

13

the lake, 3 sq. ; cf. 2


and there gathers* to

16

this

with the events by the shore of

KCU crwayerat vrpos avrov o^Xos TrAeioros

him a very great

multitude.

ffwayerai, instead of <rvv/ixOi), Tisch. Treg. WIT.


TrXeio-ros instead of TroXvs, Tisch. Treg.

RV. N BCL A
RV. N BCL

WH.

69, 124.

13, 28,

A.

The

great multitude repeats the scene of the previous gathering


and the boat is apparently the boat which
he ordered the disciples to have in readiness for him at that
at the shore of the lake,
7 9
-

time, 3

TrXolov

e/s

RV. x

Trpos rrjv

the

tfj.[3dvTa

BCKLM

I,

6d\a<T(ra.v

(omit r6), having entered a boat, Tisch. Treg.


1 1

33,

8, 131,

tirl TT}S

209

WH.

etc.

were towards the sea upon

y^s rj&av

land}
yffav, instead of yv, Tisch.

Lk. 8

him,

it

"

Treg.

WH.

RV.

BCL A

33, mss. of Lat. Vet.

gives a different setting to the parable.


According to
in the cities and villages of

was spoken during a journey

Galilee.

was

The impf. describes the act in


teaching.
in parables?
Here we have the
eV rrj StSa^^ O.VTOV
in his teach
parable drawn out into a story.
The word denotes the act of teaching, not the doctrine, or
ing.
2.

its

l8i8arrKv

progress.

he

eV TrapafloXals

thing taught.

cUou ere

follows, after a
3. 6

manner common

<nr(.tp<av

hear, or listen.

the sower, not

It calls attention to

what

to our Lord.

a sower?

1 Mt.
But it is
gives the same mark of the size of the multitude in this case.
one of the characteristic marks of this Gospel to emphasize the crowds that fol
lowed Jesus by some graphic touch. See i 33 22 3?- 2.
23 note.
2 See
s
8 This is the
generic use of the article, an individual being taken to represent
the class. See Win. 18, i.
,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

70

4-8

[IV.
1

some. <nripfjM, seed is understood.


3 /xiv
irapa. TTJV 68ov
are not to think here of a wide road,
by the side of the road.
with a fence or wall separating it from the field, but of a path
4.

We

The unproductiveness is due of


traversing the unenclosed fields.
course to the hardness of the trodden soil. Jesus adds that the
birds devoured the seed, and this is due to its lying on the surface
without penetrating

it.

Omit TOV ovpavov, of heaven, after TO, Trtreiva, the


RV. N ABCL A mss. of Lat. Vet. and of Vulg. etc.
5.

birds, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

and other?

Kai oXXo

Kal <iXXo, instead of


mss. of Lat. Vet. Memph. etc.
<*XXo

5, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N BC(D)L

two

A place where the


the rocky ground, not stony.
TO TTCTowSes
rock came up near the surface, leaving room for only thin soil
overlying it, is meant.
and it came up immediately. The thin
KOI tvOvs e^aveYeiXe
soil had two effects ; first, the grain came up quickly, because it
to the generous
lay near the surface, and was more exposed
influence of the sun and rain ; and secondly, it was scorched and
withered by the sun, because there was no room for the roots to
penetrate.
6.

Kat ore 6

BCDL A

and when

17X105 dveVeiXev

This reading, instead of

mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg.

the

sun arose.

dvaretXavros, Tisch. Treg.

T)\lov 5

WH.

RV. N

Memph.

was scorched?
i.e. among the seeds of thorns or briers,
came up, dve/fycrav, and choked the grain.
and others ; o-Trep/x-ara is understood, the word

cKav/juaTio-Or]
7. as Tas aKdvOas

which afterwards
8. /cat aXXa

as in the other
being taken individually, instead of collectively,
of
the
parable.
parts
AXXa, others, instead of d"XXo, other, Tisch. (Treg.)
28, 33, 124, one ms. of Lat. Vet. Memph. etc.

WH.

RV. N

*<"*<*

BCL

in v. ,
eoYSov KapTrov
gave fruit. Probably, in this case, as
the
this means the grain itself, and not the stalks, but in
this^case,
and
with
must
aXXa,
and
av^dvovra
agree
participles avafiaivovTa

The reading av^avo^vov favored by T Tr. forces


KapTrov.
That of WH. RV. av^avopeva, forces
the agreement with KapTrov.
The internal evidence thus confirms the
the agreement with aXXa.
not with

latter reading

cf.

Kapwo^opownv

v.

20

avfrvoftevov, instead of av^dvovra, Tisch. Treg.


RV. N B.

ADL A

238.

av^av6/j.eva

WH.

use of the relative in antithetical statements, see Win. 17, i b.


3 This verb
correlative of 6 ^kv is
belongs to later Greek.

On

The proper

this

t,

EXPLANATION OF THE PARABLE

IV. 8-11]

/// to thirty,

eis TPLOLKOVTO.

71

denoting the degree of

fruitfulness.

WH.
WH.

TpidKovTa, instead of ev Tpi&Kovra., Tisch. Treg.


RV. N BCL
28 etc. e/s e^Kovra, and eis ?KO.TOI> Tisch. Treg.
marg. RV. N C*
28 etc. tv with the last two
II etc.
els

WH. BLEFGKMUV

Kai

9.

who hath

eAeyev,

os

<

)("

ears to hear, let

"

Ta a^oveiv,

him hear.

^4^/

(UCOUETCI)

This

is

//

.razV/,

A
A

He

a familiar expression

of our Lord s used by him to call attention to what is


especially
worth hearing.
Ye who have ears, prepare to use them now.
Omit
Latt.

cturotV,

Memph.

NBC* DA.
10-25.

to

them, after fXe-yev, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N


os ex ft, instead of 6 t vuv, Tisch. Treg.

Syrr. etc.

Explanation of the parable.

10.
i.e.

ABCDL A
WH. RV

/cat ore
eye vero /cara //.was
after the departure of the

And when

he came to be alone,

crowd, which, however, followed


probably the telling of the other parables. This is certainly so, if
we adopt the reading TO.S Trapa/JoAas at the end of the verse.
ol Trept O.VTOV
The disciples generally, as distinguished from the
multitude on the one hand, and the twelve on the other.
Dis
ciples, because he separates them from those outside, as those to
whom the mystery of the kingdom is entrusted, ras
Trapa/SoAas

the parables uttered by him on this


occasion, including those
following the explanation of the Parable of the Sower.
KaJ

WH.

instead of

BCDL
ABL

"Ore
Se, Tisch. Treg.
RV. N
A Latt.
fjp&Tuv, instead of r/ptirriffav, Treg.
RV.
A 33.
rds irapa/JoXds, instead of Sing., Tisch.
ypdiTovv, Tisch. N C.
Treg.
RV. N BCL A one ms. of Lat. Vet. mss. of Vulg.
Memph. some edd.

tire,

Memph.

WH.

etc.

WH.

11.

To you has been given the


Yfuv SeSorat TO /MUCTTT^HOV
The mystery has been put into your hands.

mystery.

Omit yvuvau, to know, after 848orai, Tisch. Treg.


one ms. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. some edd. etc.

WH.

RV. K

ABCKL

A mystery in the N.T. is not something hard to understand,


but something hidden, revealed only to the initiated, like the
Greek mysteries. The secret of the Kingdom of God set forth in
these parables is the fact of its only partial success in this
early
This fact seemed to those outside, not possessed of the
stage.
secret of the kingdom, to be inconsistent with its nature as a
heavenly kingdom. They thought, when God really set out to
establish his Kingdom, its success would be
speedy and sure.
Supernatural powers would supersede natural processes, and every
The mystery, the hidden thing, set
thing would yield to them.
1

tion.

The

separation of Ka.-ran.6va.>; into Kara nova?


is to be supplied with ^dcas.

x<"pas

is

simply a matter of interpreta

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

/2

[IV. 11, 12

forth by Jesus, in this group of parables, is that the kingdom


belongs to living, growing things, and is subject thus to the
same laws as grain, leaven, mustard seed, and the like. Gradualness therefore belongs to its nature.
e/ceivois

TOIS

eo>

Se

TOIS

ew

to

those

The EV. translates


And we need to add some

outsiders.

by them who are without.

This
thing to this to indicate the presence of the demonstrative.
can be done by emphasizing the word them (those), or by trans
lating TOIS ew outsiders.
Jesus has in mind probably the multi
tude just gone from them, whom he points out in CKCI
VOIS, and
describes by rots ew ; cf. Mt. 13", where eWvoi? alone is used.

The connection with

T. /fao-iAecus r.

eov in the

preceding clause
outside of which he places
them.
know its secrets, those outside
do not know them, TO. Travra
all things.
It is defined by the
context as all things pertaining to the mystery of the
kingdom.
cV Trapa/JoXais
in parables.
Instead of being stated in terms
belonging to itself, the mystery of the kingdom is so stated in
indicates that

the kingdom of
Those inside the kingdom
it is

God

terms belonging to another realm, as to veil it. The


parable, i.e.
by itself, without its key. If the truth is stated first abstractly,
and then in terms of the analogy, the two help to the understand
ing of each other by showing that the phenomenon is not special,
but common, a general fact belonging to the related realms of
matter and spirit.
But without this key, the parable remains a
riddle, which is one of its meanings.
12. Tra /^AeVovTes /3Ae7rwo-i, KOL
tSoxn
in order that seeing,
p.rj
It is evident that TSaxn
they may see, and not perceive.
expresses
a more inward and real sight than /3ArwoT. The idea is
expressed
thus, in order that in the act of seeing, there may be merely out
ward seeing and not perception. The contrast is more exactly
expressed by the difference between cucouom and o-wiuo-i, hearing

and understanding.

/X^TTOTC

perchance they may turn, and

eVioTpetyuxriv KOL
it

lest

afaQy avTois

be forgiven them.

a$tQfj

is

used

impersonally.

Omit Td
N

BCL

i,

dfj.apr^fj.ara, their sins, after aQeOri Tisch. Treg. txt.


22, 118, 209, 251, 340,* one ms. Lat . Vet. Memph.

WH.

RV.

The whole verse is a translation of Is. 6 9, adapted freely from


the Sept.
It takes these phrases
O.KOYJ aKovo-ere K. ov /x^ o-w^re,
K. /2ArovTes
(BXtyovmv K. ov /j,rj iSrjre and /^Trore eTrtcrr/jei/ tDO-iv K.
la.n-op.ai aurous out of their connection and pieces them together.
In explaining this difficult passage, it is to be noticed, first,
the difference between the form of the quotation in Mk. and
on the one hand, and Mt. on the other, corresponds to a
difference between the original Hebrew and the LXX.
In

that

Lk.*
like

the

make the heart of


Hebrew, God says to his prophet,
Go,
this people fat and make their ears heavy, and shut their
eyes, lest
"

IV. 12]

EXPLANATION OF THE PARABLE

73

and understand
they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears,
with their heart, and turn again and be healed." That is, God is
harden the heart of the
represented as sending his prophet to
people by his prophetic message, as if Rubinstein should have
been told to deaden people s musical sense by his playing, or
Bishop Brooks to stifle their religious sense by his preaching. In
the LXX., on the contrary, the hardening is the cause, not the
purpose. The people will not hear the prophet s message because
So in Mt.,
their heart is hardened, and they have shut their eyes.
following the LXX., Jesus speaks to them in parables because their

waxed gross, and their ears dull of hearing. And espe


the obnoxious /X^TTOTC tirLcrTptywcriv K. larro/mi avrovs is in
cluded in the result of their own conduct, and not in the Divine
purpose. Mk. and Lk., however, follow the original in making
But
the failure to hear and see to be the purpose of the parable.
Lk. omits the obnoxious /u^Trore tTricrTpei/ cocriv K.
curois. And
yet, there is no doubt, from the identity of language, that Mk.,
and following him, Lk., quote from the LXX., while modifying it
That reason would seem to be, that Mk. had
for some reason.
in mind the form in which Jesus quotes the passage, and that this
heart

is

cially,

a<f>tOrj

was conformed to some Targum, preserving the spirit of the


This confirms what is otherwise probable, that Mk.,
original.
But
rather than Mt., preserves the original form of Jesus saying.
while Mk., and according to the above, Jesus himself, conforms to
the original Hebrew, he does not preserve the irony which is the
It is only ironically that
saving element of the passage in Isaiah.
God commands the prophet to harden the people by his pungent
preaching, because he sees that this will be the inevitable result.
it is
evidently in all seriousness, that Jesus describes this
as the result of the parable.
The parable is evidently regarded by
Jesus as a form of teaching intended to veil the truth conveyed,

Whereas,

and adapted,

Moreover, the teach


therefore, to esoteric teaching.
ing is esoteric ; it concerns the mysteries of the kingdom of God,
not the ordinary facts in regard to it, but certain things intended
not for the common ear, but only for the disciples. And the
parable does so veil the meaning that it has to be explained even
to them.
There is a key to each of the parables, some funda
mental analogy, which is necessary to its explanation. In the
Parable of the Sower, this is found in the statement that the seed
is the word.
Without this, the meaning is obscure. That is, the
language of Isaiah, applied to the teaching of Jesus as a whole,

would have the irony of the original but applied to the parables,
it is to be taken
This makes all plain sailing until we
seriously.
There
come to the obnoxious /XT/TTOTC fmcrrpfil/too-iv K.
aurots.
the irony reappears, for it would evidently be only ironically, and
not earnestly, that Jesus would say of any of his teaching, that it
was intended to prevent the forgiveness and conversion of the
;

a<j)(.0r)

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

74

[IV.

12-15

It makes the proper climax to the


people.
original passage, but
out of place in Jesus use of it.
But, after the mechanical
fashion, which often marks the reporting of discourse, Mk., re
is

membering only

that Jesus used this quotation,


reproduced the
it in the
original, without omitting its irrelevant
the other hand, quoting from the
without

passage as he found
clauses.

Mt, on

LXX.,

the modification introduced by Mk., has not involved himself in


the same difficulty, but has not reproduced for us what
Jesus said.
Lk., seeing the difficulty involved in Mk. s report, has omitted the
obnoxious clause, giving us probably the genuine form of the
tation.

Our Lord

quo

statement, then, is simply this, that the mys


tery of the kingdom, or its secret, is not intended for those outside
of it, and that therefore he uses in
conveying it to his disciples
the contrivance of the parable, so that outsiders who have not the
clue may hear without hearing.
13. OVK oiBare KT\.
This is treated by some of the critics and

commentators as a question, and by others as a statement. Of


course, the original text contained no intimation in which of these
two ways it is to be taken, and there is little choice in the mean
Taken as a statement, the succeeding question is
ings obtained.
an inference from the fact that they do not know this
parable. As
a question, it already expresses surprise at the fact that
do not

know

they

this parable,

ras 7rapa/3oAa?

and then

yvu>o-ecr0e ;

The argument

follows the inference.

and how willyou know

Kal

TTWS 7racra9

all the parables 1

is from the
This is not
similarity of the parables.
an unusual instance, but a good example of its class. The lack
of perception shown in this case would extend to all similar cases.

14.

TOV Xoyov

is emphatic, and contains the


speaking of the sowing of the word, and
pointing out the analogies between this and the sowing of seed.
15. OVTOL
cicrtv 01 Trapa Trjv o86v
And these are they along
the road.
The seed and the soil are here confounded. The seed
is the word, the soil is the mind of the hearer.
The exact state
ment would be, these are the road.
Satan comes. One would say naturally that
lpyf.ra.1 6 Saravas
the birds in the parable were merely a part of the
picture, and

TOV Xoyov

tnreipei.

key to the parable.

He

is

<5e

had no counterpart in the spiritual fact represented by it. One


main principle in the interpretation of the parables is that
only
the one truth represented in the comparison is to be seized
upon,
and the details are to be treated as mere incidents, on the ground
that things in the spiritual and material worlds correspond
only in

And it is evident that Jesus generally treated the para


generals.
bles with this largeness and sobriety.
But in this case, an oppor
tunity is given Jesus to introduce into his account of obstructions
to the fruitfulness of the seed the agency of that
kingdom of evil
which complicates the whole problem
The primary result of
sowing on this hard soil is that the seed remains on the surface,

EXPLANATION OF THE PARABLE

IV. 15-18]

75

the secondary result is, that it is snatched away from the mind by
1
The road, or path, repre
the influences represented by Satan.
are
sents those whose spirits
impervious to the truth, into whom
it finds no entrance at all.
rbv \oyov rbv fffirap^vov ev avrois (et s OUTOUS), the word ivhich has been
tv auToi s, instead of fv rats Kapdiais, in their hearts, T. N

sown in them,

CL A Memph. Hard.

eis

marg.

avrovs, Treg.

W1I. RV. B

I,

3, 28,

69,

18,

209.

in like manner,
16. o/xotws
by virtue of the same general
There is the same confusion
resemblance, ol
o-Trapo/xei/oi
This
of seed and soil as in the preceding case.
//.era ^apas
corresponds to the ev0us eaveYaAe of the parable, and denotes one
side of the resemblance, the superficial readiness with which they
receive the word.
They have been attracted by the pleasant
and oppositions
things, and have not stopped to count the pains
that constitute the other side of the kingdom in this evil world.
root.
The analogy is so close, that the various
17. ptav
terms belonging to the physical process and material have become
familiar designations of the corresponding spiritual facts, such as
Root denotes the hold which
seed, soil, root, fruit, and the like.
The
the truth has upon the spirit, securing its permanence.
absence of it designates the superficiality of this class of hearers.
This describes the merely temporary
transient.
Trpoo-Kcupot
.

ei>0us

effect of the

word upon them, owing

to their superficiality.

6Xi-

We may suppose that


i/^ws
affliction or persecution.
Siwy/Aou
this is not an exhaustive statement of the things destructive of the
truth in the superficial hearer, that it simply represents them by
the one thing operative in that early period of conflict.
Only
evdvs
deeply rooted discipleship can withstand persecution,
*j

Immediateness

immediately they stumble.

o-Kav8aAiovTcu

on both

characteristic of this class

immediately, and

fall

sides.

away immediately.

They

receive the

Haste and

is

word

superficiality

They do not

wait to see if there is any other side to


religion than the glad side, nor, on the other hand, whether afflic
is
tion is a sufficient reason for giving it up.
o-KavSaA/^ovrcu
found only in the N.T., and means to cause to fall or stumble, and
in the pass., to fall or stumble.
It is the opposite of to stand. The
translation of the AV., they are offended, gives a wrong idea of the
word. RV. they stumble.
and others.
18. Kai oXXot

go together.

Kal dXXot, instead of

DL A

ical

and these, Tisch.


Memph.

OVTOI,

mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg.

ol crTreipo/Aevoi eis ras


thorns.
The confusion of seed

aK<iv6a<s

\oyov aKOTxravres

who heard
i

tlie

See

and

those

soil is

word.

323, note.

Treg.

WH. RV.

SOW1I

N*

among

repeated here.

ol

BC *
the

TOV

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


I

instead of UKOVOVTCS, hear, Tisch. Trcg.


Memph. Pesh.

[IV.

WII. RV. N

18-20

BCDL A

3 69, 124, 346,

19.

a.1

the cares.

/Aepi//,vui

Literally, the distractions.

They

are the things that divide the unity of the spirit,


drawing it off differ
ent ways.
TOV utwvos
the age.
EV. world. There is only one
2
passage, Heb. i , in which there is any call to render this word
world instead of age. Here it means the present evil time. It is
contrasted with the aiwv /AeXXwv, the coming time, in which good,
instead of evil, will predominate.

Omit TOVTOV, this, after TOV afwvos Tisch. Treg.


102, mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. etc.

WH.

RV.

BCDL A

I,

TOV nXovrov

deceit of wealth, the power which it has to


enticements, representing itself as the great
not other things, but the remaining things. The
good. TO. AOITTO,
article renders it definite.
The other things of the same character
as wealth are meant,
the compound represents
<rvp.irviyov(ri
the completeness of the process, choke utterly} aKap-rros
unfruit
The test of genuine appropriation of the truth is, that it
ful.
produces effects of life and character corresponding to itself.
The characteristic of this class of hearers is prepossession of the
soil by alien things, which have not been weeded out.
The warn
ing against wealth in the airaTr) T. TrXovrov is characteristic of our
a.Tro.Trj

deceive

Lord

20.

men

with

its

teaching.

Km

eKeivoi

6cewH instead of

and those.
OVTOI, tHese, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BCL A

Pesh.

We

have three different pronouns, or adjectives, used in point


ing out the various classes of hearers.
OVTOI, then OUTOI o/AoiW,
indicating a general resemblance ; then oAXot, denoting a specific
difference ; and finally fKeivoi, denoting contrast with all that pre
cede,
ol o-TrapeVres
that were sown.
The part, in the other
cases has been present, denoting the general fact about seed sown
in such places.
The aor. here confines it to the particular case of
the parable,
differs from the simple relative in that it
ofrtves
generalizes the statement ; whoever, or such as.
-n-apaoexovTai
Always, in the N.T., this denotes a favorable reception, to accept,.
the opposite of reject.
bear fruit. This is what
Kap-n-o^opovo-Lv
What is planted in it
distinguishes the good soil from all others.
bears fruit ; truth becomes virtue in that soil.
It does not denote
the labors or success of this class of laborers in propagating truth.

Our Lord
ence which
1

distinguishes between this kind of fruit


21
is the real test of
discipleship, in Mt. 7

o-u/unri/i vovcri belongs to later Greek.


See io23-25
But this depreciation of wealth
See 620- 24 I2 15-21
t

pel.

is

and the obedi


"

23
.

l v TPIOLKOVTO.

specially a trait of Lk. s

Gos

GENERAL REFLECTIONS

IV. 20-22]
literally in thirty.

in

The preposition denotes

which the fruit-bearing

is

77
the

number

as that

accomplished.

The choice between ev and ev is a matter of interpretation, not of text,


But all the accented
as the original had neither breathings nor accents.
RV. Latt.
uncials give ev, also I, 33, 69, 124, Syrr.; so Tisch. Treg.
bracket ev, on account
Memph. read ev. Before the other numerals,
of its omission by EC*, ev gives the better construction, and is the prob
able reading, as the neuter ev has nothing with which to agree.

WH.

WH.

GENERAL REFLECTIONS ON THE SUBJECT OF THE


PARABLE
Jesus is led on by the necessity of fruitfulness emphasized in
the parable to present this under another analogy, of giving light.
And this leads him to speak still further of the provision against
hiding, or secrecy, in the Divine economy.
what he has said of the way in which men
enjoins on them to consider what they hear.

there

is

sayings.

Finally, to enforce

word, he
be seen that

treat the
It will

a certain appositeness in the connection of these detached


But in the case of the statement about secrecy, another

connection

is

possible, at least.

And he said to them. This indi


21-25. 21. KO! eAeyev avrois
cates a change of subject.
M^rt differs from py, in strengthening
The lamp does not come at all, does
the negative answer implied.
it ?
VTTO T. /AoStov -r- under the peck measure}
lampXv^yLa.
stand? It corresponds to Xu^vo?, lamp, in the preceding part of
the statement.
1
16
Mt. introduces this proverb in the Sermon on the Mount, 5
with the meaning, The light that is in you is not meant to be hidden,
but to shine forth in good deeds in the sight of men. And here, it
is probably put into connection with the preceding statement
about fruit-bearing, in order to enforce anew, under another figure,
the fact that the ultimate end of truth in man is to come out into
Truth considered as seed, bears fruit ;
manifestation as virtue.
considered as light, it shines, but the one fact expressed in both
figures is that it results in character and conduct.
*"

22. ov yap ecrrt n KPVTTTOV, eav fir) tva


nothing hidden, except that it may be manifested.

<j>avep(i)6r]

Omit the
I,

EV.
2

13,

28,

The word

/aoSios

69,

209.

comes from

the Latin modius,

bushel.

\vxvia

is

WH.

there is

ABCKL A

RV. N
49, mss. of Lat. Vet. dXX* iva, but that.

relative 3 before (fa* /?, Tisch. Treg.

33,

for

a later Greek form for \vxyslov.

which denotes a peck measure.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

78

[IV. 22, 24

The
the
for

ultimate end of the hiding is manifesting This is a case of


argumentum a minori. Even what is hidden is hidden only
the purpose of ultimate manifestation, and how much more is

anything that is in its nature light, instead of dark.


emphatic. The progress of all knowledge is the mani
The earth is full of secrets, hidden
festation of this principle.
treasures and forces, but they have been hidden away, only in
order that man may bring them forth out of their hiding, and en
rich his life with them.
nor did it become hidden away. This
ovSe eye vcTo ajroKpv^ov
differs from the former by the difference between eyevero and etn-i.
Both are
It points to the act of hiding, as that does to the state.
for the same purpose.
God has secrets, mysteries, but they are
not permanent secrets, only held in reserve for future revelation.
This statement about hiding for the sake of revealing is con
nected immediately by yap with the preceding statement about
But it would seem more natural to connect it
hiding the light.
with the /AvoTT^/atov, the secret of the kingdom, the preservation of
which is said to be the object of the parable. With this addition,
It is only
the statement about secret things becomes complete.
this true of

KPVWTOV

is

temporarily that the secret is kept by the parable. Ultimately, it


becomes a means of revealing that which it temporarily hides.
And this brings it under the great law stated by Jesus.
and he said to them. See note on v. 21
24. Kat lAeyev djTois
what you hear. Not beware what
OK
overt
Consider
rt
/SAeVere
.

you hear, be on your guard against hearing anything prejudicial


to others.
This meaning has been given to the words, because of
a misunderstanding of the proverb which follows, which has been
2
taken to mean here, as in Mt. 7 that men will treat you as you
But this leaves the whole thing without any connec
treat them.
Whereas it
tion with the rest of the discourse, utterly irrelevant.
And v. 25 is con
is evident that d/covero) and aKovere go together.
nected with this by yap. Some meaning must be found for this,
The meaning Consider
therefore, that will justify this connection.
what you hear is apposite to the connection with a parable which
shows the consequences of inconsiderate hearing.
in what measure you
cv
/aerpetTe, /nerpr^^creTai vfuv
measure it will be measured to you. As we have seen, the mean
,

o>

/u,Tpo>

2
In this
ing of this familiar proverb in Mt. 7 does not fit here.
it
Whatever
measure
means,
you use yourself will be the
passage,
one in which truth will be measured out to you. If a man accus
toms himself to small measures of truth, small measures will be
and
/cat Trpoo-Te^crcrat vplv
dealt out to him, and vice versa.
it shall be increased to you.
This is commonly interpreted to
mean that not only the same, but a larger measure will be dealt out
to them.
But this is inconsistent with the statement that in what

measure they measure

it

will

be measured to them.

THE LAND PRODUCING BY ITSELF

IV. 24-27]

as well as /xcTp7;^r/o-erat

is

modified by

lv

79
In

/AeYpw /AcrpeiTe.

what measure you measure it shall be measured and increased to


you. The measure and increase of their knowledge will both be
proportioned to their own measures. Whatever they present will
be

filled.

Omit

rots

dKovov<ri>>,

102, etc. Latt.

25.

os

yap

who hear,

after

v/j.ii>,

>

BCL A

WII. RV.

BCDL

for he who hath.

e^et

X ei instead of av e^U (who, instead of

Tisch. Treg.

Memph.

wltoever), Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

13, 28, 69.

This again is a general proverb, applicable to many things,


It means in
to do duty in this high and homely discourse.
this connection, If a man has a well-stored mind, he will be
continually adding to that store, and on the contrary, small knowl
However, this does not apply to mental
edge tends to decrease.
ability, but to the use that one makes of his ability, or, as it stands
It all depends on
here, to the attentiveness with which he hears.
the principle that knowledge is a series of successive steps, in
which each step depends on the preceding. On the other hand,
if a man does not acquire knowledge, the disuse of his faculties
implied in that will render them unfit for use.

made

PARABLE OF THE LAND PRODUCING BY ITSELF


given

by Mk.

gelists.

It is

most fundamental of

the parables is
the
other evan
alone,
many given by
fundamental, because it contains the truth about the

It is significant that this

who

all

omits so

adaptation of seed and soil, which underlies


drawn from the growth of the seed.

all

these analogies

26-29. 26. ws
(SaXy. The omission of eav renders the
construction difficult, which probably accounts for its introduc
Two constructions are possible ; either
tion by some copyist.
The omission
ws uv$po)7ros os /?oAA ; or ws eav av$po>7ros
of eav in the original is probably a slip.
avOp<Diro<;

/3<tAj7-

Omit eav
118, 124,

TOV o-Tropov
27.

after

d>y,

Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV.

BD8 r L A
-

13, 28, 33, 69,

one ms. of Vulg. Memph.

Ka.0f.v8fl

the seed; the generic use of the article.


K.

K.
fyeiprjTai VVKTO.

rj/j.tpa.v

sleeps

and wakes dur

ing night and day. The ace. differs from the gen. in such desig
nations of time by denoting duration, instead of periods of time
at which the action occurs.
The statement connects the two

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

8O

verbs, instead of separating them,


priate time.
oiSev avros

and putting each with


l

/cat

[IV.
its

27-29
appro

and grows,

ok- OVK
UVTOS is emphatic ; how, he knows not.
This does
not exclude the processes of cultivation, but refers to the
power of
growth in the plant itself, beyond the reach or knowledge of the
sower.

/^Aucrru

sprouts

p.rjKvv^Ttu

28. avTOfjuirr) y yrj


the earth of itself.
The absence of the
connective yap gives force to the statement by the
abruptness of

introduction.

its

Omit yap, for, before


Hard.

77

717,

Tisch.

Tree.

WH.

RV. N ABCL,

111 -

etc.

Memph."

This statement, that the land bears fruit of itself, is the fact
all these
The land contains
analogies of seed and soil.

underlying

needed for the nourishment and growth of


the plant, and hence the great thing for man to do is to
bring
together these mutually adapted things, the seed and the soil.
in itself the elements

And

in the spiritual realm, there

truth to the spirit of man.


truth as the soil to the seed.
soil,

the same adaptation of the


is

related to the

There may be minor differences of

as set forth in the Parable of the Sower, but the

this generic fitness.

All the trust of

prevalence of the truth


is

is

The mind of man

adapted to the
his

warranted by

kingdom,

shown by Jesus

prime

in the

in spite of the obstacles

This single fact

ultimate establish

which obstruct

progress.
Trpwrov ^oprov, UTfv o-Ta^w, eirev TrX^p^s OTTOS
blade, then ear, then full grain.

BD

Xoprov

literally,

grass,

i.e.

jra.pa.5oi,

ir\ripr)s (TITOS,
7rA%>ej

whenever

instead of Trapady, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

N*

its

first

nom. instead

yirov.

the part of the grain which

grass, before the grain heads out.


29. orai/ Se TrapaSol 6 KapTros
but

and

The mind

this fact alone.

en-ec, instead of elra, Tisch. WH. N* B* L A.


of ace., Tisch. Treg.
Memph. C* 271 read

fact is

in the greatness

truth, as the eye to the light.

creates the confidence

ment of

is

man

the fruit

BD

is

like

permits?

A.

from the form /SAao-Tdw.


means literally to lengthen.
used only here in N.T., and Is. 44^ in the O.T. In both cases, it is used
of the growth of plants, an unfamiliar use of the word.
2
On its adverbial use, see Win. 54, 2.
avTo^drri occurs only twice in the N.T.
3 The nom. makes this statement
independent of the preceding structure, and
/SAaernj is subj.

/u.TjKvi/r)T<u

It is

so calls attention to
4

it.

So Thay.-Grm. Lex. Meyer, Weiss.

not attested.

napaSul

is

The

intrans. meaning, presents itself, is


sec. aor. subj., instead of napaSy.

an irregular form of the

THE MUSTARD SEED

IV. 29j

81

fvOvf ttTrocTTcAAei TO Sptiravov


immediately he sends forth the
Sickle is here put by metonymy for the reapers.
Imme
diately serves to mark vividly the time when man s inaction ceases.
No sooner does the fruit allow, than he puts in the sickle.

sickle.

TEACHING OF THE PARABLE


The meaning

of the parable

is,

that direct agencies,

human

or

employed only at the beginning and end of the proc


ess of establishing the kingdom of God.
At the beginning, there
is the
of
the
the
dissemination
of the word among
seed,
sowing
men. And at the end, there is the gathering of the fruit, of men
divine, are

in

whom

the processes of spiritual growth have reached comple


kingdom. During the intervening time, ihe result is

tion, into his


left to

the moral and spiritual self-action of humanity, which of


upon the word, turning it into truth of character

itself acts vitally

and conduct.

The emphasis

of the parable is thus laid on the


of itself bears fniit. So Meyer.
Weiss and Holtzmann and others maintain that the parable is only
airo/xaTi;

17

jf\ Kap7ro<opet,

the earth

an adaptation of the Parable of the Tares, with the tares left out,
and the note of gradual growth introduced, in order to introduce
this element into the parabolic
But this is to omit the
teaching.
very point of the parable, the reason for the inactivity during the
intermediate period, which is found in the self-activity of the soil,

human spirit. Moreover, this is one of the places where,


even more than usual, our Lord lays bare the roots, the essential
Morison also shows an equal ability to miss
principles of things.
the

the mark, in his statement, that it is the seed which acts


auTo/mr??.
It is not the seed which fructifies the earth, but the earth which
fructifies the seed.

PARABLE OF THE MUSTARD SEED


There is one lesson of the analogy of the growth from seed
sown in the earth which remains to be shown. And the Parable
of the Mustard Seed is introduced to teach this
that the small
and
is
not
inconsistent
with a great
beginning
gradual growth
result.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

82

3034.

30.

TrapaftoXy

Trios o/xotoxrai/xev TT/V /3uo~iAetuv

6>w/x,ev ;

what parable

shall

How

we

we

shall

[IV. 30, 31

TOV

liken the

f.ov, rj

cv rtvt avrrjv

kingdom of God, or in

set it forth, or place it?

IIws, instead of Tt ii, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BCL A two mss. Lat. Vet.
ev rivi
Harcl. marg.
irapafioXrj 0u)/ctec, instead of irola irapaf3o\TJ
RV. N EC* L A Memph. Harcl.
irapa.pd\wfjLei> avTyv, Tisch. Treg.
O.\>TT\V

WH.

marg.

w? KOKKW

31.
.

as

o-iva7T(os

/JUKportpov ov 7TO.VTWV

a grain of mustard?

to

Twv

crTrep/xaTwv

Kttt

os,

orav

oTttv (nraprj

which, whenever it is sown upon the earth, being (is) smaller


than all the seeds upon the earth ; and whenever it is sown, etc.
/Mitcporepov

ov (omit

mss. Lat. Vet.

^crri),

Tisch. Treg.

/Mtcpbrephv tcrri

TTCII/TWV

TWV Xa^avwv

D*

WH-

RV. N

BL A (L

wv) two

etc.

greater than all the garden-herbs,

or vegetables.
Hfifcv, instead of fixlfav, Tisch. Treg.

marg.

WH. RV.

ABCELV

33.

This comparison is intended to denote the superiority of this


plant to others of the class Aaxava to which it belongs, which have
no woody fibre, like trees and shrubs, so that it even passes over
into the latter class, making great branches under which the birds
can find shade. And this is contrasted with the unusual smallness
of the seed.
Mk. and Lk. say directly that it becomes a
wore SvvacrOai
vovv

under

VTTO TT)V cr/a av avrov ra Tre rcira TOV ovpavov


so that the birds of heaven can lodge (tent, or camp
its shades.

down)

This is a different account from that given in Mt. and Lk.,


where the birds are said to lodge in the branches. Here its great
ness is described by saying that it affords shade for the birds.
The parable means that the kingdom is like growing things in
having small beginnings and a great ending.

1 The
subj. in these verbs is the subj. of deliberative questions, in which the
questioner consults another about the matter in hand. See Win. 41 a, 4.
2 This retains in the answer the
construction of the question supplying the
as fa a grain of mustard
omitted word, it would read,
KOKKW o-icdTrew?
seed we will liken it.
8 There is a double anacoluthon here
as if the antecedent
the
neuter,
first,
were o-Tre p^a; and secondly, the participle, instead of the indicative. The whole
sentence is thrown into confusion by this, so that a literal translation would read,
which, whenever it is sown, being less than all seeds, and whenever it is sown, comes
;

<i?

bnoi<a<ronev,

up, etc.
4

See Hackett,

Illustrations

of Scripture,

p. 131.

THE MUSTARD SEED

P7. 33, 34]

83

COMMON FEATURES OF THE PARABLES


In order to understand the significance of this group of para
their
bles, we have to learn not only their separate meanings, but

common

They have a mystery

features.

of the

kingdom

to

un

namely, the gradualness of its establishment, in opposition


to the prevalent notion of its immediate setting up by a Divine,
fold,

And they give one common reason for this,


supernatural power.
that the kingdom belongs to the class of things that grow subject
to natural laws, not to those that are set up full-grown by external
More

force.

particularly, the Parable of the

present slow growth


spirit in the hearers.

is

Sower shows that the

due to the differences of soil


It is

a matter of the

Word and

that

is,

of

of hearers

of the Word, and the result is largely influenced by the different


The Parable of the Ground Producing by
classes of hearers.
Itself shows that the growth depends on forces hidden in the soil
that

itself,

this

of

is,

common
man and

on the adaptation of the

of

soil.

and that

The mind

word of God are at bottom adapted to each


of the Mustard Seed shows that small begin
the nature of the kingdom, but not less, large and

the

The Parable

other.

nings belong to

complete
33.

spirit to the truth,

fitness underlies all differences

Kat

results.

TOtavrais

and with many

7rapa/3oXcus TroXXais eXaXct avrots T. Xoyov


to them the word.
That

such parables he spoke

is,

the mystery of the kingdom which he was teaching them on this


occasion.
He did not confine himself to parables on other sub
jects and occasions.
I
as they were able to hear.
This modi
Ka0ws rjSvvavTo O.KOVUV
of
the
statement
that he spoke to them in parables, does
fication
not mean that he spoke to them in such parables as they were
able to hear, not going beyond that limit ; but that he spoke to
them in parables, as being the form of speech to which they were
able to listen. He was not restricted by their only partial ability to
hear to some parables, instead of others, but to parables in general,
instead of some other mode of address. The mystery of the king
dom itself they were not able to hear, except in this veiled form.
34.

TOIS iStots

p.aOrjraL<;

to his

own

rotj iSfots /jLaOriTais, instead of TOIJ

WH.
i

The

Win.

RV. N BCL
earlier

2, i, d, e.

disciples.

/J.a.6r]rai^

avrov, Tisch. Treg.

mzr.

A.

classical

form of

a0w9

is

Ko.66

or K a6a.

See Thay.-Grm. Lex.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

84

[IV. 35, 36

THE STILLING OF THE STORM ON THE LAKE


35-41. Jesus and his disciples cross to the eastern side
of
and arc overtaken by one of the sudden storms

the lake,

pro

duced by the situation of


^vith a word.

this

inland

sea,

which Jesus

stills

35. e/ceiVfl T. y^pa.


that day, viz. the day on which
Jesus
uttered the parables.
Mt. connects this stilling of the storm with
the healing of Peter s mother-in-law, and the
gathering of the mul
titude about him at that time. Cf. Mt. 8 14 27 , and Mk. i-*-*-34 . How
ever, the mark of time in Mt. is not definite enough to create
1
Lk. says simply on one of the days,
positive disagreement.
oi/aas
It is either the time between three and
evening.
six, or that
between six and dark. Probably the former is meant here, as the
latter time would not allow for the events that follow.
Au A0w/xcv
2
Let us cross over to the other side. Jesus
s TO irfpav
frequent
crossing to the other side of the lake was due to its

unpopulated
and to the comparative ignorance of himself
there,
giving him an escape from the wearing ministries to the crowd on
the populous west shore, and also frequently from his enemies.
condition,

36.

Trapa\afji/3a.vov(nv

avrov ws

ijv

ev r. TrXotoj

they

take

him

along as he was. in the boat. This refers evidently to the boat


from which Jesus taught the multitude, v. 1
The explanations of
the parables, therefore, v. 10 sq. 34 must have been made at some
other time.
It seems, according to this statement, that the dis
ciples dismissed the multitudes without Jesus leaving the boat, and
then, without further delay or preparation, took him along in the
boat where he had remained all the time.
Mt. makes the dif
ferent statement, that Jesus embarked in the boat, and his disci
ples followed him.
KCU oAAa TrXoTa yv /U.CT avrov
And other boats were with him.
.

Omit

5<J

after

WH. RV. N BC* L A Latt.etc. TrXoia, instead


WH. RV. N ABCDKM A I, 13, 33, 69, etc.

dXXa,Treg.

of irXoidpia, Tisch. Treg.

fj.T avrov, with him, settles the fact, that the other boats were
in their company.
Jesus was followed about from place to place,

not only by the twelve regularly and by appointment associated


with him, but by other disciples more or less
intimately attached
to his person.
These would follow him in boats across the lake.
Mk., with his usual eye for a picture, adds this to complete the
scene, and to be carried in the mind when the story of the storm
is reached.
used as an adjective only, outside of Biblical Greek. It means late.
like our word over, refers to the
space to be passed through or
over in reaching the point designated.
1
cxfd as is
2 At- in

&i<i\e<anei>.

THE STORM

STILLING OF

IV. 37-41]

85

a storm marked by frequent great gusts of wind.


37. AcuAai/
Mt. uses o-cioyxo s, which means properly earthquake, but denoting
here the turbulence of the storm.

and the waves were beating into the


not against,
worre r)8y y/ni
so
T.TrAoiov
Not full, AV. The verb is
that already the boat was filling.
present, and denotes the act in its progress, not its completion.
l

mi

TO.

boat,

ijSi)

WH.

eTre /foAAev

Kvfjua.ro.

eis

into,

e<T0ai

rb ir\oTov, instead of avrb fjSr) ye/j-l^effOai, Tisch. Treg.


mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Hard. marg.

ye/j.lfcr6a.i
Na

BCI)L A most

RV.

This repetition of the noun, instead of the pronoun,

Mk.

quite in

is

s style.

38.

Kal avros

pronoun
tv

is

ev Trj

f]v

And

-rrpvfjivr)

he

was

in the stern.

The

emphatic.

r-fi irpv/j.vri,

instead of

M,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

ABCDL A

etc.

noticeable, because it shows the fatigue of Jesus


work, and his unconsciousness of the violent storm.
AiSao-KaAc
Teacher, not Master, by which the word is persistently
mistranslated in the EV. The title used by the disciples was prob
carest thou not?
This question im
ably Rabbi, ov /xeA.
plies that they thought of Jesus as waking sufficiently to know what
was going on, but going off to sleep again regardless of their fate.
39.
he rebiiked. The verb contains in itself not only
irtTifj.rj(re
the notion of chiding, but also of restraint by that means.
Proba

This sleep

after his

day

is

<rot

was StwTra, Tre^t/iaxro, so that the chiding


in the tones of his voice.
be
Trc^t/iwo-o

bly, all that Jesus said

would be expressed
silent,

be muzzled.

strong

word

Cf.

Cor. p

9
,

The

TR.

latter is

in itself, but the perf. imp, strengthens the

not only a

command,

our have done with it. It means not only be still, but stay so. 2
K07racrev
ceased.
This again is a descriptive word, denoting

like

not only ceasing, but the ceasing of a tired person. yaA^vr;


peydX-rj
a great calm, contrasted with the great storm. Cf. v.37
40. Ti SeiAot ecrre
OVTTW e^erc TTI OTIV ;
Why are you fearful ?
have you not yet faith ? The lack of faith is in himself, in his
.

power and

disposition to care for them, and, as implied in the


many attestations of both. Their appeal to him
while he was asleep had not been the calm invocation of a trusted
OVTTW, after so

power, but the frightened reproach of those whose

faith is

defeated

by danger.
ovwta, instead of ovrta
Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.

41.

e<j)o/3ri9r)cra.v

The

fright:
1

On

s ee

(}>6(3ov

subject

this intransitive

n<

43 4

is

irtDs

oik, Treg.

/xeyav

WH.

they

the disciples,

use of /3d\Aw and

BDL

A, most mss.

were frightened a great


alone are mentioned

who

compounds, see Win.


See Win. 32, 2.

its

RV.

38, I.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

86

[IV. 41- V.

who then, a.
here. Mt., on the contrary, says ol avOpuiroi.
apa
that. But the conj.
question inspired by what they had seen. OTL
is causal, denoting the reason of their fright, and of the question
KO.L o OVC/AOS K.
tfaXacrcra,
even the
that is forced from them.
wind and the sea. Not only diseases and demons, but the ele
ments themselves. Their wonder in this case took the form of
fear, corresponding to the feeling with which they regarded the
power of the elements against which Jesus matched himself, v-n-aKOVU
obeys him. The wind and the sea are looked at collectively
here, as making one great whole.
T<fs

-if

viraKovei, instead of

vira.Kovov<riv,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

N*

BCL A

I,

13, 28,

69, etc.

Weiss and Beyschlag rationalize this miracle after the same


general fashion. The rebuke of the disciples grows into a rebuke
of the elements, and the confidence of Jesus in his Father s deliv
erance into an assertion of his own power to still the waves.
Holtzmann adds to this the presence in the narrative of O.T.
Weiss
material, which has been used in building up the account.
is not so rationalistic in this as the others, as he is contending only
against the notion that Jesus performs the miracles himself, instead
of the Father. The command given to the elements, he thinks,
would be an assumption of power over them by Jesus himself.
But any more so than the commands given to the demons ? He
acts throughout as God s agent, but such an agent can order about
demons and storms. Holtzmann is prepossessed against miracles
in general ; Beyschlag against miracles in the sphere of inanimate
But the apostolic
nature, where spirit does not act upon spirit.
source of the narrative renders this rationalizing futile. The
general fact of the miracles is established by this, and by their
absolute uniqueness, conforming them to the unique quality of
Jesus whole life in the moral sphere. This leaves room to exclude
individual miracles for special reasons, or even to discriminate
But Beyschlag s
among kinds of miracles, as Beyschlag does.
principle excludes, e.g. the miracle of feeding the multitude, the
And there is no other special
best attested of all the miracles.
on the
improbability about this miracle of stilling the storm
contrary, a certain congruousness, a manifestation of the fact that
the power resident in nature is in the last analysis spiritual, and
that Jesus was the Agent of that Power.

RELATION OF THE SYNOPTICAL ACCOUNTS


V. All of the Synoptics agree in correlating the three miracles
narrated in this chapter. And Mk. and Lk. agree in general in
But
the relation of these to events preceding and following.

V.

1,

2]

HEALING OF THE GERGESENE DEMONIAC

87

Mt. places them in an entirely different connection.


According
to him, the occasion of Jesus crossing to the other side was the
gathering of the multitude about him owing to the miracles
accompanying the healing of Peter s mother-in-law. And the
parables are said to be delivered on a day following, not preced
ing, the sending forth of the twelve, and removed from these
events by a considerable interval.
According to our account, the
evident intention is to connect Jesus departure with the failure of
Jesus mission to the Galileans marked by the veiled teaching of

The recurrence

the parables.

of the same language in various

places marks the interdependence of the Synoptics, as also the


correlation of the events.
But Mk. s fulness of detail, in which

he

is

followed to

some extent by

Lk.,

is

characteristic.

HEALING OF THE GERGESENE DEMONIAC


1-20.

Jesus crosses the lake into Decapolis on the south


and heals a man said to be possessed of a host
of demons. The demons, driven out of the man, enter with
eastern shore,

Jesus permission into a herd of swine, and the maddened


beasts rusk into the lake and are drowned.
1.

TWV Tepavrjvuv
into the
country of the Gerathe probable reading in
Mt., and Tepyecnyvwj/
The country of the Gadarenes designates the district
gen

cis rrjv

senes.
in Lk.

\upa.v

TaSapyvw

is

by the name of a principal city. Tepyeo~r]va>v is probably


derived from the name of the town in whose immediate
vicinity
the event occurred, which must have been on the shore of the
erally

Tcpao-rjvwv is more difficult


away to be the scene of the

lake.
far

to dispose of, as Gerasa is too


incident, or even to become a

familiar designation of the general


And the similarity of
locality.
indicates that it has been confused with the nearer
1

name

Gergesa.

UD

instead of YaSaprjvuv, Tisch.


Latt.
Treg. N*
Fcpyeff-qvwr
RV.
A i, 28, 33, 118, 131, 209, Mcmph. Hard.
marg.
arg.
Internal, as well as external, evidence favors r
wi

WH.

K<=

LU

2.
The TR. gives the proper construction of
eA0oVros avrov
the part., putting it in agreement with
T after vir^vr^fv.
This
improper use of the gen. absolute is a specimen of the inaccuracy
31
of Mk. in dealing with the part., like the
The
(UKporepov ov of 4
ai>

<S

IO

See Thompson, Land and Book, Bib. Die,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

gg

TR

is

an evident correction of

this

2-5

[V.

mistake by some copyist

::

I, 13,

28, 69, etc.

These were natural or


*/ 0* tombs.
cut laterally in the
art fickl excavations in the rocks, frequently
other
like
caves, would be
MUs and often left uncovered, which,

*/

rSv umuefov

C-K

resorts for wild

men and

t J^L

beasts,

weu/tan

an

Un

Ka0apTu>-

,*,*.

e,W, v., means properly


adds to the
Tlliis
r^rifaSiblical meaning
that he had his home
that the man came from the tombs,

MMr.r,

their effect?

This, like

j^^^

instead of M^<, Tisch. Treg.

The TR.

evidently omits

WH.

RV. H

ABCL AH

etc.

to get over

ov,<m

roughness.
instead

Vulg.
346, Lat. Vet. (most mss.~)
4.

Aw
w

and crumrp^ftu is used to denote


inf here, and in &nr0ftu
to the present inability
acts
these
of
relation
past

*&*

li!*i^

are
the opposite motion of crushing,
Breaking by ; u mn g and by
d

^
TSSKS
The

**- -

- r -^

bTf^bind IS

to bind
statement of reasons for their inability
another
mdepende
introduces
and this

him.
ends with awrerp^ftu,

K. ev ror,

mountains.

^^
J^ ^f^
^V

5pn-/

J* e
detnations
and
Probably, these are specific
K
^ / other parts of the hils ^v P

See on 322, i.
See Win. 44, 7.

O n this^seof

8ca

with the

inf.

and

art.,

see

Win.

44- 6.

HEALING OF THE GERGESENE DEMONIAC

V. 5-8]

89

cution for the impf. is characteristic of Mk. The forcible


descrip
tions of the violence and frenzied strength of the demoniac are
also peculiar to Mk.
Mt. tells us simply that no one could pass
that way, and Lk. that he went about naked.
Two qualities in
Mk. lead to this first, his vividness of narration, and
secondly,
his desire to emphasize the greatness of
Jesus miracles.
6. O.TTO
from a distance} Trpoo-eKwiyo-ev aww
fuiKpoOev
he
made obeisance to him? The verb in the N.T. denotes prostration
before another in token of reverence, but
properly it denotes
reverence by kissing the hand towards another.
This act of homage seems inconsistent with the
expostulation
which follows. It is evident, throughout the narrative, that
Jesus
has to deal with a hostile attitude in the man,
dominated, as he is,
the
demon.
But the demons, notwithstanding,
by
recognize
Jesus mastery over them, and adopt a suppliant rather than a
:

defiant

The

attitude.

or TrapeKoXei,
says.

The

v.

ia

Trpoo-e/cwei

not inconsistent with the

historical present, characteristic of

This reading, instead of

Hard.

is

efrre,

said, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

Mk.

ABCKLM A

etc.

7. Tt
What have I to do with thee ? This repro
I\
e/x,oi Kai
duces the language of i 24 , a more or less suspicious imitation.
The language of the expostulation is exactly the same as in Lk.
In Mt. it is Tt ^fuv KOL voi, vie TOV
eov ; As this is
probably a
reproduction of what was spoken originally in Aramaic, the resem
blance points strongly to the interdependence of the
Synoptics.
The man speaks here under the influence of the demons
possess
ing him, identifying himself with them, but not so as to represent
their plurality stated in v.9
It was such addresses as this which
led Jesus to prevent the recognition of himself
by the demoniacs.
torment me not. This would easily
fi-ff
/u,e /Sao-ai/io-Tjs
imply
<JQ

that Jesus command to them to vacate the man


implied remand
And Lk. s account follows this
ing them to the place of torment.
29
out in the afiva-o-ov, 8 31 . Also Mt. in Trpo
But Mk. is
Kaipov, 8
not constructed on that basis, as he substitutes ew
for
T^S
eis rrjv afivo-crov.
According to him, this would represent therefore
the man s insane terror of being driven out of his haunts.
8.
The reason of the protest of the demons against
lAeyev yap
Jesus interference with them was his command to them to vacate.
It is difficult to find a
place to put this in, as the man s action
and words in the preceding verse seem to succeed each other
.

a<i

x<*>P

adv.

On

the ace.

The

same relation as the termination of the


later Greek, see Win. 65, 2.
The adv.
period.
of the dat. is peculiar to later authors, the
regular construction being

na.Kp68ev.
this

itself belongs
2 This use

prep, expresses the

redundancy, belonging to

to the

See Win.

same

4, 31, i k.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

go

immediately in such a way as to make one

act,

[V.

8,

occasioned appar

But evidently this


sight of Jesus at a distance.
ently by
to introduce this.
sequence must be interrupted somewhere
to him.
a
Only the man has been mentioned before,
which "would lead us to refer this to him. But the command is
The confusion is due to the
evidently addressed to the demon.
identification of the two.
Come out, thou unclean spirit^
TO aKaOaprov
"E^eAfle, TO Trvtvfjia.
What is thy name ? 2 It is a curious question,
o-oi
9. Tt
his

T<

ovo/ia

of the demoniac, and it has been


Jesus asked this question
saw the state of the case, and
that
answered
Jesus
;
e.g.
curiously
wished to bring it out in order to impress on the witnesses the
This ostentation we know to be far
greatness of the miracle.
from the spirit of Jesus, who performed his miracles for beneficent
We are
instead of ostentation.
purposes alone, and with secrecy,
in the region of conjecture here, but we can guess at it somewhat
after this fashion.
May it not be, that the purpose of Jesus was
hindered by this identification of the man with the demons, lead
In that case, Jesus might ask the
?
ing him to resist the cure
the man the nature of the power
question in order to bring before
to make some break in the terrible
as
so
in
him
thrall,
holding
But it is all mixed up with
sympathy and alliance of the two.
the question as to the nature of this possession, and how far the
account of the cure has been modified by the view of it taken by
It is comparatively useless to discuss details where
the narrators.

why

the main facts are so


KCU

Aeya

airru>

much

Acytwv

in doubt.

And he

says

to

him, Legion.

WH. RV. N ABCKLM

\tyei avrv, instead of AireicplOii, X^ywv.Tisch.Treg.


text, two. mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr.
RV. x*
Ae7iiv, instead of Arye^, Tisch. Treg.

AH

WH.

Vet. Vulg.

Memph.

B*

CDL A

Lat.

Syrr.

the Roman name for a body of soldiers numbering,


men. Of course, it is a rhetorical and exagger
6000
full,
ated statement by the man of his state, as if he had said, Ifeel as
a thousand devils.
if I were possessed by
Lk. puts this state
because we are many.
OTL TroAAtH
ment into the mouth of the Evangelist, saying himself that it was
because many demons entered into the man. But it seems that
Mk. is more correct, as he is certainly more effective, in making
the
the demoniac say this ; for it traces back to the man himself
In Lk. the plural
hallucination which gives shape to the story.
formed a part of the man s delusion, is transferred to
ity, which
is

Legion

when

e<r/Aev

the statement of facts.

On
On

the use of the nom., instead of the voc., see Win. 29,
the omission of the art. with ovo^a., see Win. 19, 2 6.

2.

HEALING OF THE GERGESENE DEMONIAC

V. 10-13]
10.

Kal irapeKoAei avrov -rroXXa. Iva

besought him

much

that he

avra aTroaTuXri

And

he

would not send them.

avra, instead of avrovs, Tisch. Treg.


like

fir)

91

WH. BC A

etc.

But avra looks

an emendation.

Here, again, the man identifies himself with the demons, but
not so as to protest any longer against their expulsion.
Only one
demon has been mentioned before, vv. 2 8 But with v. 9, it begins
to be assumed that there is a host of them, and the
plural is used.
ew TT}S
out of the country} Lk. says eis rrjv a(3vcr<rov,
into the abyss, i.e. into Gehenna, the place of evil
And it
spirits.
has been supposed that our phrase means out of the earth, mak
But plainly, X wpa does not mean the
ing it equivalent to this.
earth as distinguished from the under world, but one
part of the
earth as distinct from another, yrj is the proper word for
earth, or
world.
But just as plainly, the translation, out of the country
(put
into the mouth of the demons, so to speak), creates another diffi
What preference they should have for one country over
culty.
another is one of the mysteries connected with these stories of
demoniacal possession. It can be explained only as part of the
hallucination of the demoniac, to be referred possibly to his terror
of city or town, and his unwillingness to be driven out of the soli
Lk. s statement is probably an
tary wild district haunted by him.
,
attempt to remove the difficulty.
11. irpos
on the mountain side?
opct
-

\(apa<;

TO>

TV 6pei, instead of
principal sources.

TO. 6prj,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. and about

all

the

The presence of these unclean animals, so


Jews, indicates, what we know from other
sources, that the region was inhabited by a mixed population, in
which Gentiles predominated. 3
swine.

abhorrent to the

12. Kal TraptKaAecrav avrov


and they besought him* Here the
subject changes from the man speaking for the demons to the
demons speaking through the man.

Lk. says, Iva emTptyrj, that he would


Tre/xi/ ov
permit, a modifi
cation which Mk. introduces in his account of
Jesus answer.

Omit

iravrey ol daipoves with vapfKaXea-av, Tisch.


Treg.
1 1 8,
131, 209, 251, 346, Memph.

Kcu

13.

the use of
the use of

in the vicinity.
4

6 l-rjaovs,

28, 118, 131, 209,

On
On

and he permitted

7rerpei/ ev

Omit eiWws
I,

WH.

RV. x

BCL A

WH.

RV.

BCL A

13, 28, 69,

i,

The meaning

eu>

them.

immediatelyJesus, Tisch. Treg.

two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.

as a prep., see Win. 54, 6.


with dat., see Win. 48 e.

7rp6 s

The

art.

denotes the mountain

gee Schurer, N. 7,g.\\. i, 121.


beseech belongs to TrapcucaAtlv only in later Greek.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

92

[V.

13-15

It is evidently
entered into the swine.
s TOVS xtp ov *
the intention of the writer that the man was possessed by a host
no less would be re
of demons, and that this host of demons
This
swine.
of
herd
the
into
entered
thousand)
(two
quired
s Legion, the multiplication of the
literalizing of the demoniac
the thousands, and the addition of the
difficulty of possession by
of demoniac possession of swine, makes this part of

difficulty

upon our belief. Demoniacal possession is in


such a tax, but this story shows whereto such belief in a
credulous age tends. The facts in this case are the cure and the
The traditional account connects
rush of the frightened swine.
them in such a way as to make Jesus responsible for one as well
Leave out now the elements of the story con
as the other.
tributed by the idea of possession, and substitute the theory of
of the fright and destruction of
lunacy, and the rational account
the swine is that it was occasioned by some paroxysm of the
the story a tax
itself

lunatic himself.

Kat

ts rr)V 0aAa(7crav,
djfXrj Kara TOV KpTf]p.vov
the herd rushed down the declivity into the sea,

o>S

wp/xrjcrev

and

Sio-xtAioi

17

about two thousand (of them)


Omit
N

DL A

EC*

i,

and there

Tisch. Treg.
5t<rx*Xiot,
were, before
mss. of Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh.

Tjcrav 5t,

<fcs

WH. RV.

occurs in the N.T. only


Kpwvov, a perfectly good Greek word,
in the parallel Synoptical accounts of this event, and the verbal
resemblance is an important item in the proof of the interde

pendence of the Synoptics.

w; Sio-xiAtoi in the reading adopted is in apposition with ^ dyeAi;


the herd, about two thousand (of them)
And those
14. Kat ot /3oo-KovTs avrovs %4>vyov KCU aTr^yyeiAav
.

feeding them fled

and brought

the news.

WH.

ABCDLM

A two mss.
RV. N
Tisch. Treg.
oi,
RV.
Lat. Vet. Syrr.
-^oLpov^, Tisch. Treg.
avrotis, instead of
x
A 13, 69, 124, 346, Latt. Memph. Pesh. Air-^yyeiXav, instead of
II etc.
RV. N
Tisch. Treg.
Kai

instead of Ot

5,

WH.

TOI>S

BCL

WH.

dv/iyyei\ai>,

ABCDKLM

and

to

the

to the city
farms.
dypov s
1
dypov s
TroAiv is the city Gergesa (Gerasa) in the neighborhood.
and
denotes the farms or hamlets in the vicinity. Kat yjXOov
inhabitants
the
viz.
generally.
they came,
eis rrjv TrdAiv

Kat eis

TOI>S

came out, Tisch. Treg.


3\eov, instead of #rj\0ov, they
II* 33, etc. Memph. Hard.

WH.

RV.

NC

ABKLMU

and

Kat Ocwpovm TOV BaL^ovi^o^vov Ka&^ievov ip.aTKrp.tvov


clothed.
Oewpova-i, they behold,
behold
the. demoniac sitting
they
notable objects.
towards
directed
of
kind
the
sight
expresses
15.

See on

v.i.

See Thay.-Grm. Lex. Synonyms of ewpelv.

V. 15-19]

HEALING OF THE GERGESENE DEMONIAC

93

The temporal relation would be


Sat/xovio/u,vov is timeless.
1
clothed.
This
Ifuvrurfuyov
expressed by the aor. SaiynoviorfeWa.
in his previous state had
the
man
that
implies what Lk. states,
Lk. S 27
TOV ecr^/cora TOV XeytaJva
torn his clothes from him.
who had the legion. We have already seen how it is implied that
Mk. accepts the man s account of himself in telling the story of
and
the swine.
Here he does it expressly. KOL ifoprjOrjauv
The thought of the miracle alone produced
they were frightened.
.

this effect.

16.

and

KCU SiriyrjcravTo

reported in full, rehearsed. The


they werit through it

verb denotes the fulness of the account


all.

THEY BESEECH HIM TO DEPART

17.

is the only case in our Lord s ministry in which his mira


operated against him in this way, and it is to be accounted
for by the strange element in this case, the mixture of gain and
loss in the result.
Men welcome a beneficent power, and so we
But they are repelled from a
find the multitudes following Jesus.
This
destructive power, and all the more, if it is supernatural.
explains the singular treatment, but the infraction of our Lord s
rule, to use his power only for beneficent purposes, is itself to be
accounted for. And it enforces the question already raised, if
this is not one of the cases in which we have to separate between

This

cles

the facts and the explanations and inferences of the Evangelists.


facts are the cure of the man and the destruction of the
swine.
But is Jesus responsible for the destruction? The whole
idea of possession is beset with serious difficulties, and in this case,
the substitution of lunacy for possession removes not only these,
but also this anomaly in the action of Jesus.

The

18. e/u/foi vovTos


As he was entering. The present part, de
notes action contemporaneous with that of the principal verb.
s,

instead of

ABCDKLM AH

I,

was come,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

He who had been

6 Sai/Aoncr0eis
aor. part, denotes

verb.

e/u/3<i>ros,

33, 124,

possessed with demons. The


a state preceding the action of the principal

iva

19.

JU.CT

avrov

Kcu OVK

17

may be with him?


and he did not permit him.

that he
avrov

a<t>rjKtv

K al, instead of 6 5
two mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

Ir?<n>Cs,

33,

Tisch. Treg.

Memph.

WH.

RV.

ABCKLM AH

I,

Syrr.

15
2 See on TOV
See Burton, N. T. A foods and Tenses, 123.
SaipoviZo/Aivev, v.
with subj. after a verb of asking, see Win. 44, 8. Clearly,
On the use of
the clause with ivy. expresses the contents of the petition, not its purpose.
1

JV<*

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

94
Kat aTrayyeiXov

much

the

otra 6

Kvpios

Lord hath done for

(rot

TreTron/Kev

[V.

and

report

how

thee.

dTrdyyei\ov, instead of dvdyyei\ov, Tisch. Treg. \VH.


RV. N
instead of ftrobj<re, Tisch. Treg.

irejrofytev,

19-43

WH.

RV. N

ABCL

EC A

etc.

II etc.

This command, the exact opposite of the injunction of secrecy


by Jesus, is due to the fact that this was a region
not frequented by him, and in which, therefore, the ordinary
His enemies were not
reasons for such silence were inoperative.
to be blinded by
here, nor his injudicious friends, nor the people
But it was a region rarely
his miracles to his more spiritual work.
visited by him, and out of which he himself had just been driven,
where therefore the story told by this man would be the only
the
message of glad-tidings brought to the people. Moreover,
our Lord him
message which Jesus gives him does not concern
usually enforced

but God, to whom 6 Kv/atos evidently refers. The effect pro


duced would thus be, not a false Messianism, as in Galilee, but a
sense of God s presence and pity. The demoniac s story would
counteract the impression made by the destruction of the swine.
And it would be kept in Decapolis, where it would do no harm,
and away from the already excited Galilee.
self,

how much

Lord

oa-a 6 Kioto s ow TreTroir/Kev, KOL rjXeijve


1
hath done for thee, and pitied thee.
of
used
is evidently
6 Kvpios
God, as neither the man himself
nor his friends would understand its application to Jesus. And
(re

the

would especially desire to


besides, this is a case in which Jesus
39
Lk. says 6 cos, 8
call attention to what God had done for him.
name
20. rfj AeKdTro Aa
Decapolis, the ten city district, is the
liberated by Pompey from
applied to the cities, east of the Jordan,
These cities
alliance.
rule, which united in the ten city
.

Jewish

had been Hellenistic since the Syrian conquest, had been con
and were
quered and subjected to Jewish rule by the Maccabees,
II. i, 23, i.
liberated
Schurer,
by Pompey.
finally

RAISING OP THE DAUGHTER OF JAIRUS, AND HEAL


ING OP THE "WOMAN WITH AN ISSUE OP BLOOD
returns
Jesus, repelled by the people of Decapolis,
the
raises
there
and
the
shore
daughter
to the western
lake,
of
how much

"

of the Greek
i The translation
gives just the slight irregularity
is pre
tht object of the first verb ; and an adverb modifying the second, which
the con
it zeugmatisck.
calls
who
So
Meyer,
cisely the double us-, of oo-a.
The perf. suggests the present
junction of the perf. and aor., see Win. 40. 4.
condition as well as the past act, while the aor. denotes only the past action.
"

On

is

THE DAUGHTER OF JAIRUS

V. 21-23]

95

of a synagogue ruler by the name of Jairus. On his way to


the Jiouse of Jairus, he is approached in the crowd by a
woman with an issue of bloody who is healed at the touch
of his garment.
21.

eis

TO Trepav

again there

side,

TraAij/

was

crw^x^7?

having crossed over

to the

other

gathered.

eis TO Trtpav irdXiv, instead of irdXiv eis


mss. of Lat.
irtpav, Tisch. N
Vet. Syrr.
It is more in Mk. s manner to connect ird\iv with t
rt>

xai yv Trapo, rr)v OdXafrarav

And he was

by the sea.

According

He

to Mt., Jairus came to Jesus while he was in the house.


places
the events after the crossing of the lake in the following order
:

the healing of the paralytic, and the dispute about forgiveness


of sins ; then, the call of Matthew ; then, the question of John s
disciples about fasting ; and then, while he was saying these things,
the coming of Jairus.
And these events are connected all the way
through by marks of time, fixing the chronological connection.
first,

- 18

Mt. 9 1
22.

Kai cpxerai

els

TW dp^io-way wywv

And there comes one of

the synagogue-rulers.

Omit I8ov before epxerai, Tisch. Treg. WII.


Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh.

RV. N

BDL A

102, mss. of

According to Schiirer, the dpxn;vaywyos is to be distinguished


from the
the officer having general direction of the affairs
of the synagogue and he is not an official conducting the worship,
for which no special appointment was made ; but he is the officer
apx<av,

entrusted with the care of public worship, including the appoint

ment of readers and preachers. Mt. calls Jairus an apx^v, and


Lk. uses the two names interchangeably, which is explained
by the fact, that the two offices, though distinct, might be com
bined in one person. Generally, there was only one dpxio-uvdywyos
in each synagogue, and ets TWV dpxio-waywywi/ may mean one of
the class simply.
23. TraaKaAet

S. Schiirer, II. 2. 27.

beseeches.

WII. RV. N

ACL

at the point of death?


just died, evidently confounding

this

TrapaKaXet, instead of irape/cdXet, besought, Tisch. Treg.


33. etc.

!;(

eo-xarws

Mt. says apn


1

is found in profane writings only in


Inscriptions.
found in the N.T. only here. Its use to denote at the point of death,
condemned by Atticists. See Thay.-Grm. Lex.

apxio-uvayai-yos

2
eo-xaTw?
in extremis,

is
is

is

eVeXeur^orev,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

96

[V.

23-25

Lk.
with the message brought later by members of his household.
that you may come
Iva. fX&wv
says a.Trt8v7)(TKv, was dying.
that she may be saved and live.
/cat
and lay} Iva.
c-m9fj<;

<ra)6rj

Iva ffu9rj Kal

BCDL A

24.

and

ry<jr/

instead of STTWS
fiyo-erai, Tisch. Treg.
most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.
.

fijo"??,

WH.

RV.

13, 69, 346,

j)Ko\.ov&(.t.

o^Xos

.,

a crowd followed,

KCU 0we0Ai/3ov

they pressed?

THE WOMAN WITH AN


There

is

ISSUE OF

BLOOD

a peculiar turn given to this story by the statement of


that Jesus recognized that power had gone forth from

Mk. and Lk.


Mt.

him.

treats

it

as an ordinary miracle, in which Jesus

con

But Mk. and Lk. represent


sciously exercises his healing power.
it as a miracle in which the woman herself, unknown to Jesus,
draws upon his healing power, and Jesus knows it only by the
departure of the power, of which he becomes conscious as he
would be of any bodily change happening to him. It would seem
a case in which the miracle was performed directly by
God, without the intervention of Jesus, of which Jesus becomes
aware by the touch of the woman, but not by the loss of power.
that this

is

This makes an opening, as Mt. s account does not, for the expla
nation of Mk. and Lk. The fact for which they try to make way
in their account

is

the cure of the

woman

without the intervention

But here again, we have to distinguish between the fact


which they preserve for us, and their explanation, arising from
The one is a matter of testimony, and the
reflection on the fact.
of Jesus.

other of judgment.
25.

Kttt

Omit

ywrj ovcra

rts,

a certain, before

Lat. Vet. Vulg.

ovcra eV

And a woman
o5<ra,

being.

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

ABCL A

mss.

Memph. Hard.

being in an issue of blood


pixm aipiTos eri/ SwSeKa
There is nothing in the language, which is quite

twelve years?

explained by Win. as a weakened form of imp. 43, 5 a. My prayer is,


come. On the laying on of hands, see on i 41 .
the
o-weWu/SoK is found in the N.T. only in this passage. The change from
as the act
sing. iJKoAoOflei to the plur. is due to the crowding being thought of, not
of the crowd collectively, but individually.
here
8 The
prep, denotes the state of the woman. The pres. part, ova-a is used
of a past state continuing into the present, a temporal relation properly expressed
by the perf. Burton, N. T. Moods and Tenses, 131 c.
1

This

that you
2

is

may

THE WOMAN WITH AN ISSUE OF BLOOD

V. 25-29]

97

general, not technical, to denote the nature of this hemorrhage,

but

it

was probably menstrual.

26.

TroAAwv iarpuv
having suffered many
hands of many physicians} SuTrav^cracra TO. Trap eavhaving spent all that she had?
seeing that she was no way benefited? \vr^\v

TroXAtt Tradoixra VTTO

things at the
rijs TTO.VTQ.

\MI&V
used, instead of ovSev, because of the writer s way of conceiving
what is nevertheless stated as a fact. He is giving here not only
the facts, but the facts as they lay in the woman s mind and
became her reasons for coming to Jesus. He suggests that she
knew all this, and reasoned it out this way, and this subjective
view is implied in the use of /u/^Sev. Win. 55, g, /?.
(a<f>e\r)&eL(m

is

27.

dKouo-ao-a

ra

Tre.pl

having heard the things concerning

Iijcrov

Jesus.
r<i

inserted before irepl

is

by Tisch. (Treg. marg.)

WH.

RV. N* BC*

etc.

The

things concerning Jesus were the reports of his miracles.


the participles have denoted the particulars of the woman s
state, previous to her coming to Jesus, and this identity of relation
has led to the use of KOL or dAAa to connect them. Now, the narra
tive passes over to a new relation, and the conjunction is dropped.
e\0ova-a
having come. Here, the long line of participles ceases to
be elegant, and should have been replaced by iyA0e /ecu, she came

So

far,

and.
28.

eav

"On

ai/ cj/xai

Kav TWV lpa.TLwv

If I touch his garments

only*
tb.v

iL\f/ufjiai

Kav TWC IfiaTi&v, instead of K&V rQv


WH. RV. K BCL A etc.

Ifj-arluv

a\j/u[j.ai,

Tisch. Treg. marg.

The woman seeks to be cured in this surreptitious way because


of her uncleanness. 5
29.

TO>

eyj/o>

oxo/um

The changed
in her body.
would make itself known physi
that she has been healed of the
//.doTiyos

condition, like the disease


cally,

on

larai

O.TTO TT/S

she

knew

itself,

1 iin-6 differs from awb in such cases


as denoting under, or at the hands of, an effi
cient cause, while i
means merely from, an occasional cause. Win. 47 . p. 364,
s
Translation.
368, Thayer
2
n-ap eavr^s is a case of attraction, the prep, taking the gen. after it, instead of
the dat., as if it were connected with Sa.ira.vriva.o-a.. See Win. 47 6. 66, 6.
8 On the absurd medical treatment of such
cases, see Geikie, Life of Christ,

chap. 42.
4
It is a case of condensed structure,
Literally, if I touch if even his garments.
with a^wjxai repeated after KO.V, understood, on introduces a direct quotation. In
the
even
or
with
clause, only
translating
belongs
If I
garments, not with touch.
touch his garments only.
5 See Lev.
1525-27.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

98

[V.

29-34

is used in Greek writers to denote


//,aori
any calamity
But the providential view does not
providentially, a //,aoTi Otov.
appear in the N.T. use, but only a figurative designation of the
effect of disease.

scourged

30. eV ecu
in himself.
Denotes the inwardness of his
knowledge, proceeding from his own feelings, not from his
knowledge of what the woman had done. This feeling is where
Jesus knowledge of the facts began, and signifies that he had no

conscious part in the miracle.

Also the expression r^v e O.VTOV


lt\0ova-av, the power gone outfrom him, indicates that the
writer conceives of the cure as effected not by the conscious exer
&vvafji.iv

cise of

Jesus, but

by power that went out from him


which he became conscious only afterwards.
from the same point of view. Mt. tells us
that the woman expected to be cured in that
way, but that Jesus
felt the touch, and sought the woman
out, after which the miracle
proceeded in the ordinary way. It is possible that the cure took
place without Jesus intervention, but by a direct Divine act, as in
the other cases in which the throng about him sought to touch
even the hem of his garment, and as many as touched were healed.
Only, in this case, Jesus knew in some way that there had been a
touch on him different from that of the crowd, and chose to trace
it and
bring himself into personal contact with the person from
whom it proceeded, instead of allowing it to remain in the imper
sonal form which was necessary in the case of numbers doing the
same thing. This has been interpreted by Mk. and Lk. into a
miracle done not by Divine intervention, but coming from a spring
of power in Jesus, which could be drawn on, but not without his
While Mt. has reduced it to
feeling the efflux, the loss of power.

power by

involuntarily, and of
Lk. relates the story

a miracle of the ordinary kind.


32. TT)V TOVTO iroLtja-acrav
her

who

did

this.

This

is

anticipat

ing the result of his search. Jesus was ignorant who had done it,
and so of course, whether it was man or woman.
33.
K. rp^ovaa
the aor. pass., denoting a past act,
and the pres., denoting a present state ; having been frightened and
<f>oj3r)0i.cra

trembling.
34.

vTraye el? dprjvrjv

the Heb.

DWp

go in health.

An

the salutation used by

exact translation of

them

in saying fare
does not have its Greek meaning, peace, but one
imported directly from the Heb., general wellbeing, or in this case,
This is the primary meaning of the Heb. word, and. peace
health.
only a secondary meaning, whereas peace is the only meaning of
Our version translates it always peace, which is
the Greek word.

well.

7p,

1/3771/77

misleading.
1 larai is a
perfect pass, of the deponent verb iaofiai,
fication in the perf., aor. pass., and i fut.

which has a passive

signi

THE DAUGHTER OF JAIRUS

V. 34-43]

99

and be well. This must not be taken to mean


/cat la-Ot
vyirjs
that the cure was performed now for the first time, as everything
in the story points to the fact that the cure was effected when she
touched Jesus,

v.

29
.

THE DAUGHTER OF

JAIRUS.

This is the only case of raising of the dead related by all the
11 17
The words,
Only Lk. tells of the case at Nain, 7
Synoptics.
she did not die, but sleeps, lend themselves so readily to the sup
position that this was not a case of raising the dead, that it is no
"

wonder that they have been so used. Beyschlag treats it as a case


which the state ordinarily called death has been reached, but
in which there has been no final separation of soul and body, so
that there is a possibility of awakening, which there would not be,
if the connection between the two had been actually severed.
Holtzmann treats the language more rudely as a contradiction
in

within the story itself of its miraculous intention.


Everything
The
else in the three accounts favors the hypothesis of death.

announcement
that she

is

in

Mt.

is

that the child

dying, and later, that she

is

dead, in Mk. and Lk.,


dead. Lk. says that they

is

knew her

to be dead, an expression which is inappropriate, if it was


mistaken supposition. And Jesus signifies his sense of the
momentousness of the occasion by taking with him only the three,

their

critical periods of his life.


On the
other hand, the explanation of Jesus words, which makes she did
not die, but sleeps mean that this was not an ordinary case of

a selection reserved for the

death, though really death ; but resembling sleep, since the child
was to be raised, does not seem quite adequate. And Beyschlag s
But it is purely an
explanation is worthy of serious consideration.
consideration.
His
exegetical
general objection to miracles of
is a question by itself, and the
theory of miracles to
belongs discredits many of Jesus miracles without suffi

resurrection

which

it

cient reason.

He

attributes the genuine cases to the

immense

influence of Jesus personality on other men, with its reaction on


the body, and of course excludes all miracles on nature, and of
actual reanimation of a dead body. When once the soul and body

are finally severed, the possibility of reanimation ceases.


Mean
it
certain
that
seems
the
narratives
themselves
treat
time,
quite
this as a case of raising the

dead.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

IOO

35-39

[V.

35. ZpxovTai airo TOV a.f>\i(rvvaytayov


they come from the syna
gogue s ruler s house. The Greek says from the synagogue ruler,
but he was with Jesus, and they bring the message to him.
OTL

Tt (.TL cr/cuAAets TOV SiSacrKoAov j


Ovydrrjp crov aTTtOave
why troublest thou the teacher further?

TI

daughter has died ;


36.

Jesus having overheard,

Trapa/covo-as

Ir/o-oSs

thy

i.e.

heard

what was not addressed to him.

BDL

WH.

RV. N
A i, 28,
Omit eMtw before irapa.Kov<ras, Tisch. Treg.
wapaKovcra.*,
40, 209, 225, 271, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh. etc.
A one MS. Lat. Vet.
RV. N* etcb
instead of d/cowras, Tisch. Treg.

BL

WH.

fiovov

accordance with the ordinary use of the


to your faith, do not lose it?
Literally, to accompany with

In

irt<TTve.

present imp., this means, hold on


37. /ACT avrov (TwaKoXovOyja-at.
him. The ordinary construction
/xer avrou, instead of
Lat. Vet. Pesh.

O.VT<$,

is

the dat.

Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV.

BCL A

one ms.

K. Iwdwrjv
The prominence here given to
repeated at the Transfiguration and in Gethsemane
2
33
(g I4 ). The reason for admitting only these in this case is the
same which led him to enjoin secrecy in regard to his miracles
generally, but which is enhanced by the extraordinary nature of
His miracles generally earned him an undesired
this miracle.
but
this
would startle even one accustomed to them, and
notoriety,
would excite a furor among the people. Note on i 45
,

/:.

these three

IaKa>/3ov,

is

38.

KCU epxovTcu

they come

i,

i,

33,

Treg.

some

WH.

and he

KOLL

sees

Qopvfiov

0eo>pei

/cat

/cAat ovras

and

a tumult and persons weeping.

WH.

ABCDF

RV. N
A
instead of tpxerai, he comes, Tisch. Treg.
mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh. /cat before rXaiarras, Tisch.
RV. N
mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Syrr. B* TroXXcis.

ABCLMU AH

d\aA.aovTas
wailing, is an onomatopoetic word, coming from
a, a cry uttered originally by soldiers going into battle, but
afterwards adapted to other cries expressing various feelings.
Elsewhere, in the N.T., it is used only in i Cor. 13*, to denote
the clanging of a cymbal.
It is used very appropriately of the
monotonous wail of hired mourners.
39. Ti 6opv(3eL(rOe KCU KAaiVre;
Why do you make a tumult and
weep ? Mt. also speaks of the crowd as Oopv^ov^vov, and intro
duces av\r]rd<;, flute-players. There was the exaggerated noise
and ostentation of hired mourners.
o-Ku AAet? means properly to flay, and is used in the weakened sense, to trouble,
only in the Biblical and still later Greek. In the N.T. it is a rare word, and its
use here and in the parallel passage, Lk. 8 49 is one of the strong indications that
2 See Win.
the Synoptical Gospels are interdependent.
43, 3 b.
1

THE DAUGHTER OF JAIRUS

V. 39-43]

IOI

the child did not die, but


OVK a.trf.9avf.v, dAXa Ka0euSei
This may be said from the standpoint of Jesus, who
knows that she is to be raised, so turning her death into sleep.
But see note at beginning of paragraph.

TO

TrcuoYov

sleeps.

and they laughed him down. They under


ccu KareyeXwv avrov
stood him literally, and Lk. says that they knew the child to be
dead.
40. avros 8e eK/SaXwv irai/ras
but he, having put out all.
instead of 6 5, Tisch. Treg.
,
except one ms. Vulg. Memph.
K<U

and

avrov

Tofc /ACT

WH. RV.

BCDL A

33, Lat. Vet.

those with him, viz. Peter, James,

and

John.
yv TO
Omit

TrcuSiov

where

the child

dvaKelfjLevov, lying, after Traidiov,

102, mss. Lat. Vet.

was.

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BDL A

Memph.

41. TaA.i0a, KOU/A


TaAi0a is the Chaldaic
Maiden, arise.
KOV/A is the Heb. imp. Dip.
Kn^tt, fem. of K^B, a youth.
KOV/AI
of the TR. is the proper fem. form. KOU/A is the masc. used as an
The language of Jesus reproduced here is an indi
interjection.
cation that he spoke in Aramaic, the language of Palestine at the
time.
KOV/J, (Kov/j.,

Treg.), Tisch.

WH.

7etpe, instead of eyeipai, Tisch. Treg.

To Kopdmov

BCLM i, 33, 271, one ms. Lat. Vet.


WH. RV. N ABCDL AH etc.

Maiden}

for she was twelve years old. This is


yap erwv SwSe/ca
introduced to explain the walking, nothing having been said about
her age before.
e^e o-T^crav evOvs e/co-Tao-a /tAcyoLXj;
they were
amazed immediately with a great amazement?
42.

rjv

eiWvs after

t&<rrriffav,

Tisch. (Treg. marg.~)

WH.

RV.

BCL A

33,

Memph.
43.

SieoreiXaTo

he commanded?

Iva.

/A^Scts yvoi

that no one

know.
yvoi, instead of yvif, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BDL.

Weiss contends that the words of Jesus, maiden, arise, do not


that she is to awake from the sleep of death, but that the

mean

1 In the earlier
writers, this word is used disparagingly, belonging, as it does,
only to colloquial speech. It is a rare word in the N.T., and its use here and in
the parallel account, Mt. 9 24 points in the same direction as the use of o-icu AAei?
,

V.35.
2

a weakened sense of both noun and verb, which denote the actual
putting one out of his senses, beside himself, and it belongs to later Greek. On
the use of the dat. akin to the ace. of kindred signification, see Win.
32, 2, at end.
3

This

The

mine.

is

nearest
approach to this meaning in earlier Greek
This meaning belongs in the main to Biblical Greek.

is to

decide or deter

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I0 2

42-VI. 1

[V.

maiden already raised from the dead by the power of God,

is

to

rise
pure assumption, there being
to justify this distinction.
nothing in common linguistic usage
And it leaves out of sight the plain fact that the words of Jesus on
such occasions are the signal for the performance of the miracle.
Weiss is theory-bound in his treatment of the miracles.

from her couch.

But

this is

REJECTION AT NAZARETH
VI. 1-6. Jesus visits Nazareth, and teaches in the syna
their surprise at the wis
gogue. His countrymen express
so obscure in his origin,
one
dom and
by

power displayed
and Jesus is prevented by

their ^unbelief

from

the

usual

exercise of his healing gifts.


1. Kai e ^X^ev eKetfev
words Mk. connects this

he went out thence. With these


with the events of the preceding

And
visit

chap.

Mt. places this visit after the parables, saying expressly that it
8
5
1
Lk. tells us of a
was after he had ended these parables (is
).
16-30
in which
visit to Nazareth at the beginning of his ministry, 4
not
the
of
in
this
as
same
the
visit,
prophet
parable
Jesus quotes
without honor except in his own country. And the position in
which he places this rejection at the beginning of the ministry in
the beginning of Jesus resi
Galilee, and just before the record of
dence in Capernaum, seems to indicate a connection between
23
However, Lk. inserts in v.
these events in the author s mind.
is
inconsistent
which
a reference to works done in Capernaum,
with the place which he assigns to the visit, previous to the set
tlement in Capernaum. Mt. also notes the leaving Nazareth and
this present event after the par
settling in Capernaum, but places
The accounts cannot be harmonized, except on the suppo
ables.
sition of a repetition of the visit to Nazareth, and his rejection
"

his family
easy enough to suppose that Jesus visited
and met this ungracious reception at the hands of
his countrymen, but it is also quite evident that the Evangelists
have got hold of one story, marked by the same details through
in different parts of the
out, and have placed this one rejection
to the chronological
in
are
evident
Two
regard
things
Gospel.
the Evangelists intended
arrangement of the Gospels ; first, that

there.

It is

several times,

l See Note on Relation of Synoptical Accounts at beginning of ch. 5, for


notice how Mt. thus connects
place of the parables in Mt. s account. And
which Mk. and
visit to Nazareth with the healing of Peter s mother-in-law,
while Mt., though connecting
put at the beginning of the Galilean ministry,
at
a
late
both
them
two events as they do, puts
period.

the
the

Us.
the

REJECTION AT NAZARETH

VI. 1-3]

03

to make such an arrangement, and secondly, that their several


arrangements do not always agree.
his own country.
Nazareth is the place
rrjv Trar/atSa avrov
meant, the residence of his family, and where he had lived him
self

to the beginning of his public ministry.

up

epxerai comes, instead of 1j\6ev came, Tisch. Treg. WII.

RV. N

BCLD

Hard. marg.
2. T]paTo StSacnceiv iv
There was no regularly
rfj crwaywyr;.
appointed person to perform this office in the synagogue, but the
dpxio-waywyos might select any one to read the lessons and to
1
If any Rabbi was present, they would avail themselves
preach.
of him for the purpose. Jesus used this opportunity as long as
it was open to him, but he seems to have been denied the
syna
gogue after a time.
Kai ol TroAAot aKorovTes
and the many hearing him.

Insert ol before TroXXol, Tisch. (Treg. marg.)

WH. RV.

marg.

BL

13, 28,

69.

The many means here


ILodev

TovT(>>

TavTa

the multitude, all except a few?


Whence to this man these things ?

The

demonstratives bring into sharp contrast the man and the things
done by him ; this man of whom we know everything and nothing
The same thing is repeated in
great, and these wonderful things.
the next clause, where TOUTW replaces avrw in the Crit. text. They
imply by their question, which is evidently contemptuous in its
tone, that these things are unaccountable, and their inference is
not creditable to him, as it might easily be, from such facts.
They reason that anything legitimate of this kind would have shown
itself in his
early life,

/ecu

Swa/xets

Towumu

ytvo/xevai.

With

this

reading, the question in this v. resolves itself into three, or rather


two questions and an exclamation. The substitution of the parti
ciple yivo/jLcvai for the verb in the last part makes it an exclamation.
The picture is of several groups of objectors, of which one throws
out the sneer,
Whence to this one these things ? another takes
"

it

up

one

"

"

same tone, And what is the wisdom given to this


and a third exclaims, "And such miracles done through his

in the

"

hands!"

ct

ABc-2

ytvo/jLevai,

Vet.

EFGHLMSUV A

instead of ylvo VTO.I,

WH.

RV. N BCL A
before /coi Suvd/xeis
i, 13, 28, 33, 69, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.
*etc JJL A
Treg. WH. RV.
33, mss. Lat.

instead of avry, after 5o0et<ra, Tisch. Treg.


mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Hit).
Omit STL

Memph.
(most
*

Memph.

5 TC KTWV

3.

the son
1

the wood-worker.
Mt. says 6 TOV TCKTOVOS vios,
of the carpenter, 13*. The word TCKTW, which is found in

See Note on apxio-waywyos, 522.


II

See Win.

18, 3,

end of section.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

104

[VI.

3,

the N.T. only in these two parallel passages, means any worker in
the son
wood, rarely in any other substance. 6 wos TT?? Maputs
in the gospel narrative
of Mary. The dropping out of Joseph
this time of Jesus ministry.
probably indicates his death before
and brother. On the nature of this relation, see on
icai d8e\<os
18
It should be added, in proof of the improbability that these
3
7
were anything else than brothers of Jesus, that Lk. 2
.

dSeX</>oi

There is no more baseless,


speaks of Jesus as the first-born son.
nor for that matter, prejudiced theory, in the whole range of Bibli
cal study, than that which makes Jesus the only child of Mary.
KO.I

S, Tisch. Treg.

d5eX06s, instead of d5eX0ds

WH.

RV. N

BCDL A

one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.


eo-Kaj/SaAtovTo V avrw
they were made to stumble in him, pre
vented from proper action by what they saw in him. On the
The prep, denotes the person
meaning of the verb, see on
But its use in such a con
in whom the stumbling block is found.
nection is unusual in Greek. And the repetition of the exact
furnishes another item in the linguistic proof
language in Mt.
of the interdependence of the Synoptical Gospels.
And Jesus said to them.
4. Kcu IAeyv avrois 6 I^crous
4".

13"

Kal Xe7ex, instead of ?Xryev Si, Tisch. Treg.


most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh.

WH.

RV.

BCDL A

33,

a prophet. The word means in classical Greek an


of their oracles, and then in general, a
interpreter of the gods, or
In the Biblical usage, it denotes an inspired teacher.
seer.

kinsmen}
<rvyyev(.v<Tiv

WH.

D EFGHLUV

B* 2
instead of ffvyyevtvi, Tisch. Treg.
Insert aurou after ffvyyevevtriv, Tisch.
2
RV. BC*
eauroO) 28, 71, 218, 235, most mss. Lat.
v,

I,

33, 69, 124, 209, 262, 271, 346.

KLM

Treg. WH.
Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr.

(A

This proverb has various forms, among them the one stating the
all based being Familiarity breeds con
principle on which they are
to
the case of our Lord at Nazareth,
It
exactly
applies
tempt.
where he was brought up, and in that early private life showed no
of his public ministry. There is
signs of the supernatural powers
a
that
difference
some
public from private life,
separates
always
in
his
of
exercise
same
for
the
called
powers
man not being
upon

an

the one as in the other.


defect, because

it

And

to the unthinking person, this

seems to indicate something unreal, put on

is

for

the occasion, in the greatness of the man in whom it appears.


of course, if there is any real descent, the charge is true.
in the case of our Lord, there was only the difference that

--

S<\nd

"}t

_ht

"A

barbarous

declension,"

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

MISSION OF

VI. 4-13]

THE TWELVE

10$

In the
naturally belongs to the difference of the two spheres.
same way, a statesman does not continually air his wisdom in
private, which may be a sign of his greatness.
5. OVK e8vva.ro
he could not. Of course, this was a moral
inability.

Jesus required faith for the performance of his mira

and that was wanting here ; nay, there was a positive dis
He found elsewhere a poor wavering
belief, no mere doubt.
faith, but not enough lack to hinder his work of physical healing,
though it kept him out of men s souls. But here the general
unbelief of the nation reached its climax, and prevented even this
one good that his countrymen generally permitted him to do
cles,

them.
fi

p.T]

ctfepaTrewe

except that he healed}

EV. 2
6.

Sta

edavfjuKrev

rr/v

dppwcrrois

sick folk

he marvelled at their

aTrtcmuv auraiv

unbelief?
i6a.vfjia.aev,

instead of e6av/jiafa Tisch.

WH.

BE*.

wonder was a part of his humanity. He had a wonder


knowledge of men, and his proverb shows that he
traced this unbelief to its source ; he could account for it, that is
to say
but it exceeded his expectations, and excited his wonder.
he went round about the villages. Jesus
Trepi^ye TO.S Kco/Aas
had left Capernaum for a time, and being rebuffed at Nazareth,
he does not return to the former place, but makes a tour of the
Jesus

ful intuitive

villages

about Nazareth.

MISSION OF THE TWELVE


7-13. Jesus sends out the twelve to aid him in his more
extended work. His instructions to them.
is now engaged in one of those
journeys through Galilee,
which he branches out from his more restricted work in the

Jesus
in

neighborhood of Capernaum, and instead of keeping the twelve


with him after his ordinary custom, he sends them out in
groups
of two to help him in his work of
proclaiming the kingdom, and
preaching repentance, and healing the sick. His
which are evidently practical in their nature, not
1

The

instructions,
ascetic,

nor

regular construction would require the inf. here, this verb being in the
TTOIJJCTCU, and not tSvva.ro.
This is exactly our word invalid, or infirm.
Sid
airioriai
is an unusual construction with
p
edavnaa-ev, in fact, the only case
of it in the N.T.
(It seems quite improbable, both from the position and from the
course of thought, that Sid TOO
in J. 722, belongs with v. 2
*.)

same construction as
2

Trji>

[VL 7-9

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

io6

are that they should not


involving any important principle,

encum

nor spend their time

ber themselves with any unnecessary outfit,


that which
in finding better entertainment than
enter.
any place that they

Ki

SuiSeKa

first offers itself

in

- This statement belongs imme

TrpocTKaAcmu TOUS
rfc K</K Kv/cAo. &t*"*- Evi
diately with the preceding irepiifre
for the purposes of this wider
is
of the twelve
dently, this mission
from place o
this
In
him.
going around
work undertaken by

usua he call ^ in
to cover more ground than
place, this attempt
the
Since
^aro a^reXXav of such aappoint
the aid of his disciples,
general
first mention
the
is
this
ment of the apostles,
of
is designated as the beginning
circuit as this, and hence this

and

So

others.

Monson

treats

them forth.
Meyer
Jesus sending
Mark s, a part of his vividness of style
it as an idiosyncrasy of
use of this
And I am inclined to agree with him, that the general
of the
and
many
peculiar,
is
periphrastic
verb in the Gospels
Mk
to
not
is
it
But
peculiar
cases not yielding to treatment.
is evidently a beginning pointed
there
which
in
case
a
is
and

this

&KapT<v
e^cmnav T. TTW^TW
This is to Mk. the repre
-authority ever the unclean spirits.
him frequently as if it were
sentative miracle, being mentioned by
it must have been accompany
that
evident
is
it
bv itself where
15
See i 3 Tex. Grit. It was so accompanied
miracles.

two by two}

Mo

by

TO>V

ote

>

apov-This
home

their

outfit,

the only

was to be the only addition to


were to ak for
thing that they

Mt. and Lk. do not make

Jhe

exception, ^but expressly


a
p
include the stick among the prohibited things.
P>M^ by
This order,
adopted
wallet
haversack).
no
(or
bread,
The words belong
order.
Tisch Tree WH. RV. is the natural
haver
and XaX K dv. mfcav is a leather sack,
do
af
together,
in
is the girdle or belt,
&vr,v
sack used to carry
7 provisions.
or copper,^
means
brass,
Sich they carried money., x^ov
kind.
secondarily, money of any

road

this

-no

^v

&PTOV

BCL A
9.

M^

33,

instead of Trjpav rf &prov, Tisch. Treg.

^oS^ W-The

Suo

WH.

RV.

Memph.

Mo- is

a
Greeks would say
i

Hebrew
ava.

or

participle

is

as
put in the ace

if

to agree

the
idea, where
fashion of expressing the distributive

Kara. Svo.

MISSION OF THE TWELVE

VI. 9-11]

no contradiction between

this

and the command not

to

buy san

J
dals for the journey, Mt. io , the latter being directed against the
and above what they were wearing.
over
sandals
extra
of
purchase
there is a difference ; they
But, while there is no contradiction,
All that we
are two orders about this same matter of sandals.

it is, that Jesus gave some direction about san


dals in connection with the general direction for simplicity of
have preserved different
equipment, of which the several Gospels
do not wear two tunics}
accounts,
evSvo-rpfle Svo ^troWs

can gather about

fir]

Mt. and Lk. say that they were not to have or provide two tunics.
But this forbids their wearing two, referring to a custom of dress
l
vas, an
belonging to persons of distinction, who wore two x
See Bib. Die., article Dress, and Die. of
inner and an outer.
In general, these directions are against
Antiq., article Tunica.
their providing them
luxury in their equipment, and also against
selves with what they could procure from the hospitality of others.

Evidently, if they took no food and


on others would be their only resort.

no money,

this

See Mt. io 10

dependence

which is also the reading of Beza


Treg. marg. WH. read tvSvaaffdai,
L and some others read evSedvcrdai. Improba
Elzevir, with B S II *.

and
ble

-2

and unsupported.

/r

10.

eKtlOev

there

refers to oi/a av in the preceding,

thence.

The

and the second

first

of these

to oVou.

They

This
until they left the place.
a restless and dissatisfied
injunction is directed evidently against
from one house to another. They were to be satisfied

were to remain in the one house


changing

with the hospitality offered them.

See Lk. io7

With this reading,


Stfyrai, /a^Se aKovfrumv
what
the subject changes in the second clause, so that it reads,
ever place does not receive you, and they do not hear you"
11.

os

o.v

TOTTOS

p.rj

"

instead of 6Voi &v


(J.T) S^r/rai,
AS* 13, 28, 69, 124, 346, Memph.

os hv TOTTOS

RV.

BL

fj-rf

StS-tavrai,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

Hard. marg.

xw

This was a symbolical act, signifying that


eKTivaaTc TOV
See
the actor considered even the dust of the place as defiling.
11
is juapru/Kov avTots
Lk. io
for a testimony unto them, not
It was to testify to the men. themselves what the
against them.
act signifies, viz. that these heralds of the Kingdom of God shook
The rest of the verse is
off all association with them as defiling.
It is evidently copied from Mt. lo
to be omitted.
.

"

Omit

WH.

dfj.r)v

RV.

A^yw

I say unto you, to end of verse, Tisch. Treg.


most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

V/MV, Verily

BCDL A

17, 28,

this change from the indirect to direct discourse, see


indicates the change of structure by inserting said he.
viroSeSe^eVous by inserting to go.
1

RV.

On

Win.

And

63, II. 2.

The

the change in

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I0 8

[VI.

12-14

that

men

BCDL A

Pesh.

12.
they made proclamation
Kwpuai/ Iva p,Tavowcrtv
4
Iva. with
should repent. On the meaning of the verbs, see on i
the subj. denotes the contents of their proclamation, the same as
See Win. 44, 8, a}
the inf., not its purpose.
.

iK-fipvfcv,

instead of eic/ipwa-ov, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

Hard. marg.

This is the only


13. ijiXei<pov eXatw
they anointed with oil.
in which anointing and healing
place in the N.T., except James
are mentioned together.
Anointing was a frequent specific, how
and this would suggest its use
ever, in ordinary medical treatment,
this word
in the symbolism of supernatural healing,
dppcoo-rous
occurs only four times in the N.T., and two of these, the only ones
5
In this account of what the disciples
in Mk., are this and v.
their mission, which is only implied
of
the
have
we
purpose
did,
5",

in v.

7
.

HEROD S CONJECTURE
Herod hears of the miracles performed by the dis
that Jesus is
and
explains them by the supposition
ciples,
has risen
and
who
has
he
whom
beheaded,
the
Baptist,
John
14-16.

from

the dead.

from his residence at


Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee,
the
lake, would not hear much
Tiberias on the southern shore of
there
went
himself, owing probably to
Our Lord never
of

Herod
Jesus.

the unsympathetic attitude of the court, and its corrupting influ


2
But it is possible
ence on the Jewish element of the population.
had come near
extended
more
in
this
tour,
the
that

enough

disciples,
to attract the attention of

Herod, who was usually careless

of the religious, or even of the possible political aspects of Jesus


And the king, so called by courtesy, conscience stricken
work.
the Baptist, thinks that these miracles
his execution of

by

John

of which he hears are the work of the resurrected prophet.


the object of this verb is evidently the things just
14. JKova-ev
the twelve,
favepov yap
narrated, the work accomplished by
the
showing
statement,
this
TO
preceding
explains
ovo/ia
iyevf.ro
how the works of the disciples led to these conjectures of Herod
Jesus became known
and others in regard to Jesus himself.
that the aor. subj. of the
1 Morison makes a curious mistake in supposing
JR.
difference is expressed in
means mirit, while the pros. sub. means may. This
2
See
tenses.
Schurer, II. I. 23, 33.
Greek by a change of moods, not of

HEROD S CONJECTURE

VI. 14, 15]

109

through the works of his disciples, and hence


necessary to account for him in some way.

Herod found

it

The Herod who beheaded John was Herod Antipas, son of


Herod the Great and Malthace, and in the partition of his father s
1
kingdom, he was made tetrarch of Galilee and Persea.
CK
and he said
Kai eAeyev on IcudVi ^s
veKpuv
ey^yeprcu
has risen from the dead.
that John
.

Kat

and they

eXeyoi/,

Improbable, as

v. 16 ,

it

whereas

is

king s conscience,
Treg. WH. RV. x

marg. WH. RV. marg. BD 6, 271 mss.


makes Herod take up a common rumor,

said, Treg.

of Lat. Vet.

it

evident that this strange conjecture started with the


eyriyeprai K veupCiv, instead of e vfKpCiv yytpffij, Tisch.
A 33, Latt. Memph. Pesh.

BDL

Herod s superstition and his guilty conscience raised this ghost


to plague him. It has been suggested that Herod makes the state
ment in regard to John s resurrection in order to account for the
difference between his natural life, in which he performed no mira
cles,

and

this report

of wonderful works.

But

it

seems doubtful

Herod went so

Rather, he
curiously into the matter as this.
wishes to account for these phenomena, and he does it by attrib
uting them to a man who had proved himself so far above mortal
man by his own resurrection, that any other wonders seemed
if

the powers work


natural for him.
evepyouo-iv at oWa/xeis ev aurw
in him, are active in him. In conjunction with a verb like tvepyovO-LV, 8wa/u.s returns to its proper meaning of powers.
15. *AXXo6 Se eXeyov
And others said.
Insert 5

after tfXXoi Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

ABCDEHKLS AH

Latt.

Memph. Hard.
c

HX t as Referring to the expectation that Elijah would return


to the earth before the great day of the Lord (Mai. 4 5 ).
on
TWV Trpo^Twv

that it is a prophet like one of the


not express the idea that he was just a
prophet, like one of the ordinary prophets, in distinction from the
This would require the idea of ordinariness
great prophet Elijah.
to be more definitely expressed.
It is the likeness to the old
prophets, rather than unlikeness to some special one of them, that
is meant to be
emphasized. We do not need to suppose that these
different opinions were expressed by people in conversation with
each other, which would lead us to dwell on the points of con
7rpo<t>ir]Tr)<;

cis tts

The words do

prophets.

trast.
But it is quite probable that they were isolated statements,
uttered at different times, and brought together here.

Omit

t<rrlv

after

On

Tisch. Treg.
Tisch. Treg.

irpo^r^,

Omit rj, or, before


209.
Vet. Vulg. Memph. Pesh.

o>s,

WH. RV. N EC* L A


WH. RV. N ABCL II

the genealogy of the Herodian family, see Bib. Die.

28, 33,
mss. Lat.

I,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

10
16.

HpwS^s

eAeyev,

*Ov yw

Herod

o.7reK</>aXio-a

[VI.

16-29

said,

John,

whom I beheaded.
v,

Lat. Vet.

WH. RV. N BCL A 33, one ms.


WH. RV. N BDL I, 28, 33, 67,

instead of eiirev, Tisch. Treg.


Omit Sri before 8v, Tisch, Treg.

124, 209, Latt. Syrr.

conjecture does stand in contrast with these others, of


Herod dwells upon
ov eyw a7rKe</>aAura
the thought, that this prophet who has now risen from the dead
was beheaded by himself. Hence the relative clause, which con
is
tains this statement of the beheading, is placed first and

Herod

which he has heard,

eyu>

expressed.

John,

this

one

was

raised}

WH.

BDL

A 69,
RV. s-* ctc
Omit effnv aurds, after oSros, Tisch. Treg.
Omit IK venpuv, from the dead,
106, 346, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. (Memph.).
A 33, Memph. Ilier.
RV. N
after jytp6ii, Tisch. (Treg.)

WH.

BL

The pronoun, which is not


this one was raised.
ovros rjyepOrj
necessary to the construction, is introduced in order to continue
Lk. 9 7 9 says that
the solemn emphasis of the whole statement.
risen from the
had
that
the
was
Herod
report
John
perplexed by
dead, and said, "John I beheaded, but who is this?" exactly
reversing the positions of Herod and of the other parties to this
discussion in our account.

IMPRISONMENT AND EXECUTION OF JOHN


17-29. Mk. tells the story of Johns imprisonment and
death at the hands of Herod, in order to explain Herod s

allusion to his beheading of John.

and now proceeds to


Herod Antipas had been married to a daughter
of Aretas, king of Arabia, but on a visit to Jerusalem he had become

Mk. has alluded

tell

the story of

to the fate of the Baptist,

it.

enamoured of Herodias, the wife of his disinherited brother, and


herself a member of the Herodian family, and had contracted an
Here is where "Mk. takes up the
adulterous marriage with her.
John s reproof of this adultery. It incensed Herodias
and though Herod imprisoned the brave prophet, he
was so impressed with John s saintliness, and even a sort of super
stitious fear of him, that he protected him against his wife s fury.
story, with

especially,

This

clause,

is

a case of the noun being attracted from the principal into the relative

and taking

its

construction.

FATE OF JOIIN

VI. 17]

III

But Herodias, who was biding her time, took advantage of a birth
and sent her daughter to dance before
day feast given by Herod,
the girl any
the
when
and
the king,
gratified king swore to give
ask
for the head
her
to
instructed
Herodias
she
might ask,
thing
of John.
his will,

The king was fairly trapped, and though sorely against


he sent a soldier and beheaded John in prison.
commonly known as Herod, was son of Herod the Great

Philip,

and Mariamne, the daughter of the high


disinherited

by

priest

Simon, and was

his father, living as a private citizen in retirement.

of only one Philip, the tetrarch of Gaulanitis


and other districts E. of Galilee, and Volkmar and Holtzmann
contend that the Ew. have confounded him with the disinherited
Secular history

tells

only as Herod. Winer, Meyer, Weiss,


and others answer that there may have been two Philips, as there
brother,

who was known

were two Antipaters, especially as they were only half-brothers.


Herodias was niece of both her husbands, being daughter of
It was on the occasion of
Aristobulus, another of Herod s sons.
a feast given by Philip to his brothers at Jerusalem, that Antipas
became enamoured of the beauty of Herodias, and she of his power,

and they began the

intrigue

which ended in

their adulterous

mar

Antipas became involved in a war with Aretas, king of


riage.
his
father-in-law, on account of his desertion of his first
Arabia,
The marital relations of the Herodian family
wife for Herodias.

were a most extraordinary mixture, though belonging to the gen


eral license of the age. This is one of the places where the Gospels
bring us into contact with the Gentile world, the Herodians being
Gentile in their extraction and

spirit,

though nominally Jews in

their religion, and the note of that Gentile world was open vice
and profligacy, while of the Jewish leaders it was hypocrisy.

auras
AUTOS yap HpwS^s
for Herod himself.
keep up in Mk. s account the emphasis which Herod
OTI avrrjv eya/x^crev
seized}
had put on the eyw, v. 16
eKpcm/o-e
for he had married her. This states more particularly the
connection between Herodias and the imprisonment of John,
It is an independent statement
already denoted by Sta HpwSiaSa.
2
But strictly, the causal
of cause, usually introduced by yap.
conjunction is out of place, except in connection with John s

17-29. 17.

serves to

On

the use of the aor. for the plup. in Greek, see Win. 40, 5 a. Burton, 52.
fail to account for the infrequency of the plup. in the N.T,

Both of these, however,


2 See
Burton, 232.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

112

[VI.

17-20

rebuke, of which it is the cause, and not of John s imprisonment.


to the imprisonment,
Properly, this is one of the steps leading up
and would be denoted by a relative clause, rjv eya/x^o-cv.
1

l^ea-ri
for John had
yap Itoavv?;?
21
But John
See Lev. i8 16 20
not lawful for thee.
would emphasize not so much the departure from Jewish law, for
which Herod had slight regard, but the broader ground of com

said.

18.

"On

mon

OVK

"EAeye

it is

o-oi

morals.

19.

the words had this meaning.

if

But

AV. had a quarrel against him.

ivCiytv avT(S

doubtful
of TOV

it

is

It requires the ellipsis

to explain it, and it is unusual to leave so specific a


be implied, though the use of TOV x*- ov w ith tne ver b is
On the other hand, it would be quite common to
quite frequent.
like
word
TOV vow with the verb, and that would give us
a
supply
But the phrase,
the meaning, she kept her eye (mind) on him.
A third supposi
though quite natural, does not seem to occur.
tion is, that the verb may be used, like the Latin ins to, intransi
did not relax hostility against him. On
tively, she followed him up,
the whole, this seems the best rendering. Thay.-Grm. Lex.
and could not.
and wished
Kal OVK ^Svvaro
ry#eAev
This representation, that Herodias was restrained from her ven
who says that Herod
geance by Herod is not borne out by Mt,
5
9
wished to put John to death, but feared the people (i4 )- Verse
s demand, but this was evi
says that he was grieved by Salome
viz. that he feared
dently, in Mt. s account, for the same reason,

x^ ov

word

to

K<H

the people.

of Mk. is that John s righteousness made


and what John said both perplexed and delighted
feared. The kind of
him, so that he preserved him. c<o/3eiTo
fear that Herod had of John is shown by the superstitious idea
The prophet s righteousness
that he had of John s resurrection.
and holiness made him seem, even to Herod s worldly sense, a
man of God, and his fear therefore was of the God back of the
and guarded him, viz. from
o-uveTjfcei aurov
righteous man.
RV. kept him safe? -n-oAXa
the hostile intentions of Herodias.
was much perplexed. The perplexity arose from the
pa
conflict between his fear of John and his entanglement with Hero
20.

The statement

Herod

afraid,

K<U

use of
peculiarity of the Hebraistic
is here curiously
related
statements
together variously

dias.
tie

KCU i/Se ws

plified.

The

The

gladness with which

Herod heard John

is

/<at

to

exem

the trib-

In this case, the impf. contains an element of repeated


by the plup. We combine both in he had kept saying.
2 AV. observed him.
This comes probably from the meaning keep in mind, but
with the context.
it is not a legitimate derivation, nor is the meaning consonant
See Morison s Note. Also Meyer.
3 Win.
It is to be said, however, that while K ai itself is never strictly
53, 36.
K ai does
adversative, it is used to connect statements more or less adverse. Only
1

See Burton,

29.

action not expressed

not express the opposition.

FATE OF JOHN

VI. 20-24]

H3

ute which the moral sense, even in bad men, pays to the
truth,
and to boldness and freshness in the utterance of it.
TToXXd

TjirSpei,

was much, perplexed, instead of TroXXd


marg. WII. RV. N BL Memph.

errotei,

did

many

things, Tisch. Treg.

21.

an opportune day,

evKaipov

^//.epa?

Herodias pur
This word is used

viz. for

on his birthday feast.


rots yeveo-i ois
in Greek for a service in commemoration of a

poses.

dead friend, yeveword for a birthday celebration. 1 ^eyto-rSo-iv


gran
A later Greek word. x^PX ^ chiliarchs. If we render
dees.
the word literally, it means commander of a
thousand, and its
OXia

the

is

rots Trpwrois T.
equivalent in our military phraseology is colonel,
the first men of Galilee.
raAiAcuas
His retainers, and especially
his military officers, would be
These would be the
foreigners.
men of the province.
v,

instead of twolei, after deiirvov, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BCL

13, 28, 69, 124, Latt.

22.

the daughter of Herodias


pronoun is used here because such
dancing was an almost unprecedented thing for women of rank,
or even respectability.
It was mimetic and
licentious, and per
formed by professionals, ^peo-ev
it pleased, rather than she
The latter would require the subject of the verb to be
pleased.
the noun of the preceding gen. abs., a quite
unnecessary gram

Ovyarpos avrr/s

-rijs

herself (RV.).

The

T.

HpwSiaSos

intensive

matical irregularity.

WH.

RV. N EC * L 33, mss.


apeffdcr^, Tisch. Treg.
avrov, instead of avrfjs, after Ovyarpbs,
RV.
This means that it was Herod s daughter Herodias,
marg. N
who performed the dance, and involves a curious historical error. But this
is no reason for
rejecting a reading so well attested.
Meyer and Tisch.
Weiss and Holtzmann condemn it as an
slight the evidence.
exegetical
impossibility, since Herodias with the art. must be the Herodias of v. 19
But in spite of all this, the reading itself is not to be
set aside.
instead of

v,

/col

WH.

Lat. Vet.

Memph.
BDL A 238.

lightly

8f.

/3ao-tXevs carei/

and

the

king said.

This reading

is

neces

sary with the change from the part, to the indicative in


6 5t

NBC*

/3a<r(Xei)s

LA

e lirev,

instead of elirev 6 ^acrtXei/s, Tisch. Treg.

WH

RV

See on 5 41
he
swore.
This oath of Herod is the same that
(o/Ao0-v
Ahasuerus made to Queen Esther, the e ws ^ib-ous T. (3acri\eia<; p.ov,
to the half of my kingdom, being the exact
language of the Sept.
-iw

girl.

23.

in the

O.T. story (Esther


7-).
Kai f^Xdovaa
And having gone
fi

$"

24.

See Win.

Of the

2, i d.

out.

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

said Herodias, AV., would require the

art.

before

airTJjt.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

14

[VI.

25-28

Kal, instead of H dt, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BL A 33, Memph.


1
instead of alT^crofj.ai, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N ABCDGL A 28,
instead of paimo-rov, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV.
/3airTtl;oi>Tos,
33, 124, 346.
N BL A 28, Hard.
atTTjirwjitat,

immediately with haste. Evidently,


She and her
the king s ardor should cool.
mother both knew that nothing but the king s oath would make
him do a thing so contrary to his own desires. This urgency is
shown also in her request that it be done eain-T/s, forthwith.
a flatter. The word charger used to translate it in the
TTLVO.KL
EV. is practically obsolete in this sense.
the part, is used here concessively,
26. TrepiXuTros yevo/xei/os
25.

tvOvs juera

was

this haste

o-TrouSv/s

lest

though he was grieved,


reclining at table.
Omit

WH.

KCU

TOUS

and

dva/cju,eVov?

those

with, in cvvavaKei^vov^, reclining with Aim, Tisch. Treg.

ffvv

RV. BC*

L A 42,

riv

27.

yet.

The verb belongs to later Greek.


a Latin word, and means a scout, or
of the body-guard.

to refuse her.

this is

cnrtKovXaTopa

secondarily, a

Pesh.

member

ffireKov^dropa, instead of -rupa, N

ABL

II

I,

108, 124, 131, 157,

Hard.

marg. grk.
CTreVa^ev evey/cai

commanded him

tvtyKai, instead of ivexOijvai,

to

to bring.

be brought, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BC

etc.

Kai

28.

cbreXflcbv

And having gone

Kai, instead of 6 $1, Tisch. Treg.


Lat. Vet. Memph. ed. Pesh.

WH.

out.

RV.

BCL A

I,

28, 124,

most mss.

beheaded, a later Greek word.


prison.
us that John was beheaded in the castle of Machserus, and as this was one of Herod s favorite resorts, it may well be
that the feast, which was the occasion of the tragedy, took place
And the whole story is framed on the supposition that the
there.
prison was near enough to the banquet hall to have the head
brought immediately. Machnerus was a ridge a mile long, over
looking a deep ravine, at one end of which Herod had built a great
palace, while at the other end was the citadel in which John was
It was situated at the southern end of Persea, and east
confined.
of the northern end of the Dead Sea. Some have supposed that
Tiberias was the scene of both the feast and the execution, and
others that the feast was there, and the execution at Machaerus.
But there does not seem to be any sufficient reason for setting
aside Josephus testimony about the beheading of John, and in that
case the narrative favors the supposition that the feast was in the
v

Josephus

<f>v\aKr)

tells

This

is

the subj. of deliberative questions, in which advice

is

asked.

RETURN OF THE TWELVE

VI. 28-30]

115

same place. It is a piece of poetic justice that Aretas, the father


of Herod s rejected wife, made war upon his faithless son-in-law,
and defeated him, so that Herod was saved only by the interven
tion of the Roman Emperor.
means a fall, or secondarily, something fallen,
29. TTTw/xa
a corpse. But the omission of vtxpov in this
and with veKpov,
Mt. 14 - adds to this the state
sense belongs to the later Greek.
ment that the disciples of John came and told Jesus.

RETURN OP THE TWELVE. FEEDING OF THE FIVE


THOUSAND
30-44.

Mk. now resumes

the twelve with

an

his narrative of the mission of


account of their return, and of their

On their return, probably to Capernaum,


report to Jesus.
they are so beset by the multittide that they have no leisure
even

to eat,

and Jesus

other side of the lake.

seeks retirement with them on the

But

the multitudes see

follow on foot around the head of the

lake.

them and

Jesus allows

his compassion to get the better of his original piirpose, and


begins to teach the crowd which Jie found gathered when he

landed.

It is already late

when

it is

brought

to his atten

tion by the apostles, that the multitude, in their eagerness

hear him, have failed to provide themselves with food.


Whereupon, Jesus himself feeds them out of five loaves and
two fishes which the disciples have brought for themselves,
to

noticeable that the twelve, who are gener


here given the name which describes their
official work instead of their discipleship, and that the occasion,
the only one in which the name is used in Mk., is one in which
they were returning from that apostolic work. 6 o-a eVoi^o-uv, K. oou
30.

aTToo-roXot

it is

ally called disciples, are

whatever they

did,

and whatever

they taught.

BCDELV

)mit KaJ, both, before the first 6W, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
Tisch. omits second 6Va with
28, 33, 131, Latt. Memph. Pesh. etc.
N* C* I, 271, Latt.
It is more in Mk. s manner to retain the Sera.
(

I,

KCU Xe yei avrois

And he says

to

them.

1 See footnote
v. 1 ^. This is one of the cases, where, owing to the close conjunc
tion of this with the principal verb, the absence of the plup. is most marked.
But
in relative clauses, the Greek rarely uses the plup.
Win. 40, 5 a, p.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

l6

WH.

instead of elirev, said, Tisch.


Treg.
1
instead of dvairavea-tfe, Tisch.
Treg.
etc.
69, 108, 238, 346, 435,
X<?7,

dvairava-affOe,

[VI.

31-34

RV. N BCL A 33, etc.


WII. RV. ABCM A 40

31.

{y^s avTol KO.T t oYuv


you yourselves apart. The language
selected to emphasize as much as
possible the privacy which
Jesus wished to secure for them.
eiWpow This verb belongs to
the later Greek.
It means to have
opportunity or leisure for any
As to the occasion of this departure, Mt.
thing.
gives another
account.
According to him, Jesus took the disciples away to a
solitary place across the lake when he heard the death of
John the
Baptist. Here, it is to give the disciples rest after their
is

missionary
journey, which it Vas impossible for them to get with the multi
tudes crowding about them and
preventing even their eating.
evKa.ip.ovv,

TA,

etc.

32.

/cat

instead of ijvKalpovv, Tisch.


Treg.

and

airrjXOov

was probably Capernaum,

they went
as it was

WII. RV. x

The

away.

ABEFGHLV

point of departure

on the

lake, and it would


after their journey.

the

be

for a rendezvous
s
most^ likely place
Lk. says that they went to Bethsaida,
JJMf/Aov roVov
meaning the
But when" he comes to tell the
city on the east side of the lake.
story of the feeding of the multitude, he also says that it was a
desert place (Lk. g 10 12 ).
-

33.

etSov

/cat

saw them
Omit

going,

avrous wrayovras,

and many knew

K.

and

eyywo-av TroAAot

they

(them}.

6x\oi, the multitudes, after virdyob^as everything except a few


instead of tirtyvwa-av, Treg.
B*
i, 118, 209.
avrov, him, after Hyvuffav Treg.
i, 13, 28, 118, 131,
K
Substitute
Tisch.
ATf two mss. Lat. Vet.
209, Vulg.
avrous,
Memph. Syrr.

cursives.

ol

WH.
WH. RVvBD

eyvu<rav,

Omit

AKLMU

on foot. They went around the head of the lake, and


Trcfj
crossed the river at some ford.
o-we Spa^ov
they ran together.
The prep, describes the coming together of the crowd from the
many starting-places to the point for which they saw the boat
outwent them.
The verb means
heading.
TrpofjXOov avrovs
properly to go forward, to advance, or with the gen. to go before
another.
This use with the ace., meaning to reach a place before
The rest of the verse is to be
another, belongs to later Greek.
omitted.
Omit Koi

ffvvr)\Qov irpbs avr&v, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BL A

13, Vulg.

Memph.
34.

/cat

l^eXOw

saw a great

eTSev

TroAw o^Aov

multitude.
from the boat. J., who

The

part,

And
refers

having come forth, he


to the disembarking

is here parallel to the


Synoptics for the
only time between the account of the ministry of the Baptist and
1

The

aor. differs from the pres. imp. here, as denoting


beginning, instead of

continuance.

Get rest expresses

it.

FEEDING OF THE MULTITUDE

VI. 34-36]

I 1

some time in
came to him.

the final coming to Jerusalem, says that Jesus spent


the mountain with his disciples before the multitude

Omit

BL

i, 20, 33, 69, 124,


Treg. WI I. RV. K
avrovs, instead of ai/rots, after ^TT Tisch.
245, 253, MSS. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

6 Irjzovs after eiSe? Tisch.

209, one MS. Lat. Vet.


RV. N
Treg.

Memph.

BDF

WH.

had compassion}
is used hire, instead of OVK, because it
///;
denotes Jesus conception of the people, his thought about them.
This expres
It is the fact, but the fact transferred to his mind.^
30
sion is used also by Mt. g , in the passage which leads up to the
account of the appointment of the twelve, and the sending them
It seems as if this feeling of Jesus
forth to supply the lack.
towards the multitude had somehow impressed itself on the minds
of the disciples especially at this period of his life, the period just
preceding the close of the ministry in Galilee. The figure itself
denotes the lack of spiritual guidance.
Then, as always, there
was no lack of official religious leadership, but the officials, the
Notice also the
priests, and rabbis, were blind leaders of the blind.
human quality of Jesus action here. He seeks a quiet place to
escape from the crowd for a time ; is defeated in his purpose by
the multitude invading his retreat ; and he yields to their impor
It is a distinctly human
tunity and to his own exacting pity.
change of purpose, such as foreknowledge would have prevented,
and as an attestation of his humanity it brings him blessedly near

va

to us.

much time of day having passed.


wpas TToAATjs ycvojaevTjs
only other instance in the N.T., in which wpa is used to
L
See Thay.denote daytime is the parallel passage in Mt. i4
35.

The

Grm. Lex.
Tisch.

WH.

marg. read

yivoptviis,

coming

to be

late hour,

with N

Latt.
01 [i.aOrjTa.1
v,

avrov eAeyov

instead of

his disciples said.

\tyov<riv,

say, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BL A

33,

Memph.
the place is desert ; and so there is no place
IpT/fto s ecmi/ 6 ToVos
here for them to procure food. rj8rj wpa. TroXX-rj
already it is a
late hour, and so there is short time for them to supply their wants.
In their haste and eagerness to follow Jesus, they had neglected to
bring anything with them, and in their absorption in his teaching,
s
they had forgotten their ordinary wants. According to J. 6 , this
conversation was started by Jesus.
36.

they
buy for themselves
dyooao-too-tv eavrots TI (jbaywcriv
to eat.
The subj. is that of a deliberative question.

may

somewhat
i

On

the form

and meaning of

this verb, see

on

i 4 *.

See Win.

55,

5<f,

0.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

Il8

VI. 37-40

BL

Omit &provs after ayopdvuffiv Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N


A 28, 102,
mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
yap and owe exovcriv after rl are to be omitted on
substantially the same authority.
37. 8r]vapiu>v SiaKoaiW
two hundred shillings worth. The
Revisers do a somewhat curious thing in translating this word
penny, and then explaining in the margin that it means eight pence
8

halfpenny (RV. Mt. i8- ). The actual paying power was much
The
greater than our shilling, as it represented a day s wages.
sum is evidently suggested here as their hasty guess at the amount
It would also
required to purchase a frugal supply for the crowd.
be a sum quite beyond their means, so that the question is meant
to imply the absurdity of the whole thing.
This question is not
given in the other Synoptics, and in the fourth Gospel it takes the
form of a statement that what is absolutely a large sum is quite
inadequate for even a small supply of so big a crowd.
Swo-tu//,j/ avrots
give them.
instead of

dw<ru/jiei>,

8uffo/j,ei>

dufj-ev,

WII. RV.

Treg.

between 5wcrw ue and Swcro/xei


the change of mood, which makes
,

38.

{iTrayere,

Sere

subj.

an apparent emendation.

go, sec.

and, between virdyere and ZSere Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N


33, 102, 118, 240, 244, two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.

Omit

I,

K
13, 33, 69, 124, 229**, 346.
Latt.
External evidence balanced
internal slightly favors Suco/mey, owing to

Tisch.

ABL A

KaJ,

KOI yvovrcs

and having

ascertained.

The verb

is

BDL

used here

know. The EV.,


and when they knew, leaves out the process which the Greek
in its inchoative sense to learn, instead of to

expresses.
39.

ava.KXi6rjvai

ava.K\iOr)va.i,

to recline}

instead of

a.va.K\lva.i,

WH.

RV. N B*

I,

13, 28, 69.

The repetition of the noun


by parties.
to express the distributive idea is Hebraistic.
The word itself
means a drinking party, i.e. the entertainment, not the guests.
This present use belongs to the later Greek. CTTI
x^PV XP T(i?
on the green grass. This is a characteristic touch given by Mk.
alone, with his eye for pictorial details, but it is more important
than that to us ; for the grass is green in Palestine, especially in
And so,
this hot Jordan valley, only at the time of the Passover.
here is one intimation in the Synoptics of more than one year s
And this is also the place where the fourth Gospel
ministry.
inserts a passover between the first and the last.
40. Kai aveVeo-av Trpacnat Trpacricu, Kara l/carov KOL Kara Trcvr^/covra
and they reclined in (regular companies like} garden beds, by
(TVfjLTroaia

(rv/tTroo-ta

TU>

hundreds,
i

later

and

by

fifties.

In this sense of reclining at meals, the use of compounds with


Greek. Win. 2, 1 b.

ava.

belongs to

FEEDING OF THE MULTITUDE

VI. 40-44]

19

BEFGHMV

I,

A
v, instead of avtveffov, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. x
Kara, Instead uf ava, before eKarbv and irevrriKOVTa. Tisch. Treg.

28.

WH.

BD Memph.

This descriptive word

irpatriai,

garden beds, gives an admirable

The disposition of the people in orderly


picturesque touch.
groups was for the more convenient distribution of the food.
he blessed. This word in Greek means to praise,
41. cuAoyiytre
and only in Biblical Greek does it signify to invoke a blessing on a
person or thing, copying from the Heb. use.
and he broke in pieces} KOL eoYSov rots fjuiGrjTais
KOI KaTKAa(re
iva.

and gave

TrapaTi6(i)(nv avrois

Omit

WH.

x*

Memph.
*

BLM

them.

WH.

RV. N BL A 33, 102, two


instead of irapaOCsaiv, Tisch. Treg.
All* 42, 63, 122, 229, 251 **, 253.

afirou after juaflrjrats Tisch. Treg.

mss. Lat. Vet.

marg.

to his disciples to set before

irapa.Ti.6ua-iv,

and the Travre? e^oprao-^crav, all were


irXypufjuu., fillings of twelve baskets, and
finally the Trevrafcr;(iX>i avopes, five thousand men alone, are enu
merated the several things that point to the greatness of the
naff

filled,

to

and

In

all.

8wSe/ca

this,

KO<IVWV

miracle.
42. exoprdo-^o-av
they were filled, or satisfied?
KXacr/xara
fragments (or of fragments) ,
(-TWV) StoSexa KO<IVWV ir\r)pup.a.Ta.
KXaoyiara is put in an emphatic posi
fillings of twelve baskets.
It is
tion, drawing attention to the quantity of fragments even.
noticeable that Kofavoi is used in all four accounts of this miracle,
while in both accounts of the feeding of the four thousand, o-7rupi Ses
is used.
There does not seem to be much difference, if any,
between the kind of basket, and the identity of language in the
Gospels in each account is the more remarkable.
instead of KXaa/jLarwv, Treg. marg. WH. RV. BL A.
K\acrfuiN 13, 69, 124, 209, 346.
instead of KoQlvovs, Tisch. Treg.
Ko<plvwv,
N
WH.
RV.
B
of
instead
I, 13, 69, 124, 209, 346.
marg.
TrX^pci/uora,
y, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BL A I, 13, 69, 124, 209, 346.
K\d<rfj.aTa,

44.

the

five thousand men alone.


avSpcs is
men, distinct from women and children. See
The whole number then was much greater.

TrevTaKicr^tAtot avS/aes

Greek word

Mt. i4 21
This

for

with the exception of the raising of the dead, the most


all the miracles recounted in the Gospels, being the
one in which secondary causes are out of the question, making it
is,

remarkable of

a purely creative act, a creation out of nothing.


The rest of the
provision did not come somehow out of the five loaves and two
fishes,

but was added to

it

by the mere creative word.

All talk

1 The
prep, in composition denotes the separation of the bread into parts by
the breaking. See Thay.-Grm. Lex.
2
Properly X opTaiK is used of the feeding of animals.

12

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

120

[VI. 45

because there
about acceleration of natural processes is mere talk,
Of
a
course, this
in
such
from
process.
is here nothing to start
Paulus, and after him Holtzthe
set
that
example of utilizing such provis
Jesus
mann, suppose
not.
had
who
those
sharing with those who had
ions as they had,
the historicity of the account
in order to

kinds of rationalizing.

has led to

all

And even

Weiss,

preserve

in regard to so stupendous
a miracle, admits the possibility of this explanation, only insisting
in bringing together
that we have here, a miracle of providence
relied with
such supplies even in a natural way, and that Jesus
materializa
as
a
it
serene confidence upon it. Schenkel explains
But
with spiritual food.
tion of Jesus feeding of the multitude
of
a
concurrence
Weiss
as
points outs,
fortunately, we have here,
of
Peter,
oral
the
of
testimony
Mt,
three eye witnesses, the Logia
the several
and the witness of John being all represented in
fact that they
the
of
whatever
doubt
no
is
accounts, and there
loaves
actual feeding of the multitude with five
represent it as an
baskets of
twelve
remained
there
which
after
and two fishes,

in the face of

an increasing skepticism

fragments.

OUR LORD WALKS ON THE WATER


the multitude,
Immediately after the feeding of
caused
excitement
the
to
by that, Jesus
and probably owing
in the
embark
to
some
with
urgency
dismisses his disciples
he
while
the
shore
lake,
west
the
of
boat for Bcthsaida on
leave
taken
of
Having
himself dismisses the multitude.
in the neighborhood
them, Jesus goes up into the mountain
time
to pray.
Meantime, the disciples were having a hard,
three
was
it
past
with a contrary wind on the lake, and
to them walking
o clock in the morning, when Jesus came
a ghost, but ^vere
on the water.
They thought that it was
With his coming,
his announcement of himself.
reassured

45-52.

by

the

wind

ceased,

and they were

an unreasonable
filled with
even by the miracle of feed

amazement, not being prepared


this fresh wonder.
ing the multitude for
45.

riffifc^wyKacre

This language
immediately he compelled.
for which, however, Mt. and

expresses haste and urgency,

ML

WALKING ON THE WATER

VI. 45-48]

no reason.

give

121

Hut the fourth Gospel states a

which would

fact,

certainly account for this urgency, telling us that the people were
about to come and seize him to make him a king(J. 6 15 ). Accord

ing to

this,

Jesus

knew

titude in this design,

that his disciples would side with the mul


and therefore dismisses them with this abrupt
Sav
Lk. w tells us that this

ness and imperativeness.


B^crai
g
was the name of the place where the miracle was performed.
There were two places of the name, one on each side of the lake.
See Bib Die.
while he himself dismisses. The
os auros aTroAvei
auras emphasizes the fact that Jesus himself, having forced his dis
It was an
ciples away, dismissed the multitude.
emergency in
which he would trust no one but himself.
instead of

t,

a.Tro\v<rr),

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BL

E*

28,

69, etc. read a.Tro\vcrei.

46.

verb

avrots
having taken leave of them.
not used in this sense in the earlier Greek writers,

a7roTaa/x,ei/os
is

The
who

the mountain, viz. in that


TO 6 pos
Mt. adds to this only the scene
pray.
in Gethsemane as an occasion when Jesus retired to
This
pray.
Gospel gives, besides these two, the occasion of his first day s
work in Capernaum (ch. i 35 ). Lk. gives several others. The
two mentioned in Mt. and the three of Mk. were crises in his
life, two of them growing out of a sudden access of popularity,
anil the third out of the impending
tragedy of his life.
Prayer
with Jesus was real, growing out of his human needs.
47. oi/oas
It was already evening
evening}
(Mt.), or late
(Mk.), or the decline of day (Lk.), when the question of feeding
the multitude came up.
That was, therefore, the early evening,
from three to six o clock, and this the late evening, from six o clock
instead, dcnrdf.crGa.i.

said,

place.

to

Trpotrev&io-ftu

till

night.
48. iSwi/

instead of he

And

Ip^erai

saw them

iStw, instead of ciStv, Tisch. Treg.

Vulg.

Memph.

Omit

/col,

them

seeing

he conies

and comes.

WH.

Tisch. Treg. WII.

RV. N BDL A
RV. N BL A.

mss. Lat. Vet.

distressed.
This is one of the words in which
the notion of trial or testing has run over into that of
distress,
since difficulty and hardship are so
frequent forms of testing. The
verb is formed from /Sao-avos, a touchstone. e Aawtiv
literally,
]]ut the word is used
driving.
frequently of rowing or sailing a
boat.
the fourth watch.
The Jews at this
TtrdpTyv
time divided the night into four watches of three hours each, and
this was therefore the last watch, from three to six o clock.
They
had been having a hard time therefore, having been, at a moderate
</>uXaKT/i/

estimate,

some

eight hours in rowing three miles.


l

See on

Cf. J. 6

19
.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I2 2

[VI.

48-50

on the sea. It is one of the absurdities of


eVi TT}S 0aAacnr77?
made to mean on the
rationalizing exegesis, that this has been
shore of the sea, or in view of the obvious fact that the author
cannot possibly have meant that, that the story, as it stands, is
a mythical handling of so common
supposed to have arisen from
an event as walking on the shore. The miracle is one of
place

in our present state of knowledge,


those, moreover, that cannot,
be explained away. Jesus miracles of healing can, most of them,
be attributed to his extraordinary influence over the minds of

those healed, though it may be doubted if the exceptional cases,


such as the raising of the dead and the healing at a distance, do
not so give the law to the rest as to turn even this possibility into
an improbability. But here is a miracle upon inanimate matter,
water and
overcoming the difference in specific gravity between
so that the water will support the heavier body.
the human

body,
This miracle will yield to no rationalizing treatment, and in it,
of the miraculous
therefore, we are confronted with the problem
Nor does it yield any more to a legiti
without any alleviation.
mate historical criticism, which leaves our Lord s miracles un
criticism that the
touched, unless we accept it as an axiom of that
miraculous does not happen. And so it is with the problem of
the miraculous as a fact, with which the life of our Lord con
fronts us.

and he purposed to pass by them, or


KGU ijf&Xe irapfXOdv avrovs
See Thay.-Grm. Lex.
the
was on
point of passing by them.
would be expressed by the aor.
have
Would

passed by them, EV.,


This was what he was on the point
His purpose at
of doing when he was interrupted by their cry.
the time was that, and he waited for some demonstration on their
part to change it.

ind. of Trapfpxo/Mi, with av.

on

49.

that

eoriv

(f>dvTacrfjM

it is

an apparition.

The

lack of

emphasized by the word. In the


could attribute the
dark, they did not recognize Jesus, and they
to nothing solid.
water
the
on
appearance
A 33.
elvon, Tisch. WH. RV. N BL
STI
foriv, instead of

substance, or material reality,

<pdvTa<T/Jia

<pdvrafffj.d

50.

TTavres

yap

is

cdrrov cTSav

all

for

elSav, instead of elSov, Tisch. Treg.


omit the clause.

W, instead of

Lat. Vet.
eyci ei/u

Jesus

/ am

K al, Tisch. Treg.


euflus,
it,

On

marg.

and mss. of Lat. Vet.

spoke.

WH.

where we

RV.

say, it is I.

reported in the same words by


omits 0apo-c</re.
this

13.

instead of eMtws, Tisch. Treg.

is

that J.
i

Memph.

and he immediately

6 Se euflus eXaXijo-e
6

saw him}

WH.

use of the vowel of the

first

all

BL A

WH.

33, one ms.

RV. N

BL A.

The language

of

the evangelists, except

aor. in the sec. aor., see

Win.

13, i a.

EXCITEMENT IN GENNESARET

VI. 51-53]
51.

boat.

Kat avifiri
J.

says, 6

21
,

et s T.

that they

and he went up

irXoiov

into the

immediate

into the boat,


arrival at the land.

This is evidently to be taken


connected immediately with his

wind abated.

the

as a part of the miracle, as


coming to them.
Kai Xiav eV eauTots ei(rravTo

it is

and

they

were exceedingly amazed^

Their amazement was inward

in themselves.

purposed receiving him

but were prevented by the boat


eKOTrao-ev 6 avisos

123

they kept

it

to

themselves.

Omit K irepio-ffov, beyond measure (Treg.) WH. RV. x BL A I, 28, Tcsli.


Omit K.a.1 <?0av/j.aov, and wondered, Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV.

BL A

28, 102, 118, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

Memph.
does not denote, as in RV., the object
of the verb, concerning the loaves, but the ground of understand
The miracle of
the (miracle of the) loaves.
ing, on the ground of
the loaves and fishes should have led to an understanding of the
2
dAA rjv avruv %
have this effect.
present miracles, but it did not
This hardness
hardened.
heart
was
their
but
KapSio. TrcTrwpwjiAtn;
of heart is something quite different from our use of the same
The
words, denoting blunted feelings and moral sensibilities.
Biblical /capSta denotes the general inner man, and here especially
N

52.

CTTI

I,

this

rots upTois

the mind, which is represented as so calloused as to be incapable


of receiving mental impressions.
dXV 1)v, instead of 7,v y&p, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. K ELM* S A 33,
Mcmph. Hard. marg.

JESUS CROSSES THE LAKE AGAIN TO GENNESARET,

AND MEETS AN IMPORTUNATE AND ENTHUSI


ASTIC MULTITUDE "WHEREVER HE GOES
and his
sooner
are
no
and
of Gcnnesaret,
disciples
is
a
there
and
the
popu
landed, than
people recognize them,
Those who first recog
lar uprising throughout the region.
nize him spread the report from village to village, and
wherever Jcstis goes, they bring their sick to him, and beg
that they may as much as touch the hem of his garment as
53-56.

On

their return to the western side, Jesus

land in the

he passes.
53.
to

And as many

e7u rrjv yt)v ?]\6ov ets

Gcnnesaret.
1

district

as touched vvcrc healed.

Tfvvi)<rapT

Gennesaret was a

On the meaning of this


Win. 48 c, Mey. explain

connection -with, at the time

they

came upon the land


on the west side

fertile plain

12
verb, see on 2
this by the German bti, as a temporal adjunct

of.

in

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I2 4

[VI.

54- VII. 23

of the lake, about three miles


long and a mile wide, lying just
south of Capernaum.
See Bib. Die. This
landing place was
several miles south of
Bethsaida, for which they had started origi
nally, showing how much they had been driven out of their
course.
they moored.

Trpo<T<app.L<r6r)o-av

WH. RV

S>

BL

A*28

^^ ^
f

55 irepuSpafun,
oXrjv TYJV x pav
about all that country, and

V ***

**"

Ttvvi ffa
>

eKtivrjv, KOI

Tisch

jpfavro

they

ran

began.

reptf8pa/Mv

f
Am,

,% 9
Tisch. (Treg.)

56.

WH

Ka l, instead of
ircpiSpariArrcs, Tisch. Treg.
Mem P h Pesh Omi t
in clause
Arevfewon
WH. RV. K BL A 102, Tesh.

"

RV N
*?

pallets}
/

wwtvr ^ ^^r^

//<,

villages,

or into

namlets.
Insert els before wiXets
e

bL A.
i,

and
ar

Tj^ayro, instead

cities,

or into

WH

RV N BDFT A
A-WoTiKh Treg
of VWTOVTO, Tisch.
Treg. WH. RV N BDs L
d-yporfj,

<

Tisch. Treg.

"

instca( l of

13, 28, 33, 69, 124, 346.

v
the fringe or //wj^/
appended to the hem of the
outer garment, which served to remind
Jews of the Law
But
probably this ceremonial use is not in mind here, and it means
just the edge of the garment, as if that
slightest touch would be
healing
J. gives a different account of what followed the storm
on the lake, viz. that he landed at
Capernaum, and delivered the
discourse on the bread of life in the
synagogue (J.
6").

DISPUTE WITH THE PHARISEES ABOUT EATING

WITH UNWASHED HANDS


VII. 1-23. Certain Scribes

and Pharisees from Jerusalem,

seeing the disciples eating with

of the violation of tradition.


tradition,

and

unwashed hands, complain


Jesus denies the force of

the possibility
of material defilement of the

spirit.

This dispute is occasioned


by the disregard of the disciples for
the ceremonial law about
eating with unwashed hands.
But the
Pharisees, who make the attack, signalize it
by complaining of
1

See on a 4

1 1
USe
*
d note Jndcfiniteness in a relative clause with a
past tense
of the
tV^ md., where
!;
?
the Greek
uses the opt. without & v
Burton, 315.
t

n/

"

""

TRADITIONALISM

VII.

1,

this

unconventional act as a violation of the tradition of the


And Jesus answer is at first directed towards this feature

2J

125

fathers.

of their complaint.
of men versus the

It

is

a case, he says, of the commandments


of God, of tradition against

commandments

set aside the law of God, in order to keep their


But then, taking up the more immediate question of
unwashed hands, Jesus strikes at the root not only of traditional
ism, but of ceremonialism, saying that it was not what a man took

law.

They even

tradition.

what came out of his heart, that defiled him.


had
the effect of cleansing all foods.
And of
And this, Mk. says,
clean
and
unclean
between
distinction
as
the
belonged
course,

into his stomach, but

not to tradition, but to the written law, this made a breach in the
law itself. It released men from the obligation of a part of the

law said to have been given by God to Moses. And it affirmed


It was
the distinction between outward and inward in religion.
no wonder that Jesus fate hastened to its end, and that the next
record of him marks practically the end of his Galilean ministry.
1.

crwdyovTai Trpos avrov

ot

there gather together to

<&api<ra.loi

him the Pharisees. 1 The distinction made between the Pharisees


and certain of the Scribes would seem to mean that the Scribes
were not so well represented.
This renewed activity of the Scribes and Pharisees against
Jesus is another indication that there was a Passover at some time
just before this, at which either the presence of Jesus himself, or
It
the reports brought from Galilee, drew fresh attention to him.
would not be enough of itself, but it adds to the strength of other
See on 6 39
indications of the same thing.
.

/xa^^rwv avrov cm KoivaTs ^epcrt , TOUT ecrriv


omit e/xe /At/wTo
with this omisdj/iTTTois, taOiowiv row? aprous
sion it reads, they gather to him, having come from Jerusalem, and
having seen that certain of his disciples are eating with common
2.

Kal iSovres TIVO.S

hands, that

is,

TU>V

unwashed.

Sri ... IffOlovffiv, instead of IffOlovras, Tisch. Treg. RV. N BL A 33


(Memph. Tcsh.). Omit ^t^awo, found fauti,-Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
ABEGHLVX TA one ms. I, at. Vet. Memph.

common.

In the Greek, it denotes simply


It is
people, as common property.
only in later Greek, that it comes to denote what is ordinary, or
vulgar, or profane, as distinguished from select or sacred things.
Under this general head, it comes to mean ceremonially unclean.
literally,

what

is

common

Are gathered,

to several

R V., would require

the perf. pass.

This

is

the historical present.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I2 6

[VII.

2-4

Pharisees did not seek by these washings to remove dirt, but


the defilement produced by contact with profane things.
The Pharisees and all the
KCU Travres ot lou&uoi
3.
This custom had become general among the Jews, though

The

<E>apio-auw

Jews.
it

Pharisees.
originated with the

Trvy^fj

this

means with

the fist.

But the awkwardness of the process has led to doubt from the
But the doubt
is the meaning intended.
very first, whether this
ren
alternative
of
substitution
the
to
any justifiable
has not led
to the wrist, or elbow, RV. marg. are
The
up
meanings,
dering.
With a fist full
both linguistically and grammatically disallowed.
between the lines, and, besides, the
of water needs too much read

word denotes the closed

fist.

Finally, frequently, or diligently,

first instance, in the Lat. Vet and


RV., was probably taken in the
The supposition that irvyp.fj had
TTVKVO,.
the
from
reading
Syrr .,
seems forced, and besides,
this
have
come to
figurative meaning,
Edersheim quotes from
there is no warrant for it in actual usage.
be held
the Jewish ordinance the provision that the hands should
and
the
to
down
run
wrist,
says
up in order that the water might
with the fist
that the provision that washing should be performed
This is, of course, a serious con
is not found in the Jewish law.
to compare in importance with the
sideration, but does nqt seem
that the Greek word does not mean this, nor the Greek
other

fact,

The custom was not necessarily a part of the law, and


been merely a usage arising from a desire for scrupulous
have
may

case.

observance.

The

very fact that the reading

-n-vyp-rj

occasions this

the strong external evidence for that reading


difficulty, makes
the only translation
more
still
convincing, and with this reading

be with the
possible seems to
.,

fist.

Tisch. N mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Syrr.

It is the Greek etymological


the tradition.
rrjv -jrapdSoa-Lv
and denotes what is passed along from
equivalent of tradition,
one to another, and among the Jews, the body of Rabbinical
written law, preserved by oral transmission
interpretation of the
from one generation to another. The word occurs in the Gos
In
this account and in the parallel passage in Mt.
pels only in
the
of
citadel
the
was
Judaism
very
assailing
attacking this, Jesus
1
of his time.
The word is used here in the
the elders.

t^v

irprj8vTepo>v

sense of fathers, or ancestors.

The
unless they bathe, Amer. Rev.
is indicated by the
case
the
and
contrast between
preceding
These words are put first, in
&iro dyopas, from the market place.
as in the
a
is
this
that
indicate
to
order
special case, inasmuch
its
market place they would contract special defilement, owing to
4.

lav

ftaTTTifftavTai

this

See Schurer, N.

g. II.

I.

25,

on Scribism.

TRADITIONALISM

VII. 4-6]

127

would meet all sorts


being a place of public resort, where they
and conditions of men. This case would require special treat
ment, denoted by the difference between vfywvTat r. xtipas, and
wash their hands, and they wash themselves all
ftaTTTLa-wvrai, they
For
This case required the washing of the whole body.
over
8 9
*
instances of such washings, see Lev. i 4
IS
6
4 24 -*
22
I6
Moreover, Edersheim says that immersion of the
ritual provided in such cases.
things washed was the Jewish
Dr. Morison contends that sprinkling was the ritual method pro
vided in such cases, and attempts to overthrow the plain meaning
But he does not prove the
of the word by the supposed custom.
the
supposed impossibility of wholesale bathing.
custom, only
Moreover, the contrast would be a very lame one in that case,
since the custom required careful washing of the hands, and so an
actual removal of defilement, but in the case of extreme defile
ment, only a sprinkling of the body for form s sake is supposed.
And his argument, that words constantly undergo such changes,
amounts to nothing, as it is unaccompanied by proof that this
word has gone through the process of change.
-

WH.
,

non marg. RV. marg.

pavrLa-uvrai, sprinkle, instead of /3airrmanifest emendation.


53, 71, 86, 237, 240, 244, 259.

B 40,

with N

the counterpart of irapaSovLv, denoting the process


of receiving a thing by transmission, as the latter does its giving.
TroTTjptW

K.

K.

eo-To>v

xaAxiW

cups,

and wooden

vessels,

and

and of beds, is omitted. 1 Edersheim


brazen vessels. K. K\IVW,
shows that the Jewish ordinance required immersions, /SaTrncr/xovs,
of these vessels.
Omit
5.

*cai

Kal

K\ivG>v,

Tisch.

eTrepwToJo-tv

WH. RV.

and

BL A

102,

they question.

the figurative use of this word to denote


is Hebraistic.

Memph.

life,

of eirerra, then, before l-irepurdiffiv, Tisch. Treg.


33, 209, Latt. Fesh. Memph.

Kal, instead

BDL

I,

KOIVCUS xepo-tv

KoAws

conduct,

WH.

RV.

with unclean hands.

Koivaa, instead of dv/TTTOts, Tisch. Treg.


209, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
6.

walk;

irepnraToixnv

manner of

well ;

i.e.,

WH. RV.

in this case, truly.

TWV

BD

I,

28, 33, 118,

VTTOK/DITWV

the

the only passage in Mk. in which this word


hypocrites.
It means properly a play-actor, and hence a person who
occurs.
is playing a part in life, whose real character is not represented
by what men see. This secondary meaning belongs to Biblical

This

is

Greek.
.

tables

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

128

[VII.

6-8

Omit airoKpiOels, answering, at the


beginning of this verse, Tisch Treg
WII. RV. N BL A 33, 102, Memph. Pesh. Omit on before
/coXws, Tisch
(Treg.) WII. x BL A 33, 102, most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Pesh. trooAtreu .
ffev, instead of
Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N B* DL A i
33

irpoe<j>riTev<Tei>,

124, 346.

on

w? yeypa-n-Tai
that this people.

6 Xaos OVTOS

Insert STL before 6 Xads, Tisch.

This quotation

from

Is.

WII. N

me

x^ Xccnv

rais

ei/

aTTExei (wr e/xou


K. dtSao-/caXtas

BL

as

it

has been written

Pesh.

29, and conforms

LXX., which reads Eyyt

to the
avrou,

is

literally,

for the
o Xaos OVTOS eV

/xot

avroi) TI/AWCTI

most part
oro/ian

Se KapSia avrwv
iroppw
8e o-e/SovTat /xe StSao-Kovres
evraX/AaTa avQpuTrwv
/lar^y
77w>
draws near to me with its
/^//<?
/AE,

17

mouth, and
with their lips they honor me, but their heart is
far from me.
But in vain they honor me, teaching commandments and teach
The Heb. is translated in the RV., Forasmuch as
ings of men.
this people draw nigh to
me, and with their mouth and with their
lips do honor me, but have removed their heart far from
me, and
their fear of me is a commandment
of men which hath been taught

The

them.

principal difference

is

in this last clause,

which

in the

charges them with fearing God only in obedience to a


human commandment ; while in our passage and in the
LXX., it
states the vanity of their
worship, owing to their substitution of
human commands for the Divine law. It is this misquoted
part
which makes the point of the
quotation, and it is the misquotation
original

which makes

it

available.

the part, gives the reason for the


vanity or uselessness of their worship, and
may be translated, while teaching.
Si8ao-/caXt as
is in
apposition with eVraX/Aara, and may be trans
T
lated for teachings.
commandments
ei/raX/iara
7.

SiSao-Kovres

men.
is

avQpuTrw
of
These two words contain the gist of the
charge, and it

this inculcation

of

human

teachings for the Divine law that

developed in what follows.


8.
A^eVres rr/v eWoX^v TOU
of God.
Omit

7&/>

after

d^ires,

Leaving the commandment

ou

Tisch.

is

Treg.

WII. RV. N

BL

A*

124,

Memph.
This statement, that the Scribes and Pharisees leave Divine
for human, is a singular comment on their
attempt to
build a hedge about the Law.
The oral tradition was intended
by them to be an exposition of the Law, and
of the

commands

especially

application of

its precepts to life.


They devised it so that men
should not by ignorance and
misunderstanding come short of the

"
"

"

""

"

tWaA/Aara belongs to Biblical Greek.

erroA)} is

the Greek word.

TRADITIONALISM

VII. 8-11]

129

But, in the first place, their


righteousness prescribed in the Law.
method of interpretation was fitted to bring out anything except
the real meaning of the Scripture, being to the last degree fanciful
and arbitrary ; and then in the second place, they proceeded to
make this interpretation authoritative, so that really a human word
got to be substituted for the Divine in most cases. Their mistake
does not stand by itself; it has been repeated in every age. Every
where, the same fatality attends authoritative exposition, nay, is
involved in its very nature.
The human exposition gets substi
tuted for the Divine word, and so the worship of man becomes
vain.

Omit
(Trcg.)
9.

last

WH.

part of this verse, beginning f3a.irTurji.ofc,


RV. K
A i, 209, 251, Memph.

BL

KaXoi? aOeriire

well do you set aside.

ironically, like our word bravely.


12
10. For quotations, see Ex. 2O

Tisch.

washings,

KaXws

is

used here

and 2i 17
TcXevraTw
(RV. marg.), a rendering of the Heb. inf. abs.
which simply intensifies the meaning of the verb. This last com
mand, affixing the capital penalty to the sin of reviling parents, is
adduced by our Lord to show how seriously the Law takes this fifth

him

let

Oava.T<a

surely die

commandment.
12
11. With the omission of KOL, and, at the
beginning of v. , the
two verses belong together, and read, But you say, If a man sav
to his father or his mother, Anything in which
you may be profited
by me is Corban (that is, an offering},
you no longer permit him
to do anything for his father or his mother?
"

"

Omit

Kai,

and, at beginning of

28, 69, 102, 346, mss. Lat. Vet.

Kopftav

is

the

Hebrew word

v. 12 ,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BD A

I,

13,

Memph.
for

an

offering.

It is

the predicate,

having the antecedent of the relative for its subj. The meaning
is, that a man had only to pronounce this word over
anything,
setting it aside to a Divine use, in order to escape the obligation
of giving it for the relief or comfort of his parents.
Even when
said in good faith, this contravenes the Divine
Law, since the duty
to the parent takes precedence of the
obligation to make offer
The choice in such cases is not between God and man, but
ings.
between two ways of serving God, the one formal and the other
real.
Offerings belong to the formal side of worship, whereas God
is really served and
worshipped in onr human duties and affections.
But it was not necessary that the banning should be carried out

on

its

positive side.

The word

having"

once been uttered, the

d9fT6iT6 is a later Greek word.


This is an anacoluthon, as the condition belongs
and the conclusion to the statement of (esus.
1

to the saying of the Jews

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

30

[VII.

11-14

freed from the human obligation, but needed not to


the offering.
Nay, he was positively forbidden to use the
article any longer for the human purpose with reference to which
the Korban had been uttered. The regulation was not invented
for this purpose, but was intended to emphasize the sacredness of
a thing once set apart, even by a thoughtless word, to Divine uses.
But it failed, as the uninspired mind generally does, to define
and left out what was of real importance, while em
Divine

man was
make

uses,

the unimportant.
phasizing and retaining

Omit avrov

after irarpl, Tisch. Treg. WII. x


Omit avrov after wrpl

Vet.
245, 346, mss. Lat.
240, 244, 346, Latt.

BDL A
N BDL

28, 69, 240, 244,


1,13, 28, 56, 60,

invalidating is an exact translation of the


means to deprive a thing of its strength.
which
Greek word,
the tradition which you handed
TrapeSwKare
V/AWV
y
TrapaSocrei
down. It is impossible to render into English the paronomasia
The verb describes the handing along from one generation
here.
nearly like}
to another which constitutes tradition.
irapo^oM
Having called up the
14. Trpoo-KoAeo-a/Acvos irdXiv TOV ox^ov
has been
crowd again. It seems that the previous conference
*
But Jesus wishes
held with the Scribes and Pharisees alone.
what he says now about the matter to be heard by the people. It
but of the utmost
is a matter, not of private conference or debate,
13.

rlKvpowTcs

importance

for the

popular understanding of true religion.

Tisch. Treg.
wd\tv, again, instead of wdvra, all,
mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Hard. marg.

WII. RV.

BDL A

This is no formal introduc


K. crwerc
/aov TT^VTCS
to lend him not only their ears, but
hearers
his
on
calls
but
tion,
of what
their understandings, in view of the special importance
He may well do so, since what he says abrogates the
follows.
essential a
distinction between clean and unclean, which forms so
but also of the Levitical part of the Law
part not only of tradition,

AKoware

itself.

dKovffare, instead of dxovere, Tisch. Treg.


A 238.
of ffvvlere, Tisch. Treg. WH.

WH. BDHL.

2
<rvveTe,

instead

BHL

Swa!to0ev TOV avOpuirov ciWopcuo/xcvov eis avroV, o


There is nothing outside the man entering into
that Jesus gives for this
him, which can defile him. The reason
the distinction between
make
to
meant
he
that
shows
statement
OvSev

eo-rtv

rai KoivSo-ai avrov

The
outward and inward in the sense of material and spiritual.
because they enter the belly, and
cannot
outside
from
defile,
things
here in the N.T.
This word, which is common in classical Greek, is found only
aor. imperatives here
This form. sec. aor. imp., occurs only here in N.T. The
are appropriate to the beginning of discourse.
1

TRADITIONALISM

VII. 14-19]

13!

not the heart, while those from within are evil thoughts of all
This has nothing to do, therefore, with the question,
kinds.
whether, among spiritual things, it is only those from within the
man himself that can hurt him. Inwardness in this sense belongs
to things within the man himself and within others, and externality
dXXa TO. en TOV av&puTrov IKTTOis to be taken in the same sense.
but the things coming
eon TO. KOivuvvra
avOpwTrov
pv6fji(.va.
out of the man are the things which defile the man. The repeti
tion of the noun man, instead of using the pronoun, which here
TOI>

amounts

to inelegance,

is

Mk.

quite in

manner.

TOV avOpdnrov ^KTropei^/teva, coming out from the man, instead of


A
aiirov, coming out of him, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
Omit tictiva., those, Tisch. (Treg.) WII. N BL A 102,
33, Latt. Memph.

BDL

fvb/Jtva. djr

Memph.
Verse
28, 102,

17.

TTJV

16

is

omitted by Tisch.

WH.

RV. (bracketed by Treg.) x

BL A

Memph.
Trapa/JoXi/v

the

parable {riddle}.

From

the use of

Heb. word btiti, it loses sometimes its


comes to be used of any sententious
and
of
sense
similitude,
proper
the
saying, or apothegm, in which the meaning is partly veiled by
and outward form of the
brevity, but especially by the material
Here, entering from the outside, and coming out, are used
saying.
to express the contrasted ideas of material and spiritual, and what
the saying gains in pungency and suggestiveness it loses in exact
this

word

to represent the

Hence

ness.

T^V

it is

ira.pa.fio\-f)v,

called a
the parable, instead of irepl rfjs irapa/SoX^s,
A 33, Latt.
WII. RV. N

BDL

the parable, Tisch. Treg.

concerning

18. KCU {i/ms


You too, as well as the multitude. Jesus saying
was a riddle to them, not only because of the concrete form of
They had
statement, but also because of its intrinsic spirituality.
been trained in Judaism, in which the distinction between clean
and unclean is ingrained, and could not understand a statement
It was all a riddle to them.
abrogating this.
oil SWOTOU
KoivwcTai
TTOLV TO Iw0ev
not/ling outside can
.

defile.

19.
defile.

KoiXt u,

This verse gives the reason why outward things cannot


They do not enter the inner man, the /capSia, but the
the outward man, and are passed out
belly, belonging to

into the

afaSpw, the privy?


RV. This he said, making all
Ka6ap%(i)v iravTa TO. yS/aw/xara
The part, agrees with the subj. of Aeyei, he says
things clean.
1 nav oil Su i
cmu, everything cannot, is the inexact, Hebrew form of the universal
negative; the logical, Greek form being ovSec SiWrai, nothing can. Win. 3 c, i.
2
rriv (tapSi av is the heart, in the broad, Scriptural sense of the inner man.
Spiva is a barbarous word, probably of Macedonian origin, the proper Greek

d<f.-

equivalent being

(f>o$o.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

I3 2

[VII.

19-21

18

That is, the result of this statement of Jesus was to abro


).
gate the distinction between clean and unclean in articles of food.
The use of quotation marks would show this connection as follows :
He says to them, Are ye so without understanding also ? Do
ye
not perceive that nothing which enters into the man
from without
can defile him ; because it does not enter into the
but into
(v.

"

the belly,

and goes out

into the privy," so

making

heart,
all foods clean.

With the reading

KaOa.pl (ov, the part, agrees with the preceding state


the going out into the privy pufities the
food, as that receives
the refuse parts which have been eliminated in the
process of digestion.
With the masc., it is possible to connect it with
dtpedpuva, but the anacoluthon involved is rather large-sized and
improbable, as only a single word
separates the noun from its unruly adjunct. The only probable connection
18
is with the
subject of X^yet (v. ).
KaOaplfav, instead of Ka6apl$ov, Tisch. Treg.
RV. N ABEFGIILSX
A i, 13, 28, 69, 124.

ment; that

is,

WH.

20.

TO IK

T.

dv6pS)7rov (.KTroptvoptv, CKtivo

out of the man, that defileth the man.


denote the spiritual, as entering in

what Cometh

KOIVOI

Coming out

used here to
denote the material.
the man, and these only, not such
is

is

to

Spiritual things can defile


material articles as food.
And of course, this means that the real
man is the spiritual part, and that defilement of the
physical part
does not extend to the spiritual part, which constitutes the real

man. That can be reached only by spiritual things akin to itself.


This principle, that spiritual and spiritual go
together, and that
the material cannot penetrate the
spiritual, which is impervious to
it, is needed in the interpretation of
Christianity, as well as in the
reform of Judaism.
21. ot
The article denotes the class of things col
StuAoyio-yu.ot
lectively, whereas the anarthrous noun denotes them individually.
This is the general term, under which the
that follow are

The noun denotes

specifications.

things
the kind of thought which
It is used here of
designs or

weighs, calculates, and deliberates.


It is in accordance with our Lord s whole course of
purposes.
thought here, that he designates the evil as residing rather in the
thought than in the outward act. The order of the first four
specifications

is

as follows

iropviicu.,

K \o-n-ai,

cations, thefts, murders, adulteries.


The
is an attempt at a more studied
order,

voi, /AGI^OU, forni


arrangement of the TR.
<o

bringing together things


principle of arrangement in Mk. s
enumeration is the distinction between these
grosser, more out
ward forms of sin, and the more subtle, inward manifestations
22 1
which follow in v.
that

are

alike.

The only

iropveiai, K\oirai,
K\oirai, Tisch. Treg.

(f>6vot,

WH.

poixe ia.i, instead of /xotYetou, iropveiai,

RV. N

<j>6voi,

BL A Memph.

1 On the use of the


plural of the abstract
tions of a quality, see Win. 27, 3,

noun

to denote the forms or manifesta

CURE OF A HEATHEN WOMAN

VII. 22-30]

133

In general, this is a generic term for evil. Where


TrovT/piai
used specifically, as here, it probably denotes malice as a dis
tinct form of evil.
deceit does not convey the flavor of
SoAos
this word, which, starting from the idea of bait, comes to denote
do-e Ayeia
any trick, and abstractly, trickery, cunning, craft.
22.

it is

Here also, the EV. lasciviousness, fails to convey the meaning.


The word denotes in a general way the absence of self-restraint,
unbridled passion, or cruelty, and the like. License, or wantonness,
an evil eye
may be used to translate it. o00aA//,6s Troio/pos
a Hebrew expression for envy.
a general word for
/JAuort^/uu
evil or injurious speech, either of God or man.
Toward the
former it is blasphemy, toward the latter, slander. In this con
nection it is probably slander. vTrep^avta
a common Greek
word, but found only here in the N.T. It includes pride of self
and contempt of others, arrogance, a^poavvrj folly translates
this better \ha.t\ foolishness, as it denotes the
morally foolish.
23.
from within. These things are morally unclean,
while only the physically unclean comes from without.
What Jesus says here is directed specially against the traditional
law, but the thing condemned, the distinction between clean and
unclean, belongs also to the written law.
Plainly, then, the distinc
tion between the word of God and the word of man has to be
carried within the Scripture, and used in the analysis of its con
tents.
The thing that Jesus calls a word of man here is found also
in the O.T. itself, and is fundamental in the Levitical law.
lo-<j)0ev

HEALING

OF

DAUGHTER

THE SYROPHCBNICIAN WOMAN S


THE VICINITY OF TYRE AND

IN

SIDON
24-30. Jesus leaves Galilee

and comes into Syrophcenicia.


him to heal her daughter, and
overcomes Jesus apparent reluctance by her shrewd wit and

A woman

of the place asks

faith.

The account

reads simply that Jesus departed from that place

into the borders of Tyre,

where he wished to remain unknown,


For a Gentile woman, a Syrophcenician, found him out, and begged him to cast the evil spirit
out of her daughter. Jesus was not there for the purposes of his
work, and in general confined himself to the Jews in his ministra
but could not hide his presence.

But he feels the irony of the situation that makes the Jew
himself
on his superiority to the Gentile, and reflects it in
plume

tions.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


his answer, that

faith feels the

and

yes,

not a good thing to cast the children s bread


wit of the woman catches at these words,

The quick

to the dogs.

and her

it is

[VII. 24

sympathy veiled in them, so that she answers,


That word is enough Jesus

(he dogs eat the crumbs.

assures her of her daughter s cure, and she goes home to find the
So far the account. But when we find in the
evil spirit gone.

the Gentile ter


succeeding chapters that Jesus excursion into
there in
he
continues
that
but
this case,
ritory is not confined to
his
that
in
than
rather
teaching
Galilee,
one place and another,
is

and that he begins to warn


evident that this journey marks

restricted mostly to his disciples,

them of

his

fate,

approaching

of our
practically the close

it is

Lord

ministry in Galilee, and that

with the Pharisees about clean and unclean marks a


These are not missionary journeys, but are
crisis in his life.
undertaken to enable Jesus to be alone with his disciples.

this dispute

24.

"EntWev

St

thence he arose

dvaoras

and went

aTnjXOev eis TO, opia Tupov


into the coasts of Tyre.

And from

RV. N BL A
instead of Kal iiceWev, Tisch. Treg. marg.
A i, 13,
N
Tisch. Treg.
opia, instead of Ate06pia,
Omit KCU SiSwvos, Tisch. (Treg. marg. WH.)
28, 6l marg. 69, 209, 346.
A 28 mss. Lat. Vet. It is a case in which a copyist, used
RV. marg.
but the
to the conjunction of the two places, might easily insert the words,
omission is improbable for the same reason. And Mk. evidently meant to
left the region of Tyre, and
discriminate, since he says afterwards that Jesus
EKeWev

WH.
WH. BDL

8t,

Hard. marg.

DL

came through Sidon,

v. 31

(Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.).

The word denotes primarily the boundaries of a terri


It
the country itself included within those limits.
then
and
tory,
has been contended that the original meaning of the word is to be
retained here, and that Jesus did not penetrate Gentile territory,
but only its borders, that part of Galilee which bordered on SyroBut this would be the single case of this restricted
phcenicia.
the N.T., and the universally accepted reading, Stu
in
meaning
31
Si&wos (v. ), shows that he did penetrate the Gentile territory.
of his Gospel, seems to
Mt., however, in accordance with the plan
22
on
as
this
event
Jewish soil (i5 ). Tyre
taking place
represent
of
a
territory on the
strip
and Sidon belonged to Syrophcenicia,
and
civilization,
its
for
noted
wealth,
antiquity,
Mediterranean,
Ta opia

ful
This use of iva-arte corresponds to the Heb. DJJM, and belongs to Oriental
Win. 64, 4, Note at end, contends that it is not
if not redundancy, of speech.
denies
redundant in all cases, but admits its redundancy here. Thay.-Grm. Lex.
And it is not redundant in one sense, since it is
its redundancy altogether.
so tar
It
is
the
limbs.
of
out
included in the action. But so is the straightening
redundant that the Greek, with its finer sense of the needful in speech, would
omit it.
i

ness

CURE OF A HEATHEN WOMAN

VII. 24-26]

135

which had remained practically independent of Jewish, Greek,


and Assyrian rule, though subject to the Romans since the time of
Augustus.
KO.L

icreA$o>v

And

eis oi/a uv,

ovoVva rJ$eAe yvwvui, KCH OVK rjovvdo-6r) XaOelv

having entered a house, he wished no one

to

know

it,

and

he could not be hidden.


Omit 7-V before oldav, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
1
for f]Svvfj6t}, Tisch. WII. N 15.

ABLNX

FAII Pesh.

ri8vv<i<T0ri,

he wished no one to know it. This was in


ovoeva jJ&Ae yvaWi
accordance with his purpose in resorting to this unaccustomed
Morison makes a foolish distinction here between the wish
place.
of Jesus and his purpose, evidently with the idea that a purpose
of Jesus could not be defeated. But aside from the fact, that N.T.
usage does not bear out such a distinction, it would be difficult to
draw the line between a wish that one is at pains to carry out, and
a purpose.
No, this is one of the cases in which the human
uncertainty belonging to action based on probabilities, not certain
OVK r/ovvdo-Or) Xa6f.lv
he could
ties, appears in the life of Jesus.
not be hid. The inability is put over against the wish. This state
ment, which prepares the way for what follows in regard to Jesus
unreadiness to perform the miracle, is peculiar to Mk.
25. dAA" tvOvs d/coixrao-u
but immediately having heard. Jesus
had no sooner arrived than this took place.
This reading, instead of aKovaacra. yap, for having heard, Tisch. Treg.
RV. N BL A 33, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. edd. Hard. marg.

WH.
j/s e

x 6 T0

Ovya-Tpiov

avTrj<;

whose daughter had?

Tisch. reads e&reXflowra, having entered, instead of Aflowra,


having come,
most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph.
very probable reading.

with

NLA

a Greek, a SyrophceniEAAi/i/is, SvpoffroiviKuro-a. TW yeVei


cian by race.
That is, she was in general a Gentile, and more
particularly a Syrophoenician.
EAA^vi s is literally, a Greek, but used by the Jews to designate
any Gentile, owing to the wide diffusion of the Greek race and
language. Syrophoenician is a more particular designation of the
race to which she belonged.
The prefix denotes that part of
Phoenicia which belonged to Syria, in distinction from Libophcenicia, or the Carthaginian district in the north of Africa.
26.

2vpo<f>oiviKL<rcra,

V marg.
1

On

This

AIT

instead of

^,vpo(f)oiviffa-a,

the form, see Thay.-Grm. Lex.


is a literal translation of the
pronoun after the relative.

13

Tisch.

WH.

txt.

AKLS

marg.

i.

Heb. idiom, which

inserts the personal

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


rypwra avrov va

/cat

and

Xr

[VII.

she asked him

26-28
to

cast

out.

instead of fcpdXX0, Tisch. Treg.

and he

Kai eAeyev

27.

RV. x

BL A

33,

ABDE,

etc

said.

This reading, instead of 6

WH.

WH.

Irjo-oOs elirev,

and Jesus

said, Tisch. Treg.

Memph.

let the children be fed first.


TO. TtKva
time of the Gentiles is
the
that
hints
In
word, first, Jesus
the course of his teaching, while
coming, as he frequently does in
he restricts his own work to the Jews. Mt. omits this, and makes

this

much more definite and positive. T. TCKJ/WV


By these terms, Jesus distinguishes between the

be
Jesus refusal to
.

T.

Kwapuus

are the children of the household, and the Gentiles.


a term expressing the contempt of your true Jew for the
mouth of our Lord. Weiss
heathen, and sounds strange in the
and makes it
denies the contemptuous use of the term dog,
of the kingdom of
an
which
in
a
arrangement
parable,
merely
God is expressed in the terms of household economy, in which
But this is to ignore the
the contempt for dogs plays no part.
in the
is always a term of contempt, especially
fact that
dog
East ; that as such, it was applied by Jews to Gentiles and that,
his language was
if Jesus did not mean to express contempt,
as the woman would be sure to understand

who

jews,

is

Dogs

"

"

singularly ill-chosen,

See Bib. Die. But I am inclined to believe that Jesus


the term seriously, but with a kind of ironical con
use
did not
felt in his own experience
formity to this common sneer, having
how small occasion the Jews of his time had to treat any other
He had good reasons for confining his
people with contempt.
work to the Jews, but they did not arise from any acceptance of
It is as if he had put
their estimate of themselves or of others.
indicate a common opinion.
in a
know," to

him

so.

"

28.

you

Nai, Kvpie

the dogs

icai

Memph.

Kwdpia

Yes, lord;

eo-fltauow

and

cat.

Omit yap before ra


69,

TO.

Pesh.

Kvvdpta, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

taGlovffiv, instead of tffOlei, Tisch.

BH A 13, 28, 33,


WH. N BDL A.

Treg.

of Jesus own words to neutralize the force of his


has been regarded rightly always as a unique com
rebuff
seeming
But it is not simply a trick of words ;
bination of faith and wit.
the beauty of it is, that it finds the truth that escapes superficial
notice in both the analogy and the spiritual fact represented by
and
it.
It means, there is a place for dogs in the household,

This use

to denote a request.
of .jpu,
l There is a double
first, in the use
irregularity here
the subj., instead t
instead of a question; and secondly, in the use of IVa with
of the petition.
Burton, 200, 201.
inf., to denote the matter
:

A DEAF AND DUMB MAN CURED

VII. 28-31]
there

is

a place for Gentiles in

God

137

And

world.

further, her

was quickened by what she saw of Jesus. She knew intui


tively that he was a being to take a large and sympathetic view
of things, not the hard and narrow one, and that he had really
prepared the way for her statement. This is of the essence of
faith, to hold fast to what your heart and the highest things in you
faith

tell

of God, in spite of

30.

TO TrcuoYov

all

appearances to the contrary.

/3f(3Xr)(Acvov ITTI T. /cAiV?/v

the child

thrown upon

Probably the cure had been attended by violent convul


1
sions, as in other cases of the same kind in the Gospels.
the bed.

TO TraiSlov

of TO

pep\r)fj.ti>ov

tirl rr\v *\lvr\v,

Treg. \VH.

KOI TO Sai/j.6vLov te\-rj\v66s, instead


eirl TTJS K\lvr)s, Tisch.

ef\rj\v66s, icai rb iraiSlov


RV. N
A most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

daifj-oviov

(Je{3\ri/j:4i>oi>

BDL

Memph.

Pesh.

CURE OP A DEAF AND DUMB MAN IN THE


REGION OF DECAPOLIS
31-37.

From

the region of Tyre, Jesus

north, tJirouglt Sidon,

and then

went

still

further

south again to Decapolis, on

the

SE. shore of

and

in order to call as little attention to the cure as possible,


man aside from the multitude.
as the

the lake.
Here they bring him a deaf
whose
has
been impaired by his deafness, to be
man,
speech
cured.
Jesus is not here for the purposes of his mission,

And

he takes the

man

is deaf,

story

of his beneficent power, the more he

and Jesus needs to establish communication


with him in some way in order to draw out his faith, he
employs signs, thrusting his fingers into his ears, and put
ting spittle on his tongue, and casting his eyes to heaven.
The man is cured, and then Jesus enjoins silence in regard
to the cure.
But in vain, as they are more eager to tell the
31.

rj\0(.v Sta SiSwi/os eis TYJV

@a\a<T(rav

tries to

prevent

it.

he came through Sidon

to the sea.
eis
0<f

TT\V

6d\affffai>,

Xacnrac, and of Sidon, he


33, Latt. Memph.

came

instead of
to the sea,

/caJ StSwvos, ?i\0e irpds TT/V


Tisch. Treg.
RV. N

WH.

BDL

This reading establishes the fact that Jesus entered Gentile ter
and also that Mk. does not mean by TO.

ritory in this visit,

See

i-c 920.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[VII.

31-33

The
24
Tvpov (v. ), the Galilean territory adjoining Syrophoenicia.
two statements taken together show that he means to distinguish
and
between two districts of Syrophoenicia, the one about Tyre,
the other about Sidon.
into the midst of the region
dva ueW TWV 6/atW Ae/caTroXeos

But plainly Jesus came


the midst, EV.).
of Decapolis^ (through
to the west shore
to not through, Decapolis, as he went by boat
1 - 10
Jesus had
).
of the lake after the feeding of the multitude (8
the
healed
he
when
time
the
at
been in this district before,

Gadarene demoniac, and had been driven away.

He

meets with

a different reception now.


in his
Kal /xoytXaXov, deaf and having an impediment
is a Biblical word, found in the Sept., but only
/xoytXaXov
speech.
with difficulty ; but
here in the NT.
Literally, it means speaking
word meaning
in the LXX., it is used to translate the Hebrew
in the man s
resulted
have
to
is
said
cure
the
case
this
dumb. In
that before he had spoken, but de
implying
rightly,
speaking
icu>4>ov

fectively.
Insert Kal before jw-ytXdXov, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. x

ED A

Latt.

lav
avrov d?ro TOV oxXou KaT
The AV. gives
the crowd by himself.
translates it
ZSt av better than the RV., which
he thrust. Put,
It means apart, by himself.
e/3aXev
privately.
EV. does not give the force of the word. Our Lord s symbolic
deaf man s mind
action here is intended to convey by signs to the
what Jesus means to do for him, and so to give him something
act upon.
for his faith, as well as his intelligence, to
from the
In explaining Jesus action in taking the man apart
of
two
consider
to
first, the condition
have
things
we
multitude,
what
on
attention
his
of
concentrating
the man, and the necessity
It goes along with the other signs employed by
Jesus was doing.
from other
our Lord to convey his purpose to the man, cut off
means of communication. And secondly, Jesus unusual reasons
He was engaged with his disciples on this
for desiring secrecy.
the multitude, and he did not want the one
journey, not with
The peculiar
miracle to grow into his ordinary engrossing work.
those of
with
coordinated
to
have
be
miracle
methods of this
- 26
of secrecy
S 22 , and it is evident that, in both cases, this motive
in all his miracles, but espe
is strong.
Jesus avoided publicity
of retirement.
cially in this period
eis rov ovpajou TTTwras T/i/ aro T^S yXwrro-ijs avrov, KM dw/JXtyas
his tongue (with the
touched
he
and
having spit,
v6v tvTtva^
and having looked up to heaven, he groaned. This is
spittle},
and
a part of the language of signs employed by our Lord,

33.

Kai

A7roXa/36>evos

in* taken him aside


the meaning of icar

from

On

-20

1
Decapolis, see on s

VII. 33-37]

A DEAF AND DUMB MAN CURED

intended to convey to the

man

mind,

first

139

the help that he

to

is

receive, the loosening of his tongue, and secondly, the heavenly


source from which his help was to come. The groan was an ex

own

feelings, stirred to sympathy by the sight of


which there was so much that he could not
1
Be opened. This is addressed to the man,
relieve.
who was himself to be opened to sound and speech through the
opening of his organs.
2
And his ears were opened.
35. KOI rjvoiyrja-av avrov al d/coui

pression of his

human

suffering, of
Ec</>a0a

Omit etWus,
Lat. Vet.

BD A

BDL

WH.

RV. K
A 33, mss.
Tisch. Trcg. (Treg. marg.)
Tjvoiyyffait, instead of dLijvolxd riffa.v, Tisch. Trcg.

WH.

Memph.

I, etc.

dicocu
literally, hearings, but applied by metonymy to the
bond of his tongue.
organs of hearing. Secr/xos rl/s yAwo-o-T/s
Probably, as this was a case in which deafness and dumbness
went together, the dumbness was occasioned by the deafness, and
StoyAos denotes figuratively whatever stood in the way of his
speech, and not necessarily a defect in the organ of speech itself.
The bond in this case would be the deafness which tied his
This confirms the view, that the defect
tongue. o/30ws
rightly.
has been primarily in his hearing, and that this had resulted in
See on /AoytAuAov, v.32
partial, but incomplete loss of speech.
.

36.

KOI

SiecTTeiAuro UTJTOIS

tva

/ur/Sevt

otecTTeAAero, avrol /AaAAov Trepifrcrorepov

Acywcrij/*

avrois

and he com
commanded them,

fKr/pvorcrov

no one. But the more he


the more exceedingly they heralded it?

manded them

ocrov 8e

to tell

WH.
ABLX

instead of etirucnv, Tisch. Treg.


N BL A 28, 33.
Omit
A i, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.
d, Tisch. Treg. WII. N
Memph. Insert avrol before fj.d\\ov, Tisch. Treg. WII. N B(D)LN A 33,
61, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.
v,

after ovov

Jesus accompanies this miracle with the ordinary injunction of


4
The con
secrecy, but it only inflamed their zeal to publish it.
duct of the multitude is a good example of the way in which men
treat Jesus, yielding
37. {iTrc/jTTcpicro-ws
like the

him
a

all
homage, except obedience.
word not found elsewhere, and expressing,

double comparative

/xSAAoi/

the excessive

Trepio-o-oVepoi/,

and demonstration of the people. e^eTrA^o-o-ovro


another
6
strong word, meaning literally were struck out of their senses.
feeling

and dumb

KUI dAoAovs AaAetv

Omit

TOI)J

represents the
2

to speak.

before aXdXoi/s, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BL A

33.

Aramaic nnsriN, the ethpael imper. of the verb nne

Both the augment on the

prep.,

and the

sec. aor. in ^voiyi\aa.v

Greek.
8

in

The

regular form of stating

this

proportion

is TOO-OU TO)

oaov, with

each member. naAAov strengthens a comparative with which


4
6 See i Sam.
See on i. Cf. 5 1
Note G, Note.
15^.
-*-

belong to

it

is

-a,

later

a comparative
joined.
c

s cc O n

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

140

[VIII.

1-9

MIRACULOUS FEEDING OP THE FOUR THOUSAND


The report of the miracle performed on the
deaf and dumb man seems to have gathered a multitude
about Jesus in Decapolis, reproducing the
effects of his
Galilean ministry.
had
been
with
him
three days,
They
to
exhaust
whatever
had
enough
provisions they
brought
with them, when JcSus proposes to his
disciples, as in the
VIII. 1-9.

preceding miracle, that they feed them.


They meet his
proposition with the same incredulity as before, but he
simply inquires how many loaves they have.
They answer
seven, and with these and a few fishes, Jesus proceeds to

feed

the multitude,

numbering four thousand men

alone.

The objection to the repetition of this miracle seems to be


based on a misconception of our Lord s miracles. If
they were
acts of thaumaturgy, intended to reveal Jesus
the
power,
repeti
tion of this miracle would seem improbable, and the
similarity of
the two accounts

would point with some probability to their


the real object of the miracles was to meet some
need, then the recurrence of like conditions would lead to

identity.

human

But

if

a recurrence of the miracle.

And,

in the life of Jesus, with its

frequent resort to solitary places, and the disposition of the multi


tude to follow him wherever he went, the
emergency of a hungry
crowd in a place where supplies were not to be obtained would be
certain to recur.
Weiss objects that there was nothing to bring
the multitude together, and that the miracle occurred at a time

when

But
Jesus had definitely closed his ministry in Galilee.
both Mt. and Mk. lead up naturally to this event, the one
stating
directly that he was healing the sick of all kinds of a great multi
tude that had resorted to him (Mt. I5 30 31 ), and the other narrat
ing the report of his healing of the deaf and dumb man circulated
by his friends throughout the region, and the excitement created

Moreover, we have here, as Weiss himself admits, the


previous visit to this region, and of the cure of
the Gadarene demoniac, which the healed man had spread abroad

by

it.

results of Jesus

accordance with Jesus express command. Uo we not have


here a solution of the real difficulty underlying Weiss objection?

in

FOUR THOUSAND FED

VIII. 1]

14!

we have in the gathering of the multitude, and the


must have taught and healed,
of
three
days, in which Jesus
stay
an episode in this period of retirement that is out of harmony with
But is not the exception justifi
its evident character and design.
It is true that

Here was a region where Jesus had been prevented from


of the people, and now,
exercising his ministry by the opposition
on his first return to it, he finds the people in a different mood.
This causes him to deflect from his purpose of retirement for a

able

from which their previous


time, in order to exercise the ministry
him. This seems more natural than to suppose
unbelief had
kept

that the evangelists created a second miracle out of certain minor


variations in telling the story of the first, and then, having a mira

on

cle

their hands,

proceeded to make a place

for

it

in their nar

rative.

This account is found only in Mt. and Mk. The verbal resemblance of
two accounts is remarkable, the following words being identical.
vi frn al tirl rbv 6x*ov, #ri ^T;
<nr\ayx
Trpoo-KaXecrd/Aevos TOVS /uatfijras
airoXvff (w)
Kal OVK exovai ri
T/sets rjufpai. irpoar/j.tvovffl /J.OL,
the

<f>dywfft

awroi)j

v/iffTfts,

fK\vO(ri<Toi>Ta.i)

Xopr.do-at &pr(uv)
Kal TraptyyeiXe r$
(vxapiffrriffas,

tpy ideas )

3%^V

fK\a<rev,

tv

ry 65

7r6<rous

ol

/j-aOyral

ex fTe aprous

oi

irbOev

._

f lirov,

tirrd.

dvairea-eiv eiri TT/S 7175, /cat \af3wv TOUS e-irra 4/mntt,


tdlSov rots /xaOijTats
T(p

ttal

6X^70, Kal ecfrayov Kal tx o P

* ff V rl a

T<

av

vepi<r<7e6([j.a.Ta.

Among these words, pijo


TTpaKi<Txfaioi.
the construction
tpwias, and t x^Sia are peculiar, and especially
both accounts
Indeed, the occurrence of this peculiar nominative in
rpeis.
would be enough to prove their dependence or interrelation.

ffirvpldas

there being again a great multi


oxAou OTTO?
reference is to the previous feeding of the five thou
sand (6 M ) ; and the representation is that in this respect, the
In both cases, there was a great
circumstances were similar.
1
and not having anything
K. /AT; lypvrw ri c^dywo-i
multitude.
to eat; this is another circumstance in which the two events were
TraXiv TroAAov

1.

The

tude.

similar.
s

15DGLMN

having called his

disciples,

ird\iv TroXXoO, instead of ira/uTroXXoC, Tisch. Treg.

i,

13, 28, 33, 69, etc. Latt.

WII. RV.

Memph.

Xe yet
Trpoo-KuXecra/Aevos TOWS /xa^r/ras

he says.
1

The

which

is

it belongs with a noun of multitude,


participle here is plural, because
wu have the pronoun and the mood
taken distributively. In -ri
<ayu>fji,

irregularly substituted for on, the indirect interrogative.


Goodwin, Greek Moods and Tenses,
quite regular. See Win. 25, i.
relates this not only as a fact, but as it lay in Jesus mind and influenced his

of direct discourse,

The mood
71.

action.

is

^i.

is

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

142
Omit

LMN
after

I-rjffovs

[VIII.

after irpoffKaXevdfjLfvos, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

2-5

ABDK

most MSS. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr. Omit O.VTOV


TOVS patfijTas, Tisch. Treg. WII. N DLN A I, 28, 209, Latt. Memph.
All

33,

i,

Hard.
2.
1

eVi TOV o^Xov OTL r/8~q Yjp.ipa.i


T/jeis
have compassion on the multitude because already they

^SiirX-ayxvil^ofAai

/MI

remain

me

ivith

three days.

WH.

Tj^pai, instead of -fj^pas, Tisch. Treg.

RV. N

ALNX

FII etc.

rpiffl.

rj/ji{pai.s

This three days stay of the multitude means of course that


Jesus had been deflected from his purpose of retirement during
this time, and had been drawn into his ordinary work of
teaching
and healing. And the sequence of events would indicate that the
gathering was caused by the report of the miracle upon the deaf

and dumb man.


3.
vi/o-ms
fasting.
e/cAu^owrai
they will be exhausted?
KGU rives UIITWV UTTO futKpoOtv 3 r/Kucri 4
and some of them have come
from a distance. This is an additional reason for not sending

them away, not the reason of

their exhaustion, as in

TR.

instead of nvts ybp, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N BL A i, 13, 28,


Insert airb before p.a.KpbOev, Tisch.
33, 209, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
A i, 13, 28, 33, 69, 209, 346 (Latt.).
Treg. WH. RV. N
Kal

rim,

BDL

On

4.

iroOtv TOVTOVS Swrjaerai TIS ojSt ^opratrai aprutv fir


;
(pt]/jLia<;
able to feed these with bread here in

Whence will any one be

the wilderness ?
This failure of the disciples to recall the pre
vious miracle is one of the really strong reasons for doubting the
The objection is valid ; the stupid
repetition of the miracle.
But this
repetition of the question is psychologically impossible.
does not disprove the repetition of the miracle, only this incident
in it.
All things considered, it is very much more probable that
the accounts got mixed in this particular, than that one miracle
5
should be multiplied into two. So Meyer.
CTT
^op-ruo-ai
ep^/xtas
on
a
desert
i.e.
an
uninhabited
;
literally,
place
place, where
there are no supplies to be bought.

And he

Kai r/pwra

5.

Oi

asked.

instead of or^pwra, Tisch. Treg.


Tisch. Treg. WII.
A.

fipdjra,

of

eiirov,

WII.

BL

BN

On cr7rAa-yx ?o^ai see


ace. of duration of time.
1

62,

And they

Se UTTU.V

on

1*1.

We say,

"

A.

said.

eiirav,

instead

r^e pai rpei? is an elliptical construction for the


three days, they remain with me." Win.

it is

2.

2 Both these words are


peculiar,
v^o-rei? is a good Greek word, but is found in
the N.T. only here and in the parallel passage, Mt. is 32
The same is true of
e/cAuOrjo-oi/Tai in this sense of exhaustion.
3 This adverb itself
to
later
the
combination of prep, and
Greek, and
belongs
adverb is also late. With an adverb of this ending, moreover, the prep, is super
.

fluous.
5

Win.

See on 642

54,
.

i.

65, 2.

This pert from ^KW


,

is late.

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

A SIGN DEMANDED

VIII. 6-13]
6.

143

And he gives orders for the multitude to


Kai Trapuyye AAa
The verb is used to denote the transmission of orders

recline.

throuh

subordinates.
i,

instead of irapr/yyeiXe, gave orders, Tisch. Treg.


Lat. Vet.

We

having given thanks.

evXupio-TTjo-as

side of the invocation at meals,

and

instead of irapaduxri, N

iru.pa.TiOC)ffiv,

Kui ei^av l^OvSia

And

n-apaTiOfvai

them, he

word one

this

BCLM A

13, 33, 69, 346.

evAoy^tras aura CITTC KCU TUVTU


fishes ; and having blessed
to place these before them also.

they

commanded

have in

in evAoyr/o-us below, the other,

the invocation of blessing on the food.


to set before them.
tra TrapaTiflwcriv

7.

WII. RV.

13DL A one ms.

o Atya

Kai

had a few

little

BD

instead of eixov, Tisch. Treg. WII. N


A. Insert avra after
Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N BCL A 6, 10, 28, 116, Memph.
ical
TO.VTO. TrapariOtvai, instead of wapadeivai Kal avrd, Treg.
RV. N
A, also
marg. irapaTiOtvai, and
115, one ms. Lat. Vet. Kal ravra.
.a.v,

WH.

DM

8.

Kai

e<ayov

And they

ate.

instead of tQayov
e(payoi>,
28, 33, 40, 124, Latt. Memph. Pesh.
Kal

5<?,

Trepio-o-e v/Aara

KAacr/naTwi/

BL

Tisch. Treg.

literally,

WH.

RV. N

BCDL A

remnants of fragments ;

I,

i.e.

On this, and the


consisting of fragments.
o-Trupi Sus
used to collect the fragments in the feeding of the five thousand,
see on 6 43

KO</>II/<K

9.

^crav

Omit

8e.

ot

and they were aboutfour thousand.


eating, Tisch. (Treg.) WII. RV. N BL A 33,

ws TerpaKtcr^tAtot
(pdyovres, those

Memph.

JESUS CROSSES TO THE WEST SHORE OF THE


LAKE TO DALMANUTHA, AND THE PHARISEES
RENEW THEIR ATTACK ON HIM, DEMANDING A
SIGN FROM HEAVEN
10-13.

After finishing his work in Dccapolis, Jesus gets

into the boat kept for his use by tJic disciples, and crosses
to the region of DalmanutJia, several miles south
of his

usual

resort.

But

lie

docs not escape the

Thay.-Grm. Lex., under Kt-Aeuw.


On the form ei X av, sec Tliay.-Grm. Lex.
here and in the parallel (Mt. IS )
1

;i

Jiostile

vigilance

See on 641
found in the N.T. only
.

i^OiiSia is

TIIE G SPEL OF

144

MARK

[VIII, 10, 11

of the Pharisees (Mt. says, Sadducecs also), ivho gather


demanding a sign from heaven, different from the
terrestrial signs to which, he has confined himself. Jesus

about,

this generation (of all generations) asks

asks merely,

why

for a
given

and solemnly

10.

sign,

the boat constantly in attendance on him, 3 4^


Nothing is known of this place, which is not

TO TrXoiov

32
.

declares that no sign shall be

it.

AaA/u,ui/ou0a

mentioned elsewhere. Probably, it was a small village near Mag


adan (Magdala), which is the place mentioned in the parallel
39
This would make it on the west shore of the
account, Mt. i5
and
in
the
southern part of the plain of Gennesareth.
lake,
the Pharisees came out.
11. ffj\6ov 01
Jesus has
been absent in Gentile territory since his dispute with the Phari
sees about the washing of hands, 7* sqq., and now, immediately on
his return, they are on his track again.
They came out, Meyer
But see Morisays, from their residences in the neighborhood.
son s Note. All explanations are conjectural and uncertain. Mt.
in the
couples together Pharisees and Sadducees, and the same
warning against their leaven which follows. This is ominous of
the final situation in Jerusalem, when the combination of the
his fate.
party of the priests and of the Scribes brought about
.

<5?apio-alot.

to discuss

(Tvv&jTiiv aura)
O-^/ACIOV a7ro TOT)

ovpavou

with him.

a sign from heaven.

their cavils, like their attributing Jesus

This was one of

casting out of

demons

to

the power of the prince of demons, by which they sought to dis


credit the miracles performed by him.
They made a distinction
between miracles that might be explained by reference to some
supernatural power operating here in the world, and distinct from
God, and those which came visibly from heaven, i.e. from the sky.
The kind of signs demanded by them we find in the eschatological
discourse, ch. 13, this being what they had been led to expect in
4 25
The miracles
connection with the Messianic period. See i^
.

performed by Jesus were none of them, they thought, from this


source.
They were walking on the water, creating earthly food,
What
human
diseases, and so confined to this world.
healing
they wanted was a voice from heaven, or anything coming from
above.
They wanted to put his
testing him.
7rpaovTcs avrov
to
or
to
produce them, to the test, and
perform miracles,
power
to see if he was able to give them a sign in which there should be
no possibility of collusion with the powers that rule this lower

The proper meaning of av^tiiv

meaning

discuss

is

is to

peculiar to the N.T.

search or inquire in company.

This

THE LEAVEN OF THE PHARISEES

VIII. 11-21]

The uniform

world.

145

use of tempt to translate this verb

is

very

misleading.
12.

avu(TTf.vda<;

having groaned in

TH/CU/AUTI

TO>

Ti 17 yeveu UVTT; ^TCI arffMuov


inwardly, not audibly.
this generation seek a sign ?
*

BCDL A

instead of
1 1

1,28, 33,

8,

(rij^ietov

ftrifijTet,

spirit,

Why

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

i.e.

does

RV.

209.

ei 8o07;0-cTai
/
This
if a sign shall be given
crrj^lov
a case of suppressed apodosis, and is a common Hebrew form
1
of oath or asseveration.
By o-^/xeiov is meant a work which has
either for its object, or result, the proof of the Divine presence
This is a denial that his own miracles had this pur
arid power.
All of them were uses of Divine power, but not displays
pose.
of it.
Any self-respecting man will refuse to show himself off, but
he will constantly do things having other legitimate objects, which
.

is

do show

incidentally his intelligence, or strength, or goodness

This is the attitude of Jesus.


He refuses to do anything merely
as a sign, and yet his life was full of signs ; nay, it was a sign, he
himself was the sign.
Indeed, the only element about his mira
cles which will save them from the general disbelief of the mirac
ulous is the consonance of their objects with the character of
No one could have devised the story of a miracle-working
Jesus.
person, and have kept the story true to Jesus principles and char
acter.
The wonderful thing about the miracles is that the Divine
power shown in them is kept to uses befitting the Divine Being.
to this generation.
yeveu ravrr;
Jesus refuses especially to
It was an age full of signs ; it was
give a sign to that generation.
the period of the Incarnation, and yet its leaders went about ask
ing for signs, and refused to believe the self-witness of the Son of
rfj

God.

WARNING AGAINST THE LEAVEN OP THE PHARI


SEES AND OP HEROD
13-21. Jesus docs not remain in

hostile region, but


the
again
way, he warns the
the
disciples against
unspiritual influences of the Pharisees

crosses

to

tJie

east side.

tJiis

On

men who ask him for a sign


and, in order that they
not
to
may
go from formalism
irreligion, also against the
leaven of Herod.
TJie disciples, who had forgotten to take
bread, think that he is speaking of literal leaven.
1

See Win.

55,

Note

at end.

Whcre-

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

146

[VIII.

13-17

upon, Jesus asks them if they arc as dull as the rest to his
spiritual meanings, and tf they have forgotten
he provided for the lack of material food.
13.

6/AySas TTttAtv, ttTr^Aflev

Omit

ei s

easily

having embarked again, he departed.


RV. N BCL A mss. of Latt.

TO TrXoiov, in the boat, Tisch. WII.

Opart, /?Ae7reT

The word

how

OLTTO

T^S

V/AT;S

Take

heed,

beware of the

leaven?-

used figuratively in Bib. Greek for a pervasive


influence, either good or bad, though generally the latter, owing
to the ceremonial depreciation of leaven among the Hebrews.
^v/jt-rj

is

The

leaven of the Pharisees is their general spirit, including


hypocrisy, ostentation, pride, formalism, pettiness, and the like ;
cf. Mt. 23.
Here, where Jesus is fresh from his controversy with
them about signs, the thing specially in his mind would be the
spirit that leads them to ask for a sign, when his whole life and
It would be, in a word, their
teaching was a sign.
unspirituality,
their blindness to spiritual things, which led them to seek outward
proof of inward realities. The leaven of Herod, on the other
hand, was worldliness. The Herods were professed Jews, who
sought to leaven Judaism with the customs of heathenism. They
represented the escape from the rigors and scruples of Pharisaism
into the license and irreligion of the world, instead of into the
freedom of a spiritual religion. But the escape from spiritual
blindness does not lie that way.

Kai SieAoyiovTO Trpos dAAr/Aovs, "On aprous OVK I^Ojitev (l^oucriv)


they reasoned with each other, (it is) because we have (or
they have} no bread.
Probably, with either exoyuev or c^ovo-iv, on
is causal, and there is an ellipsis of the
principal clause.
16.

And

Omit X^yoin-es, saying, after irpos dXXijXovs, Tisch. Treg. WII. N


RV.
28, 209, mss. Lat. Vet.
txovcriv, instead of exMe" Treg.
B i, 28, 209, two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph., also
mss. Lat. Vet.

WH.

panes non haberenf).

BD

I,

marg.
(quod

The disciples were themselves so blind spiritually, that they


attributed a material sense to Christ s spiritual sayings.
They
thought that he was warning them, in the very spirit of the
Pharisees themselves, against food contaminated by them.
Their
thoughts were on their neglect to take bread, and so leaven, or
yeast, suggested to them bread.
17. Rat y vows Ae yei avrots, Tt
SiaAoyi ecr$e, on aprous OVK X T
And perceiving it, he says to them, Why do you reason (it is) t
because you have no bread?
Omit
Vet.

IT/O-OVS,

before X^yet, Tisch. (Treg.)

WH.

B A* one

ms. Lat.

Memph.

1 This
meaning of (SAe weii is foreign to the verb in earlier Greek, and the con
struction with dn-6 is borrowed from the Heb.
It is a pregnant construction, and is
resolvable into look to yourselves, and so keep from.
Win. 32, i, note.

A BLIND MAN HEALED

VIII. 17-26]

Kap8iav

v[i>v

147

have you your understand

*
ing dulled ?
18, 19. Tisch. punctuates these verses so that they read, Having
eyes do you not see, and having ears do you not hear, and do you
not remember, when I broke the five loaves among the five thousand,
and how many baskets full offragments you took up ? WH. read,
Having eyes do you not see, and having ears do you not hear?
Atid do you not remember, when I broke the five loaves among the
five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments you took up?
This latter punctuation is the most probable.

Insert Kal before

By

Tr6<rous,

Tisch. N

his reference to the

CDM

i,

33, HISS, of Latt.

miracles of feeding the five thousand,

and the four thousand, Jesus means to remind them that he has
shown them his ability to provide for their lack of bread in an
emergency, so that they need not fix their thoughts on thatj nor
think that his mind is occupied with it.
The question about the
baskets of broken pieces is intended to suggest the bounty of the
It is noticeable that the distinction between
provision made.
o-Trw/DtSes and Kofywoi in the two miracles is kept up here in Jesus
allusion to them.
20. Kcu Xeyovcriv
And they say {to hint), seven.
ETTTOI
(airru>),

Kal \tyovffiv, instead of Ot 5 elrrov, and they said, Tisch. x


Kal \tyov<riv avrf, Treg. marg. WII. RV.
Vet. Pesh.

one ms. Lat.


115, two

BCL A

mss. Lalt.

21.

Mcmph.

OWTTW orwiere

Omit

TTWS,

Do you

not yet understand ?

How, Tisch. WII. RV. x

CKL AH

Lat. Vet.
oww, instead of ov, Tisch. Treg.
All mss. Lat. Vet. Syrr.

i,

118, 127, 209,

WII. RV. N

ACDs

r-

one ms.

LMNUX

HEALING OP A BLIND MAN AT BETHSAIDA


22-26. Jesus and his disciples land at Bct/isaida, on the
cast side of the lake.
There a blind man is brought him
to be healed with the usual touch.
But Jesus, still in quest
and
so
more
than
ever
anxious to avoid the
of retirement,
notoriety attending his miracles, takes the man outside of
He employs the same signs to tell him what is
the village.

being done for him as in the case of the deaf and

man

in Decapolis.

there is

But

here,

for

the first

and

dumb

only time,
something to obstruct the immediatencss of the ciwe,
1

On the

meaning

of iriapovv

TTJI>

Kap&iav, see

on 3.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

148

and

at first, the

man

men

sees only

[VIII.

22-25

looking like trees walk

ing about. Jesus laid his hands again iipon his eyes,
the man saw clearly.
Then Jesus, in order to

and

prevent the

story spreading, ordered

where he
Kai

22.

him

not even to enter the village

known.

is

e/j^ovrai

19

And they

B^^o-atSav

come

tpxovrai, instead of tpxerai, Tisch. Treg. WII.


28, 33, 69, 124, 346, Latt. Memph.
/cai

to

Bethsaida*

RV. N

BCDL A

13,

he brought him outside of


e^vty/cev avrov tw rijs KO^S
In the only other miracle recorded by Mk. alone
tnere is tnis same privacy observed. The two
(7
coming
together at the same period of our Lord s life would seem to
23.

the village.
31 37
"

)>

indicate that there was some reason for the


peculiarity common
to them both, arising from the critical character of the period in
his life.
It was not the period of his miracles, nor of his
public
teachings, but of retirement with his disciples; and hence the
even unusual secrecy attending such miracles as he did perform.
TTTixras
This also is peculiar to this pair of
having spit.
miracles.
v,

BCL

instead of f^yayev, he led

him

out, Tisch.

Tree.

WH.

RV.

33.

eTT^/Dwra avrov c? TI

/2AeV?

he asked him, do you see any

thing?^
This reading, instead of ef
non marg. RV. BCD*^-

WH.
24.

ySAeVw TOWS

ri /3X6rei, if he sees

A Memph.

dv0/oa>7rovs

trees walking, ignores this on.


trees walking.
That is, what

for trees

he knows to be

indistinctness of vision

OTI,

anything, Treg. mars;.

The AV., / see men


/ see men; for I see them

etc.

RV.,

as
as

would otherwise be taken by him

men by

their walking

around.

This

due not

to the confusion of his ideas


arising from his previous blindness, but to the incompleteness of
his cure.
This is the single case of a gradual cure in our Lord s
is

and the narrative gives us no clue to the meaning of it. But


right to argue from this single case that gradualness
was the ordinary method of Jesus cures. 2
life,

we have no
25.

Eira TroAiv

e6i)Kev, instead

This use of
Weiss,

of

firf6r)Kf,

Treg.

WH.

in direct questions is not


Win. 57, 2.
Life of Jesus, 2, 97. 3, 23.
et

to the N.T. period.


2 So

then again he laid.

fireOrjKe (ZOrjKev)

BL.

found

in classical

Greek, but belongs

A BLIND MAN HEALED

VIII. 25, 26]


/cat

&e/3Aei/Kv,

/cat

onreKaTfarrr], /cat

and was

looked fixedly,
ev,

Tisch. Treg.

and saw

tirolijtrev

avrbv

BC* L A

28, 209,

A.

Sri\avyu>s,

instead of

made him

look

up

346 (one ms. Lat. Vet.

Tisch.

Tri\avyu>s,

aVavra

all things
clearly.

he

<ivap\tyai,

i,

dweKarfffrri, instead of dTrojcareo-TdflT?,

Memph.).

BCL

instead of

RV.

tve/SAcTrcv SjyAauyais

restored,

WH.

149

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

marg. N* CL A
men, Tisch Treg

(33 SiJXws).
S,Travra, all things, instead of airavras, all
WH. N BC*
1 A i, 13, 69, mss. Lat. Vet.
Vulg. Syrr.

DLM

WH.

Memph.

denotes the act of fixing his eyes on


things, by which
he would be able to distinguish them.
o^Aauyws is compounded
of ST/AOS and avyrj, and denotes clearness of vision.
r^Xavyw^,
1
TR., denotes distant sight.
Ste/SAei/Kv

26.

MrjSe

village,

to return to his house,

and so

from publishing

far

not even to enter


Omit

do not even go into the

eis rrjv Kw/^rjv


d(Tf\&fjs

The man was

his

it.

etirys rivl tv KU/J.JI,

(j.r}8t

(Treg. marg.~)

village.

which was outside of the


cure in the village, he was

RV.

WH.

N*

and

nor

BL

tell it to
I,

209,

any one in

Memph.

the village, Tisch

Attention should be called to the characteristics of the two


miracles narrated by Mk. alone, both of which,
moreover, belong
to the period of Jesus retirement, and to localities inhabited

by
a mixed Jewish and heathen population, and
unfrequented by
him in his previous ministry. In both the healing of the deaf and

dumb man

in Decapolis,

saida, Jesus takes the

and that of the blind man

at Beth-

man

aside before performing the cure, and


uses spittle on the parts affected.
In the second, the healing of
the blind man, the cure is gradual.
As to the withdrawal from the
The miracles
multitude, the purpose is obvious.
to the

belong
period of retirement, and Jesus takes more than usual pains to
guard against notoriety. A secondary effect, if not purpose, in
the case of the deaf and dumb man, would be to fix his attention

on what Jesus was about

to

do

for him.

As

to the use of the

as extraordinary, and
naturally so,
as these are the only cases in the
Synoptical Gospels in which
spittle, it is

commonly regarded

Jesus employs any other means than the laying on of hands.


the case of the deaf and dumb man, the reason for this

treatment appears in the condition of the


thrusting of the hands into the man s ears, the

tional

excep
man. The

spitting into

is a rare word.
translation of ^rjSe .

In

them,

&T}\a.vyw<;

The

junctive,

and the

first

M ,5e

is

to

M r,6e, neither
nor, AV., is wrong. ^Si
be rendered Not even. Win. 55, 6 a).
.

is

dis

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

50

[VIII. 26

the looking up to heaven, are the language of signs, by which


Jesus seeks to awaken the faith of the man necessary to his cure.

Certainly the thrusting of the hands into his ears is that, and the
goes along with this symbolical act. In the case of the blind

rest

man, extraordinary conditions are not lacking, though not of the


same kind. Jesus is in an unfamiliar region, and the man s blind
ness withdraws him more or less from even the knowledge that
those about him would have of this extraordinary personage.
In
these circumstances, Jesus uses something more than the ordinary
laying on of hands, which would tell its story so quickly to a Jew
accustomed to his ordinary procedure, and substitutes what we
may call a more elaborate and significant ritual of cure. The
gradualness of the cure in this case would arise out of the same
Jesus is contending here against a dull,
which
hinders
the ordinary immediateness of
slow-moving faith,
the cure.
This explanation matches the extraordinary methods
and process of the cure with the extraordinary conditions of the

extraordinary conditions.

case.

On
treats

the other hand, Weiss, ignoring the peculiar conditions,


both the process and the gradualness of the cure as repre

senting Jesus ordinary

method and the

rationale of the miracles.

he says, in which Mk. goes into details


in telling the story of the miracles, and the matter contained in
them, therefore, is to be read into the other accounts. The diffi

These are the two

cases,

culty in this is to account for the choice of these two isolated


cases for the introduction of these details.
It is easy to account
for them as peculiarities belonging to an exceptional period in the
life of Jesus, but not at all easy to account for the choice of these,
the very last of the miracles, to bring out material belonging to
them all, but hitherto unrelated by Mk., and omitted altogether
in the other evangelists.
Moreover, it is very singular that this

gradual cure occurs in the Gospel which emphasizes most the


immediateness of the cures. Out of the eleven miracles of heal
ing recorded in Mk., five speak directly of the immediateness of
the cure, and of the rest three give circumstances implying the
same. And yet, we are told that in this Gospel, the one account

of gradual cure establishes the form to which the others must be


As for the use of the spittle, that is treated as an

conformed.
actual

means of

cure, not as a

symbol or

sign.

So Meyer.

How-

PETER

VIII. 26, 27]


ever,

it is

15!

allowed that the curative power infused into this came

from above.

pened

CONFESSION

And

this

again

in the other cases.

normal, telling us what really hap


means, which yet has no power in

is

itself, only what is infused into it supernaturally.


This is truly a
tertium quid, and as long as it introduces into the miracles noth
ing of the nature of a secondary cause, it may be ranked

among

the curiosities of religious speculation.

JESUS GOES WITH HIS DISCIPLES INTO THE


REGION OF OffJSAREA PHILIPPI. PETER S CON
FESSION OF JESUS AS THE MESSIAH
27-30. Jestis having landed at
Bethsaida, proceeds to
Casarea Philippi, at the foot of Mt. Hermon, a
region hither
to unvisited by him.
On the journey here he gains the privacy
for which he had been seeking, and questions the disciples
as to what men say about him.
They tell him that he is
called variously John the
Baptist, Elijah, and one of the
Then comes the question for which all his
prophets.
life
with them had prepared the way, what title
they are ready
to give him.
Peter, speaking for the rest, says, Thou art
the Messiah. But Jesus,
drawn this

having

from them, charges them


27.

to tell

no one

confession

else.

T Kw/ias Kato-aptas
into the villages of
rijs <E>i\iWou
Mt. says, into the parts of Casarea
Philippi.
Philippi.
district is called here
by the name of its
eis

Casarea
I

he

principal city, and


the villages were those
belonging to that district. The city is near
the sources of the Jordan, about
25 miles north of the lake of
Galilee.
Panium was the original name of the city, from the

Tan,

who had

a sanctuary here.

god

The town was enlarged and

Herod Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, to whose terri


belonged, and was given its new name in honor of the
emperor and of himself. Philippi distinguishes it from Ccesarea on
the coast. It marks the most northern
part of our Lord s journeyHis coming here was for the
ings, except Tyre and Sidon.
general
purpose of his later Galilean ministry, to talk with his disciples in
retirement Of the approaching crisis in his life. TtVo
Ae yowiv ol
Who do men say that I am ? This is the first
avfywTTot eii/ai ;
time
that Jesus has
approached this question, even in the circle of his
The characteristic of his teaching has been its imperdisciples.
14
beautified by

tory

it

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

[VIII. 27-29

His subject has been the Kingdom of God, its law, the
its King.
conditions of membership in it, but not the person of
He has made approaches to this personal subject in the announce
ment of the coming of the kingdom, implying the presence of the
veiled claim to the title in calling himself
King, and has made a
hints and suggestions have been all
these
but
of
the Son
Man,
We should be inclined to call his styling himself the Son of Man
if it were not that the people
something more than a veiled claim,
and rulers were manifestly in doubt, as this very event shows, as
This constitutes the great difference
to the nature of his claim.
between the Synoptical Gospels and the fourth Gospel, since in
claim.
the latter, Jesus discourses principally about himself and his
and
The
verb
told
him,
saying.
28. tlirav aura? Aeyovres
they
the participle are so nearly identical in meaning, that their juxta
Qn the different
difficult to account for.
position here is quite
John the Baptist, Elijah, one
answers to the question of Jesus,
14
of the prophets, see on 6

sonality.

elirav instead of

answered, Tiscn. Treg. marg.

d.irei<plOr)(rav,

RV N BC* and2 L A one ms.


70*, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV.

Lat. Vet.

BC* DL
Memph. Sri els TWV -irpo^ijTuv,
RV. N BC* L Memph.

Lat. Vet. Vulg.

Treg.
29.

WH.

Km

WH.

RV.

Yueis Se
"YueTs

is

And he

UVTOS eV^pwra avrous


N

aifroiJj,

BC*

WH.

Memph. Pesh. Insert


A 13, 28, 69, 124, 282,
instead of

fiirov

avrtf \t346, mss.

Tisch.

tva. r. IT.

asked them.

instead of Xfyei atrois, he says to them, Tisch. Treg.


53 mss. Lat. Vet.

DL A

riva. fix

Xeycrc eTvai

emphatic in

But who do you

and by

itself,

say that
1

its

position.

/ am ?

When

the

does not
announcement of Jesus Messianic character is made, it
this ques
the
of
out
drawn
is
but
by
disciples
come from himself,
He would have them enjoy the blessedness of not receiving
tion.
oral communication, even from
it from flesh and blood, i.e. by
silent communication
himself, but of that inward reception by
of
from the Father which is the only source of true knowledge

17
He manifested himself to them,
See Mt. i6
intimate
an
to
them
companionship and intercourse
admitting
his impression on them, he
made
had
he
when
and
with himself
the guidance of the
under
made
drew from them the confession
inferior and preparatory personage in the
no
was
he
that
Spirit
as everywhere,
Messianic Kingdom, but the King himself. Here,
.

spiritual things.

the truly spiritual one, that depends very little on


Jesus method is
on the silent movings of the Spirit of God.
but
external helps,
This is the first time in the Gospel that
6 IIo-pos Xcya
Sv c* 6 Xptoros
of the disciples.
appears as the spokesman
On the meaning of Xpio-rds, see on i
thou art the Christ.
.

Win.

22, 6.

VIII. 30,
31]

DEATH AND RESURRECTION PREDICTED

30.

iva fj.Yi8tvl Ae
yoxTii/
Jesus enjoins on them

silence

up

to this

153

that they tell no one.


The silence that
due to the same reasons as his own
time, and his breaking it only when he was
It was esoteric doctrine as
those
yet, that
is

alone with them.


only
could receive, who knew
something about the Messianic office on
the one hand, and about the
person of Jesus on the other. In the
prevalent misconception of the Messiah, such an announcement
would work only disaster. The time was
coming for it, but when
it did
come, the tragedy of Jesus life followed immediately.

JESUS PREDICTS HIS CRUCIFIXION. PETER REBUKES


HIM, AND JESUS REPELS THE EVIL SPIRIT WHO

SPEAKS THROUGH HIM


31-33. After
drawing out from his disciples the confession
of his Messianic claim, Jesus proceeds to tell them how that

claim

zvill be

treated by the authorities.

bring him much

suffering,

violent death at the

and family

In general,
his

it

rejection

will

and

hands of the Sanhedrim, from


which,

however, he will be raised after three days. Peter, who


evidently regards this as a confession of defeat, and as
vacating the claim just made, takes Jesus aside, and begins
to rebuke him.
But Jesus, recognising in this the
very
spirit of the Temptation, meets rebuke with
rebuke, telling
Peter that he is acting the
part of the Tempter, and that
he reflects the mind
of men, not of God.
31.

he began to teach.
This is a true begin
rJ^uTo SiSao-Kv
1
first
3e
teaching of this kind.
// is necessary
The necessity arises, first, from the
hostility of men
secondly
from the spiritual nature of his
work, which made it impossible
for him to oppose force to force
and thirdly, from the providen
;
tial
purpose of God, who made the death of Jesus the central
But in order to take its
thing in redemption.
place in the
Divine order, his death must come in the
human, natural order
hat is to say, his death is the natural result
of the antagonism of
his holy nature to the world
it is the
;
martyr s death. But it has
also a Divine
purpose in it, and it is necessary to the accomplish
ment of that purpose. The Divine
purpose can use, however,
nly the death that results from the human
necessity, the martyr s

?_

ning, being the

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

54

[VIII. 31, 32

death by man. rov vlov TOV dvOpwJesus must be put to


This
that the Son of Man suffer many things.
\7To\\a Tra9f.lv
the general statement, under which the rejection and death are

death.
TTOV
is

TWI/ Trpeo-fivrfpuv Kat

viro
specifications,
/
by the elders

and

TWV ap\ltpVttV

the chief priests

and

K.

TWV

the Scribes.

Insert
Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N 15CDGKL II.
aw
by, instead of
//L before dpxiep<?wK Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BCDEHMSUVX, and
before ypa^ar^v Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. x BCDEFHLSMUV T.
inrb

6,"

rCiv

Elders was the general term for the members of the Sanhedrim,
and when used as it is here, with the names of classes comprised
denotes, of course, the other members outside of
chief priests were members of the high-priestly
those who had held the
class, i.e. either the high priest himself,
families from which the high
office, or members of the privileged
The three classes together constituted the
priests were taken.
Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the Jews, by 3which Jesus pre
KCU /ACTO. rpeis
dicts that he is to be rejected and put to death.

in that body,

these classes.

it

The

and after three days rise again. This is one


of the psychological problems with which we are confronted in a
with considerable exactness to such
history generally answering
For when we come to the account of the resurrection, this
tests.
when it takes place, does
prophecy plays no part. The event,
not recall the prophecy, and is met with a persistent unbelief
which does not seem in any way consonant with the existence of
i7/Liepas dvao-Ti/i/ai

such a prophecy. It would seem as if Jesus must have used lan


until after the
guage here, which the disciples did not understand,
That
event.
to
that
refer
to
Jesus predicted
resurrection itself,
the crucifixion and resurrection, there does not seem to be any
But we find variations in the details, which
reasonable doubt.
the writers, post eventum, and
suggest that these were supplied by
Moreover,
that the prediction itself was general in its character.
we find in the eschatological discourse, that Jesus language needs
a key, and we seem forced to the supposition that the utter failure
to understand the present prophecy must have
of the
disciples

been due to a like enigmatical use of language. Trapprja-La withNow that the
oi4t any reserve, using entire frankness of speech.
he
about
to
for
come
time had
this,
spoke out frankly.
speak
Jesus
Peter
32. Trgoo-Xa^o /xevos avrdv
having taken him aside.
could not understand plain speech about a matter to be spoken
on
of only under his breath.
Metaphorically, he puts his finger
He does not wish further open discus
his lips, and says Hush.
a topic, and so he takes Jesus aside even to
sion of so
dangerous

2.

See on

On

See Schurer, N. Zg,

the distinction between

i/

II. I. III.

and
IV.

after passives, see

Win. 47

6)

Note.

VIII. 32-IX. l]

SELF-SACRIFICE

TAUGHT

155

to rebuke.
Such an idea as
remonstrate with him.
eVm/xav
his master had announced was not only to be refuted, but rebuked
This would be the way in which he would
as unworthy of him.
reconcile it with his sense of his Lord s dignity to rebuke him ; a
thing that he would not think of doing except as he thought that
He had just allowed
Jesus was himself underrating that dignity.
the Messianic claim made for him by the disciples, and now he
seemed to be predicting defeat, whereas it belonged to the Mes
siah not to be defeated.

33. eVun7>a<is
having turned, that is, upon Peter. But as
he turned on him, it brought the rest of the disciples to view,
and having seen the effect of Peter s action on them, he was

to special plainness of speech.


eireTL^a-e. Herpia KM Xeya
Notice the repetition of the eTrmjuuv of
he rebuked Peter and says.
v?2
Peter had assumed to rebuke him, and now he rebukes

moved
.

Peter.
Kal X^7, instead of X^ywv, saying, Tisch. Treg.
mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.

WH. RV.

BCL A

two

denotes withdrawal, getaway. And the


OTTLVV /xov
"YTraye
"Yvraye
Satan. Our
whole phrase means, Get out of my sight. Sarava
Lord is not calling names here, but indicating in strong language
He is putting temptation in our
the part that Peter is playing.

way, and is so acting the role of Satan. Jesus recognizes


not Peter in propria persona that is speaking, but the
Spirit of evil speaking through him, just as he recognized the
10
thou
invisible Tempter in the wilderness (Mt. 4 ).
thinkcst not, thou dost not regard,
fypovtiv rd TIVOS means to side
with one} Peter did not keep in mind God s purposes, but
men s. He did not look at things as God looks at them, but as

Lord

that

it is

</>poveis

men

regard them, and hence he played the part of the Adver


And it was not a minor and incidental
the Tempter.
the
but
thing that separates God s ways and
great
temptation,
man s, the temptation to consider himself, instead of imitating
sary,

God

s self-sacrifice.

JESUS TEACHES THE MULTITUDE THAT THE SELFSACRIFICE PRACTISED BY HIMSELF IS THE NEC
ESSARY CONDITION OF DISCIPLESHIF
34-IX.

1.

Jesus

now

calls

up the multitude, having

closed the purely esoteric part of his teaching, relating to


his own fate, and teaches them that the condition of disciplc1

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

56

[VIII.

34

He
ship is self-dental, and following him even to death.
bases this on the general principle that to lose life is to save
and

it,

save

to

it

is

to

lose

it.

And

there is no profit in

world and losing one s life, because that


gaining
is an irreparable loss.
These
Nothing will buy it back.
ultimate gains and losses follow a man s attitude towards
Him because the Son of Man is to return in the glory of
the whole

and will then


now ashamed of Him.

his Father,

be

ashamed of

the

man who

is

multitude.
It seems from this, that in
away from his usual place of work, and in
heathen territory, Jesus was surrounded by a crowd of people.
And his language implies that they had some knowledge of him..
Ei rts #eA.a
pov aKoXovOelv
If any one wishes to follow after
34.

TOV o^Aov

the

spite of his being

O7rra>

me.

Ef

figurative expression of discipleship.


rts,

WH.

DL A Latt. Hard. marg.


DX I, 28, most mss. Lat.

instead of &TTIS, Treg.


RV. M BC*
instead of t\6eiv, Tisch. Treg- C*

&ico\ovOeii>,

Vet. Vulg. The rare combination, found elsewhere only Mt. io 88 ,


conclusive of the originality of the reading.

is

fairly

let him deny himself.


The person is
eavrov
the direct object of the verb, not the indirect.
He is
not to deny something to himself, but he is to renounce himself.
He is to cease to make himself the object of his life and action.
The verb is the same that is used to denote Peter s denial of his
Master, and means to deny that one stands in a supposed relation
to another, and hence to reject, or renounce.
To deny self is
therefore to deny the relation of self-interest and control which
a man is supposed to hold to himself, in the interest of humanity
and of God ; in other words, to renounce himself. It is the nega
tive side of the command to love, and like that, does not refer to
special acts, but to a change of the fundamental principle of
K. dparu) TOV (rravpov avrov
and take up his cross. This
life.
is a phase, the extreme phase of the self-denial which Jesus has
Let him deny himself, and carry out that selfjust demanded.
denial even to death.
The cross does not mean here any dis
The criminal
agreeable thing, but the instrument of death.
carried his own cross to the place of execution, and so, to take
up the cross means to go to the place of death. The equivalent
of it in our language would be to go to the gallows or the stake.
a.TTapvrj(ra(T&(t)

made here

See on i 17- 20 The use of


Thay.-Grm. Lex.

Note.

OTTI CTU)

after a.Ko\ovt)eiv is

a Hebraism.

Win.

33,

VIII. 34, 35]

The

idea

is,

TAUGHT

SELF-SACRIFICE

that a disciple

is

to follow the

57

example of Jesus

in

that belongs to the selfish


interests, sooner than anything belonging to the higher purposes
and follow me. This is not a third
K. dKoAot>0eiT(i> /not
of life.

giving up everything, even

life

itself,

thing added to the self-denial and cross-bearing, but a repetition


of the sentence.
of the
/xov anoXovOtlv of the conditional part
The meaning is, that in these two things, self-denial and crossbearing, is to be found the way to follow him.
1
35.
oV8 av a7roAm
yap eav OiXy For whoever wishes.
o-wo-ci
shall
lose?
whoever
avrr/v (omit OUTO?, this one) will
O7rio-a>

"Os

l>itf

save

it.

BCKM AH

ibv before 0t\ri, instead of &v, Tisch. Treg. WII. x


i, 28, 33.
Omit euros
instead of diroXtcrri, Tisch. Treg. WII. x BCU 2 TA.
*
X All Latt. Memph.
before ataffei, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N ABC*
<z7roX6rei,

DLM

Syrr.

Jesus has just bidden them to sacrifice even their lives, and this
gives the reason for that bidding, showing them that this is really
The paradox consists in the two
the way to save their lives.

meanings of the word life. In the first clause, it means the


bodily life, and in the second, the true life of the spirit, which is
independent of that bodily condition. The general principle is,
that there is no such thing as ultimate loss in the kingdom of God.
in this case, a man loses his life only to receive it again
enriched and multiplied. He sacrifices himself so far as he is
identified with lower interests, only to become absorbed in higher

And

and larger
i/e/<ev

l/jiov

God and man.

interests, in righteousness and love, in


KOL TOW evayyeAtov
for the sake of me

and of

the

Here we have the higher objects stated, for which a man


sacrifices himself, and in which the merely personal life is ab
He becomes absorbed, in the first place, in a higher
sorbed.
personality, that of Jesus, the Redeemer, and the head of the
Messianic kingdom, who represents interests human and universal.
And all personal interests become merged in those of the Gospel,
the glad-tidings that Jesus brings, that the kingdom of God is
3
It
coming. This coming is involved in the advent of its king.
is as a man loses himself in so great and high things, that he finds
himself, and as he sacrifices his life in their behalf, that he saves
it.
Only in such things is there any true life.
Gospel.

1
On the use of
note 2 p. 158.

l.i for

after relatives, sec

Win.

42,

Note

at end.

Also foot

On

the fut. ind. with &? a.v, see Burton, 308, who notes it as a N.T. use. Win.
42, 3 b, cites only LXX. passages, as the N.T. passages occur only in the various
There is a use of the future indicative in classical Greek with av, hut
critical texts.
not in conditional or relative clauses. And there is a use of the future in condi
tional relative clauses, hut without
This construction is therefore anomalous.
2

<iv.

See Goodwin, Greek Afonds and Tenses,


3 See on i- H.
15; cf. Mt. 4** 9
24".

61, 3,

Note;

50,

i,

Note

37, 2,

Note

i.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

158
36.

ri

yap

o;(j!>eAe

for what does

it

avBpdiTrov KepSrjffai

profit

instead of
i>0eXe?,
instead of
Kfp5rj<rai,
Tisch. WH. RV. N BL.

man

ox/>eX?7<m,

tai>

to

gain

Tisch.

WH.

Kepdr/crri,

and

/ecu

,.

[VIIL 36-38

RV.

BL

to forfeit

r)/j.io>6rjva.i

and

mss. Lat. Vet. Pesh.

fafuufHjvai, instead of t&v

r)fj.iu6rj,

to forfeit.
The word commonly means to lose by
way of penalty, to forfeit. The argument is carried forward here
no longer in the contrast between the two lives, the
in
its
\l>vx*l

two senses, but in the contrast between the i/ar^V an(l the KOO-/AOS.
And this is pertinent, because the earthly life is measured gen
erally by outward gains, while the spiritual life is valued for itself.
In the one, a man is worth dollars and cents, in the other, his
worth is a matter of his own excellence, the quality and range of
his being.
The question is thus between that life which consists
mainly in having, and that which consists in being. And to be, in
the true sense, means to have the life of God in us.
The con

made as strong as possible by making the gain the KOCT/AOS,


sum total of things,
37. Tt yap Sol
For what shall a man give ? avraXXay/xa
as an exchange. The questions means, if a man has forfeited his
trast is

the

by what price or ransom can he


rhetorical form of saying that the loss

buy

life,

irrevocableness of the loss that


The whole world, if a
side.

its

his

life, if

he

lost

is

it

back?

irrevocable.

It

is

It is

the
the

makes the gain to be nothing by


man had it, would not buy back

it.

WH.

BL A 28, one ms. Lat.


WH. RV. N* B (N C L
BCEFLMVX PA.

instead of ^ ri, Tisch. Treg.


RV. N
Vet. Memph.
So?, instead of SAvei, Tisch. Treg.
x
te, instead of SLV, Tisch. Treg.
ri

>dp,

WH.

S)

38. os yap eav


for whoever? The argument does
nect this with the special statement that immediately
but with the entire statement of which that forms a
shows how these general statements are to be applied

not con
precedes,
part.

to

It

man

how

these relations can affect their lives so


a question that might easily be suggested to his
profoundly
listeners by the amazing character of his assumptions.
The pres
ent situation, he says, is to be changed.
He who seems to them
now so easily to be set aside is to appear eventually as the Son of
Man, coming in the glory of his Father, with the holy angels.
Now, they are ashamed of him, it may be ; then he will be
ashamed of them. The announcement of Jesus Messiahship
relations to Christ

29

(v.

is

followed immediately by the prophecy of his humilia-

1 An
The mood is that of deliberative
irregular form of sec. aor. subj. for
questions. Win. 41 a, 4 b.
2 This use of -lav for a.v is due to the use of av as a contracted form of
iai/, lead
ing to a mistaken use of the two as interchangeable. See Thay.-Grm. Lex.
5&>.

VIII. 38-IX. 3]

SELF-SACRIFICE TAUGHT

159

and death; and that by the statement that lite and death
hang upon the acceptance and imitation of him ; now this is justi
fied by the prophecy of his reign.
Verily, Jesus reticence about
of his teaching so far, is
so
characteristic
has
been
that
himself,

tion

The figure represents sin


adulterous.
p.oixa\i8i
as unfaithfulness to the close relation in which God seeks to put
man to himself. It is a favorite figure of the prophets.
IX, 1. This verse belongs with the preceding discourse by the
here broken.

most obvious connection of thought. He has spoken of the


coming of the Son of Man in the glory of his Father ; and here
he states the time of that coming. For the coming of the Son of
Man is everywhere identified with the coming of the kingdom.
28
Cf. Mt. i6 , where this coming is spoken of as the coming of the
Son of Man in his kingdom. The reason for placing the verse in
the ninth chapter is that those who made the division supposed
that the glorifying of Jesus in the Transfiguration was the event
But that would not be described as a coming of
referred to here.
the Son of Man in power ; nor would an event only a week dis
tant be spoken of as taking place before some of those present
should die. That language implies that most of them would be
dead, while a few would live to see the great event. No, this
coming of the kingdom is to be identified with the coming of the
Son of Man. Nothing else will satisfy the -context. And this
coincides with everything that Jesus says about the time of that
30
coming. See ch. I3 and parallel passages in Mt. and Lk. This
then lets in a flood of light upon the meaning of that coming, as
it declares that it was to be before some of those before him
If his words are to stand therefore, it was
should taste of death.
to be events belonging to the generation after his death which ful
filled the prophecy of his coming, and of the establishment of his
kingdom. And in this case, the kingdom was to be spiritual, and
the agencies in its establishment were to be the Spirit of God and
,

the providence of God in human affairs.


Here, as in the eschatological discourse, ch. 13, the coming is
referred to as an understood thing, whereas there has been no
teaching in regard to it. The same remark applies here as in the

teaching about the death and resurrection. We cannot account


for the expectation, which colored the whole life of the early
But on the other hand,
church, without some prophecy of it.
the absence of expectation in the period between the death and
resurrection is unaccountable if the prophecy was of this definite
character.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

160

[IX. 2

THE TRANSFIGURATION
IX, 2-8. Jesus goes

James, and John, and


heavenly

week

up into a mountain, with Peter,


is transfigured before them.
The

The

visitors.

voice

from heaven.

after the conversation with the disciples in regard to his

death, Jesus goes, with the three disciples

who

stood nearest to

him, up into the neighboring mountain, and was transfigured be


As it is described, this transfiguration consisted in an
fore theirs
extraordinary white light emitted from his whole person. Accom
panying this was an appearance of Moses and Elijah talking with
Peter, frightened out of his wits

by the amazing scene,


by building huts for Jesus and the
heavenly visitors up there on the mountain side. But a cloud
came over them, and a voice proceeded from it, as at the baptism,
This is my beloved Son ; hear him. And suddenly, looking around,
him.

proposes to

fix

and

retain

it

they saw no one but Jesus.

Lk. says, about eight days. We can


six days.
one of the two days which separate these two
Jews confounded after seven days with on the
seventh day by reckoning both the dies a quo and the dies ad quern
2.

^/xe pas e

easily get rid of


accounts, as the
in the

former expression, as in the account of the resurrection.

But the other day needs the oxm of Lk., about eight days, to

move

re

the discrepancy.

These three formed the


T. Ilerpov K. T. IaK(j)(3ov K. (r.yiwdvvrjv
inner circle of the twelve, whom Jesus took with him on three
great occasions, the raising of the daughter of Jairus, the Trans
ets opos
figuration, and the scene in the garden of Gethsemane.

What mountain is meant, we do


into a high mountain.
tyrjXov
not know, except that it was probably in the vicinity of Csesarea
See S 27
Philippi, and so belonged to the Hermon range.
account
This
alone.
KO.T ifitov |u,ovous
gives no reason
apart
But Lk. tells us that
for this privacy, and Mt. is equally silent.
rational
Jesus went up into the mountain to pray. This gives a
.

turn to the whole occurrence, leaving us to suppose that the trans


Lord s
figuration was incidental to it, and not the purpose of our
going up into the mountain. He was glorified before the dis
for him to deliberately set
ciples, but it is quite out of character
about such a transaction. This opens the way for another sug
Jesus would be led
gestion as to the real character of the event.
to special prayer at this time by the events on which it seems that
his mind was fixed, and which formed the subject of conversation

THE TRANSFIGURATION

IX. 2-4]

between himself and his disciples.


was the approaching

at this period

The

jg!

subject of his discourse

end of his life. And


Lk. again, who tells us that this was the
subject of conversa
tion between himself and the
heavenly visitants at this time. It
looks then, as if this was a case in which the mind of the writer
was fixed on the surface of things, who has told his
story too in
such a way as to fix our attention on the mere
physical accompani
ments of the scene, the shining of Jesus garments, rather than the
glory of his countenance, while at the same time, he has himself
given us the suggestions for a deeper reading of it. According to
the ordinary view, arising from this
emphasis of the physical side
of it, the transfiguration was a gleam of our Lord s true
glory in
the midst of the surrounding darkness,
showing that he was divine
in spite of his humiliation and death.
But, according to our
Lord s own view, which he came into the world to set
up, over
tragical

it is

against its superficial worldliness, his glory was essentially in his


humiliation and death, not in spite of it.
And here, his spirit was
glorified by dwelling in the midst of these high purposes and re
solves until its glory broke
through the veil of flesh, and irradiated
his whole being.
1
Kol fj.T/j,op(j)u6r)
and was transfigured before them. All the
particulars given are, in our account, the shining whiteness of his
garments, and in Mt. and Lk. this with the shining or (Lk.) the
change of his face.
3.

2
*ai TO. t/xana
eycVcro crrtA/SovTa, XCVKO. Xt av

and his garments became


Omit
Lat. Vet.

(omit ws \LMV}

shining, exceedingly white.

x w, s snow, Tisch. Treg.


one ms. Vulg.

<Ls

WH.

RV.

BCL A

ota yvtt^evs eVt


ov fivvarat OUTW? XevKavai
TJJS
such as a fuller -upon the earth cannot so whiten.
yrj<;

Insert OWTWJ,
28, 33, 69,

4.

1 1

HAttac

WH. RV.

before Xevicavai Tisch.


Treg.
346, two mss. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.

so,

i,

two mss.

literally,

BCLN A

13

6, 124,

a-vv

Mowo-et

Elijah with Moses.


Elijah is gen
be the representative of O.T.
prophecy, Moses
of the Law. But this distinction is more
apparent than real.
Moses was a prophet, and the law that he
gave was a part of his
prophetic utterance; while Elijah had nothing to do with the
predictive, certainly with the Messianic side of
prophecy, accord
ing to the record, but it was his province to reveal to men the
Divine law and make real to them the Divine
But these
lawgiver.
were two men in the O.T. history who made a
mysterious exit
erally said

to

1 This
Greek word is the exact equivalent of the Latin-English words (ran
and transform.
*
This word does not occur elsewhere in the N.T.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

62

[IX.

4-8

this world, and they are the ones selected for a mysterious
1
The subject of their conversation with Jesus
return in the N.T.
is not given in Mt., or
Mk., but Lk. tells us that it was "his
31
decease which he was to accomplish at Jerusalem" (g ).

from

That is, responding not to some


5.
answering.
aTTOKpiOds
What he said was drawn out not by the
thing said, but done.
K. HXet a
words of another, but by the occasion. ManJo-ei
Moses and Elijah. Peter would gather from the conversation
who the men were. What he proposed to build was three huts,
such as could be constructed out of the material found on the
is the word for any temporary structure.
mountain. o-Kr/vas
6. ov
for he did not know what to
yap rj8a TL airoKpiOfj
If he
answer. This implies the strangeness of his proposition.
had known what to say, he would not have said any so foolish
The situation was not one to be prolonged. Heavenly
thing.
.

do not come to stay.


became completely frightened?

visitors

!(o/3oi yap eyeVovro

for

they

This reading, Instead of 7)ffav yap e/c<o/3oi (became, instead of were},


RV. N BCL A 33, most mss. Lat. Vet. diroKpiffrj, answer,
Tisch. Treg.
RV. K EC* L A I, 28, 33, one
instead of XaXijo-]?, say, Tisch. Treg.
ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.

WH.

WH.

KO.I

eye vcTo
a voice

<{><avr]

And

CK TOV ovpavov, OUTOS eoriv 6 wos (J.ov 6 dyaTrr/ros


the cloud, This is my beloved Son.
were uttered by the heavenly voice at the bap

came out of

These same words


tism, and they are repeated
17

See Mt. 3
11
of Son, see note on i

figuration.

if

in 2 Pet.

ML

11

17

Lk.

in referring to the trans

*"-

For the meaning

WH.

RV, N
iytvero, instead of ^X0e, Tisch. Treg. marg.
Pesh. Hard. marg. Omit \tyov<ra, saying, Tisch. Treg.
Til one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.

BCL A Memph.
RV. K BCN

WH.

The vision vanished suddenly, and


8. ea7Hva
suddenly?
There is a difference
things returned to their natural condition.
of opinion whether the adverb belongs with the participle or the
It can make little difference, since both denote parts of
verb.
But this very fact shows that
the same act, looking and seeing.
the adv. belongs with the part., since to put it with the verb
act.
In
separates the two closely related parts of the same
accordance with
looked around

saw.

And

this

for the

See Deut. 346 2 K. 211

The

Grm. Lex. under


3

efaTriva is

we should say, suddenly they


around and suddenly

not, they looked

same reason, the Greek

prep, in

principle,

and saw,

tv<|>o|3oi

joins the adverb

and

denotes completeness.

a rare, late word for

i^a.i<^vT\^,

(English, out

and

out.)

Thay.-

IX.

8,

ELIJAH

9]

AND THE SON OF MAN

163

the part.
cd7rira denotes the quick transition from the heavenly
vision to ordinary conditions.

BDN

before rbv lyffovv, instead of dXXa, WII. RV. N


33, 61, Latt.
dXXd is adversative, not meaning except, and irregular here, so
that internal probability favors that reading.
el

/U.TJ

Memph.

ELIJAH AND THE SON OF


Conversation witJi

9-13.

tJie

MAN

disciples on the

way

dozvn

They question him about the coming of

the mountain.

Elijah.

On
to

way down the mountain, Jesus charges the disciples not


any one what they had seen, until the Son of Man is risen

the

tell

from the dead.

This strange saying about the resurrection of the

its meaning.
Then this
appearance of Elijah suggests the question, why the Scribes put
that appearance before the Messianic advent, and this question

Messiah they seized upon, and debated

they put to Jesus.

and that

He

answers that

it is

true, Elijah

does come

a fulfilment of prophecy which points to the


fulfilment of the other prediction in regard to the suffering and
first,

this is

rejection of the
that

John

9.

KCII

And

Son of Man.

fate is only carrying out

to clinch the matter, he says

another writing.

Karaf3aLv6vT(av IK rov opovs

And

as they were coming

down out of the mountain}


Kai

Ka.Ta.paiv6vTwi>,

BCDLN A
BD 33
N

33, Latt.

instead of Kara^aLv6vrtav 8t, Tisch. Treg. WII.


Pesh. t /c, instead of dirb, Treg. marg.

Memph.

RV.

WH.

l,

etc.

that they

tell

no one.

This

command

is

given

same reason as the injunction of secrecy in regard to his


miracles.
These external things are misleading to one who has
for the

not attained something like the inner point of view of Jesus.


It
coincided also with the charge to keep silence about his MessiahThe misconception of the Messianic idea among the people
ship.

them to misunderstand everything that might point to his


Messiahship. The people were excited with false hopes, which
this marvellous story would only intensify.
After the resurrection,
when his death had put an end to false expectations, and the res
urrection had pointed to his true glory, then, in that new time,
stories of his earthly glory and power would help forward the truth.
led

We

1
say out of tke mountain in
penetrated.

Eng., thinking of

it

as something to be

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

164

[IX.

9-12

ei
iM) OTCLV
orav, whenever, is intended to
except whenever.
leave the time of the resurrection indefinite and contingent.
10. TOV Aoyoi/ Kp<iTr)(Tav
not to be connected with TT/JOS
they kept the saying to themselves, which does not give
a proper meaning, and does not accord with the fact that Jesus

restricted his announcement of the resurrection only to the twelve,


not to the three nor is it to be translated, they kept the saying, in
the sense of obedience but the meaning is, they seized this word
about the resurrection, it clung to them, they did not let go of it. 1
;

2
crw^rowres rt ecrn TO e/c vtKpwv avacrr^vai,
question
what
the
the
themselves
dead
is.
Not what
ing among
rising from
the resurrection means in general, which they as orthodox Jews at
this time would know well enough ; but what it meant in the case

Trpos eauTCws

of Jesus, involving, as
11.

The

it did, his death.


Aeyovcrtv ol ypap./j.a.Ttis
why do the Scribes say . . ?
difficulty with this rendering is, that the direct question,
"On

rendered necessary by the introduction of Xcyovres, is introduced


by the indirect interrogative on. An alternative rendering is, the
Scribes say, the demonstrative cm being used to introduce a direct
quotation. The difficulty with this is, that it is a statement, instead
of the question required by eTn/pwrw. But the question is easily
However, the rendering of it as a question is on the
implied.
whole more probable. 3
It is suggested by this appearance of
Elijah on the mountain, which leads them to ask how it is, that
Elijah s appearance is treated by the scribes as a sign of the
advent of the Messiah, while this appearance follows the advent,

and Jesus commands them


first, that is,
12.
Se

to

keep

his appearing silent.

TT/JWTOJ/

before the manifestation of the Messiah.

And he

said.

<j!>j7

07?,

instead of diroKpi6ds, elwev, Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV. N BCL A Memph.

Tesh.
fv
The particle here is concessive ; I grant you Elijah
does come ; and dXXa introduces the modifying statement about
the manner of his coming, which was not in keeping with their
He comes, to be sure, but not as a mere appearance
expectation.
that keeps him out of the hands of men and the grasp of fate, but
in such a way that men do as they please with him.

restores all things.


i,

instead of diroKaOiffT^, Tisch. Treg. N c

Il8.

diroKaTiffrdvei.,

This

is

Elijah will
1

WH.

B*.

diroKardcrravei,

AB a L A

I,

28, 33,

N* D.
6

5
Jesus brief rendering of the prophecy (Mai. 3 ), that
turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and of the

See Thay.-Grm. Lex.


See Win. 18 a, 3, for the use of the
See Burton, 349 Win. 24, 4.
;

art.

with the

inf.

also Burton, 392, 393.

ELIJAH AND THE SON OF

IX. 12, 13]

MAN

165

His coming, too, is put in connection with


an injunction to remember the law of Moses, meaning that it
Such a restoration,
signifies an enforcement of the Divine law.
bringing things back to their standard in the law, was accom
plished in the work of John the Baptist, to whom evidently Jesus
refers.
Mt. 1 7 13 says that the disciples understood him to refer to
children to the fathers.

the ques
K. TTWS yeypairTai. TTI T. vlov T. dvOpw-rrov
the Baptist.
and how has it been written about the
tion probably ends here
?
The answer is given in Iva. iroXXa ird.0r) K. eou8evw0//,
Son of
;

Man

many things and be set at naught} Jesus matches


prophecy quoted by the scribes with another in regard to the
Son of Man, meaning to imply that the fulfilment of the one makes
probable the fulfilment of the other. The prophecy that the
Messiah should suffer (in the prophecy itself it is the Servant
2
be set at
of Jehovah) is found in Is. 53.
lov8(6)fvo)(r])0fj
that he suffer

their

naught.
13. dAXa Xeyo) Vjaiv on K. HAct as e Ar/Av0cv
but I say Ulltoyou,
that also Elijah has come,
mi before HAcius means also, he too,
as well as the Messiah.
This contains the minor premise of the
The fulfilment of the prophecy in
argument, which runs as follows
regard to Elijah makes probable the fulfilment of that in regard to
the Son of
; the former prophecy has been fulfilled, therefore
look for the fulfilment of the other.
K.
and
iTroirja-av avrw, etc.,
they did to him whatever they pleased, as it has been written in
regard to him. Here is another fulfilment in regard to the same
man, which increases the probability just named. Moreover, this
prophecy in regard to his fate puts his case on precisely parallel
lines to that of the Messiah.
He too, like the Messiah, is the sub
ject of expectation on the one hand, and of prophecy on the other,
which are entirely inconsistent. In his case it is the adverse
event of prophecy that has been accomplished, which strengthens
the conviction that the like will happen to the Messiah,
rjQeXov
whatever they wished. This might seem an inconclusive state
ment, without the addition of what it was that men wished. But
in reality, this is a striking statement of the way in which the
Divine plan differs from the human, which made the fate of John
and of Jesus certain. Men expected it as a part of the Messianic
programme that God would interpose in behalf of his servants, so
that men could not do to them what they pleased.
But in God s
spiritual kingdom, force is not opposed to force, and so men did
to John what they pleased.
The inference is, they will do to the
Son of Man likewise.
Only now, with the introduction of this
:

Man

o<ra

tj0e\oi>,

instead of

The answer

in full

r,0t\-nffa.v,

would

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BC* DL.

be, // has been written that he suffer, as if it said, it


It is this idea of decree that explains the use of
2
Biblical word.

has been decreed, that he suffer.


Iva..
Burton, 212 (a), 223.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

66

[IX. 13, 14

it becomes no
longer a mere fulfilment of prophecy, but
an application of the immutable Divine principle to parallel cases.
as it has been written.
ica0ws ye y/KXTrnu
This might refer to the
general statements in regard to the maltreatment of the prophets.
But it is personal, something written about him, and this makes it

oo-a T/0tAoi/,

more probable that the reference is to Elijah, who suffered for


It is this concrete case of
righteousness sake in the same way.
such maltreatment that becomes a prophecy of the fate of the
man who has succeeded to his spirit, and so to his fate. See
1
17
i K. i8
This becomes thus a good example of the
sqq. ly sqq.
broad way

which Jesus

in

treats prophecy.

A DEMONIAC HEALED
1429. Healing of a demoniac, on the return from the

whom

mountain,

owing

tJie

to their lack

disciples left behind

hadfailed

to heal,

of faith.

On his return from the mountain, Jesus finds a multitude


gathered, and a dispute going on between his disciples and some
Scribes about a failure of the disciples to heal a demoniac boy,
whom his father had brought to them. Jesus cries out against
the unbelief which had caused this failure, and orders the boy to
be brought to him. After some inquiries about the case, prompted
it, Jesus assures him that all
are
to
which
draws from the father the
faith,
things
possible
pathetic plea that he believes, but begs for help even in case of

apparently only by his interest in

his unbelief.

his victim,

Whereupon

final convulsion, which seemed


But Jesus took him by the hand, and raised him up.

like death.
14.

Jesus orders the unclean spirit to leave

which he does with a

KCU e\0ovTes
.

eidov

he saw, Tisch. Treg.

etSov (-Sav)

(WII.

WH.

and having come,

instead of e\0wv
elSev,
N 13L A one ms. Lat. Vet.

-Sav~),

RV.

KUI ypa/A/iaTets crvv^rjTovvras Trpos UUTOU S

The
against them.
better than the dat.
Trpis avroi/s,

BCGIL A

I,

prep, denotes

the

and

they saw.

having come,

Scribes disputing
of the Scribes

hostility

instead of ovrots, with them, Tisch. Treg.


most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

WH. RV.

N* etc

28, 118, 124,

This incident of the Scribes is introduced by Mk. alone, who,


scene before us, and not the bare event.

as usual, brings the

IX

A DEMONIAC HEALED

14-18]

67

The cause

of ttie dispute was the failure of the disciples to cure


the demoniac, which gave the Scribes a chance to throw doubt on

their healing power.


15. Tras 6 o^Xos tdocref avrov,
ft6afjiftri0r)(rav
having seen them, were utterly astonished}
v,

BCDIL A

i,

all the crowd,

WH.

instead of iSkv,

^00.^^0^ Tisch. Treg.


124, 209, 346, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.

13, 27, 28, 33, 69,

Pesh. Hard, marg,

Different reasons are given for this astonishment.


Either Jesus
person still retained some of the glory of the transfiguration, or
the people were astonished at his sudden and
opportune appear
ance.
Against the former it seems conclusive that he treats the
transfiguration as an esoteric event, which would not have per
mitted him to make his appearance among the
people until the
effect had entirely passed away.
Their surprise was a joyous sur
prise at this unexpected coming, so that they ran and greeted
him.
16.
he asked them. The pronoun evi
avrous
Trr)pu>Ti/](rev
dently refers to the multitude just mentioned.
instead of rods ypa^areTs, Tisch. Treg.

atfrorfs,

28, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

Y (rvvr)TiT

Trpos aurous

What are you

ou s here refers to the disciples.


17. Kat a.TTKpidt] avrw cts

one
crowd,

WH.

RV.

BDL A

I,

Memph.
disputing with them ?

And one
answered him. cts
answer, though the question was addressed to the
is not like the indefinite
ns, but calls attention to the
.

made
ets

number.
N

BDL A

a6rf, instead of airoKpiOels


28, 33, mss. Lat. Vet.

el,

Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV

Memph.

a dumb spirit. For other instances of


aAaXov
accompaniment of the disease, see Mt. g 32 i2 22

this

18.

oVou eav

wherever.

instead of &v, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

N<>

ABK

All.

convulses.
This meaning of the word is not very well
established, but in a-irapacra-w, the meaning tear passes over into
that of convulse, and it is so used in v. 20
This establishes a pre
cedent for the like transformation in this word. The
congenital
relation of these two verbs makes it
would
improbable that
.

they
be employed in a different sense about the same
matter, and is so
Translation, dasheth him down,
grjpaiveaway. The symptoms mentioned are those of

far against the Revisers


rai
js wasting
1

See on

15

G
ix^o.Soi, v. .

Qn

this

use of

fat>,

instead of

,",,.,

sec on

T :N

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

68

The

[IX.

18-20

K.
K. rpt^et are connected with
but fypawerai is a general symptom of the
The Eng. Ver. connects d<pi, K. Tp%u, K, ^MUVTCU,
disease.
and puts p>/o-(m by itself. It should read, whenever if seizes him,
if convulses him, and he foams and gnashes his teeth ; and he is
As the man did not find Jesus, he
wasting away. TOIS na.OrjTa.ls
17
brought him to the disciples. See v.

epilepsy.

pi/o-o-a,

a<j>pit,u

OTTOU eav KaTaXd/Br} ;

Omit avrov

after

<556>Tas,

Tisch. Treg.

WH. RV.

BC*

DL A

i,

13, 33,

and I Spoke

to thy

59. 69, 73, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

Kai ctTTa rots p.aOr]Tal^


disciples that they

<rov

iva

should cast

it

avro eK/3aXwcrt
out}

elwa, instead of elirov, Tisch. Treg.

19.

Se

aTTOKpifltis

WH.

avToi?, Ae yei

BFL

And

I,

28, 209.

he answering them,

says.
instead of O.VT$, him, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. X
most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr.

atfrots,

28, 33,

to

them.

Jesus

reply

is

ABDL AH*

I,

not addressed to the man,

who seems not to have shown any lack of faith, but to the
disciples, who have just been mentioned by the father, and to

whom

the words specially apply, since it was their unbelief that


led to the fiasco.
Later, the man seems to have lost heart over
the failure of the disciples, so that he puts an if you can into his

appeal to Jesus

22

(v.

;
unbelieving generation, how long shall I be with you ?
long shall I suffer you ?
It is possible to translate this race, meaning men of a
yevea
certain stock or family ; but it is more in accordance with almost
invariable N.T. usage to translate it generation, men of that time.
the translation faithless, EV., means generally unfaith
aTrto-Tos
It should be trans
ful, perfidious, and is therefore ambiguous.
lated unbelieving.
Iws TTOTC
irpos fyiSs
literally, until when?

how

shall I be with you ? The question, as appears from


;
the next question, arises from the almost intolerable nature of his
intercourse with a generation so spiritually dull and unsympa
It is the question of one who feels that his surroundings
thetic.
eo-opxi

have become almost unbearable, and who wonders how long they
3
shall I bear with you ?
are going to last,
dve^o/xat V/AWV
20. iSojv
having sc,en. Regularly, the part, agrees with neither
According to the sense,
evfw., nor avrov after o-weo"7rar>aev.
;

2
3

On the use of
This use of
The

ace. is

a verb of entreaty, see Burton, 200.


with a temporal adverb is rare in classical Greek.
the regular construction after dvcxojuai.
Iva after

>

Win.

54, 6.

A DEMONIAC HEALED

IX. 20-24]

169

since the action of the verb belongs to the spirit, and is occa
sioned by the action denoted by the participle, it would be the

which is described as having seen Jesus. But he does this


with the eyes of the man, and hence the masc. form of the part.
In all these stories, the man and the evil spirit get mixed up in
The outward acts belong to the man, but the informing
this way.
spirit is sometimes that of the man, and sometimes the evil spirit.
convulsed him}
o-weo-7rapaev
spirit

<rvveffirdpafi

mss. Lat. Vet.

instead of tffTrdpafcv, Tisch. Treg. marg. N

Memph.

BCL A

33,

Syrr.

he rolled around.
Wallow suggests things not im
plied in this verb.
21.
TOVTO yeyovev
since this has come to him.
This
conversation with the father has been preserved by Mk. alone,
with his customary fulness in the narration of events. All attempts
to discover special motives for this question of Jesus, aside from
the general interest of a sympathetic person in the case, are un
O.UTU>

d>s

availing.

It

TTcuSioflev

"Ex

has no special bearing on the cure to be performed.


from childhood?

Insert IK before iraidi60ev, Tisch. Treg.


209.

WH. RV.

BCDGILN A

i,

33,

1 1 8,

22.

The

Kol eis Trvp


plur. == bodies
.

K. cis

vSara

both into fire

and

into waters.

of water, ct
if you are at all able.
8wr)
There is no inf. implied here, the pronoun being construed with
the verb immediately according to the Greek idiom. 3
23. To ei Svvr) 4
(omit TTto-TeSo-at)
If thou canst. Jesus re
peats the father s words in order to call attention to them, and to
the doubt expressed in them, which would stand in the way of his
The art. adds to the emphasis with which he points to
petition.
these words, as we say, That
you can" TTOVTO. 8vvara TW
.

"if

Over against the father s doubt, the Lord puts the


omnipotence of faith, which places at man s disposition the Divine

TriorewvTi

power.
Omit

Tri<rTevffa.i,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BC* L A

one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.

i,

118, 209, 244,

EvOvs Kpaas 6 Trarrjp rov iraiBfov IXeye, Trto-reua), (BorjOu /uou rfj
Immediately the father of the boy cried out and said, I
believe ; help my unbelief.
This does not mean help me to turn
my unbelief into belief," but "help me out of my trouble, in spite
24.

aTTioria

"

Sec on

v.is.

The compound verb

a Writer of the second century l!.C.


2 On the
pleonasm, see Win. 65,
6K

2.

is

found elsewhere only

n-aiSioflej/ is

in

a late word.

Maximus Tyrius,

The Greeks

iraifioT.
11

See Win.

On

64, 4.

fitii/rj

the use of the art.

a rare poetical nnd later form for


with ei Sui-j;, see Win. 18 a, 3.

is

Svvaaai..

said

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

170

[IX. 24-26

He claims at first,
of any unbelief that you may find in me."
that he does believe, notwithstanding any appearance to the con
And yet, he does not rest his case there,
trary in his language.
He pleads
but pleads with Jesus to show him mercy in any case.
the compassion of Jesus, instead of his own faith, and so uncon
sciously showed a genuine faith.
Omit Kal Tisch. (Treg.) WH. RV. N c BL A one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph.
A* BC* L A 28, one ms. Lat. Vet.
Omit /j.era daKptiuv, with, tears,
Memph. Omit Krfpie, lord, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N ABC* DL 346 mss.
%

ts

Lat. Vet. one ms. Vulg. Syrr.

that a (the) crowd is running


25. on eTricrwTpe
(o) o^Xps
The evidence for the
together besides (those already gathered).
insertion or omission of the art. is evenly divided. The anarthrous
noun is more consistent with the meaning of cTrio-wrpe^". i-m
adds to o-wrpex", is running together, the meaning besides, i.e. in
x"

The part. t Swv is causal;


addition to those already collected.
was because Jesus saw this, that he rebuked the demon.
it
He did not wish to attract a larger crowd by prolonging the
scene, and so, without any further delay, he proceeded with the
It is his usual avoidance of any notoriety in his mira
cure.
thou dumb and deaf spirit.
cles.
TO oAoAov KCU KOK^OV TTvcS/xa
The story has grown by so much, since the first mention of the
Then it was dumb, which was more than the other Gos
spirit.
tell
us, now it has become deaf and dumb.
pels
1

rb a\a\ov Kal KtaQbv irvev/jLO., instead of rb irvevpa rb &\u\ov Kal


A I, 33, 73, 118, Latt. Memph.
N BC*
Tisch. Treg.

WH.

KCH /cpaas KOL iroXAa o-7rapa|as, e^rjXOt


violently, he came out.

26.

out

Ku<f>bt>,

DL

And having cried

and convulsed (him)


/cp<fas

Kal

WH.

(TTrapdfas, instead of the neuter, Tisch. Treg.


RV. N corr
Omit O.VT&V, him, Tisch. Treg.

BC* DL(A).

mss. Lat. Vet.

WH.

BC*

RV.

DL

The masc. gender shows that the writer


a person.
It is impossible to
he became as if dead.
eyevcro oxm vexpos
account for this final convulsion. If Jesus, e.g., were restoring a
drowned person, would the horrible feelings attending a natural
restoration be avoided ? And whether any such violent wrench
of mind and body would attend a sudden cure of insanity, we do
*paas

K.

o-7rapaas

thought of the

spirit as

not know.
U>OT

TOWS TroAAovs Ae yeiv

so that the

Insert rods before TroXXofls Tisch. Treg.


1

most

WH. RV.

said.
K

ABL A

33.

This compound occurs only here in the N.T. and nowhere in profane authors.
On the preference of N.T. Grk. for the inf. to express result after WO-T*, see

Burton, 235, 369-371.

SECOND PREDICTION OF DEATH

IX. 27-32]
27.

K/yurrycrus riys xtipos

TT)S

xe

28.

KCU

atf-roD,

P"

RV.

Trcg. WII.

instead of avrbv

BDL A

ath-oC, instead

13, 28, 69, 118, 209,

having taken his hand.


rijs

I, 13, 28, 53,

io-eA0ovTos avroi)

clffe\0t>vros

i,

avrov

xe

s
P"

h*

ty the hand, Tisch.

69, 118, 209, Latt.

And he

171

Memph.

having entered.

of the ace., Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BCDL A

346 (Latt).

OVK ^Swi/^T/ju-ev
Why could not we ? On the use of
11
There seems to be no reason whatever here for
on, see on v.
supposing that this is a statement, instead of a question. There
is a kind of challenge in the statement, that is evidently not in
their minds.
They mean simply to ask the question, why they
could not perform this miracle, when Jesus had given them power
over unclean spirits.
29. TOUTO TO yevos
this kind of thing, i.e. the genus evil spirit ;
not this kind of spirit, as if this was a specially vicious kind of
*n
ei/
spirit, that it took a good deal to exorcise,
Trpocreux??
It is one
KOI V^O-TCIU, and fasting, is an evident gloss.
prayer.
of the things that a later asceticism imported into the spiritual
teaching of Jesus. It seems to be implied in the question of the
disciples that they had expected to cast out the demon, so that
their lack of faith in the matter had not taken the shape of doubt
of their power.
But what was lacking was prayer, which is the
expression of faith considered as dependence on the Divine
power and confidence in that. It is the sense of God that con
veys all kinds of spiritual power. But this power was not sub
jective, it did not reside in themselves, but was power to move
God, and this precludes the idea that a special degree of this
power was necessary in the case of so stubborn a demon as this.
But it is a general statement that miracles of any kind are possible
.

only to him

who

prays.

Tisch. (Treg. marg.) WII. RV. N* B one ms. Lat.


one of the things that would stand no chance of omission, if
found in the original. Evidence shows that it was interpolated in a like

Omit

Vet.

Kal

vrjffreiq.,

It is

5
passage (i Cor. 7 ).

SECOND PREDICTION OP DEATH


30-32. Jesus returns through Galilee, and again seeks to
to convey to his disciples the eso

hide his presence, in order


teric

On

teaching about
this

Jiis

death.

The same particulars are

use of the gen. abs., instead of the participle agreeing with


in the sentence, see Win. 30, n, Note.

pronoun found elsewhere

its

noun or

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

!72

given as in

tJic

[IX. 30-32

previous announcement, that he

^v^ll be

and put to death, and will rise again after


tip,
But
they did not know what he was saying,
days.

delivered
three

and were afraid

to

question him.

and having gone out


eeA0ovTes (nap) eVopevovro
K<ke($ev
The
which they left
were
that
coming.
place
they
place,
from
was the vicinity of Csesarea Philippi. Their journey through
Galilee to Capernaum would take them on the west side of the
30.

Jordan.
To, instead of irapeiropetovTo,

Treg. WII.

B*

l)

mss. Lat. Vet.

and did not wish that any one


KUI OUK -rjOfXiv ivtt TIS yvot
should know it} Jesus desire to escape notice is a continuation
of the policy pursued by him since his departure to Tyre and
a4
Siclon ( 7 )
Since that time, he has been mostly in strange places,
.

accompanied by
approaching

his disciples alone,

and preparing them

for the

crisis in his life.

yvoi, instead of

yv$, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

BCDL.

etc.
for he was teaching his disciples. This
was the reason of his desire to escape observation.
Prediction of things to be done by men is apt to prejudice the
It was necessary that the disciples should be prepared for
event.
so startling an issue, but the world is left wisely to the tutelage of

31.

eoYSao-Kev

yap

esoteric teaching

The present
is delivered over.
unforeseen events. TrapaStSorai
2
is used to denote the certainty of the future event.
/xera rpeis
The resurrection was really on the
after three days.
third day.
But the usage of speech allowed this to be spoken of
in either way.
i7/Aepas

This
32. -rjyvoovv TO prjfjui
they did not understand the word.
45
passage and the parallel (Lk. p ) are the only ones in which this
verb is used with the meaning understand, and the peculiar use in
passages relating to the same event is strongly corroborative of the
interdependence of the accounts. e<o/3owro avrov eTrepamJo-cu
they feared to question him.
They were afraid that further ques
tions would not alleviate, but only aggravate, the situation, and
they feared to know the worst.
1
Iva with the subj. after )0eAf v is
yvol is an irregular form of the sec. aor. subj.
one of the signs of the degeneracy of the language, in which the distinctive meaning
of words is gradually weakened, and finally disappears. Burton, 191, 203 Win.
;

44. 8 2

Win. admits the use of the historical present, but


40,
denies the use of the pres. for the fut., which involves the same prin

See Burton, 15

inconsistently
ciple.

Future

Win.

is still future,

2.

though conceived as present

MEANING OF GREATNESS

IX. 33, 34]

173

MEANING OF GREATNESS
33-37.

Dispute

precedence
them.

the disciples over the question of


Jesus defines true greatness for

among
them.

among

The journey from Csesarea Philippi brings them to Capernaum,


where Jesus begins to question them about a dispute which they
had had on the road, and which they evidently desire to con
ceal from him.
ally

when

And
first

We

asked him for

James and John actu


and second place among his followers,

learn elsewhere that

first

the time should

come

to distribute these honors (lo 35 ).

The

probably, this was an outcropping of the same spirit.


three places were conceded to these two and to Peter.

But

which was to be primus ?

Jesus answers this question by putting


before them the paradox of the kingdom, that last is first, and
Then he takes a child, and teaches them that
service is greatness.
the spirit of the child is the mark of the king, to receive one such
is to receive him, and to receive him is to receive God.
33.

Kal rjXQov cts K-a^apvaovp.

And

they

?l\0ov, instead of 1/\0ev, he came,T\sch. Treg.


209, most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Pesh.

came

to

WH.

RV.

Capernaum.
N

B(D)

I,

118,

and when

he was (RV.), do not trans


becoming not being. Having come
Tt eV 1-3 6Sw 8it\oy%tcr0f.
to be, or having come, translates it.
The verb is impf. and means were disputing.
being (AV.),
yevo/xcvos
late this verb, which denotes

Omit

among
Memph.

Trpds ^auToi)s,

mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

yourselves, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

ECDL

34. ecriwTrcov
were silent. But kept silent is better, which is
another meaning of the impf. The merging of all these different
shades of meaning into the simple past tense is one of the imper
This silence was due to their shame. They
fections of the AV.
knew Jesus opinion of such disputes. SteXe^^o-av
they had
who is greatest? That is, which of them ?
rts /ma>v
disputed?Winer contends, that the compar. is used here with perfect regu

since the object with which the comparison is made is really


2
But this would make it possible to substitute the com
only one.
the
for
superl. in all cases, since the greatest is always greater
par.
larity,

On

the plup. element in the aor., see Burton, 48, 52.

35, 4.

THE GOSPEL

1/4
than

all

the

rest,

Ol<~

MARK

the comparison being

made

[IX. 34-37

always not with-

But this confusion


individuals, but with all taken together.
of the signs of degeneracy in a decadent language.

is

one

35. irdvT<v lo-^aros Kal TT. SiaKovos


he shall be last of all, and
servant of all. This is the way to be great among the disciples of
It does not point out the penalty of ambition, as we
Jesus.
might
gather from the certain disapproval of the ordinary ambition by
But the
Jesus, but the way of satisfying Christian ambition.
method is a paradox, like the beatification of sorrow.
The

be

first is to be last, to fall to the


rear, to efface
not only humility that is demanded, but service.
This again is a paradox, since primacy means dominion, the fac
But these
ulty not of serving, but of levying service on others.
things, humility and service, in the kingdom of God, not only lead
to greatness, they are greatness, i.e. they are the supreme marks
of the Christian quality.
And it is one of the signs that the world
is
becoming a seat of the kingdom of God, that rulers, leaders,

Christian

yourself.

way

But

to

it is

employers, and others, are beginning to recognize this


meaning of their position.

idea of

service as the

36. emyKaXto-d/xevo?
a Biblical word, corresponding exactly
to our embrace, en bras, for which the Greeks said lv d
37.

cv TWV TrcuSiW Totovrcov

one of such little children. The


not a child in years, but in spirit, a
person possessed of the childlike quality. The child is the best
example of the type just held up before the disciples by our Lord,
and he is himself the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. When
he says then, that to receive such a childlike person is the same
child

meant by our Lord

is

as to receive him, he is affirming again, in his


striking way, that
humility and service are the marks of greatness in his kingdom ;
1
they are, that is, the things that identify a man with him.
Sj &v, instead of os tav, Tisch. Treg. WH. K ABCDL
In the second clause the same, Tisch. Treg. WH. BDL A.

i,

13, 28, 69.

ou
upon my name, i.e. on the strength of my
name. The prep, denotes the basis, the ground of the reception.
This use of the word ovojua to denote the various things about a
person recalled by his name, especially in the phrase lv or e?rl TW
oVopm, is not Greek, but Hebrew. The phrase indicates that a
person is so connected with another, that he receives whatever
consideration belongs to that other.
The connection of thought,
however, shows that, just as the personal consideration is excluded
by this phrase, showing that the man is not received for himself,
but because of Jesus ; so it cannot be a mere outward connection
with our Lord, but because the man s childljkeness makes him
1 Cf.

Mt.

i8.

EXCLUS1VENESS CONDEMNED

IX. 37-50]

like Jesus, so that

OVK

men

are reminded of Jesus

dAAa rov

Several,

lfji

airoartiXavTa.

/u,e

175

when they see him.


me but him

receives not

who

Christ did not represent himself in the world, but


sent me.
the Father, a fact developed at great length in the fourth Gospel.
This representative character belongs to him as the one sent by
But in this case also, the connection
the Father into the world.
To be sent by God is to be inspired
is not outward, but inward.
by him, to be filled with His Spirit, and so the spirit of humility
and service, in the disciple, and in Jesus himself, is here carried a
In such
step farther back, and is shown to be that of the Father.
a child, Jesus says, you see me, yes, and God himself.

EXCLUSIVENESS CONDEMNED
The

38-50.

disciples tell Jesus

of their interference with

one casting out demons in his name, but not following them.
1

Jesus

reply.

The belief of the disciples in the near approach of the kingdom


seems to have wrought in them other effects than ambition. So
far, the power to work miracles had been confined to themselves.

And

it

seemed

to

the exclusive right.


this

them a mark of superiority to which they had


So we find John, apparently in the course of

same conversation,

who had used

his

name

telling Jesus

in casting out

of the case of an outsider

demons, and had been

for

bidden by them any further exercise of a power appropriated to


them. Jesus answer is substantially that they are right, that the

work of a

disciple does belong to a disciple ; but that they have


turned this the wrong way.
It does not lead to officialism, but
It follows, not that any one who is outside
just the opposite.
their circle should

be forbidden their work, but that the doing of


is like them
inwardly, though not out

the work shows that he


wardly.

Their complaint is, that he


shows that he

well, Jesus says, that

is
is

doing their work.

on your

side.

It

Very
is

not

necessary to do a miracle to show this

a cup of water given to


;
them because they are disciples shows the same thing. But if
any one causes the fall of one of the humblest of these disciples,
it

would be better

round

for

him

And

to be cast into the sea, with a millstone

fall away is so grievous an evil,


they would better cut off hand, or foot, or eye, than have any
member cause their fall, since this means Gehenna and its fires to

his neck.

since to

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

176
them.

Fire

the

of

fire

is

to salt

Gehenna

them

all,

either the fire of affliction here, or

Fire

there.

[IX. 38, 39

is salt,

and

salt is

good

but

if

any salt loses its flavor, how is salt to be salted? Hence they
must have salt in themselves to render these outward purifiers
effective, and especially must be at peace among themselves, an
injunction which their jealousies and rivalries rendered necessary.

avrw 6 Iwavv^s, AiSacrKaXe, eiSo/xev TWO. ev


ovofjuari
K/3aAAovTa Sat/xovia, Kal eKwAcvo/xev avrov, on OVK rjKoXovOti rjfuv

38.

TO>

*E<^77

(Tov

to him, Teacher, we saw one casting out demons


name, and we forbade him, because he was notfollowing us.

John said
in thy

"E07;, instead of aireKpiOrj 8t


\tyuv. And
answered, saying, Tisch.
Treg. (who, however, retains A^ywv) WII. RV. N B,L Memph. Pesh. In
sert iv before T. 6v6/j.a.Ti Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. s BCDLN A I, 69, etc.
Omit os OVK d.Ko\ov6ei ~riv.lv, who does not folloiv us, WH. RV. N BCL A 10,
e/ctoXi;o uej , instead of -\vtra115, 346, one ms. I /at. Vet. Memph. Pesh.
r
L A I, 209. ^/coXo^et, instead of
nev, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BD e
d.Ko\ov0ei, after STI OVK, Tisch. WH. RV. NBA.
.

Teacher, not Master. The word in the vernacu


used by him would be Rabbi,
ev
in thy name.
ovo/xart crov
In this case, it means, by the authority of Jesus.
See on v. 37
on OVK -ffKoXovOu
because he was not following. The impf. takes
us back to the time of the transaction, when the disciples saw him
They were right in assuming this to be an
casting out demons.
abnormal case, because the proper place for the disciple assuming
such powers was with Jesus. The Master kept such in his imme
diate company for instruction, and even his immediate disciples
he sent out on such errands only very rarely. But all such restric
tions are themselves limited by the method of the Spirit s working,
which is like the wind, blowing where it will. The disciples had
a right to expect that one who had come under the influence of
But they did not
Jesus would, like them, desire to be with him.
take into account the fact that one might, under the influence of
such a life, be awakened himself to the want and wretchedness of
the world, and wish to put the mysterious power that he felt
within him to the test, and that this might overpower even the
desire for the companionship of the Lord.
39. KaKoXoy^crai
to speak evil}
Jesus puts the matter imme
lar

TO>

diately upon its proper footing, showing the disciples that, reason
ing from the facts within their possession, they ought to have
drawn a favorable conclusion. To be sure, it was so far against
the man, that he did not company with them ; but that was not
Whereas it was conclusive, that he was able to per
conclusive.
form the miracle. The test whether one is fit to perform an act
-ui

comes within the

classical period, but /catcus Ac-yen/ is

mure

usual.

EXCLUSIVENESS CONDEMNED

IX. 39-42]

A man s fitness to write poetry, to


the performance of the act.
preach, to paint, to perform miracles, is proved by his perform
ance in each case. Can he do the thing ? But here there was a
further question involved, whether the man really belonged to the
name that he had
disciples of Jesus, and so had a right to use the
used in casting out the demons. The fact, that he did not follow
the disciples, seemed to be against his own right as a disciple, but
overborne by the effect that followed his use of
this was
is

entirely

He could not cast out demons, actually cast them out,


the name.
in the name of Jesus, and then turn around and revile it.
Or, as
are
The
two
it
not
do
he
could
things
raxv, quickly.
Jesus says,
incongruous, so that they could not follow each other rapidly.
he who is not against us
40. os OVK ta-TLv KaO T//twv virep T^/AWV
This is not the opposite of "he that is not with me is
is for us.
but its complement (Mt. i2 30 ). There Jesus is talking
me,"
about this same matter of casting out demons, which he had been
accused of doing in the name of Beelzebub. But he answers that
the act is one of hostility to Satan, and cannot therefore proceed
from Satan himself. One cannot be for and against at the same
time.
Then he applies the same principle to himself, saying that
he who is not for him is against him. Here, he shows that this
same act of casting out demons is friendly to himself, as it is
hostile to Satan, and that he who shows himself thus friendly, can
not be at the same time hostile. The use which is often made of
Mt. I2 30 to show that there is no such thing as indifference to
is unwarrant
Jesus, but that seeming indifference is real hostility,
The real meaning of both passages is, that friendliness and
able.
therefore exist together.
hostility are incongruous, and cannot

against

TJH&V, us, instead of vn(av,you, Tisch. Treg.


209, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. Hard. marg.

41.

os

yap

tiv

WH.

RV.

BCA

irorioy v/xas trorripLov uSaros ev ovo/xart

i, 13,

69,

on Xpiorou

gives you a cup of water to drink on the


ground that you belong to Christ. OVO/XUTI is used here like the
RV. because ye are
Latin nomen to denote cause or season.
Christ s. This confirms the preceding by showing that even a
small service done in his name will be taken as showing friendli

For whoever

la-re.

ness to him, and so will not lose its reward.


from its motive of attachment to him.

Omit TV before tvonan Tisch. Treg.


ftav,

after 6v6/j.a.Ti Treg.

my,

WH.

WH.

RV.

It gets its

RV.

ABCLNX

character

til.

Omit

ABC* KLN II* I, 229, 238,


N* C 8 DX TAII 2 Latt. Memph.

Nc

Hard. text. Insert \MV Tisch.


Hard. marg. The pleonasm favors this reading, as Tisch. says. Insert
Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N EC* DL A mss.
8n, that, before otf

435, Pesh.

airo\t<rr,,

Lat. Vet. one ms. Vulg. Syrr.

Memph.

42.

eva TOVTWV

KO.I

os

a.v

<TKa.v$a.Xia"r)

Ka\OV eOTlV CLVTW

jU.aA.XoV,

7T/JtKtTUl

TWV

fj.LKpwv

/X.uA.OS

OylKOS

TWV

7rirrrei;ovTa>v,

A lid

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

*78

causes the fall of one of these

him

little

rather, if an upper millstone is


Insert TOVTUV, these, before
RV. N ABC* and

TWV

ones

who

[ix. 42, 43

fju K

puv,

well for

believe, it is

hung around his

neck.

ones, Tisch. Tree. (Tree


&
mss Q f Lat Vet
-who believe, Tisch WII
Lat. Vet. also C* D one ms. Lat. Vet which
read rlffra ixtrruv, have
faith, without els ^.
M^Xos
*,
mt#**, instead of XWoj fj.v\iK6s, a millstone, Tisch. Tree.
RV K BCDL

marg.)

WH.

Hard. Omit ets ipf, in me,


RV. (Treg. marg.) N A mss.

little

DLM2 N A

after

T&V

x>

iri<rTevt>vTwv,

<5vt/c6j,

WH

Latt. Pesh.

This presents the other side, the result of


injuring one of his
But it is noticeable that the
disciples.
injury is a spiritual one.
Not that other hurts inflicted on them would not be taken as indi
cating hostility to him, but that Jesus,
injuries, singles out those inflicted
only ones that will really harm

when he

thinks of such

on

their spiritual nature as the


them, though others show the dis

eV/

position to harm them.


KuAoV
1
rather.
Regularly, the form

uvrw //.SAAov
it is well for
of conditional sentence em
ployed would correspond to the assumption that the condition is
contrary to the fact ; i.e. past tenses of the ind. would be
employed.
The English Version indicates this
it were
by its

him

were hung, and were

translation,

cast.

better,

The

present construction, making it a


pure condition, leaves out of sight that the clause 3s &v <rKav8aAn
has already assumed
cricwSaAtv,
causing to fall, as the actual
case.
an upper millstone. Both words are
/AU AOS OJ/IKO S
Biblical,
and on/co s is found only here and in the
6
parallel passage (Mt. i8 ).
This is another case, therefore, in which
the
only
interdependence
of the written accounts will account for the
identity of the lan
guage. The grist was ground in a mill between an upper and
under stone, the under one
being stationary, and the upper one
turned by an ass, whence the name OVIKO S.
43.
o-e

is

/cai e av

(TKavSaXicrr] (re

KvAAov etc.
well for you
ffKa. v da.\l<rr,,
f

rj ^eip
KuAoV eVri v
OLTTOKO^OV avr^v
if your hand causes you to fall, cut it off; it
to enter into
life maimed, etc.
<rov,

and

WH.

instead of -ft, Tisch.


of
etrri, Tisch. Treg.

fffrlv ffe , instead

<rot

346.

RV. M BL A mss.
RV. N BCL

WH.

Lat. Vet. Vulg

An

28 6q**

This word forms the connection between this and


A"rj7
the preceding discourse.
Jesus has begun by speaking of what it
is to be identified with
him, and incidentally has introduced the
subject of the injury inflicted on him by causing the fall of one of
his disciples.
And in connection with this has come up the ques
tion of comparative
This leads him
values, spiritual and material.
to speak of the
things in the man himself that would lead to his
fall, and to continue the subject of
comparative values in connec1

The comp.

of Ka Ao S (or Ka
Ais)

is

found only once in the N.T. (Acts

2510).

EXCLUSIVENESS CONDEMNED

IX. 43-47]

179

tion with that.


It is well to cut off hand, or foot, or eye, sooner
than run the risk through either of them of absolute spiritual
r.
loss.
uaeXOeiv
to enter into life.
Life is the word
oyv
used in the Bible to express the reward of righteousness. And
d<s

the word which expresses the natural, instead of the imposed


consequence of conduct. Conduct reacts on the life, the being of
the man, and right conduct conduces to health and fulness of life.
into Gehenna.
This is the Graecized form of
eis T. Te evvav
Dan U the Vale of Hinnom, which is the valley on the SE. side
of Jerusalem. This valley had been desecrated by the sacrifice
of children to Moloch, and had been used as an accursed place,
for the refuse and garbage of the city.
Here worms consumed
the dead matter, and fires were kept burning to destroy the refuse.
Hence it came to be used as a name for the place of future punish
ment, ei? TO Trvp TO ao-/?eo"rov
into the unquenchable fire.
This
is borrowed from the continual fires of Hinnom
spoken of above.
it is

And

the material figure expresses the idea of destruction, as life


denotes the opposite side of retribution. The contrast with farjv

would indicate that

this is the meaning of the figure here, rather


Jesus follows here his usual habit of borrowing
current language, which lends itself, however, to the expression of
more radical spiritual ideas than it conveyed to the common
understanding. This is not a necessary deduction from the lan
guage, but its aptness for the expression of the deeper thought, and
the aptness of Jesus for the deeper thought, combine to create a
strong probability of its correctness.

than torment.

Omit
45.

v. 4 *,

Tisch.

KO.AOV eortv
Iffrlv

ffe,

WH.

<re

RV.
it is

instead of terl

BCL A

trot,

Tisch. Treg.

Omit ds Tb irvp rb dar^effrov, into


WH. RV. N BCL A I 28, 118, 251, two
Omit v. 46 same authorities as v. 44

Svo

the

WH.

RV. N

ABCEFGHKLVX

unquenchable

fire, Tisch. Treg.

mss. Lat. Vet. Pesh.

/caAov

28, 118, 251.

well for you.

All.

47.

i,

<re

ecmv

/>tovo<0aAjiiov

ere\0v

ets

rrjv

/SatnAetav row

e^ovra (3\r)6f)v(U cts rrjv yeevvav, OTTOU, etc.


It is well for you to enter one-eyed into the kingdom of God, than
having two eyes to be cast into Gehenna, where, etc.
eov,

rj

o<#aA/u,ovs

instead of aoi ta-rl, Tisch. Treg. WH. (RV.) x B; iffrlv


of
TOU 7rup6s, of fire, after ytevvav {Gehenna of fire, not hell fire),
Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BDL A i, 28, 118, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
<rt

Icrriv,

<re

L A. Omit

Kingdom of God

is substituted in this case for


The con
life.
with yeevvav shows that it is the future, rather than the
But in the
present form of the kingdom, that is strictly meant.
mouth of Jesus, such a term as kingdom of God has a permanent

trast

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

180

[IX.

47-50

meaning, which is never lost among the minor changes. To him


it meant simply the realm in which the will of God is done.
It is
1
well, he says, to enter that realm at any cost.
OTTOU 6

48.

where

their

worm and

avroJv ov TeAcvra, KCU TO Trvp ov a(3tvvvTai


and the fire is not quenched. Both

o-K(i>Xr}

worm

dies not,

are here destructive forces, and belong in the


life and death, denoting natural and not imposed
Of course, it is the soul that undergoes punishment,
penalties.
and the punishment consists in the forces that prey upon it and
their worm; the worm, i.e. that
6 o-KwA^ avrwv
destroy it.
preys upon the inhabitants of this dread realm.
dies not, and . .
is not
ov crflevvvTai.
ov TeAevTa, Kat
It is the permanence of the retribution that is ex
quenched.
pressed in these material figures. This is characteristic of natural
fire

same category

as

as distinguished from imposed penalties.


Whippings
and imprisonments are subject to limitations of time, but the
wounds inflicted on the man himself by his sins, the degradation
and deterioration of his being, have no such limitation. The
worm that gnaws, and the fire that burns inwardly have no limits.

penalties

They propagate themselves.


/caAov TO oAa(s)
49, 50. Tras yap Trvpl a\Lo-6rjcreTa.i.
one shall be salted with fire. Salt is good.

Omit Kal irava. Ovcria d\l dXicrO^fferai,


salted with salt, Tisch. Treg. marg. (Treg.)
118, 205, 206, 209, 229, 251, 258, 435,

and

WH.

For

every

every sacrifice shall be

RV.

t*

BL A

I,

61, 73,

one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. edd.

This is confessedly one of the most difficult passages to inter


In the first place, it seems necessary to con
pret in the N.T.
48
49
with aXas in
nect Trvpl with Trvp, V. , and dAto-^rycrerat in V.
50
And it is this connection with what precedes and follows
v. .
For Trvpl is also connected with oAio^crethat makes trouble.

and dA.io-0^o-T<xi, from its connection with aAas, gets a good


meaning, and Trvpl, from its connection with Trvp, gets a bad
That makes the crux of the situation.
Meyer is
meaning.
about the only one who faces this, and gives us a key that fits into
This he does by obtaining his interpre
all the wards of the lock.
13
tation of aXio-Orjo-erai from Lev. 2 , where it is called the salt of
the covenant. To be salted would mean, therefore, for any one
?r5s would refer thus
to have the covenant fulfilled on himself.
to those who suffer the doom of Gehenna, and the meaning would
be that every one of these shall have the covenant fulfilled on him
by its fires. And on the other hand, every sacrifice, such as those
make who cut off hand or foot, or eye, to preserve themselves
from spiritual loss, will have the covenant fulfilled on them by the
Tat,

On

35. 2.

c.

this

use of the pos. instead of the comp., well, instead ot

better,

see Win.

EXCLUSIVENESS CONDEMNED

IX. 50]
salt

of purifying wisdom.

The

difficulty with this

181
very ingenious,

and otherwise
condite

satisfactory interpretation is, that it involves a re


allusion to the usages and meanings of ceremonial law,

And
entirely foreign to our Lord s manner of speech.
gives also a double meaning to dAas, one in the verb
This breaks up the
aAio-^a-trat, and another in the noun itself.

which

is

it

then,

connection made by the recurrence of the same keywords, not so


badly, to be sure, as when different meanings are assigned to trvp
48 49
but still enough to constitute a difficulty. Another very
in v.
,
serious difficulty is, that it requires the retention of the second
49
clause of v. , *. -n-aara OvaLa, etc. This clause is, to say the least,
extremely doubtful. And yet, it furnishes the only use of aAas
50
giving us a transition to the aAas of v. , as the meaning of
makes no connection with that. No, we shall have
aXi<rOricrf.Tai
to find an interpretation that will enable us to pass right over from
the first clause of v. 49 to v.50, and that at the same time will preserve
the connection with v. 48
Salt in that case will have to denote a
49
and w, and fire will have to de
purifying element, to connect
note a destroying element, to connect ^ and 49
That is, we have
49
brought together in this v. the purifying element salt, and the
destroying element fire, and the statement is that the destructive
element performs a purifying part. The object of all retributions,
even of the penal retributions of Gehenna, is to purify. They
-

serve, like sickness in the physical being, to warn man against


violations of the law of his being.
But the statement is not re
stricted to these, but is extended, as the unlimited ?ras naturally

suggests, to the cutting off of hand and foot and eye also.
Every
one shall be purified either by the loss of parts, self-inflicted to

preserve the whole, or by the destroying fires of Gehenna. This


is the law of our being, and
every one has to submit to it, in one
form or another.
KaXov TO aAas *
salt is good.
The special form of purification
meant is that of affliction. But the statement is general
that
2
which purifies is good. araAov
literally saltless.
apTva-ere
will you season ?
The meaning of the proverb is, that there are
certain things in the world having special qualities which
they can
impart to other substances ; and if they lose these qualities, what
can impart them to the very things which possess them as their
special character ? In other words, what can perfume the rose ?
what can salt salt ? spice spice ? or restore grace where it is lost ?
So, if loss loses its power to chasten, what will chasten loss ? TO dAa.
1

last clause is formed regularly from aA, which is regular, but not
also from aAa, the reading of Tisch. in the first two clauses, and a later
it is not to be formed
regularly from aAa?, though the two are conjoined
in the authorities followed by Trcg.
aAa is also a later form.
2 This word means
strictly to prepare food, and only in comic writers and the
Bible, to season it.

aAa in the

found here
form. But

WH.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

82

[IX.

50-X 12

have salt in yourselves. Our Lord s injunction


eavTois aXa
that they have the purifying element in themselves, instead of
as loss and retribution,
being dependent on outside agencies, such
This is the condition of purifying power in the outward
for it.

?XTe ev

is

Taste in the man himself is necessary to the savor of


agencies.
faith to the grace of God.
eip^vevsalt, feeling to the heat of fire,
1
cultivate peace, or be at peace, among yourselves.
cre cv dAAipUws
This injunction is the special form of the previous general admoni
tion fitted to the present case.
They had been disputing about
with another man,
precedence among themselves, and about rights
whose place among themselves they ought to have recognized.
*
60 ABCDNX II etc.
#\o, Tisch. N L A.
in the first two clauses of v.
A
x*
AB*DL
WH.
Tisch.
28,
last
i,
209.
Xa in
clause,
Treg.
,

of
evidently one in which the connections
the
and
interpretation hindered, by
thought have been obscured,
But our Gospel has preserved fdr
imperfectness of the report.

This discourse

is

however imperfectly, thoughts and connections both charac


In Mt. the setting of the discourse is the
teristic and valuable.
after
the return from the mountain of Trans
in
same,
Capernaum

us,

figuration.

And

the connections of thought in the conversation

Instead
are the same, until we come to Mk. s peculiar ending.
of this, we have the parable of the lost sheep, and from that it
Lk. introduces the discourse in
runs on into different discourse.
the same way, but carries it on only through the part relating to
The danger of leading astray a dis
the man healing in his name.

ending, however peculiar


in form, but in matter.
not
of verisimilitude,

But Mk.

ciple he introduces elsewhere.

and

difficult,

has an air

JUDAEA.

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

X. 1-12. Jesus departs from Galilee, and comes to Jndaa


and Percea. The Pharisees try him with one of their testto divorce.
questions, in regard

Jesus

ministry in Galilee

is

Palestine.
region of Southern

Jesus anstver.

an end, and he goes into the


Between this beginning and the

at

Mk. introduces immediately,


controversy about divorce which
in
with his most characteristic
fills
Lk.
a
which
is
there
gap,
This question of divorce was one of the puzzles of the
matter.
1
make this phrase consistent, either the pron.
reflexive, or the prep, to MT<k.

To

should be changed to the

X. 1-4]

JUD^iA.

schools,

arising

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

183

from the ambiguity of the law.

Jesus, in

his

answer, interprets the law in accordance with the liberal school,


which allowed laxness of divorce ; but says that this license was

due
and
and

From

to their spiritual dulness.

the beginning,

i.e.,

originally

being based on the sexual distinction


and
therefore
a
Divine
act,
institution, is indissoluble, and
divorce involves adultery.
essentially, marriage,

1. Kat encWcv
And from this place. The place meant is
^
33
KCU -repay T. lopSdvov
Capernaum. See p
and across the
Jordan. The general district, TO. opia, into which he came was
Southern Palestine, including the region on both sides of the
.

river.

-n-dXtv o^Xot
multitudes again.
During the last part of
the time in Galilee, he was alone with his
See 9 30 32
disciples.
But now, in Judaea, he is
entering on a new phase of his general
mission, the multitudes gather around him again, and he is teach
.

The Impf. e8i8aa-Ktv denotes not a single act,


ing them as usual.
but a course of action, and should be
was
translated,

Ka2, instead of 5td TOV, before irtpav, Tisch. Treg.

teaching.

WH.

RV. N BC*

Memph.
Kat irpovfXQovTts ^apicraioi
And Pharisees
eTnypwrwv avrov
to him and asked him.
Treipa^oi/res avrov
testing him.
This was a test, not a temptation. He claimed to be a
Rabbi, and
they proposed to put him to a test by propounding to him one of
their puzzles.
The law of divorce itself allowed it in case of the
2.

came

wife s coming into disfavor with her husband because of


his find
ing something unseemly in her.
The school of Shammai, which
was in general the stricter school,
interpreted this to apply only
to cases of
adultery, while the opposite school of
licensed
divorce under it for any cause. See Deut.
2^. The ambiguity
of the passage, and the
disputes of the Rabbis, made it a cause
celebre, fitted to test, and possibly to discredit, the
superior wis

HIM

dom

claimed by Jesus.

Omit
Vet.

WH.

ABL TAII, two mss. Lat.


WH. RV. BCDLM A.

oi, the, before *aptffo?oi, Treg.


RV.
tirypuTuv, instead of t-irr]puT7)(rav, Tisch. Treg.

3. Tt
vp.lv eVereiAaTo Mawo^s
Jesus recognizes that this is to
;

What did Moses command you ?


them primarily a question of the

Mosaic Law, and so, in order to


get the matter properly before
them, he asks for the law.
1
4. ^Xiov
means a roll, the form in which all written docu
ments were prepared at the time. aTroorao-t ou *
of divorce. This
1

a diminutive from /stfAo*. which denotes


primarily the papyrus plant
was prepared for writing.
This word is rare, and in the sense of divorce it is
peculiar to the Bible
0t0Aioi>

is

the bark of which


2

IO

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

l$4

[X. 4-7

in the original,
reply does not contain the condition of the divorce
which made the subject of dispute between the two schools, viz.,
that the wife had come into disfavor because the husband found
This is an indication
something unseemly in her (Deut. 24 ).
that Jesus questioners belonged to the school of Hillel, which
found in it practically no barrier to absolute freedom of divorce,

so that in citing the law, they would ignore this as having no bear
Mt. iQ 3 7 gives a different version of the affair,
ing on the case.
which, however, defines their position still more distinctly as the
liberal position.
According to that, their question is, whether it
is lawful for a man to divorce his wife for every cause.
Jesus
"

answers this by defining his own position forbidding divorce, when


they ask, why Moses allowed it then. The order is unimportant,
and there is nothing to choose between the two accounts.
6 Se

5,

Ii/o-ors

ciirev

avrots,

T.

Upas

o-KA^poKupSiav

II/AWV

eypa^ev

And Jesus

said to them out of re


he
wrote you this command,
hardness
to
the
heart}
of
your
gard
2
coarseness of spirit,
o-K\?/pos means hard, in the
tr/cAi/poKapStu
sense of rough or coarse, rather than unimpr-essible.
KupSia is the
common word for the inner man generally, in the N.T. The
whole word denotes the rude nature which belongs to a primitive
This principle of accommodation to the time in
civilization.
course limits finally
Scripture is of inestimable importance, and of
rr)v

vfj.iv

cvroXrjv

Tavrrjv

We

find that the writers were


its authority.
12
See also J. i6 .
subject to this limitation, as well as their readers.
of
the
This answer of Jesus admits the correctness
interpretation
of Hillel and his school, as far as it was a matter of interpretation.

the absoluteness of

3, instead of Kal dwoKpiOeis

6,

And answering, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV.

BCL A Memph.

But from the beginning of creation.


dpx^s KTicreajs
Law to the original constitution
the
Mosaic
from
back
goes
Jesus
4
27
in connection with 2of things, for which he cites Gen. i
of
on
the
This connection, instead of basing marriage
taking
woman from man, puts it on the much broader and more rational
ob-o Se

6,

ground of

their sexual relation.

male and female he made them?

apcrev Kai OrjXv eTrot^crcv aurous

Omit

6 0e6s, Tisch.

Treg.

WH.

RV.

This conforms to the original, in which


of the statement, and is omitted here.
7,

O/CKCV TOVTOV

<?/2

On

vKAijoKoSia

this

meaning of
is

Ti-po?,

BCL A

6 6e6j

two mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.

belongs to the preceding part

because of the physical


even closer union than that between

this account,.v iz..,

relation, pointing to an
parent and child. Both
1

belong to the perpetuity of the family,

see

Win. 49

a Biblical word.

h, c).

It is

not
8

common Greek

Gen.

i 2 ^.

usage.

X. 7-9]

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

JUD/KA.

but the relation of husband and wife

is,

in the nature

more intimate and compelling.

185
of things,

With the omission of the last clause,


and shall cleave to his wife, stress is laid on the separation from
father and mother, and so on the superiority of the other union.
Omit

WH.

jcat irpo(ricoXXi70i}0-eT(u
irpits TTJV

yvvaiKa avrov, Tisch. (Treg.

mar? )

RV. marg. N B.

ets
and the two shall become
/xi av
not found in the Heb., but was introduced into
the Sept.
It adds nothing to the
meaning, though it strengthens
the expression of it.
IO-OVTCU
s is a Hebraism,
denoting the
2
The union pointed out is a physical one,
coming into a state.
being that to which the sexual relation points
they shall become
one flesh. The sexual act unites them, makes them
one, the same
as the junction of two streams make one
river, the union of hydro
gen and oxygen in certain proportions makes one substance, water,
the mechanical joining of different parts fitted to each other makes
the one Structure,
wore OVKETI etVt 8vo, oAAu fjiia crap
so that
This is our Lord s inference
they are no longer two, but one flesh.
8.

K. 60-ovrai 01

one flesh}

Suo

<rdpKa

oi Suo is

from the preceding quotation. The duality no


longer exists ; it
has been replaced by this structural unity.
Before, there had
been two beings structurally fitted for each other;
now, their

union makes

this

new

structural unity.

they would be separate; but being


belong together.
9.

God

o ovv 6

cos

If they

now

had remained two,

structurally one, they

what therefore
fiy ^w/Di^eVa)
The act of joining
separate.
since the constitution that underlies it is His
;

<rwevev,

joined together,

let

aj/0po>7ros

not

man

together is God s,
divorce, on the other hand, is a matter of human legislation ; and
the human is not to set aside the divine.
God has not only
created this structural unity in the original creation of man he
;
has made man himself to recognize this
purpose of his structure,
and has written this law of his physical being in his
spiritual nature,
so that what tends in brutes to indiscriminate
intercourse, tends
in man to the indissoluble and sacred bond of
marriage. Jesus
nowhere shows the absolute rationality and verity of his
thought
more than here. Spirituality is the very core of that thought, but
it never misleads him so that he misses the material facts.
And
it is the insistence on these
here, that saves him from an immoral
Whatever may underlie marriage in the realm of
sentimentality.
the feelings, it is itself physical, and
structural

And

produces
about that, for the profoundest reasons, God
gathers

unity.

all

the

holiest feelings, and by solemn


sanctions, confines them within
that circle.
Except for that confinement, the feelings themselves
lose their sacredness, and become unhallowed and

profane.

Gen.

a.

He b.

V mn.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK


Kut

10.

IS

T1)V OIKIUV

10-12

Ol /LUI^TUl TTt/31 TOVTOV


into the house again, the disciples asked

TTttAlV,

And (having come}


UUTW
him about this.

N BDL A.
WH. RV. N
same, Tisch. Treg. WH.

Tisch. Treg. \VH. RV.


rr,v oixlav, instead of Iv rr, oMq.,
the disciples, Tisch. Treg.
O.VTOV, his, after ot /tta077Tcu,

eis

Omit

BCL A
RV. N

28.

TOVTOV, this, instead of TOV avTov, the


mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Pesh.
RV. N BCL A.
Tisch. Treg. marg.

ABCLMNX TA

evrjpi!>Tr)ffav,

11.

[X.

"Os

av

aTro\va-r)

e-n-ripuTwv, instead of

WH.

Whosoever puts away his wife.

to, instead of td.v, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N

BCDL

A.

in case of a second marriage


Jesus states now what takes place
It is to be inferred from the
divorce.
formal
a
mere
following
of the marriage bond.
previous statement of the indissolubility
union
Any formal sundering of the tie leaves it really whole ; the
for
not
any
this
by
of
accomplished
natural, physical kind,
being
mal procedure, but in the sexual act uniting man and woman, no
formal procedure can break it, but simply leaves it as it was. And
and marries another, the second
so, if any man divorces his wife
connection is an adulterous one,
the
and
for
naught
marriage goes
it does nothing towards dissolv
simply because the divorce is nil ;
ing the marriage.

and
eav aiiTr) dTroXvcrao-a T. ai/8pa avTrjs ya^a-y aAXov
Under
another.
having put away her husband, marries
the Jewish law, the wife could not put away her husband, and
while Jesus goes outside of Jewish law and develops general prin
he does not travel outside of Jewish custom
ciples in his teaching,
the occasion of that teaching. This is one of the things
in
12.

K.

if she,

finding
that point to the

Gentile surroundings and destination of this


written by a Jew, it grew up in Gentile
evidently
Gospel. Though
to Jesus own teaching became per
soil, and there this appendix
The exception to this prohibition of divorce
fectly natural.
stated in Mt. 19 is really implied
except for the cause of adultery

Lord s statement of principles as recounted in our Gospel,


because adultery is the real dissolution of the marriage tie, as dis
Precisely as divorce does not
tinguished from the formal divorce.
break the marriage tie, adultery does break it. But the state
ment is not full and clear without this, and in this respect the
account of Mt. is to be followed.
in our

/ecu, a woman puts away


airo\foaffa, instead of yvvy awoXviTfi
a\\ov, instead
and, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N BCL A Memph.
x BC* DL A
is married to another, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV.
of yanr]6y
.

aiirr,

7MB

S.\\<f>,

I, 13,

28, 69, 124, 346, Latt.

Memph.

This use of eis without even any verb


motion to a place, is to be noticed.
without any verb to suggest it.
i

action, or

like sit or stand, implying previous


The return to the house is implied

X.

LITTLE CHILDREN BLESSED

13, 14]

187

LITTLE CHILDREN BLESSED


13-16. Jesus blesses little children, and rebukes his dis
ciples for repelling those bringing them.
Jesus meets with opposition here, but also with trust.
They
bring to him little children, that they may receive that wonderful

touch which has healed so many.

now

with the important


seemed to them so near, rebuke

are busy

The

whose thoughts
of the kingdom, which
them for intruding so slight
disciples,

affairs

But Jesus became very angry, and bade


matters on the Messiah.
the children to be brought to him, as representing the very spirit
to which the kingdom belongs.
Mt. and Mk. are parallel in their account from the close of the Galilean
Lk. introduces, between the
ministry to the final entry into Jerusalem.
departure from Galilee and this point, much of his most characteristic
matter.
But beginning here, with the events immediately preceding the
entry into Jerusalem, the three accounts become parallel. The following is
a synopsis of these events :

MATTHEW.

MARK.

Blessing of Children.

"

Rich Young Man.


Parable of Householder.
Prophecy of Death.
Petition of James and John.
Blind

Men

at Jericho.

avrw

LUKE.

Same.

Question of Divorce.

"

Same.

Same.
"

Same.

"

"

Same.

may touch them. The symbolic


action accompanying the blessing was the laying on of hands.
See v. 1 6.
Touch gives the rationale of that conventional form.
The mere touch of that wonderful being had cured, restored,
13.

?i/a

ai/^rai

that he

His method in conveying these blessings had been the


laying on of hands, and they saw in this the effect of contact with
so marvellous a man.
rebuked them. This re
eVertju-wv avroTs
raised.

buke was directed against the presumption of those persons in


bringing mere children to the attention of so great and busy a
person as Jesus.
O.VTOIS,

WH.

RV.

instead of rots irpofftptpovariv, those bringing them, Treg. marg.


N
A two mss. Lat. Vet. It is against this, that avrois is the

BCL

reading of Mt. and Lk.


14. fjyava.KT-rjfTf.
was indignant. Or rather, in accordance with
the use of aor. to denote the entering on a state denoted by the
The composition with ayav makes this a
verb, became indignant.^
strong word.
1

Burton, 41.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

88
Ac^ere

the

TrcuSia

TO,

Ip^ecr^at

children to come to

little

fit

irp6<;

/j,r)

[X. 14-16

KwXvere aura

me; forbid them

not.

Suffer

The omission

of the conjunction between the two clauses gives abruptness and


force.

Omit Kal, and, before


TAII Memph.

/xf

KuAtfere Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

BM* NX

TWV yap TOIOVTWV errriv 17 (3a.a-iXf.ia, etc.


_/^r /? such belongs
kingdom of God. The gen. is possessive, which is not denoted
by of such is, AV. and RV. TWV TOIOT/TW denotes those possessing
4
Cf. Mt. i8
The
the childlike spirit of docility and humility.
the

one that belongs to them as children, and is the result of


their position of dependence and subordination, the same as the
But those
discipline which belongs to the condition of a soldier.
who show that disposition, when it is no longer the effect of posi
spirit is

but a manifestation of character, belong to the kingdom of


In children therefore, as children, appears the very quality
of the kingdom, and this gives them a special distinction in the
eyes of its members. They are not to be turned away as unworthy
The kingdom of God in the world conthe attention of its king.
sists of those who substitute for self-will and independence the
And this is
will of God, and trust in his wisdom and goodness.
What children feel towards their
the attitude of childhood.
parents man should feel towards God.

tion,

God.

I
I

15.

os av

p,r)

8frjTai

T.

/SomAeiav

T.

eou ws JrouStOV ou

p-rj

fbrtX&fi

kingdom of God as a little


The kingdom of God is in its idea,
child, shall not enter into it.
its essence, the rule and the authority of God, and then the sphere
in which he bears rule, either the spirit of the individual man, or
the assemblage of its subjects, the society constituted by them.
When Jesus speaks of its acceptance, it is the rule itself which is
meant ; that is to be accepted with unquestioning obedience, as
And on the other hand, when
the child accepts the parental rule.
he speaks of entrance into it, he means the society of its subjects,
the perfect state and order which results from doing the will of
God.
&v, instead of ta.v, after os Tisch. Treg. WH. N BCDL A I.
whoever does not

ets avTrjv

receive the

2
1
Ti0eis ras x V as
avrd, KarevAoyei
taken
them
in
his
arms, he blessed them, put
having
ting his hands on them.

16.

aura

Kai

7r>

evayKaXiora/ACvos

And

xP

as
Karev\6yei ri6ds ras
avrd, r)v\6yei atrd, Tisch. Treg.

7r>

wrd, instead of nOels ras


RV. N BCL A Memph.

WH.

occurs only in these two passages, and in the Sept.


in the Bible, and not at all outside.
On the Hebraistic meaning of tv\oyflv, to invoke blessings on, see on 6 41 . On the
augment of verbs beginning with eu, see Win. 12, 3.
1

See on 9

caT6u\oyec. is

;<i

The word

a compound found only here

THE STUMBLING BLOCK OF WEALTH

X. 17]

189

THE STUMBLING BLOCK OP WEALTH


17-31. Jesus is asked the way to obtain life by a rich
man, and points him the way of the commandments.

young
The young man professes to have kept these, and then Jesus
shows Jnm the way of self-renunciation. His disappoint
ment leads Jesus to speak of the danger of wealth, and of
the reward of renunciation.
The young man addresses Jesus as Good Teacher, and asks
what he shall do to inherit eternal life. Jesus takes up this address
calls him good, when only God is good.
first, and asks why he
him to the commands of God for the answer
And he
points

to his question.

The young man

claims to have kept these, and

as Jesus looks at him, he loves the evident feeling for righteous


ness that leads a man of manifestly moral life to dissatisfaction

with himself, and seeing that

it is

his wealth that stands in the way,

he bids him sell out, give to the poor, and follow him. It is evi
dent that he has probed the difficulty, for the man has too much

up and sadly turns away. Jesus then turns to his disciples,


and shows them that riches are a stumbling block in the way of
This excites their astonishment, as wealth and respectability
life.
it is no easy thing
go together. Whereupon, Jesus tells them that
to enter into the kingdom of God anyway, and for a rich man
next to impossible ; in fact, impossible with men, and only possible
to give

with God.
this

little too conscious) that


of self-renunciation has been complied with by the

Peter, conscious (perhaps a

demand

disciples, asks

what

their

reward

will be.

Jesus answers, rewards

kind here, with persecution; and in the future eternal life.


exclusive
But, lest they should think of themselves as having any
he
warns
in
the
kingdom,
right, or even necessary preeminence

in

them
17.

that

Kat

many

first

shall

be

KTropevofj.vov avrov

last,

and

eis rrjv

last first.

oB6v

And as

he wentforth

See v. 10 , where he is said to have gone into the house.


The numeral is used sometimes, especially in late writers, in
eTs
The usage is so rare, however, as to
the sense of the indef. -ns.
warrant its rejection, except in sure cases.
Here, it means that

into the road.

i
On this use of thr grn. :ibs., where the
of the sentence, see Win. 30, u, Note.

noun or pronoun belongs

to the structure

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

19

[X.

17-19

one man came by himself to consult Christ. 1


yovuTrerT/o-as
having kneeled to him.
to inherit
a^v aiuwov KAT/povo/x^o-w
eternal life? Eternal life was the term in common use
among the
Jews to denote the blessings of the Messianic kingdom, both here

and

hereafter.

Ti pe Aeyeis aya.66v
Why do you call me good? /xe is not
emphatic, as is shown by the use of the enclitic form. The reason
of this question, and of the denial of goodness to
any one but God
which follows it, is that God alone possesses the absolute
He is what others become. Human goodness is a growth,good.
even
when there is no imperfection. It develops, like wisdom, from
childhood to youth, and then to manhood.
And it was this
18.

human goodness which was possessed by Jesus. See Lk. 2 52


Heb. 2 10 5 8
This has a bearing, too, on the question
propounded
by the young man, since it was not to the good teacher as such,
but to the absolutely good God, that questions in
regard to the
real good that brings the promised reward should be addressed.
And this is the form in which question and answer are put in
Mt. iQ 17 as follows "What good thing shall I do to inherit eter
nal life?"
"Why do you ask me concerning the good thing?

One

is

good, God."
Tas evroAas otSas
You know the commandments. This is
connected immediately with the preceding statement about God.
These commands belong to the law of the one only
absolutely
19.

good Being, and

therefore in these commands that the


young
for the answer to his question.
Moreover,
he is familiar with these commands, and
why therefore seek anyfurther for his answer.
There is, however, an answer to this seem

man

is

it is

bidden to look

ingly unanswerable question of Jesus.


Though the commands
are divine, and as divine would be a ne
plus ultra, they were
revealed through men, and this human element in them makes it
possible for men belonging to a more spiritual time, or themselves
more spiritual, to go further in revealing the ways of God to men.
That is what Jesus himself did in the Sermon on the Mount, set
ting in contrast the imperfect commands of the ancients and his

own perfect injunctions.


is one of the cases
therefore, in
which Jesus suggests more than appears on the surface, viz., that
there is a chance that even so-called divine commands
may not
be ultimate. The suggestion itself is pertinent to a time of transi
tion from one era of divine revelation to
another, and the method
of suggestion is not absent from the
teaching of Jesus, who fre
>This

quently gave men something to think of, some riddle to solve,


instead of always throwing so much light himself as to save them

Win.

18, 9.

In classical Greek, this verb


tance, and it governs the gen.

y 0t vlrfTf i v is a later Greek word.


restricted to the meaning, to obtain by inheri

is

THE STUMBLING BLOCK OF WEALTH

X. 19-21]

191

all trouble.
In this very case, Jesus proceeds to add
something to
what he has cited as the divine commands,
showing that these do
not contain the last words in the matter. The commands cited
by him are those of the second table of the law, except the tenth,
and with the command defraud not, added. This addition is not
to be referred to a single passage like Deut.
but is a remi
24",

niscence of many such passages, besides


being a self-evident part
of the law of righteousness. 1
20. Kat (77, TavTa iravra
And he said, all these I
This claim of innocence on the part of the
kept.
young man was
evidently not intended to be absolute, but was simply that this had
been the general course of his life, viz., a course of observance of
the divine law.
The cause of his dissatisfaction with himself was
not that his obedience to these commands was not
perfect, a per
fection which was not expected
by Judaism, as their system of
sacrifices showed, but a secret
feeling that this was not
<j>v\a^dfir}v

Omit

airoKpiOels,

Memph.

enough.

/ kept?

e<j>v\ad{J.r)v

t<f>r],

WH.

answering, Tisch. (Treg. marg.*)

instead of

elirev,

Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV.

RV.

B A

BC A Memph.

21.
the look was evidently to
O.VTU, rjyaarrjfTCv avrov
confirm the impression made by the words of the
young man.
Here was a constant observer of the law, who yet was not satisfied
with himself.
Would his looks bear out the impression created
fj.(3Xf\J/a<;

by

Would

this?

his face

him.

"Ev

o-e,

sincerity, purity, and thoughtfulness


Yes, for Jesus having looked on

and bearing?
o-e

One

VOTC/DCI

instead of

<roi,

thing

you

Tisch. Treg. marg.

appear in
him, loved

lack.

WH.

RV.

BCM

II

28.

The commands of

the law which had been cited were


mostly
negative ; they forbade a man s doing any harm to his neighbor,
and in the matter of his goods, they forbade
stealing and defraud
And so far in the path of righteousness the young man had
ing.
gone. The thing which was lacking in him was the positive side,
to contribute to his neighbor s good, and for this
purpose, to sacri
fice his own.
This was not enjoined by Jesus as an
extraordinary
goodness, not required of other men (supererogation, counsels of
perfection), nor was it intended to apply a test to him, which
should reveal to him an entirely different
righteousness (Pauline
doctrine of faith) ; but it was just what it
purported to be, the
discovery to him of a serious defect in an otherwise lovable char
acter.
Jesus saw that he clung to his wealth in a way quite incom
patible with

any

just estimate of the higher

good

that there

was

See Mai. 3 r Kx. 21 LXX.


This sense of keeping, by way of observing, is in classical Greek confined to
the active, and is attached to the middle
only in Hiblical Greek.
1

>,

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

192

[X.

21-23

hidden in that love of riches a luxurious self-love and a lack of


sympathy with the want of men, that made it endanger the very

The counsel that he gives him, therefore, is


roots of character.
adapted to his individual case. There are evidently two grounds
one the need of the man himself, and the other the desire
it
of Jesus to attach this choice spirit to himself, to have him in the
inner circle of his disciples attending immediately upon himself.
He needed to cut away all his attachments to the world, all his
for

temptations to luxurious, self-indulgent living, for his own good,


but specially in order to follow the hard and self-denying life of
This requirement of personal discipleship was what the
Jesus.
first disciples had met themselves of their own motion, but they
See i 16 20, 2 14
did not have the temptation of wealth to overcome.
art. it means, give to poor people,
Without
the
Sos(-Tots) TTTW^OIS
This meets another side of the young man s
individualizing it.
eeis 0-rja-avpov fv ovlack, his want of sympathy with the poor,
This is related, first, to the question, what he should do
pavw
and
to inherit eternal life, with which he approached Jesus
secondly, to Jesus requirement ; he should sell earthly posses
Kal SeGpo, axoXovOti
sions in order to obtain treasure in heaven.
and come, follow me. This means in this case, evidently,
/J.OL
become my personal follower, attached to my person. Here was
a lovely but weak character, not inured to self-sacrifice nor heroic
and it needed, on the one hand, to be initiated into such
living
of the strong and
living, and on the other, the companionship
sympathetic Master.
.

ABNX

FA. Omit &pas


Omit TO?S before TTTWX<HS, Treg. (WH.) RV.
rbv ffravpbv, having taken up the cross, after d,KoAoi50ei /not, follow me, Tisch.
Treg. WH. RV. N BCD A 406, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. edd.

22.

Se o-Tuyvao-a?

word denotes the outward

And

his

countenance

fell,

RV.

The

sign of sorrow, gloom.

The
for he had great wealth.
yap x on/ KTrf^ara. iro\\a.
was caused by his having to go away without obtaining his
object ; the going away was caused by what seemed to him the
It might be comparatively easy
impossibility of Jesus conditions.
for a man having only small or moderate possessions to give them
rjv

grief

up, but

it

involved too great a sacrifice in his case.

xp^Aiara e^ovres ets T. pcunXctav TOV eov


difficulty will those having wealth enter
into the kingdom of God? Jesus generalizes here, and the case in
hand goes far to confirm what he says, because there is nothing to
complicate the conditions ; we can see the working of wealth by it
Here is a lovely character, with no other adverse conditions,
self.
23.

IIcos Svcr/coAtos ot TCI

eto-eXeixrovTat

With what

and yet just the possession of wealth


1
o-Tv-yi

dera; is

Polybius, 120 B.C.

enough

to

a rare word, even in the Bible, and

is

is

undermine

it.

He

found outside only in

THE STUMBLING BLOCK OF WEALTH

X. 23-25]

193

had gone along through life, choosing purity instead of lust, honesty
instead of fraud, truth instead of falsehood, but in all this he had
not been called upon to make the supreme choice, his wealth had
not stood in the way. But now, he is confronted with a wisdom
that is able to show him what is for him the supreme good, and
The lower good proves to
there wealth gets in its deadly work.
be stronger than the higher, and the latter is set aside. There is
the difficulty ; the kingdom of God does not consist in the practice
of this or that separate virtue, but in the choice of the highest
good, which regulates individual acts ; and wealth has the power,
beyond most other things, of making itself appear the greatest
good.
Oi

24.

Se fjuiOr]Tal e$a/A/3owTO

rot? Xoyot? avrov

CTTI

And the

The disciples were amazed


disciples were astonished at his words.
at these words, the same as every one is amazed now ; or rather,
their amazement then corresponds to the entire disuse into which
Then, as now, there was an
sayings of this class have fallen now.
established religion, in which wealth enabled its possessor to come
So far
to the front, and occupy the most prominent positions.
from disqualifying them, it gave its possessors prestige, and always
wealth leads to culture and respectability, while poverty is the
parent of vice and crime. The ordinary condition of the world is
that of routine morals, and it has no ear for revolutionary words
like these.
25.

TTW?

SwKoXov

ecrTtv eis T. /3

dvfXQuv

how

difficult it is

The internal evidence is quite


enter into the kingdom of God.
in favor of the shorter reading, because it is short, and because it
is one of those cases in which a brief and somewhat puzzling
saying is a constant temptation to copyists and commentators to
to

The longer
introduce something explanatory and alleviating.
reading would be intended to modify the preceding statement
by showing that it was not the possession of wealth, but the trust
in it, confidence in its power to procure all the necessary satisfac
tions and goods of life, that prevented entrance into the kingdom.
The shorter reading generalizes still more the preceding state
ment, making the difficulty of entering the kingdom to be inherent
in its nature, and so universal, instead of locating it in the class,
rich men.
It involves the choice of the highest good, which in
various ways, and not merely on the side of wealth, interferes with
what men consider the more immediate and practical good.
Omit rods
Treg. marg.

ireTroiObras tirl ro?s xptffjia(rit

WH. RV.

marg. N

B A one

those
>

who

ms. Lat. Vet.

trust in riches, Tisch.

Memph.

ed.

It IS
cvKOTrwrepov CCTTL Ka.p.r)Xov Sto. Tpv/juiXias pa<tSos SifXOeiv
easier for a camel to go throtigh a needle s eye.
The proverb is an
1

On

the use of

fvKoiriarepov

to denote the cause of emotion, see


rpufiaAias are both Biblical words.

firi

and

Win. 48

c, c).

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

194

[X.

25-27

exaggerated rhetorical statement of the difficulty. In the parallel


accounts in Mt. and Lk., some mss. have the reading Ka/uAov,

which is much more apposite. Using the shorter


on the whole more probable, the whole would
mean, // is hard for any man to get into the kingdom of God, and
for a rich man next to impossible. He is in the position of having
the lower good which other men want, and this is more of an
obstacle to the perception and choice of the higher good.

meaning a

cable,

reading in

v.

24

as

Omit Ti}s before rpv/j-aMay Treg.


RV. x
fore paiplSos Treg.
instead of etVeX0efr, Tisch. Treg.
mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Syrr.

WH.

WH. RV. N ACDFKMNU FAIL Be


ACDGKMNU AIT Memph. SteXfletv,

WH.

RV. BC(D)K

II, I, 13,

124, 346,

26. Trepio-o-ws e&TrXrjo-o-ovTo


before, they had been astonished ;
now, they were excessively beside themselves with amazement. This

making the
it

increasing

difficulty of entering the kingdom universal, and


in the case of rich men to almost an impossibility,

For one of the promises in regard


fairly took away their breath.
to that kingdom had been, that prosperity and righteousness were
to become common in Israel, and even to be extended to the
Gentiles.
And Jesus seemed to be making it more and more
inaccessible than ever.

Aeyovres Trpos eaurovs (avroV)

saying

to

themselves (him).

WH.

BCD

RV. N
atrbv, instead of eavrovs, Treg. marg.
Memph. Tisch.
urges against this the usage of Mk., who never says \tyeiv irp&s, except
with eavTofo or

Km
KOI,

Who then (And who) can be saved?


Tts Svvarai (T<a6fjvai
with interrogatives, makes an abrupt rejoinder to what has

been

said.

With men it is impossible. Sal


liapa dvfyxoTrois dSwarov
vation is impossible with men ; but in salvation, we are dealing
not with men, but with God. The incarnation and the Holy Spirit
are not within the category of human agencies, but of the Divine,
and given these, even the impossibilities of human nature have to
27.

iravra yap Swara.


iravTa is emphatic.
All things are
give way.
possible with God, not because he can travel outside the ordinary
agencies, and bring things to pass by a simple fiat, but because he
has limitless command of all the forces in any department. In

the moral and spiritual sphere, he brings things to pass, not by


recourse to other than moral and spiritual agencies, but by the
word, the Spirit, and the Christ, all of them agencies charged with
spiritual

power.

Omit 5, and,
Omit

Memph.
after

ru>

after

Win.

WH. RV. N BC* A I,


WH. BCNX FA. Omit ian
WH. N BC.

^u/SXtyas, Tisch. Treg.


N
Gey Tisch. Treg.

before

8vvard Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.)


53, 3 a.

Thay.-Grm. Lex.

I.

THE STUMBLING BLOCK OF WEALTH

X. 28, 29]

28.

"HpuTO

195
2

Xeyeiv 6 Herpes avrw, iSov, ^/ms u.(f>rJKa.fj.v -navra.,


2
Peter began to say to him, Lo, we left all,
VOL

KUI ^KoXovdrjKufjitv

and have followed thee.


Omit Kai, And, before Jqp&ro, began, Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N
WII. RV. BCD.
v, instead of -ffafj.ev, Tisch. Treg.

BCX

FA.

emphatic, contrasting their conduct with that of the


Mt. adds what is implied in the other accounts, n
apa lorai vfj.lv what shall we have therefore ? This seems to be a
most incongruous and unspiritual question to ask in the religious
What we shall get for our self-denial, is a
and moral sphere.
that the disciples were entirely unable to
shows
which
question

we

rich

is

young man.
;

understand their leader

And

s ruling ideas.

yet from their posi

Because their Scriptures and


tion, the question was inevitable.
ecclesiastical writings, which they regarded as authoritative in these
full of descriptions of the prosperity and bliss of the
Messianic kingdom, of the temporal and material rewards of the
And so far they had met with nothing in their associa
faithful.
tion with the man whom they believed to be the Messianic king,
but privation ; instead of adding to their worldly good, this asso
ciation had diminished, if not destroyed it.
They had borne
everything for him ; what return would he, in his greatness, make

matters, are

them?
29.
rj

"E<i7

6 ITJOWS, A/u/)v Xeyw vfuv, ovSet s eo-nv os

d8eX<ovs, 17

d8cX</>ds,

17

/u^repa,

rj

Trarepa,

re/cva,

r/

a.<f>f]Ktv

rj

dypous,

oi/aW,
eVe/cei/

TOU evayyeXtbv
Jesus said, Verily I say to you,
no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother,

e/xov KCU fviKiv

there

is

or father, or children, or fields, for


glad-tidings (of the
*E</>7;

Irjffovs,

kingdom)

my

instead of diroKpideis 5

ing said, Tisch. Treg. marg.

sake,

and for

the sake of the

WH.

RV.

el-Trey, and Jesus answer


Memph. /xTjTepo. r\ wartpa,
WH. RV. BC A 106, mss. Lat.

6 iTjtroOs

NBA

instead of the reverse order, Tisch. Treg.


Vet. one ms. Vulg. Memph. Omit ^ yvvaiica, or wife, Tisch. Treg. WII.
A I, 66, 209, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg. Memph. Insert evfKev before
RV. N
TA1I mss. Lat.
TOU evayyeMov Tisch. Treg. (WII.) RV. N B 2 3 CDNS 2
Vet. Vulg. Memph. Syrr.

BD

misleading, here as most everywhere, to translate euayyeIt means glad-tidings, and the special message
intended is that of the kingdom of God. Men who make sacri
fices for the benefit of the Messianic king, and of the news of the
kingdom, will receive the blessings of the kingdom. e/carovTrXaa hundredfold; there is a reminiscence in this word of the
o-toj/a
It is

XLOV, gospel.

1
Began to say, instead of merely said, is best explained here as a mere fashion
of speech, into which the writer falls, without any special reason for it.
2 The aor. and
perf. are here to be distinguished from each other, the aor., we
the perf., we have followed, as denoting action
left, as denoting simple past action,
continuing into the present.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

196

[X.

29-34

apocalyptic character of the familiar descriptions of the blessings


But Jesus uses such language from
of the Messianic kingdom.
the religious idiom of this time only to idealize it.
To be sure,
his words imply that the reward will be in kind; they will give up
these things only to receive a hundredfold of the same.
But,
evidently, hundreds of brothers and sisters and mothers is meant
to be taken ideally, and means that he will receive what will
The relationships of the
replace the lost relatives in that degree.
1
And the member
kingdom take the place of natural kindred.
of the kingdom is an heir not only of heaven, but of earth. 2
Jesus had nowhere to lay his head, and yet he was conscious of
a lordship and possession of the earth, into which every true fol
lower of his can enter. They have nothing, and yet possess all
3

with persecutions. These, Jesus had


/ACTO, Suay/jujiv
already predicted in his talks with his disciples previous to leaving
Galilee.
The new element introduced by him here is the other
side belonging to this ideal life, the compensations and rewards
even in this life, belonging to the Christian.
alwvi
epxothings.

<EV

TU>

TU>

coming age. There is only one passage, Heb. i~,


where uion/ is used by metonymy, of space, instead of time. The
reference is to the future life, in which the world, as well as the
time, is new, but there is no reason why the meaning of a5v
should be changed, any more than that of
time, in the
on the use of this term
aiwviov
corresponding clause.
17
But it is evident that Jesus, in
among the Jews, see on v.
it.
adopting, spiritualized
Only, in this case, he found the word
made ready to his use which expressed in itself just the state
/AtVw

in the

K<U/>OS,

<m)v

intended by him, though encumbered with alien meanings in


common use. It is characteristic of his method, that he used the
word without any explanation, leaving it to clarify itself as men
got into the drift of his teaching.
TroAAot Se lo-ovTcti Tr/awrot eo-^aTot
but many first shall be
This is a warning to the disciples that the mere fact, that
they were the earliest disciples and nearest his person, does not
necessarily give them preeminence, nor any exclusive right to the
The parable of the Laborers in the
blessings promised by him.
Vineyard, each of whom received his shilling without regard to
the time that he had worked, is inserted by Mt. to enforce this
31.

last.

saying.

THIRD PREDICTION OF DEATH

On

32-34.
his death
l

the journey to

and

See 335.

Jemsalem, Jesus again

foretells

resurrection.
a

See Mt.

58.

See 2 Cor. 61.

THIRD PREDICTION OF DEATH

X. 32 J

They are now on


dently some feeling

their

way

And

to Jerusalem.

197
there

is

evi

overhanging them. It is evident


not
understood
had
that
Jesus predictions of the
they
enough
But on their own con
violent death awaiting him in the city.
of fate

struction of events, the approach to Jerusalem meant the crisis


in their fate, the decision of the Messianic claim.
They were a

mere handful, and the authorities were against them. Would the
what of the Roman
people be with them? And if they were,
It
is no wonder that they were astonished as Jesus put
?
power
himself at their head, and that some turned back, while others
followed with fear. Then Jesus takes the twelve aside, and
repeats, with

some additional

details, the

prophecy of

his

death

and resurrection. The prophecy


given here with clearness and
And then
course of events.
whole
the
particularity, describing
is

follows the clearly impossible request of


first

places

in

the Messianic

kingdom.

James and John


It

is

for the

evident that the

subsequent history has been read into what must have been at
the time distinctly veiled prophecy.

was preceding them. The introduction of


rjv
Trpodyw
apparently commonplace item shows that attention is drawn
And in connection with
to it as something out of the common.
it evidently means that
7rapaAa/3wv iraXiv, in the following clause,
Jesus was not mingling with his disciples as usual, but was going
and they were amazed. We are
before them. KM. e#a/x/3owTo
not told by what, but the very simple irpoaywv is evidently put
Some
forth by the writer as containing the key of the situation.
thing in the manner of that invested the whole proceeding with
mystery, and brought to their minds the fateful character of this
32.

this

progress to Jerusalem, the tremendous issues to be decided, and


And somehow, with all their confidence
the odds against them.
in Jesus, the question might arise, whether it was confidence for
such a crisis.
and those following. Without the art., this
ot Se a.KoAo0owTes
would refer to the disciples. But with the art., it picks out some
from among them, who followed Jesus, while the rest were left
behind, too much perplexed to follow him. The statement is, that
*ai 7rapaAa/3wv 7raA.iv
those who followed him did it with fear,

and having

taken to himself again. This is opposed to Trpoaywv


But
as separating himself from them.
it is only the twelve, not the multitude generally, to whom he joins
He joins himself
himself, as the teaching that follows is esoteric.
to them again, after he sees the effect produced on them by his
32

(v.

),

which represents him

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

198

[X.

going on before them, and explains to them what


produced the strangeness of his manner.
Oi

LA

5,

instead of

/ecu,

it

is

before d/coXoutfoOpTes Tisch. Treg. WII.

32-34

that has

RV. N EC*

Memph.

i,

33. dvu/2uivo/Av tis l/3oo-oA.v/u,a


we are going up to Jerusalem.
This is what makes this journey so fateful. In Jerusalem, they
will be confronted with the authorities, both Jewish and Roman.

the chief priests and the scribes.


ypap.pa.Tevo-1.
classes represented the Sanhedrim, the Great Council
the Jews, before which were tried all the more important

t!p;(iepii(n

These two

among

their own law, though the Roman government


/cut
the right of capital punishment,
-n-apaSwo-oi;This delivering him over to the Gentiles, i.e.
O-LV O.VTOV T. ZOveo-L
the Roman government, has not been mentioned in the account
It was rendered
of the preceding predictions of his death.
necessary by the determination to put him to death, a power

cases

coming under

reserved to

itself

Roman government reserved to itself. They could not


execute him, they had to procure his execution.
The term by which the Jews designated
T. 0i/o-i
the nations.

which the

They were

foreign nations.
the nations.
all

34.

e/Mraifov<7iv

the nation

IfJurTvcrovcnv

all

others were just

/iaoriywcroucnv

they

These details correspond


mock .T spit upon
scourge:
The scourging was an
exactly to what we are told of the event.
The general fact of
invariable accompaniment of crucifixion.
mocking was to be expected, since his supposed claim to be a
king would naturally excite the ridicule of Roman soldiers. Jesus
will

have put these into his prophecy in a gen


form which the prophecy takes, and
exact
way
which is reproduced for substance by the other accounts, is in all
probability a reflection of the event, put in by the original narra
and after three days he
tor.
K. jutera rpeis i7yu.pas uvaoTryo-fTcu

might

easily, therefore,

eral

but the

prediction of the crucifixion would rest on some


foresight, since the action of the Roman
governor must have remained an incalculable element in any such
forecast.
And the resurrection, in the form in which it actually
took place, and on a set day, was necessarily a revelation. This
precise prediction, moreover, makes the total want of preparation
for the event on the part of the disciples a curious psychological
will

rise.

thing

The

more than ordinary

problem.
a.vr6v, instead of the reverse
237, 259, 406, mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.
RV.
Memph. Harcl. Omit aitrbv after aTroKrevovcnv Tisch. (Treg.)
N
A I, 209, two mss. Lat. Vet. /nerd rpeis ij/jL^pas, instead of T^ rplr-g
A most mss. Lat. Vet. Memph.
RV. N
rjntpa, Tisch. Treg.
KO.I

i^irrvffovffLv curry, Kal

order, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

naffny tier ov aiv

RV. N

BCL A

WH.

BL

WH.

Harcl. marg.

BCDL

GOD

X. 35]

IDEA OF GREATNESS

199

GOD S IDEA OF GREATNESS


James and Jo Jin ask for first and second places

35-45.

in

his kingdom. Jesus assures them that they will share his
lot, but that the decision of precedence does not rest with
He shows that the conditions
him, but with the Father.

and nature of greatness

in the

kingdom are

exactly the

reverse of the earthly conditions.

The

noticeable thing about this event is not only the generally


extraordinary character of the request, coming from the disciples
of Jesus and just after his prediction of his death, but its ignoring

of the claims of Peter,

who was

given the precedence, so far as

there was any, by Jesus himself and by the disciples. This shows
a painful state of things among the disciples, who exhibit not

merely a desire for the material rewards of discipleship, such as


was exhibited in Peter s question
what shall we have ? but the
rivalries and jealousies that spring up as the natural fruit of such
desire.
Our Lord s method, on the other hand, is conspicuous,
not only for the careful and consistent elimination of any such
unspiritual element from his kingdom, but equally for the patience
with which he dealt with the unspirituality of his
disciples, until
he had refined it into something like his own
In this
spirituality.

he asks them

know what they

are asking, and


shows them that to be next to him means to share the conspicuous
dangers and sacrifices of his position. Then he shows them again,
case,

first, if

they

as in their previous dispute over the same matter, that


greatness
in the kingdom of God is the reverse of
earthly greatness, the

great one being he

and

is

35.
770-775

who

serves, just as the Messianic king serves

sacrificed.
TTOIXeyovre? avrui, AtSacr/caAe, $eAo/zv iva o eav aiT^crw/xev
1
Saying to him, Teacher, we wish that you do for us
<re

Tj/uv.

whatever we ask you.


after X^OVTCS Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. x BCDL A one ms.
after alr^ffu^ev Tisch. Treg. WH.
Memph. Pesh. Insert
RV.KABCL A mss. Lat. Vet. Memph. Hard.

Insert
Lat. Vet.

aiyr<?

This use of

<re

Iva.

with the subj., instead of the inf., after verbs of desire and
Hellenistic Greek, but not in the classical writers.
See

command, is common in
Win. 44, 8. Burton 304.
17

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

200
Ti

36.

you

6f.Xe.Tf.

TTOIT/O-O)

Literally,

irotTjo-w,

vfiiv

what do you

36-39

What do you wish me to do for


wish, shall I do for you ?
*

WH.

Add

instead of iroirjaat /xe, Treg.


CD, I, 13, 69, 209.
N C B. Versions also favor the subj.

/xe

WH. marg.

Tisch.

dpurrepuJv

Se etTrav avTw, Aos rjfuv Iva


4
ev TJ^ S6y crou
Ka#io-a>jaev

us

one on thy right hand,

Ot

37.

[X.

to sit,

ets

(rov

#;/

ex 8etuiv

said

//fej

and one on

thy left

/cat els

to

him, give
hand, in thy

glory.

WH. BL

A.

apLtrrepuv, instead of evuvvfjLwv, Tisch. Treg.


RV.
this place, Treg.
i, mss. Lat. Vet.

CK Sf|ioJv

Omit

crou

in

BD A

WH.

d/Ko-Tcpoiv

these are the positions of honor

next to the throne itself, the right hand having the precedence.
in thy glory.
The glory,
This leaves Peter out. ev rrj Sofy a-ov
that is, of the Messianic king.
You know not what you ask. They
38. OUK otSare TI aiTeTcrfle
did not know how absolutely this is a question of being first, and
not of standing first, which makes it a question, not of appoint
Nor did they know that it meant suf
ment, but of achievement.
and that this would increase with the
fering, instead of honor,
drink the cup.
advanced position attained. TrteZv TO Trorrjpiov
The figurative use of the phrase to denote a man s portion in life,
his hard or easy lot, belongs to other languages than the Greek.
5
17
See Is. 5 1 , Jer. 49^, Ps. i6 , z^. Christ means to ask them if
the necessary fortitude and proper
have
if
they
they are able,
appreciation of values, to share the sacrifices of his position.
Being baptized with his baptism is another figurative expression
of the same thought, coming from the power of calamity to over
Can you, he asks, be immersed in that which has over
whelm.
whelmed me ? They have looked at only the glory of the coming
Jesus directs their attention to the sacrifices incurred

kingdom.

in establishing that
TI,

or, instead of

WH.

RV.

kingdom.
Kai, and, before rb pdirrifffM, the baptism, Tisch. Treg.

BC* DLN A

i,

13, 28, 69,

124, 346, Latt.

Memph. Hard.

marg.
Kat TO /2a7TTioyxa
iritfrOf.
To TrorrjpLov
/3a7rTi<T#?/o-co-$e
The cup
you
you will drink ; and with the baptism

39.

Of this Jesus can assure them, that they will


will be baptized.
share his sufferings.
Omit iAv before

Memph.

TOTTjptov Tisch. Treg.

WH.

RV. N BC*

LA

mss. Vulg.

Pesh.

an
Here, we have the subj. without Iva, which is still more anomalous, being
combination of two constructions. See Win. 41 a, 4 b. Burton 171. The
2 See note
i, p. 199.
subj. is probably in this case the deliberative subj.
Win. 26, 2 a.
3 The Greeks use el?
to express this correlation.
/oui/, cl? 6e,
4
to its proper subjective meaning, opinion,
writers
Greek
in
confined
is
Sofa
The meaning, glory, majesty, as an objective state, comes from the Heb.
1

elliptical

praise.

GOD S IDEA OF GREATNESS

X. 40-42]
TO

40.

wn

KaOifTctL

>

But

to sit

CK Se^iwv

on

my

/J.OV

rj

right hand, or

2OI
l

ewwvu/xwv
left

hand,

OVK eo-riv e/xov


is

not mine

to

gve.

WH.

BDL A
WH. RV.

instead of Ka2, before


evuvv/j.wv Tisch. Treg.
RV. N
Lat. Vet. Memph.
Omit /MOV after i eiW. Tisch. Treg.
almost everything.

rj,

73.

and

<?

This statement of Jesus it is very easy to interpret


superficially,
it meant
simply that the bestowment belonged not to one
but
to
another
not to himself, but to the Father.
person,
But
there is little doubt that Mk. has preserved for us the true form
of statement in omitting mention of the Father, and so the con
trast between persons.
They cannot have position in his kingdom
by applying to either, as if it were a matter of personal preference.
Position, it is not in his power to bestow; it belongs to those for
whom it has been prepared. The meaning is, that this is a matter
already disposed of, and so no longer in his power. The verb
But it adds to this the
expresses nearly the idea of ordained.
thought of the preparation of the place. Each one is to have a
It is not therefore a
place prepared and adapted for him.
ques
tion that can be settled as they were
trying to settle it, by influence
used with him personally. Fitness, and not
influence, decides it.
This becomes especially clear, when we consider the definition of
It consists in service, and he who serves
greatness that follows.
most is greatest, a greatness already determined
by the service,
and not to be changed by any personal equation.
2
41. 01 Se/ca
the ten began to be
ijp^avTo dyavaKTeiv
indignant.
There was reason for this strong feeling on the
part of the other
The
condition seems to have been, that
disciples.
Peter, James,
and John were singled out by Jesus himself for such eminence
as if

the twelve, as the twelve had

among

among

the other disciples.

was any jealousy caused by this, it would be


allayed by
the fact that the Master selected those
manifestly fit, and that it
was unaccompanied by any outward
advantage.
But, now, there
was an attempt to secure places in the
coming kingdom and its
glory, and Peter, the real leader of the twelve, was left out of the
scheme. It was the introduction of political
methods, such as
If there

invariably go with the materializing of ideas, the use of principles


to secure power, and of power to advance
principles in the world.
42. /cat Trpoo-KaAecra/xevos auTovs 6
And Jesus having
Ijjo-ovs
called ihern.
This reading, instead of

RV.
1

N*etc-

BCDL A

6 S

mss. Lat. Vet.

lyaows

irpocrK.

Memph.

avrovs, Tisch

Tree

WH

Pesh.

used in the taking of auguries to denote


euphemistically those of
itself meaning just the
opposite. And so it comes to denote
the left hand, that being the hand of evil
the sinister hand.
omen,
2 See on v.i*.
twavv

Liav is

evil origin, the

word

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

202

[X. 42-45

those who seem to be chief.


Jesus has in
evidently the difference between their primacy and the
ideal,
apx^v is a word that lends itself to such ideal treatment,
as it contains in itself the notion of leadership, which is the only
ot

SOKOWTCS apx^v

mind

Men rule by force, by heredity, by fickle


rule.
choice, by flattery, but how few are real leaders, ruling because
lord it
KaTaKvpLevcrovanv
possessing the qualities of leadership.
over them (RV.). They become Kvpioi, lords or masters, and the
become their servants, doing their will, and ministering to

proper basis of

people

exercise authority over them.


KaTeou<naovcnv
their pleasure.
OVTO) Se eo-nv e v v/uv* aAA os av OeXr) /x.eyas yeveo-^ai
43, 44.
KCU os av OfXrf ev V/MV efvai TrpcoTOs,
ev vplv, ecrrai v/xaiv StaKOvos
But it is not so among you ; but whoever
eo-raL Travrwv SovA-os
oi>x

to become great among you, shall be your servant; and


whoever wishes to be first among you, shall be bond-servant of all.

wishes

DL

A
instead of tyrai, shall be, Tisch. Trcg. WII. RV. x EC*
&v, instead of tbv, after first os Tisch. Treg.
A 33, 69, 299. Iv vfj.lv, instead of V/MUIV, before eivai Trpwros
WII. N
Treg. marg. WII. RV. N BC* L A Latt. Mcmph. elvai Trpwros, instead of
RV. N BC* L A Latt. Memph.
irpwr., Treg.
tffnv,

is,

most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.

HDL

WH.

but so it is not. This is not the state of


ovx OVTW 8e CO-TIV
as members of
things that obtains, as a matter of fact, among you
The ideal is the essential principle of that
the kingdom of God.

There is such a
to become great.
o-0ai
/xe yas yci/e
for greatness, in the kingdom of
desire
the
as
ambition,
thing
God, but it is the exact opposite of what goes by that name.
kingdom,

The word denotes the performer of services,


servant.
SiaKovos
without indicating his exact relation to the person served. SovA.os
To be
There is a climax in the statement.
bond-servant.
first requires bond-service, and this
to
be
service,
great requires
Here is the paradox of the kingdom of
6Wu<fa is to TravTcov, all.
God. Instead of being lords, its great ones become servants, and
One has only to watch the
its chiefs the bond-servants of all.
that this state of
progress and present condition of things, to see
is coming to pass, but that it is yet far from accomplish
things
ment ; and furthermore, that in this respect at least, the field is
the world, and not the church.
45. Kat yap
for also. The Son of Man himself is not exempt
from this rule. His kingship is also that of service, and not that
He is the Head of humanity, and yet he serves men,
of lordship.
not to be
and not men him. ou SiaKOvr/^vai, aXXa StaKov^rrat
served, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom in exchange for
The vicarious idea is expressed here, but it is not strictly
many.

i This is a Biblical
word, and is not found in the N.T. outside of this and the
of the interdependence of the
parallel passage in Mt., making another strong proof

written accounts.

HEALING OF A BLIND MAN NEAR JERICHO

X. 45, 46]

203

life takes the place of other lives that would have to be


sacrificed otherwise in expiation of their sins.
All that is required
by the statement, not in the way of minimizing it, but to fill out

that his

meaning, is that his life becomes the price by which men are
freed from their bondage.
The soldiers in the American civil
war gave their lives as a Xvrpov for the slaves, and every martyr s
death is a \vrpov. There may be more than this involved in the
death of the Redeemer, but more than this is not involved in his
words here. In this, he carries his service of men to the utmost,
its

and becomes

their

Head.

HEALING OF A BLIND

MAN NEAR

JERICHO

In the course of his journeys in Judcea, Jesus comes


and Bartimceus, a blind man, asks him to take
on
him.
The crowd aroundJesus seek to repel him, but
pity
calls
hint
and heals him. The blind man follows
Jesus
him.
46-52.

to Jericho,

This

the only

is

visit

of Jesus to Jericho.

The connection

of

makes this a stage in the journey to Jerusalem,


32
begun v. and ended in the next chapter. The cry of the blind
man, Jesus, Son of David, is the first note of the Messianic

the

narrative
,

acclaim with which Jesus enters the


this crisis brings Jesus as the

minds of the multitude, and

city.

And

his healing at

wonder-worker freshly before the


raises

still

higher their

excited

Messianic hopes.

and as he was coming


eKTropevcyxeVou avTov tzTTo le/oct^to
out from Jericho. Lk. says, as he was approaching
Jericho-, and
in the account of Zacchseus which follows, that he
entered, and
passed through Jericho. Mk. says that they come to Jericho, and
that this happened as he was coming out from
It breaks
Jericho.
up the continuity of both accounts to try to reconcile them in this
trivial detail.
KCU 6 ^Aov i/cavov
and a considerable crowd. There
is, probably, this deviation from the meaning great given to it in
the EV. o wos TI/JUU OV, BaprtfUUOS, rv^Xo?
VpoaruTlfi,* eKtiOrjTO Trapa
the Son of Timceus, Bartimceus, a blind
rrjv 68ov
beggar, was
6 wos TOT) Ti/Wou, the Son of
sitting by the side of the road.
46.

K<U

Timceus,

is

a translation of Bartimseus

Haa na

but

it

is

evi-

1 This use of
Uavds in the sense of great, rather than sufficient, is characteristic
of Lk. (Lk. and Acts). The only other instance is i Cor. n30.
Mt. 28 12 is at
2
least doubtful.
^poo-aiTrjs belongs to later Greek.
Plutarch, Luciaii.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

204

dently not introduced

here for that

name, and Son of Timceus denotes the


ably

some reason

for noting this

[X.

reason.

46-51

Bartimaeus

the

is

There was prob


as that Timseus was a

relation.

relation,

disciple.

BCDLS

Insert 6 before vlbs Tisch. Treg. WII. RV. N


A.
Omit 6 before
A 124, Memph. irpoaair^ after
Tisch. Treg.
RV. N
of
a
instead
after
blind
irpoaaiTuv
656v,
rv<j)\bs,
beggar, instead of a blind
RV. N B 2 L A one ms. Lat. Vet.
man
begging, Tisch. Treg.

WH.

rv<t>\t>s

BDL

WH.

Memph.
Kat

47.

cm

a/coucras

Aaua S,

Aeyetv, vie

Iiycrovs 6

Ir)(rov,

I\er)<r6v

Na^api;vos COTIV, r/p^aro Kpaeiv KCU


And having heard that it is
fjif.

Jesus the Nazarene, he began to


David, Jesus, have mercy on me.

cry,

and

to

Nafaprjv&s, instead of Nafw/scuos, Tisch. Treg.


209, most mss. Lat. Vet. Vulg.
vi, instead of 6
N
marg. A.

BCLM

Son of

say, thou

WH.
vibs,

RV.

BL A

118,

i,

WII.

Tisch. Treg.

Jesus of Nazareth, and Son of David are both unfamiliar titles,


the former occurring now for the first time since i 21 , and the latter
only here. Jesus of Nazareth is intended by the multitude to
Son of David is a distinctly Messianic title, the use
identify him.
of which here, however, we must not suppose is individual and
It reflects the sentiment of the multitude, who mean to
a triumphal progress to Jerusalem, though as yet they
are preserving a policy of silence. 1
48. Iva. 0-10077770-77
that he keep silent.
It does not seem prob
able that they would want to prevent the miracle.
Rather, they
wanted to enforce silence about this premature Son of David,
which they meant to reserve for the entry into Jerusalem.
49. (^covT/Vare avrov
call him.

peculiar.

make

7,

this

of avrbv (puvrjd^vai, that he be called, N


<j)(avfiffa.re avr6v, instead
209, one ms. Lat. Vet. Memph. Hard. marg.

BCL A

rise.

eyape

ABCDLX

eyetpe, instead of eyeipai, N

TIL

TO i/xartov
having thrown off his garment. The
outer garment, or robe, is meant.
having leaped
avaTrrjo^cra^
up? Both these acts are introduced to show the man s eagerness.
50.

d.Tro(3aX<av

s,

Latt.

51.

instead of dvaoras, Tisch. Treg.


Harcl. marg.

WH.

RV. N

BDLM

marg.

Memph.

Kat

And Jesus

a.7ro/C|Ot^eis

O/UTW o

answering said

to

^omis
him,

C TTEV, TI o^ot

What

$eAeis

do you wish

7701770-0)

me

to

do for

you?*
elirev, instead of
Vet. one ms. Vulg.
1

See I235
See on v.aa-

as.

\<fyei,

Tisch. Treg.

WII. RV.

BCDL A

115, mss. Lat.

Memph.

A common

Greek word, but not found elsewhere

in

N.T.

ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM

X. 51-XI. 11]
1

Pafipwvi,
sight.

52.

Rabboni
Kut

iva

Rabboni, that
apparently a more dignified

avaft\f^o)
is

::t>0us

aveflh.f.tf t,

atrip, instead of T
Latt. Memph. Hard.

I may

sight,

Ir?(roO,

WH.

RV.

my

ou*-And

Try

and followed him

Tisch. Treg.

recover

than Rabbi.

title

KUI r/KoXovOei. aura* ev

immediately he recovered his

2O$

in the way.

A13CDLM

marg.

marg.

JESUS ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM


XI. 1-11. Jesus comes to Bethany, where Jie procures a colt,
The multitude strew
on which he rides into Jerusalem.
and layers of leaves in the road, and shout
their

garments
Hosanna, invoking blessings on the coming kingdom. Jesus
and satisfying himself for
goes immediately to the temple,
the present with a look at things, goes ottt to Bethany for the
night.
that he
Jesus has told his disciples
to

meet

his fate,

and be put

to death

is

going to Jerusalem only

by the

authorities,

and yet

amidst the acclaims of the multitude, who hail him


This acknowledgment, repelled before, he
as the coming King.
now accepts. But, the claim once made, he proceeds as before,

he enters

it

with his merely spiritual work. The key to these apparent incon
sistencies is to be found in the splendid self-consistency of Jesus
with worldly ideas
procedure, and in its absolute inconsistency

and policies. Jesus knew that the Messianic claim in Jerusalem


meant death, and that death meant the ultimate establishment of
the claim, not defeat.

Every part of

his life, but especially its end,

means that he aimed to establish the ideal


he would use only absolutely
life, and that

as the law of
spiritual

human

means

in the

accomplishment of his end.

Meantime, everything points

to the fact that Jesus deliberately

used the enthusiasm of the multitude for the purposes of his entry
into Jerusalem, intending to make
lamation of his Messianic claim.

the means of a public proc


That proclamation was neces-

it

words in this title, p:n and


1
Apparently, there is a confusion of two Chaldee
the same, lord or chief.
pn, both of them meaning about
2
in composition has the sense of the Latin re.
3 The distinction between the momentary action of the aor. and the continued
iii<a-

action of the impf.

is

preserved in these verbs.

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

2O6

men must

because

sary,

1,

[XI.

understand definitely the issue that he


as King, and not merely as

The acceptance of him

made.

Prophet, was what he demanded.

And

in the events

which

fol

immediately became apparent that the question thus


raised was not only a question of his personal claim, but of the
lowed,

it

nature of his kingdom.


The multitude who followed him thought
that, with the announcement of the claim, the programme would

But the unchanged programme meant that Jesus, just as


he was, claimed kingship, and would be king only by spiritual
change.

enforcements.
1.

when

Km

ore fyyi^ovmv cis

they

draw near

IcpoucroAv/Aa, KOL cis J$r)0avia.v


to Jerusalem, and to Bethany.

And

l^davlav, instead of ds JStjOfiayi] nai E-rjdavlav, Tisch.Treg. marg.


marg. D Latt. The shorter reading seems probable, the longer read
ing having crept into the text from Lk.
/cat et s

WH.

We have here a case of abbreviated expres


Bi^avtav
which obstructs clearness. The exact statement is, that they
approached Jerusalem, and had come on the way as far as Bethany
on the other side of the Mount of Olives. Bethany is mentioned
/cat ets

sion,

here for the first time in Mk.


In fact, according to this account,
Jesus is now approaching Jerusalem for the first time. And hence
places enter into the account which have not appeared before.
Bethany was a small village on the other side of the Mount of
In approaching it,
Olives, about fifteen furlongs from Jerusalem.
therefore, they would be on the way towards the Mount, Trpos TO
2.

the village that is over


v/xwi/
the village meant here, as Bethphage is
against you.
Bethany
the one designated in Mt. 21
In both cases, the village named
is the
only one mentioned. The implication evidently is that the
T-rjv

Kwfjt-rjv

rrjv

Kurevavri
is

road did not pass through the village, but was off one side.
a colt. Mt. specifies a she-ass and its colt, and as the
ass was the more common beast used for domestic purposes, there
2
is no doubt that the colt here was an ass s colt.
ov ovSds OVTTW
e/ca&crev
on
which
no
one
men
Lk. also
av6pu>ir(av
of
yet sat.
has these words.
But they are extremely improbable in the mouth
of Jesus. They evidently belong to the narrator, who very likely
took a fact that he had discovered about the colt, and which had
an undesigned significance, and made it a part of Jesus design,
an intentional effect in the pageant. There is no indication that
TrwAov

e</>

Kariva.ni

Synoptics,

is

and

not found

in

profane writers.

in the epistles of Paul.

In the N.T.,
2

it

Mt. 21 2 .

is

found

in the

ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM

XI. 2-4]

2O?

Such
Jesus cared for the ceremonious trappings of an event.
care belongs to homage, not to the person receiving it.
On this
demand of newness for sacred purposes, see Num. ig 2 , Deut. 2i 3,
3
2 Sam. 6
It is evidently the intention of the writers of the Gos
to imply a supernatural knowledge on the part of Jesus.
here
pels
.

Insert oviru before avOptiiruv Treg. WH. RV. ABL A mss, Lat. Vet.
Vulg. After dvOpuTrwv, Tisch. N C 13, 69, Egyptt. (Pesh.).
tudOurev,
instead of /ce/cdtft/ce, Treg. marg. WH. RV. N BCL A. Xtiffare avrbv Kal, in
stead of X&ravTes avrbv, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BCD Latt. Egyptt.
Qtpere, instead of dydyere, Tisch. Treg. WH. RV. N BCDL Latt.
(Syrr.).

Egyptt. (Syrr.).

3.

the

Kv/atos avrov xpei av

Master has need of

\u, Kal tvOvs avrov aTrooreAAa iraXiv wSe


and will send (sends} it here again

it,

immediately.
Omit"0n before 6 "Kvpios Tisch. Treg. (Treg. marg.) WH. RV. B A
239,
433, mss. Lat. Vet. dTroo-rAXei, instead of aTroo-reXe?, Tisch. Treg. WH.
RV. and most authorities. Insert irdXiv, again, after oTroo-rAXet Tisch.
A.
Treg. (Treg. marg.} WH. RV. x BC*

DL

6 Kvpios
the Master.
This title was so frequently applied to
Jesus by himself and others, that there is little reason to suppose
that there is any special significance in its use here.
It indicates

general his relation to his disciples, and not any special phase
of that relation.
It would not be used here, e.g., to indicate that
he has assumed his Messianic position, since it is a title common
to this with the time before.
Kal
avrov dTroo-reAAti TraAiv wSe
and will send (sends} him here again immediately. With this
insertion of again, these words make a part of Jesus message to
the owner of the animal, instead of his announcement to the dis
He
ciples of what the owner will do in response to the message.
promises to return the animal immediately.
in

f.v&v<;

Kat. airrjXOov, Kal cvpov irtaXov SeSeyaeVoi/ Trpos


(T^V) Ovpav.
dfji(fio8ov
they departed, and found a colt tied at

4.
7ri

And

TOV

(the}

door irfon the


Kcu

Til

Memph.

street outside.

Treg. WH. RV. N BL A, one


Treg. WH. RV.
before 6vpav, door, Treg. WH. EL A Egyptt.

diri)\6ov, instead of dwTJ\6ov 5t, Tisch.

ms. Lat. Vet.

u)

Omit
Omit

rbv, the, before TTW\OV,


TTJV, the,

colt,

ABDLX

These details are evi


Trpos (TT/V) Ovpav efw CTTI TOV d/x<o8ov
The first part, at the door
dently the report of an eyewitness.
The better class of houses were
outside, is easy of explanation.
built about an open court, from which a passageway under the house
led to the street outside.
It was at this outside opening to the
But the
is more difficult.
street, that the colt was tied.
Probably, it differs from 68oC simply in denoting a roundabout
road. The AV. where two ways met, confounds the prep.
au<f>(>8ov

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

2 o8

[XI 4-9

and a/x^w meaning bothl The village may have been built on
such a rounding road, that lay off from the straight highway, and
the narrator places this in the story of the event in his d/x<o8ou.
Such a descriptive touch is quite in Mk. s manner.
What are you doing, loosing
5. Tt Trotetre Auovres T. TrwAov j
This TI Troietre we use very frequently in asking the
the colt?
What are you
meaning of an action ; only we leave it by itself.
doing? we say. It asks the question, what the act really is, the
outward form of which appears in the participial clause. Oi Se
And they told them, as Jesus
e*7rav at>Toi?, Ka0u? etTrev 6 !T;O-OVS
said.
eiTrei

commanded, Tisch. Treg.


one MS. Lat. Vet. Egyptt.

said, instead of ^ere/XaTO,

BCL A

i,

28, 124, 209,

WH.

RV.

and they permitted them, put no hinderexpression is elliptical, the full statement
including the thing permitted.
TO. i/iana
/cat eVi/SuAAouo-iv
7.
Kai tftfoawnv TOV -n-wXov
and
And they bring the colt
,
avTwv, /cat fKaOurev eV auroV
put their